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Angelica Fajardo

11 Ryan

Religion Assessment Task 4: Research Task


Describe the structure of the different types of personal prayer listed below: (200 words each) y The Rosary y The Book of Common Prayer y The Divine Office y The Lords Prayer
The Rosary
Praying the Rosary is regarded one of the most popular devotional practices in Christianity, whichlinks the Gospel readings, prayer and is centred on Jesus Christ1.The Rosary offers a personal and practical way to develop a persons inner self; way of spiritual renewal2 and a way back to God for those who went astray from their faith.3Praying the Apostles Creed on the cross at the end of the Rosary, followed by the Our Father, Glory Be and the Three Hail Marys on the three beads opens the Rosary. The Rosary also consists of five decades of small beadswhich are used to keep track where ten Hail Marys4 is to be recited including the Glory Be and the prayer requested by he Blessed Virgin Mary5 after each decade. At every decade of beads a mystery of the public life of Jesus Christ is said, whichis under a set of one these fourmysteries recited on particular days: Joyful (Monday & Saturday), Sorrowful (Tuesday & Friday), Glorious (Sunday& Wednesday) and Luminous6 (Thursday)7 . A new mystery is recited and the bead separated by a chain is where the Lords Prayer is said. After the Rosary has been completedthe Hail Holy Queen and ends with the sign of the cross.

The Book of Common Prayer


The Book of Common Prayer is considered a very sacred book within the Church of England but also exists outside this faith.8 The Book of Common Prayer contains services for Anglicans to practice daily however there are many versions of the book. It consists of Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany and Holy Communion9. The book is set out for the Psalms and Lessons for the Christian year10 where the Psalter is to be read at a specific time during the Morning and Evening Prayer of that day. The Old Testament wasto be studied during the first lesson in the

Although prayer was considered as a monastic practice during the time of the reformation, sources suggest that the Blessed Virgin Mary gave the Rosary to Saint Dominic in 1214 during her apparition, whilst others indicate that Catholic women and men form ed the rosary during the reformation and enthusiastically promoted prayer through the rosary. It was believed that the Rosary emerged from praying the Liturgy of the Hours (The Divine Office). However, during the pre-Christian times prayer beads were us ed in the form of meditation. The Rosary was structured between the 12th and 15th century and was known as the Rosarium meaning Rose Garden. It was designed as a devotion to Mary thus exalting a human being above God. 2 History of the Rosary (2001), Father William Saunders, [Accessed 26/07/11] <http://www.ewtn.com/library/answers/rosaryhs.htm > 3 Christians often pray to God through Mary where the power of the Rosary flows from the heart o f the Blessed Virgin Mary and is union with her and Jesus Christ. We ask Mary to pray for us and by doing that she asks Jesus Christ to do so. Jesus however cannot neglect his mother s wishes as proved before in his first miracle. 4 Repetition of the Hail Mary, is a way for Catholics to meditate on Christ as repeating prayers often produces a meditative state in order to make that connection with the divine. Another reason why the Hail Mary is repeated as it cuts of a persons conscious state of mind in order to be union with God. 5 Fatima prayer: O my Jesus, forgive us our sins, save us from the fires of hell, lead all souls to Heaven, especially those who have most nee d of your mercy. 6 Pope John Paul II created an addition to the Rosarys mysteries, the Luminous Mysteries where the focal point of these mysteries were the public ministries of Jesus. 7 History of the Rosary (2008), Byrne International Group, [Accessed 26/07/11] <http://www.rosarybeads.com.au/history/ > 8 The first Common Book of Prayer was produced in 1549 and although it has been revised and added to many times over the years, it is still considered a very unique and sacred text within the Anglican Church. It is loved by all of those of the faith. The book has been recognized for years as great literature source because of the beauty of the language, the words are a literary form of the ordinary language that adds beauty to the worship . The prayer book contains all the services needed for both private and corporate worship plus lectionary for the entire year in one manageable volume. 9 Not only that, it includes practices that are performed at specific times: Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, prayers for the s ick and services at funeral s. 10 The Christian Year Calendar was set out for specific Psalms to be read and specific lessons to be taught depending on what da y it may which includes, Sundays, Holy Days (Saints Days) and certain days (Lent, Christmas etc..)

Angelica Fajardo

11 Ryan

morning and evening prayer whereas the New Testament wasto be studied during the second lessons11. At the end of every psalm a hymn12 is recited13.The next section is The Litany14, which is then sung/said that involves praying petitionsafter the Morning Prayer. The Order of Holy Communion is the nest major section where collects of prayers, Epistles, and Gospels are recited depending on the specific day (Sunday, Holy Day, and/or Special Occasion) followed by Holy Communion15. In the Book of Common Prayer it contains services practised at specific times further in the book.

The Divine Office


The set times of public daily prayer is The Divine Office16 otherwise known as the Liturgy of the Hours which draws its inspiration for the Bible (Psalms, Old & New Testament). 17 It is made up of prayers, hymns, psalms and readings.18 The Divine Office is structured where there are seven particular times of day where a prayer is said. Morning Prayer (Lauds) at 6:00am,before noon (Terce) at 9:00am, midday (sext) 12:00pm, afternoon 3:00pm, evening prayer (Vespers) 6:00pm, night prayer (Compline) before sleep and Office of readings (Matins). The major hours of the Divine office are the Office Readings, the Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer. 19 The Office Reading are made up of the invitatory, followed by a hymn, one or two psalms divided into three parts, a long passage from the scripture anda long hagiographical20 passage. The Morning and Evening Prayer are structured similarly where the invitatory is recited (morning prayer), followed by a hymn, two psalms21 including a canticle, followed by a passage from the bible, a responsory, a canticle from the Gosepl of Luke22, intercessions, then the Lords Prayer is recited and ending with a concluding prayer.23

The Lords Prayer


The Lords Prayer otherwise known as the Our Father is an important prayer in Christianity24.The structure of the prayer itself is divided into seven petitions made to God which are parallel to the Ten Commandments25 and

The Book of Common Prayer (1662, Church of England) (2004), Don C. Warrington, [Accessed 31/07/11] <http://www.vulcanhammer.org/anglican/bcp -1662.pdf> 12 The Book of Common Prayer (1662, Church of England) (2004), Don C . Warrington, [Accessed 31/07/11] <http://www.vulcanhammer.org/anglican/bcp -1662.pdf> 13 Hymn: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be; world without end. Amen. 14 The Great Litany is also known as the Litany of Peace, since it begins with three petitions concerning peace. Prayers for Thanksgiving are recited before the last two prayers of the Litany. 15 Most parishioners celebrate Holy Communion every Sunday by Anglicans as a result of this service being central to their faith . 16 Jewish practice that occurred in the 1st century at four specific times of day they would pray. - third, sixth, ninth and midn ight. Certain psalms were sung and exits from the Old and New testament were read. Eventually there eight hours of the day where prayers would be said. 17 The roots of the Divine office originated from the Old Testament and its purpose is greater than any other service and results in order of divine grace. It is named the Liturgy of the Hours due to the fact that it consecrated the hours of the day lifting up the day to the Lord. It is known to be the work of Jeussu Christ through the Church. 18 It was a liturgy of prayers for every day of the year. Priests, non -ordained person of the church, or anyone who are a part of the Holy Orders are encouraged to follow the hours. 19 How to Pray the Liturgy of the Hours (2001), Divineoffice.org, [Accessed 31/07/11] <http://divineoffice.org/liturgy -of-the-hours/how-to-pray-the-liturgy-of-the-hours/> 20 the writing of the lives of saints. 21 The Morning prayer contains a psalm of praise and from the Old Testament is where the canticle is taken from followed by anot her psalm. The Evening Prayer contains two psalms and from the New Testament is where the canticle is taken from. 22 Morning: Zechariah (Benedictus) Evening: Mary (Magnificat) 23 How to Pray the Liturgy of the Hours (2001), Divineoffice.org, [Accessed 31/07/11] <http://divineoffice.org/liturgy -of-the-hours/how-to-pray-the-liturgy-of-the-hours/> 24 The Our Father was names The Lords Prayer as it was taught to us be Jesus Chris t himself. The Lords Prayer itself draws Christians close to God in the central part of the prayer as proof which helps Christian develop a relationship with God and our neighbours. The Our Father has a large significance in Christianity as it is used to signify the new birth of the children of God (Baptism). However, the full meaning of the Lords Prayer is revealed in the Euc harist. It is said to be the summary of the whole Gospel - Tertullian, the perfect prayer - Saint Thomas Aquinas and a prayerful focus of principal morals in Christianity.

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reflects the purpose of life.26 The reason for this is that both follow the reality where the Lords prayer can also be divided into two sections where God is first and humanity is second where its central point is love.27 The first three petitions are Christ centred and focus on his glory and kingdom. These petitions refer to our hunger for the Word of God, the Body of Christ and the hunger for the Holy Spirit. The reason why there are three petitions is for the reason that the number three represents completeness and divinity as written in the Old Testament.28 These petitions mainly ask for the sanctification of Gods name, the coming of his Kingdom and the fulfilling of his will29. The next four petitions are considered to have a focal point of our being and our petition for mercy and Gods forgiveness. The reason why there are four petitions regarding asking God for mercy is that it is regarded the number represents the living creature spoken in book of Revelation.30

The Ten Commandments and the Lords Prayer are structured in a way where theyre parallel to each other. The first three comm andments tell us how to love our God similarly in the Lords Prayer. The last seven c ommandments tell us how to love our neighbor just like the last four petitions in the Lords Prayer. 26 Saint John Paul II (2005), Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , Strathfield, Australia, St Pauls Publications, pp 587a 27 The Lords Prayer (2000), Peter Kreeft, [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://www.kofc.org/un/en/resources/cis/cis119.pdf > Expositions of Holy Scripture: The Structure of the Lords Prayer (2006), A lexander Maclaren, [Accessed 30/07/11] <http://christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/expositions_of_holy_scripture_a/the_structure_of_the_lords.ht m> Saint John Paul II (2005), Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , Strathfield, Australia, St Pauls Publications, pp 587, [Accessed 25/07/11] 30 Expositions of Holy Scripture: The Structure of the Lords Prayer (2006), Alexander Maclaren, [Accessed 30/07/11] <http://christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/expositions_of_holy_scripture_a/the_structure_of_the_lords.htm >
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Angelica Fajardo

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Explain the ways in which personal prayer influences the life of adherents in the Christian Tradition. (800 words max)
A religious formal act is referred to a religious rite. These are significant acts performed or undertaken by believers in celebrating, symbolising and making the central beliefs tangible of religious traditions. The significance of personal devotion can be seen in Christianity and can be defined as the way religious traditions pray.Prayeris defined as a specially worded form used to address God, lifting up all of an individuals heart and mind to him in public or private.31

In Christianity personal prayer is the existing relationship that God shares with his people who is considered boundless, with his almighty Son, and by the power of the Holy Spirit, which lives in the heart of Christians.32 Personal prayer is used as a medium to communicate with God, and links Christians with their central beliefs and practices found on the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.It is regarded to be an obligation for Christians and a privilege in order to be able to access the transcendent world through prayer, where God is adored, confessed to, given thanks and is asked for assistance privately.33Although in Christianity personal prayer is significant there are different ways, interpretations and practices, forms and time of personal prayer in the variants of Christianity. 34

In Catholicism the influence of personal prayer is often described as a conversation of spiritual communication with God. It provides a guide to personal transformation and growan intimate relationship with God and is perceived as a vital element for spiritual development which can be done communally or individually.35 Many Catholics find it beneficial to adopt a specific patron saint in their personal prayers,as they are our models of prayer to be able to intercede before the Holy Trinity to God on behalf of the Catholics.36 Personal prayer provides a time forreflection thatallows Catholics to escape from the existing world to enter a world of a peaceful mind and be able to reflect and contemplate regarding their purpose and outlook in life in order to recognise the unconditional love of God.37 Inspiration from the bible is one of the main sources for personal prayers of Catholicism, which stresses the importance of scripture.38The Rosary, a form of personal prayer has influenced andaids the many lives of Catholics when it comes to personal prayer. 39Personal prayer is a form, which Penance can be expressed in the daily like of Catholics and assists a persons moral formation. 40

31 Saint John Paul II (2005), Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , Strathfield, Australia, St Pauls Publications, pp 162, 163, 165, 167, 174, [Accessed 25/07/11] 32 Wagner. R (2004), Christianity for Dummies, Wiley Publishing, Inc. pp 191, 246, 245, [Accessed 25/07/11] 33 Bass. D. B (2009), A People's History of Christianity , United States of America, HarperCollins Publishers, pp 178 -180, [Accessed 25/07/11] 34 There are different types of personal prayer, which include: vocal (prayers that are recites, spoken or sung e.g. The Lords Prayer), mental (prayers of reflection that involves the mind), contemplative (prayers of inner simplicity and quietness), and medi tative (prayers that exercise ones spiritual memory based on repetition of words). 35 It assists people to remember whom they really are, that they are his creation, to connect with him beyond physical communica tion, but spiritually through love. It influences Catholics to especially thank, praise, worship, glorify him and have ability to able to trust him completely. Personal prayers acknowledge the fact that Catholics can be humbled through personal prayer and remember that theyre here because of God. 36 Speciment Questions (2011), Unknown Author, [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://portal.waverley.nsw.edu.au/library/SOR/02_christianity/personal_devotion_sp ecimen.html> 37 Personal Prayers to reflection allow us to reflect on our lives and aim to be more like Jesus. We look up to Jesus as an exam ple as he was the one who taught us to pray (Mt 6:5 -15) when it comes to making decisions, asking for assistance, tha nking the Lord since we need God as aid to live a faithful Christian life. 38 Speciment Questions (2011), Unknown Author, [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://portal.waverley.nsw.edu.au/library/SOR/02_christianity/personal_devotion_specimen.html > 39 This influence was initiated at the start of the 16 th century, where Catholics during that time discovered a new meaning to personal prayer through the rosary. Because of this communities gathered together, also known as confraternities praying the Rosary and teaching others the practice . As a result additional spiritual practices were developed. Some of these consisted special masses and festive processions. The R osary offered a personal and practical way to cultivate the garden of the soul that the church had long neglected. 40 Saint John Paul II (2005), Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , Strathfield, Australia, St Pauls Publications, pp 162, 163, 165, 167, 174, [Accessed 25/07/11]

Angelica Fajardo

11 Ryan

In Orthodoxy personal prayer is important as it is considered as an obligation, even before the Orthodox Church.41 However, even though those who are Orthodox pray at home, it is still regarded as praying with the community of the Church.42Personal prayers provide a guide for Orthodox Christians that leads to the deepest mysteries of the contemplative life. Similarly to Catholics, Christian Orthodox use prayer beads43 and icons44 as an aid in personal prayer. Although Orthodox Christians do not practice unprepared prayers just by expressively speaking to God, they believe that God is best addressed with proper communication between man and God. They believe that deification45 is the goal of Christian life and that personal prayer;inner stillness brings the deeper influence of the soul. It is formal prayers like the Lords Prayer that teaches them how to pray and it is personal prayer that bringsOrthodox Christians and greater understanding of God.Personal prayer allows the Orthodox Church to recognise God as the Lord, Master with respect due to being the creator of the universe.46 It gives Orthodox Christians an opportunity to become one with Christ, to feel new, renew spiritual life and lift them up in a new light.

In Protestantism the most common prayer is using their own words rather than reciting set prayers. Like the other variants of Christianity Protestants grow in their relationship with Christ and the members of Gods family through personal prayer.47They also believe that prayer should be made direct to God through Christ, as they do not consider the intercession of any Saints due to this belief and is petitionary rather than obligatory.48Due to personal prayer it impacts upon the life of Protestants by being just and charitable like Jesus.Due to personal prayer, praying as a community in the Church, mainly during mass, allows Protestants to express their sorrow for their sins and have the ability to pray for others in need.49 A denomination within the Protestant Church, the Anglican Church through personal prayer, which should be a constant routine, practiced everyday, is the moment where they confess their sins and set aside the sorrow and allow Gods forgiveness to be grasped.50 Anglicans use The Book of Common Prayer to assist them in personal prayer, it acts a guide for all the aspects of Christian living and provides and opportunity to worship God and maintain as much of the intention of their faith.

Prayer, Spirituality and Liturgy in the Orthodox Tradtion (2007), Patrick Comerford, [Accessed 04/05/11] <http://www.freewebs.com/affcathireland/articles/Article_Comerford_OrthodoxTradition.pdf > 42 Prayer, Spirituality and Liturgy in the Orthodox Tradtion (2007), Patrick Comerford, [Accessed 04/05/11] <http://www.freewebs.com/affcathireland/articles/Article_Comerford_OrthodoxTradition.pdf > 43 Christian Orthodox use the Jesus Prayer 43 as source of personal prayer, they use a prayer rope similar to the Rosary but with 33, 5 0 or 100 knots containing a bead ever ten or 25 knots. This reminds them to pray unceasingly as said by Apostle Paul and for their salvation . The aim of this repetition is to enable the person to concentrate only on God. 44 A sacred painting used by Orthodox Churches to bridge the Gap between the divine and the earthly. 45 Worship, regard, or treat (someone or something) as a god 46 The reason for this is that they believe that God, the creator of the universe is so mighty that he deserves to spoken to for merly rather than speaking to him in contemplative prayer. 47 Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth (1996), Catholic Answers, [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://www.catholic.com/library/pillar.asp > 48 They do not believe in meditative prayers as they consider repeating of words with no meaning is not a biblical pattern of pr ayer. But they do speak to God through personal prayer to expressing oneself, speaking to God freely in contemplative prayer where through Christ is where they can talk to God as their Father. 49 Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth (1996), Catholic Answers, [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://www.catholic.com/library/pillar.asp > 50 Anglican Diocese of Tasmania (2007), John Harrower (Bishop of Tasmania), [Accessed 04/08/11] <http://www.anglicantas.org.au/index.php?item=file&target=private -confessions>

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Angelica Fajardo Bibliography Alphabetical Order (Author)


Book of Common Prayer - Table of Contents (2011), Archbishops' Council, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://www.churchofengland.org/prayer-worship/worship/book-of-common-prayer.aspx

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The Rosary In History: From the Beginning To The Consolidation Of Its Actual Str ucture (2003), Barile. Rev R, [Accessed 26/07/11] http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?id=4728

Bass. D. B (2009), A People's History of Christianity, United States of America, HarperCollins Publishers, pp 178-180, [Accessed 25/07/11]

History of the Rosary (2008), Byrne International Group, [Accessed 26/07/11] http://www.rosarybeads.com.au/history/

Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth (1996), Catholic Answers, [Accessed 04/08/11] http://www.catholic.com/library/pillar.asp

Catholic Expert - The Rosary Prayer (2001), Catholic Expert.com, [Accessed 26/07/11] http://www.catholicexpert.com/prayer/rosary.htm

The (Online) Book of Common Prayer (2001), The Church Hymnal Corporation, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://www.bcponline.org/

Coleman. N. G (2006), Studies of Religion: Preliminary, Marrickville, Australia, Science Press, pp 89-91, [Accessed 25/07/11]

Prayer, Spirituality and Liturgy in the Orthodox Tradtion (2007), Comerford. P, [Accessed 04/05/11] http://www.freewebs.com/affcathireland/articles/Article_Comerford_OrthodoxTradition.pdf

What does it mean to say ten Hail Marys? (2011), Conjecture Corporation, [Accessed 31/07/11] http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-it-mean-to-say-ten-hail-marys.htm

Critical Reflections on the bunging Liturgy (2005), Dobszay. Laszlo, [Accessed 31/07/11] http://www.musicasacra.com/publications/sacredmusic/pdf/divineoffice.pdf

The Book of Common Prayer (1662, Church of England) (2004), Don C. Warrington, [Accessed 31/07/11] http://www.vulcanhammer.org/anglican/bcp-1662.pdf

How to Pray the Liturgy of the Hours (2001), Divineoffice.org, [Accessed 31/07/11] http://divineoffice.org/liturgy-of-the-hours/how-to-pray-the-liturgy-of-the-hours/

What is Divine Office (2001), Divineoffice.org, [Accessed 31/07/11] http://divineoffice.org/liturgy-of-the-hours/

The Origin, Power and Purpose of the Rosary (2001), Fatima Family Apostolate International, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://www.fatimafamily.org/index.php?main_page=page&id=56

Angelica Fajardo
Anglican Diocese of Tasmania (2007), Harrower. John, (Bishop of Tasmania), [Accessed 04/08/11] http://www.anglicantas.org.au/index.php?item=file&target=private-confessions

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Eastern Orthodox/Types of Prayer (2007), Herman, [Accessed 04/05/11] http://en.allexperts.com/q/Eastern-Orthodox-1456/TYPES-PRAYER-2.htm

Hinnells. J. R (2010), The Penguin Handbook of the World's Living Religions, United States of Books, pp 117-118, [Accessed 25/07/11]

Ameri ca, Penguin

Book of Common Prayer - General Information (2006), JCSM, [Accessed 28//07/11] http://jcsm.org/StudyCenter/BELIEVE/txw/commonpr.htm

Book of Common Prayer - History (2001), Knight. Kevin, [Accessed 28/07/11] http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02678c.htm

The Lords Prayer (2000), Kreeft. Peter, [Accessed 04/08/11] http://www.kofc.org/un/en/resources/cis/cis119.pdf

Developing a Prayer life The Lords Prayer (2008), The Living Word Library, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://www.wordlibrary.co.uk/article.php?id=5

Expositions of Holy Scripture: The Structure of the Lords Prayer (2006), Maclaren. Alexander, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/expositions_of_holy_scripture_a/the_structure_of_the_lords.htm

The Our Father: More than Words, it is a structure for the Spiritual life (2010), Msgr. Charles Pope, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://blog.adw.org/2010/06/the-our-father-more-than-words-it-is-a-structure-for-the-spiritual-life/

Christianity Prayers/ Protestant (2007), Pugh. Pastor Timothy R., [Accessed 04/08/11] http://en.allexperts.com/q/Christianity-Prayers-2344/PROTESTANT.htm

Saint John Paul II (2005), Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Strathfield, Australia, St Pauls Publications, pp 162, 163, 165, 167, 174, [Accessed 25/07/11] History of the Rosary (2001), Saunders. Father William, [Accessed 26/07/11] http://www.ewtn.com/library/answers/rosaryhs.htm

3.5 Personal Devotion (Unknown), Unknown Author, [Accessed 04/08/11] http://intranet.cbhslewisham.nsw.edu.au:82/sor/supdocs/Personal%20Devotion%20Christianity.pdf Expressions & Types of Prayer, (Unknown Year), Unknown Author, [Accessed 5/08/11] http://www.dioceseoflacrosse.com/Home/Offices%20and%20Ministries/Evangelization/types_prayer.pdf

Speciment Questions (2011), Unknown Author, [Accessed 04/08/11] http://portal.waverley.nsw.edu.au/library/SOR/02_christianity/personal_devotion_specimen.html

Wagner. R (2004), Christianity for Dummies, Wiley Publishing, Inc. pp 191, 246, 245, [Accessed 25/07/11] Beginners to the Divine Office (2007), Writer. Faux, [Accessed 30/07/11] http://www.ourladyofthepearl.com/Documents/Beginners%20Guide%20to%20Divine%20Office.pdf