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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES - QUESTION BANK Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies

Short Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the term environment. List the four spheres of earths environment. Define the term anthroposystem. What are the major objectives of environmental education? Define environmental literacy. What is the role of science and engineering in the protection of the environment? Why it is beneficial to follow a student-centered and participatory process for environmental education? 8. Why is the ban on DDT not imposed in certain parts of the world? 9. Define the term sustainable development. Descriptive Questions: 1. Explain the importance of environmental education in the present day context. 2. Explain the role of Silent spring in the history of Environmental Sciences. 3. Explain the components of environment and their major interactions. 4. Explain the impact of urbanization on the environment. 5. Explain the concept of sustainable development. 6. What are the major obstacles in the path of sustainable development in India?

NATURAL RESOURCES AND BIODIVERSITY Short Answer Type Questions: 1. What is enviroment? Discuss its classification & characteristics. 2. How environmental science is beneficial to us. 3. Classify natural resources with examples. 4. Discuss ecological and economical importance of forests. 5. What are fertilizers? What problem they cause to the enviroment? 6. Discuss equitable use of resources for sustainable life styles. 7. What are major enviromental problems in India? 8. Give an account of the types of Indian Soils. 9. How ocean waves and tides can be utilized for power generation? 10. Write short notes on: a. Water conflicts. b. Exploitation of mineral resources c. Water logging and salination

d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q.

World food problem Overgrazing Soil erosion Land degradation Dams benefit and problem Use of pesticides Genetic biodiversity Species biodiversity Ecosystem biodiversity Hotspots of biodiversity Fragility of biodiversity Wildlife Poaching Endangered and Endemic species Ex-situ and In-situ conservation.

Long Answer Type Questions: 1. Describe forest resources of India. Describe their functions and conservations. 2. 2. Explain how dams and reservoirs can cause more flood damage than they prevent. 3. What are the environmental impacts of mineral exploitation and usage. 4. How solar energy can be converted into other forms of energy? 5. Describe food problems in India. What are the main cause of food shortage in India? How food crisis can be prevented? 6. Discuss the main causes of forest depletion. Suggest some ways to recover them. 7. Discuss global nuclear energy scenario. Explain their environmental impact. 8. Describe how essential natural resources( i.e., air, water, minerals and soil) vary in their abundance and explain the importance of conservation and recycling of natural resources. 9. How the study of biodiversity is beneficial to human life? 10. How biodiversity and biotechnology together are helping human life? 11. Describe major causes of biodiversity depletion/major threats to biodiversity. 12. Discuss the factors determining biodiversity within the community. 13. Explain consumptive, productive and ethical values of biodiversity. 14. What do you understand by biosphere reserve? What is their role? Describe some biosphere reserves.

ECOSYSTEM Short Answer Questions: 1. Define the term ecosystem. What are different types of ecosystems? 2. State major components of an ecosystem. 3. What are standing crop and standing state? 4. What are producers? What is their role in ecosystem? 5. What is detritus? 4. What are decomposers? Explain their role in the ecosystem. 6. Why decomposers are called micro consumers? 7. What are the abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem? 8. Explain the concept of food chain. 9. How the two laws of thermodynamics can be made clear by energy flow model? 10. What roles do autotrophs and heterotrophs play in the ecosystem? 11. Distinguish between the following: a. Food chain and food web b. Graizing food chain and detritus food chain c. Gross primary productivity and net primary productivity d. Primary succession and secondary succession e. Pioneer community and climax community 12. List the stages of primary succession. Which stage takes the longest time and which stage will have the greatest diversity of species? What are ecological pyramids? What type of ecological pyramid is always upright? 13. What is the primary source of energy for all living organisms? 14. Name the pioneer plants of xerarch and hydrarch. Long Answer Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define ecosystem. Give an account of the structure and function of an ecosystem. Give an account of energy flow in an ecosystem. Give the salient features (biotic and abiotic components) of a pond ecosystem/ grassland ecosystem/forest ecosystem/desert ecosystem. Starting from a bare rock, trace the organisms that participate in the process of biotic succession. Explain the process of succession in a newly formed pond. Explain the role of various organisms in N/S/P/C&O/water cycle. How the human activities disturb various nutrient cycles?

BIODIVERSITY & ITS CNSRVATION 1. How the study of biodiversity is beneficial to human life? 2. How biodiversity and biotechnology together are helping human life? 3. Describe major causes of biodiversity depletion/major threats to biodiversity. 4. Discuss the factors determining biodiversity within the community. 5. Explain consumptive, productive and ethical values of biodiversity. 6. What do you understand by biosphere reserve? What is their role? Describe some biosphere reserves.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Short Answer Type Questions 1. Classify and name major air pollutants. 2. List effects of air pollution on health. 3. Describe three measures to control air pollution. 4. What are the major water pollutants and what effects they have on water quality. 5. Distinguish between point source and non-point source of water pollution. 6. What is ground water mining? 7. How waste water is treated? 8. What is thermal pollution? How it can be controlled? 9. What is bacteriological pollution of soil? 10. What are the sources of soil pollution? 11. Explain how noise or sound becomes pollution. 12. Write a note on compositing of soil waste. 13. Give the chemistry of acid rain. Long Answer Type Questions 1. What is solid waste? Discuss the classification of solid wastes. Discuss integrated solid waste management. 2. Discuss pollution by agrochemicals in detail. 3. Describe some cases of air and water pollution severely affecting living beings. 4. Describe the disposal of radioactive waste.

5. Discuss in detail about biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants. 6. What are landfills. Discuss problems associated with them.

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT Short Questions: 1 Write short notes on: (i) Sustainable development (ii) Integrated energy management (iii) Rainwater harvesting (iv) Water conservation (v) Watershed management 2. Write short notes on: (i) Global warming (ii) Global climate change (iii) Ozone hole (iv) Acid rain a. Write short notes on Code of Environmental Practice Long answer questions: 1. What is sustainable development? 2. What do you understand by water conservation? Briefly comment on the strategies that can support on water conservation 3. Discuss the salient features of World Bank policy for resettlement. 4. What do you understand by environmental ethics? Why its need has arisen? 5. Discuss the phenomenon of Greenhouse effect what are its effects? What remedial measures you suggest? 6. What is Ozone hole? How is it formed? What are the causes of ozone hole formation? What are the effects of depletion of ozone layer? What remedial measures do you suggest?

HUMAN POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT Short Answer Type Questions 1. Write short notes on family welfare programme. 2. How environmental conditions are related to human health? 3. Describe natality and mortality. 4. What are the main problems faced in rehabilitation of people affected in irrigation projects? 5. Discuss the role of information technology in environmenta and human health. 6. What is consumerism? How it is related to waste generation? How does it vary from country to country? Long Answer Type Questions 1. What are various steps involved in watersited management? Discuss interagated watershed management. 2. Discuss means of wasteland resimation. 3. What does the term population means? What is population density? What are the various methods for its determination? 4. Write an essay on environmental legisilation in India. 5. Explain rain water harvesting and its techniques. 6. Discuss your role in rehabilitation and resettlement. 7. Write an essay on disaster management.