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Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings 2 marks In what sense was the Amravati stupa was a step ahead than

stupa at Sanchi and Bharhut? The early stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut were plain except for the stone railings, which resembled a bamboo or wooden fence, and the gateways, which were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points. The mound of the stupas at Amaravati came to be elaborately carved with niches and sculptures compared to the early stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut. What were the sources which help us to reconstruct the Buddhist tradition? The various sources which help us to reconstruct the Buddhist tradition are Buddhist texts Stupas Sculpture Give two examples from the present day scenario to show that Ahimsa, the philosophy propagated by Mahavira is relevant even today? Also name a personality from the modern scenario who advocated Ahimsa? A lot of destruction has been caused due to Nuclear Weapons. Deforestation has led to climatic change. Therefore Ahinsa, the philosophy propagated by Mahavira is relevant even today. Mahatma Gandhi practiced and preached the same principle of non-violence and won political freedom for India in 1947. Thinkers of Buddhism, Jainism & Hinduism were engaged in debates and dialogues with each other. What were the main issues dealt in these debates & discussions? The various debates & discussions centered upon: The meaning of life The possibility of life after death, and rebirth The nature of the ultimate reality The significance of the sacrificial tradition. As an historian belonging to c 6th century BCE, throw light on the various sources that are helpful in reconstructing the cultural developments of the period? Written records in the form of religious and secular text and archaeological sources like temples, Stupas, viharas, prashastis issued by the king and epigraphs found over the sculpture or on rocks are the sources which can be utilized for the reconstruction of the cultural development took place during the 6th century BCE. What is the importance of Stupas in Buddhism? Stupas built on mounds are important to Buddhism because it was here that holy relics of Buddha or objects used by him are buried. These Stupas have become important pilgrimage sites. What was the important contribution of Buddhas favourite disciple Ananda? Anandas contribution towards Buddhism was to persuade Buddha to allow women into the sangha. These women became teachers of dhamma and came to be known as theris or respected women who had attained liberation.

How did the Buddhist sangha function? The Buddhist sangha which comprised of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis functioned on the lines of ganas and sanghas where consensus was arrived at based on discussions. If discussions failed to bring about harmony then decisions were taken by a vote on that subject. What is the importance of Sutta Pitaka? Sutta Pitaka contains the teachings of Buddha in the form of stories. Few stories describe his miraculous powers and others suggest that Buddha tried to convince people through reasons and persuasion rather through displays of supernatural power. What do you understand by Chaityas? Some places were regarded as sacred by the people in the early times. Sites with special trees or unique rocks, or sites of awe inspiring natural beauty with small shrine attached to them were known as Chaityas. Name four countries where Buddhism spread in Asia? Buddhas teachings spread far and wide on the Indian subcontinent and from there throughout Asia. The expansion of Buddhism throughout most of Asia was peaceful and occurred in several ways. Buddhism spread to China in the third century BCE. From China it spread to Japan, Korea, and North Vietnam. In what languages are the Jaina text preserved? Jainism spread to many parts of India. Jaina scholars have produced a wealth of literature. It includes both religious texts and books on generally secular topics such as sciences, history, and grammar in a variety of languages such as Prakrit, Sanskrit and Tamil. By how many tirthankars was Mahavira preceded? What is meant by tirthankars? Mahavira was preceded by 23 tirthankars. Tirthankars are individuals who acquire enlightenment through penance, meditation and following the Maha-vratas. These individuals then went on to preach the knowledge they acquire to men and women across the river of existence. What did Mahavira and Buddha question? On what did they emphasise? How was it different from the Brahmanical position? Mahavira and Gautama Buddha questioned the authority of Vedas. They emphasized on individual agency, they suggested men and women could strive to attain liberation from trials and tribulations of worldly existence. This differed from the Brahmanical position as they believed that individuals existence was determined by his or her birth in specific caste or gender. What were kutagarashala? These were the places where the debates of teachers, who tried to convince one another and laypersons about the validity of their philosophy, took place. These debates took place in kutagarashala, which literally means hut with a pointed roof - or in groves where travellers halted. What were the changes in the nature of people as revealed in Upanishads? The changes in the nature of people as revealed in Upanishads were that the people were curious about the meaning of life, the possibilities of life after death and rebirth.

People outside the Vedic traditions asked whether there was even a single ultimate reality. People also began speculating on the significance of the sacrificial tradition. Who performed the sacrificial traditions? The sacrifices earlier were performed collectively, but c. 1000 BCE 500 CE onwards some sacrifices were performed by the heads of households for well being of the domestic unit. More elaborate sacrifices like rajasuya and ashvamedha were performed by chiefs and kings who depended on Brahmanas priests to conduct the rituals. What does Rigveda contain? The Rigveda was compiled between circa 1500 and 1000 BC and consists of hymns in praise of a variety of deities, especially Agni, Indra, and Soma. These hymns were chanted when the sacrifices were performed and people prayed for cattle, sons, good health, long life and various other things. Discuss the eight fold path propounded by Lord Mahavira? Mahavira preached that right faith (samyak-darshana), right knowledge (samyakjnana), and right conduct (samyak-charitra) together help in the attainment of liberation of one's self. Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma. This can be achieved only by renouncing the world; therefore, monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation. What were the vows Jaina monks took at the time of admission into the order? Jaina monks and nuns took five vows: To abstain from killing, i.e. Non-violence (Ahimsa) To abstain from stealing (asateya) To abstain from lying, i.e. Truthfulness (Satya) To observe celibacy by not indulging in sensual pleasure (brahmacharya) Non-possession/Non-attachment (Aparigraha) i.e... Complete detachment from people, places, and property. What do you know about the four fold order of the Jains? Mahavira had organized his followers, into a four fold order, namely: monk (Sadhu) nun (Sadhvi) layman (Shravak) and laywoman (Shravika) Later on they are known as Jains. Prakrit text known as the Uttaradhyayana Sutta describes how a queen named Kamalavati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world. What was the base of her arguments? Kamalavati is said to have based her arguments on the following points: It is difficult to reach satisfaction. When you die, all the things are left behind. Those who have enjoyed pleasures and renounced them, move about like the wind, and go wherever they please, unchecked like birds in their flight. What were the measures taken to spread Jainism?

Jaina scholars produced a wealth of literature in various languages (Prakrit, Sanskrit and Tamil). For centuries, manuscripts of these texts were carefully preserved in libraries. Jaina tirthankaras produced stone sculptures associated with religious traditions and these have been recovered from several sites throughout the subcontinent. Discus the traditions which developed in Hinduism during Puranic period? The two traditions which developed within Puranic Hinduism were: Vaishnavism is a form of Hinduism within which Vishnu was worshipped as the principal deity. In the case of Vaishnavism, cults were developed around the various avatars or incarnations of Lord Vishnu. Shaivism is a tradition within which Shiva was regarded as the chief God. Shiva was symbolised by the linga, although he was occasionally represented in the form of human figure too. Discuss the three jewels of Buddhism. The three jewels of Buddhism are The Buddha i.e. the awakened one The Dhamma i.e. the teachings or law expounded by Buddha. The Sangha i.e. an association of Buddhist followers. 5 marks The mahachaitya at Amaravati is now just an insignificant little mound, totally denuded of its former glory. What were the factors responsible for the present fate of Amaravati? Some possible reasons were: In 1796, a local raja stumbled upon the ruins of the stupa at Amaravati using its stone to build a temple. In 1854, Walter Elliot, the commissioner of Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), visited Amaravati and collected several sculpture panels and took them away to Madras. By the 1850s, some of the slabs from Amaravati had begun to be taken to different places: to the Asiatic Society of Bengal at Calcutta, to the India Office in Madras and some even to London. Many of these sculptures were seen adorning the gardens of British administrators. Discuss the development took place in the structure of Stupa. The term Stupa literally means a heap. It refers to the simple semi-circular mound of earth, later came to be known as anda. Gradually, with the development in the society and in other aspects it evolved into a more complex structure. A Harmika was placed above the anda. To represent the abode of the gods a balcony like structure was used. Arising from the harmika was a mast, called the yashti, often surmounted by a chhatri or umbrella. Around the mound was a railing, representing separation from the secular world. What do you think was the most important message of Mahavira? Why is it said that it was taken to extremes? Non-violence was the most important message given by Mahaviras to Human society. It was taken to the extent of non-injury to living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects. He went to the extent of saying: Do not hurt or kill any living being by thought, word or deed. Do no go to war. Do not kill animals. Do not hunt or fish. Never kill even the smallest creature. Do not step on a worm. Even the worm has a soul.

Why women and men joined the sangha? People were not satisfied with the social and religious condition existing in the society. They found themselves in confusion. As social milieu was changing rapidly. These new movements emphasised on personal conduct and values rather than superiority on the basis of one's birth. They promoted fellow feelings among the people and compassion for each other, especially towards the weaker and younger people. Discuss how the Stupas were built? What was the need of Stupas? Donations were made for building and decorating the Stupas by: Kings such as the Satavahanas Guilds, such as that of the ivory workers who financed part of one of the gateways at Sanchi. Common women and men Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis Why Stupas were built Mounds where relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or objects used by him were buried were known as Stupas. It is known that Ashoka distributed portions of the Buddhas relics to every important town and ordered the construction of Stupas over them. Buddha (and other teachers) taught orally through discussion and debate. None of the Buddhas speeches were written down during his lifetime. Then, how do you think his teachings were preserved? After Buddhas death (c. fifth-fourth century BCE) his teachings were compiled by his disciples and came to be known as Tipitaka literally, three baskets to hold different types of texts. The Vinaya Pitaka included rules and regulations for those who joined the sangha or monastic order Sutta Pitaka included Buddhas teachings Abhidhamma Pitaka is a miscellaneous collection which dealt with philosophical matters, songs, poetry as well as stories from Buddhas life. Each pitaka comprised a number of individual texts. Later, commentaries were written on these texts by Buddhist scholars. Imagine yourself as a follower of Mahayana tradition of the Buddhism. What features make it different from Theravada tradition? Followers of Theravada tradition follow the early Buddhist teachings that had given great importance to self-effort in achieving nirvana. Mahayana tradition: The idea of Buddha as a saviour emerged. It was believed that he is the one who could ensure salvation. Simultaneously, the concept of the Bodhisatta also developed. Bodhisattas were perceived as deeply compassionate beings that could help others attain nibbana. The worship of images of the Buddha and Bodhisattas became an important part of this tradition. This new way of thinking was called Mahayana literally, the great vehicle. Discuss the eight fold path suggested by Buddha for attaining salvation from the cycle of birth.

The Buddha emphasised individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation and nirvana. Buddha suggested that it was the Noble eight fold path, which will leed to Nirvana. It consisted of: Right understanding Right Thoughts Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Summarise the main teachings of Lord Buddha. Buddha believed that the: The world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing. It is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within this transient world, sorrow (dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the middle- path between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles. What do you know about the followers of Buddhist sangha? Initially, only men were allowed into the sangha, but later women also came to be admitted. The Buddhas foster mother, Mahapajapati Gotami was the first woman to be included as a bhikkhuni. Many women who entered the sangha became teachers of dhamma and went on to become theris, or respected women who had attained liberation. The Buddhas followers came from many social groups. They included kings, wealthy men and gahapatis, and also humbler folk: workers, slaves and crafts people. Once within the sangha, all were regarded as equal, having shed their earlier social identities on becoming bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. What do you understand by the term Buddhist Sangha? Discuss the life of monks related to sanghas? Sangha Sangha is a Pali word meaning community. It was established by Buddha in the c 5th BCE. It came to be identified as an organisation of monks who became teachers of dhamma in order to preserve the teachings of Buddha, reinforce discipline, and serve as an example for the laity. Life of monks: These monks lead a simple life possessing only the essential requisites for survival, such as a bowl to receive food once a day from the laity. As they lived on alms, they were known as bhikkhus. A strict life of scripture study, meditation, chanting, and cleaning constitute most of the sangha's duties. What was the major contribution of Indian thinkers to the mid-first millennium BCE culture? The mid-first millennium BCE saw the emergence of thinkers like Mahavira and Buddha, among many others, in India.

They tried to understand the mysteries of existence and the relationship between human beings and the cosmic order. These thinkers also attempted to understand developments like the rise of new kingdoms and cities and the changing social and economic life in the Ganga valley They paved the way for the development of major beliefs & traditions like Jainism & Buddhism- which later influenced the cultural development in a major way. Discuss the various developments that took place in the temple architecture? According to the temple architecture of early period a temple was consist of small square room, called the garbhagriha, with a single doorway for the worshipper to enter and offer worship to the image. Later developments in Temple architecture: Gradually, a tall structure, known as shikhara, was built over the central shrine. Temple walls were often decorated with sculpture. Assembly halls, huge walls, gateways, and arrangements for supplying water made the later temples far more elaborate. One of the unique features of early temples was that some of these were hollowed out of huge rocks, i.e. Artificial caves. An astonishing example of the carving out of an entire temple from a cave is that of Kailashnatha temple at Ellora. Discuss the main teachings of Mahavira? Main teachings Mahaviras are: Entire world is animated: even stones, rocks and water have life. Non-injury to living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects. The cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma. Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma. This can be achieved only by renouncing the world; therefore, monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation. He denounced the worship of gods and goddesses as a means of salvation. Instead, he upheld the idea of supremacy of human life and stressed the importance of the positive attitude of life. Lord Mahavir preached the gospel of universal love, emphasizing that all living beings, are equal and we should love and respect them. Imagine yourself as a believer of Jain tradition & elaborate upon the role of Tirthankaras? Tirthankaras were teachers who guided men and women after the attainment of a state of perfection or enlightenment through meditation and self realization. Tirthankaras are considered as role models as they are said to have attained moksha. According to Jaina tradition, Mahavira was the 24th and the last tirthankara. Why the philosophy of new thinkers came in confrontation with older beliefs? Many thinkers including Mahavira and Buddha questioned the authority of the Vedas. They emphasised that men and women could strive to attain liberation from the trials and tribulations of worldly existence. This was in marked contrast to the Brahmanical position, wherein, as we have seen, an individuals existence was thought to be determined by his or her birth in a specific caste or gender.

Moreover, according to Brahmanism, shudras and women were restricted from the Vedic rites, which were strongly opposed by these new thinkers, who gave emphasis on the Karma rather than on birth. What were the problems encountered by the European scholars while studying the Sculptures? The first problem for the European scholars was that they were not familiar with the local traditions and beliefs. They were repelled by the images of half human and half animals; they regarded the Indian sculptures inferior to that of European sculptures from Greece with which they were familiar. This was because they compared the Indian sculpture to the mythological images of Greece with which they were familiar. The second problem with the art historians was that they used textual traditions to understand the meaning of sculptures. While this was a better way than comparing the images found in India with that of Greece but it was not always easy because of the disputes about the interpretations. Give your opinion why the Stupa at Sanchi survived and not the one at Amravati? From the fourteenth century onwards, Sanchi was left deserted and unnoticed, till in the year 1818 General Taylor brought it to public attention by discovering its ruins. The question of repairs and preservation was considered only after 1881. The rulers of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum also provided money for the preservation of the ancient site. Sir John Marshall undertook the work of preserving the monument between the years 1912 and 1919 and brought the monument to their present condition. Today it stands testimony to the successful restoration and preservation of a key archaeological site by the Archaeological Survey of India. But in case of Amravati Stupa which was discovered in 1796 the importance of Stupa was not recognized which resulted in removing of pieces in fragments and using it as decorations in the homes or offices both by the locals and the British. How the Stupas built and what was their structure? Inscriptions found on the railings and pillars of the Stupas give information about the donations given by the kings, guilds, bhikkhus, bhikkhunis and ordinary men and women for building and decorating these monuments. Stupas are architectural symbols of Buddhas death. Stupa is a Sanskrit word meaning a heap. The Structure of Stupa originated as a simple circular mound of earth called anda. Gradually, it developed into a more complex structure. , above anda was the harmika, a balcony like structure that represented the adobe of gods. Arising from the harmika was mast called the yashti surrounded by a chhatri or an umbrella. Around the mound was a railing, separating the scared space from the secular world. What was the reason for the spread of Buddhism? Buddhism arose in India during a period of intense intellectual and social upheaval. The reason for the spread of Buddhism was that people were dissatisfied with the prevailing religions and were confused by the social changes that were occurring. During this period the authority of the Vedas had been placed in doubt. People started questioning the concept of god as a Supreme Being and creator. People attacked and challenged the hereditary restrictions on caste mobility and the efficacy of Brahmanical rituals. Moreover, Buddhism emphasized on the importance of conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on birth. The emphasis was laid on metta that is fellow feeling and karuna that is compassion especially for those who were young and weaker than oneself.

These were ideas that drew men and women to Buddhism.

What are the five vows taken by Jaina monks and nuns? Jainism is a religion that teaches a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through a disciplined mode of life. Principle of Ahimsa is the fundamental ethical virtue of the Jains. It is believed Jain monks and nuns must fight against the bodily senses and passions to gain purity of soul or enlightenment. Right knowledge, Right faith and Right conduct are the three more essentials for attaining liberation. In order to acquire, these Jaina monks and nuns must take these five vows: To abstain from killing, To abstain from stealing To abstain from lying, To observe celibacy To abstain from possessing property. Why is the mid-first millennium BC regarded as turning point in world history? This period is regarded as turning point in the world history because it was during this time that great thinkers such as Zarathustra in Iran, Kong Zi in China, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Greece, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha in India emerged. They tried to understand the mysteries of existence and relationship between the humans and cosmic order. In India this was also the time when cities were developing and social and economic life was changing in a variety of ways in Ganga valley. These thinkers of India attempted to understand these developments as well. 8 marks Highlight the important features of the great stupa of Sanchi? Among the best preserved monuments of the time is the stupa at Sanchi. The rulers of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, provided money for the preservation of the ancient site. The stupa has been helpful to a great extent in shaping our understanding of Buddhist India. It was Emperor Ashoka who laid the foundation of this important centre at Sanchi when he built a stupa and erected a monolithic pillar. A total of eight stupas were built by Ashoka on the hilltop of Sanchi including the Great Stupa. These stupas were originally burial or reliquary mound but now came to acquire symbolic importance. The stupa came to be represented as a symbol of the Buddha. More exactly, it became a symbol of his final release from the cycle of birth and rebirth. Describe the architecture of temples around the time when Stupas were being built? When the stupas at sites such as Sanchi were taking their present form, at the same time the first temples to house images of gods and goddesses were also being built. The construction of temples, whether in the north in the south, essentially followed a similar pattern. The early temple was a small square room known as Garbhagriha which had a single doorway for the worshipper to enter and offer prayer to the image. After some time a tall structure known as Shikhara was built over the central shrine and the temple wall was decorated with sculptures. As time went by small temples grew into temple complexes. With the addition of huge walls, assembly halls, gateways and arrangement for water, the structure of temple became huge.

One of the unique features of early temples was that some of these were hollowed out of the rocks and artificial cave. Building of artificial caves was an old tradition. Some of the earliest caves were constructed on the orders of Ashoka in the third century BCE. Ashoka got these caves constructed for the renouncers belonging to the Ajivika sect. The example of carved out temple is the temple located at Ellora dedicated to Kailashnatha (Shiva).Representing Shiva's Himalayan home, the temple is exquisitely sculpted and is considered as one of the most astonishing 'buildings' in the history of architecture. What were the different sects of Buddhism and what were their beliefs? Buddha was regarded as ahuman being who attained enlightenment and nibbana by his own efforts. But gradually the idea of saviour emerged and it was believed that he was the one who could ensure salvation. Simultaneously, the Bodhisattas developed, which was perceived as deeply compassionate beings who accumulated merit through their efforts but used this not to attain nibbana and thereby abandon the world, but to help others. It was for this group that the worship of images of Buddha and Bodhisatta became important. The followers of this belief were known as Mahayana literally the great vehicle. Those who adopted these beliefs described the followers of older tradition as Hinayana. Followers of the older tradition described themselves as theravadins, that is those who followed the path of old, respected teachers, the thera. Theravada and Mahayana Buddhists differ in their perspective on the ultimate purpose of life and the way in which it can be attained. Theravada Buddhists strive to become arhats, or perfected saints who have attained enlightenment and nirvana. This is considered to only be possible for monks and nuns, who devote their entire lives to the task. They sought to preserve the original teachings of historical Buddha as close to its content as possible. The Mahayana Buddhism is more flexible and innovative and chooses a more ethical and active role towards changes in the society. Mahayana is a path available to the people from all walks of life and not just the monks and ascetics. Mahayana often includes adoration of celestial beings, Buddha and boddhisatvas, ceremonies, religious rituals, magical rites, and the use of icons, images, and other sacred objects. Describe the sculpture and its interpretation in the Sanchi Stupa? The sculptures found at Sanchi are like scrolls of stories which depict various stories of Jatakas. There are stories of Vessantara Jataka where the prince gives up every thing to the Brahmana and goes to live in forest with his son and child. The early sculpture does not have the image of Buddha instead it uses symbols such as an empty seat represents meditation of Buddha; a centrally located image of Stupa with people praying around it represented the mahaparinibbana. There was the use of wheel which stood for first sermon given by Buddha at Sarnath. As it is clear, such sculptures cannot be understood literally. Like the image of a tree does not stand simply for a tree, but symbolises an event in the life of the Buddha. Thus historians have to acquaint themselves with the traditions of those who produced these works of art so as to understand such symbols. Many other sculptures at Sanchi were not directly inspired by Buddhist ideas. These include beautiful women known as shalabhanjika swinging from the edge of the gateway, holding onto a tree. It is the most fascinating use of symbol which was used because the popular belief was that by mere touching the tree by her would make the tree to flower and bear fruit. Many people who came into the Buddhist fold enriched it with their own pre Buddhist and even non Buddhist beliefs, practices and ideas. Elephant was carved; which signified wisdom and strength. Another image that occurs at Sanchi Stupa is that of Maya the mother of Buddha or popular goddess Gajalakshmi.

What was the philosophy of Buddhism? The Buddha intended his philosophy to be a practical one, aimed at the happiness of all creatures. According to the Buddhist philosophy the world is transient and constantly changing, it is also soulless as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within the transient world sorrow is intrinsic to human existence. Buddhas principal insight into this problem was that all sorrows arise because people foster desires and aversions, which are in turn the consequences of certain misunderstandings about their identity. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can raise above these worldly troubles. Buddhist philosophy rejects a number of traditional notions like those of atheism, theism, monism, and dualism. In the early forms of Buddhism whether or not God existed was irrelevant. Buddha regarded the social world as a creation of humans rather than divine origin and thus advised kings and gahapatis to be humane and ethical. Buddhism emphasizes literally the extinguishing of the ego and desires and thus ends the suffering of those who renounced the world. The Buddhas teachings on ethics and living a good life also extended to the realm of the social and political. He was ahead of his time in many ways; considering all people as equal, he rejected the caste system and openly encouraged women to become students and teachers. The main ethics of Buddhism consist of the eightfold path, comprising of Right Speech, Right Actions, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right mindfulness, Right concentration, Right thoughts, Right Understanding. Give a brief life sketch of Buddha? Buddha was one of the most influential teachers of his time. His message spread across the subcontinent and beyond through Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan, and through Sri Lanka, across the seas to Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. Buddha was named Siddhartha at birth and was the son of the Chief of Sakya clan, hence his title Shakyamuni, which means "sage of the Shakya clan." He led a sheltered upbringing in the palace cut off from the harsh realities of life. He undertook a journey from his sheltered life into a city which was a turning point in his life. He was deeply anguished when he saw an old man, a sick man and a corpse. It was at that moment that he realized that decay of human body was inevitable. He saw a mendicant who had come to terms with old age and disease and death and found peace. All these experiences awakened in Siddhartha the idea of abandoning his present life and embracing asceticism. He decided that he would embrace asceticism and later left the palace in search of truth. He explored many paths including bodily mortification; he subsequently abandoned the extreme path and meditated for several days and finally attained enlightenment and came to be known as Buddha meaning awakened one. For the rest of his life he taught dhamma or the path of righteous living. According to the traditional accounts, Buddha died at the age of eighty in Kushinagara. His body was cremated and the remains were distributed among groups of his followers. The holy relics were enshrined in large hemispherical burial mounds (Sanchi Stupa) a number of which became important pilgrimage sites. This is an excerpt from the Sutta Pitaka, and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala: In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees by assigning them work according to their strength,by sharing delicacies with them and by granting leave at times In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas: by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to

them and supplying their worldly needs.

[3+2+3=8]

What instructions were given by Buddha to Sigala regarding servants? Buddha advised Sigala on the proper behaviour towards his servants and employees. He told five ways in which a master should minister his servants and employees: (i) By assigning work according to their ability. (ii) By giving them enough food and wages. (iii) By looking after them in sickness. (iv) By sharing delicacies with employees. (v) By giving them occasional leave from work. What do you infer from the above mentioned conversation? The discourse is an exposition of whole domestic and social duty of a layman according to the Buddhist point of view. Lord Buddha offers valuable advice on how householders should conduct themselves in relationships with parents, spouses, children, pupils, teachers, employers, employees, friends and spiritual mentors. How should a householder minister to samanas and Brahmanas? Five ways in which young householder should minister to samanas and Brahmans are: (i) by lovable deeds (ii) by lovable words (iii) by lovable thoughts (iv) by keeping open house to them (v) by supplying their material needs. This is an excerpt from the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, part of the Sutta Pitaka: As the Buddha lay dying, Ananda asked him: What are we to do Lord, with the remains of the Tathagata (another name for the Buddha)? The Buddha replied: Hinder not yourselves Ananda by honouring the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, be intent on your own good. But when pressed further, the Buddha said: At the four crossroads they should erect a thupa (Pali for stupa) to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall there place garlands or perfume or make a salutation there, or become in its presence calm of heart, that shall long be to them for a profit and joy. [3+2+3=8] What is a Stupa? Why were they regarded as sacred? A stupa (a Sanskrit word meaning a heap) originated as a simple semi-circular mound of earth, later called anda. Gradually, it evolved into a more complex structure, balancing round and square shapes. It contained relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or objects used by him. Since they contained relics regarded as sacred, the entire stupa came to be venerated as an emblem of both the Buddha and Buddhism. Where were the early Stupas built? The early stupas were built at Sanchi and Bharhut. They were plain except for the stone railings, which resembled a bamboo or wooden fence and the gateways, which were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points. Which four places are considered sacred by the Buddhists?

The four holy sites refer to those destinations that have been witness to some important event in the life of Lord Buddha. They are intrinsically connected to the life of Gautama Buddha and have utmost significance in the development of Buddhism. Lord Buddha himself referred to these sites as most worthy of pilgrimage. These places are where he was born (Lumbini), where he attained enlightenment (Bodh Gaya), where he gave his first sermon (Sarnath) and where he attained nibbana (Kushinagara). Here are two verses from the Rigveda invoking Agni, the God of fire, often identified with the sacrificial fire, into which offerings were made so as to reach the other deities: Bring, O strong one, this sacrifice of ours to the gods, O wise one, as a liberal giver. Bestow on us, O priest, abundant food. Agni, obtain, by sacrificing, mighty wealth for us. Procure, O Agni, for ever to him who prays to you (the gift of) nourishment, the wonderful cow. May a son be ours, offspring that continues our line Verses such as these were composed in a special kind of Sanskrit, known as Vedic Sanskrit. They were taught orally to men belonging to priestly families. Hymns in Rigveda were dedicated to which deities? The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities, chief of whom are Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy; Agni, the sacrificial fire; and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it is made from. Equally prominent gods are the Adityas or Asura gods Mitra: Varuna and Ushas (the dawn). List some of the elaborate sacrifices? Who performed these sacrifices? Some of the elaborate sacrifices were the rajasuya and the ashvamedha. Kings spent fortunes in the elaborate rituals, which sometimes required hundreds of officiating priests and lasted for several weeks at a time. List the objectives of the sacrifices. People performed sacrifice as a purifying and life-giving process to remove the taint of evil and assure a desired outcome. Sacrifices were performed with the help of Brahmana priest for abundant food and wealth; good health and life; sons and cows. They were considered as the normal means of transferring life and power to mortal deities to keep them vigorous and beneficent. There are some of the rules laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka: Rules for monks and nuns when a new felt (blanket/rug) has been made by a bhikkhu, it is to be kept for (at least) six years. If after less than six years he should have another new felt (blanket/rug) made, regardless of whether or not he has disposed of the first, then unless hezhas been authorised by the bhikkhus it is to be forfeited and confessed. In case a bhikkhu arriving at a family residence is presented with cakes or cooked grain-meal, he may accept two or three bowlfuls if he so desires. If he should accept more than that, it is to be confessed. Having accepted the two or three bowlfuls and having taken them from there, he is to share them among the bhikkhus. This is the proper course here. Should any bhikkhu, having set out bedding in a lodging belonging to the sangha or having had it set out and then on departing neither put it away nor have it put away, or should he go without taking leave, it is to be confessed.

Why these rules were framed? These rules were framed to check the irregularities in the sangha and as many people were accepting the order of sangha and were joining it these rules give them equal share upon the resources of the sangha, which were made for all the inmates in the sangha. Name the book from which this excerpt was taken. Mention other texts of same significance for Buddhist. The name of the text is Vinaya pitaka. The other two important text of buddhism were Sutta pittaka and Abhidhamma pittaka. Discuss any two rules to be followed by the bhikkhus. The rules to be followed by the bhikkus were as follows: The felt i.e... blanket made by the bhikkhus were to be kept for the six years, and in case if he had a new one before that period he need to seek permission from the bhikkus On arriving at family residence, bhikkhu can accept two to three bowlfuls of cooked grains if he takes more than that than it has to be confessed, and if he has brought it to sangha than it has to be shared among all.