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Modelling and dynamics of a servo-valve controlled hydraulic motor

by bondgraph
K. Dasgupta
a,
, H. Murrenhoff
b
a
Dept. of Mechanical Engg. & Mining Machinery Engg., Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, 826004, India
b
Institute of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, University of Technology, Aachen, RWTH, Steinbachstrasse 53, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t
Article history:
Received 1 December 2008
Received in revised form 24 October 2010
Accepted 16 November 2010
Available online 21 March 2011
A comprehensive model of a closed-loop servo-valve controlled hydro-motor drive system has
been made using Bondgraph simulation technique (Thoma, 1990) [17]. The validation of the
servo-valve model is obtained first by the established results of Gordic et al., 2004 [10]. The
dynamic performance of the complete system has been studied with respect to the variation of
the parameters of the PI controller that drives the servo-valve.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Servo-valve
Closed-loop controlled
Bondgraph
Simulation
Modelling
Hydro-motor
1. Introduction
Electro-hydraulic servo-drives are widely used in industrial applications like machine tools, testing equipment and
autonomous manufacturing systems. Many articles regarding various aspects of servo-valve have appeared alongside their
development. In this respect, the most signicant reference book is of Meritt [1] where a general description of the servo-valve,
along with the design of its spindle, apper-nozzle valve, torque motor, etc. are explained. In recent years Dimarogoans [2] has
addressed on the evaluation in design theory and control mechanism where CAD design of control system is well presented.
Generally servo-valve dynamics are described by rst and second order transfer functions, depending on the dynamic
characteristics of the system. The data obtained from the manufacturers' catalogue are used for the estimation of time constants,
natural frequencies and damping ratio of the valve [3]. Such model can give the preliminary insight of its operation, may not be
able to explain the phenomenon in wide operating range. Thereby, researchers have proposed higher order models [47] to take
into account the effects of some non-linearities in the formof transfer functions or state-space equations. The published articles by
Urata [8,9] have given more detail analysis of the torque motor and elastic structure dynamics of the apper. However, most of the
above articles include the experimental validation of already established models. More recently, Gordic et al. [10] have established
a comprehensive mathematical model of the commonly used electro-hydraulic two-stage ow control with a spindle position
feedback servo-valve. They have also studied the effects of the variation of torque motor parameters on the servo-valve
performance [11] using MATLAB-SIMULINK environment.
The servo-valve coupled with a hydraulic motor in closed-loop control system is used to achieve accurate torque, velocity and
position control. In most of the industrial drives, where very high performance is not the requirement, the simple classical control
technique is adopted. Using non-dimensional approach, Watton [12] has analysed optimum steady state performance of the
Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 326 2296551x5443; fax: +91 326 2296563.
E-mail address: dasgupta_k2001@yahoo.co.in (K. Dasgupta).
0094-114X/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2010.11.006
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Mechanism and Machine Theory
j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ mechmt
proportional valve controlled axial piston motor drive and established the effects of ow and torque losses of the motor on the
efciency of the system. Most of the available literatures are concerned with the open-loop servo-valve controlled hydro-motor
drive systems [13,14]. More recently, the inuence of the actuator leakage on the dynamic behavior of the apper-nozzle valve
controlled electro-hydraulic servo system is studied by Attila [15]. However, considering the detailed model of the valve and the
actuator, the performance of the closed-loop system has not yet been studied.
The transfer function method is a powerful tool for analyzing hydraulic control system. It is, however, limited in that non-linear
terms that frequently appear in the describing equations, which must be linearized in one form or other, usually about an
operating point. Consequently, other analytical approach such as Bondgraph technique [16,17], which does not consider
linearization found to be more desirable in the present study. It is a powerful tool for modelling complex systems even with
interaction of several energy domains.
The objective of the present article is to create a comprehensive dynamic model of a closed-loop servo-valve controlled hydro-
motor drive system by using Bondgraph. The servo-valve analysed by Gordic et.al [10] is considered in the present investigation.
The model proposed in the present article is validated by the established results [10]. The inuences of various parameters of the
ProportionalIntegral (PI) controller that drives the servo-valve on the response of the system are studied. The model relating to
the various control parameters on the performance of the system can be used to predict and improve the physical design of the
system and its associated components.
Fig. 1 shows the physical system considered in the present study where a rotary hydraulic motor is driven by a two-stage ow
control with a spindle position feedback servo-valve. The circuit diagram shown in Fig. 2 represents the system where a constant
pressure source is maintained to the servo-valve that drives a bi-directional xed displacement motor. The inertial and viscous
loads are coupled with the motor output shaft. A constant pressure source is maintained to the valve. The speed and the pressure
Fig. 1. Servo-valve with motor drive.
1017 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
sensors that measure the shaft speed and the load pressure are fed back to the PI controller where a non-loading type input signal
is maintained. The resultant current output from the controller is amplied and drives the servo-valve.
The stepwise development of the detail model of the servo-valve and the complete system are explained in Section 2. The
simulation results are discussed in Section 3 and nally conclusions are drawn in Section 4.
2. Bondgraph model and describing equations
The mathematical model of the servo-valve controlled motor transmission system has been developed using Bondgraph
approach which is a special graphical tool that uses the power transfer concept as its basis, unique for all disciplines [16,17].
Subsystems can be mechanical, electrical and hydraulic systems, which all have their efforts and ows. Once the model has been
developed, the causality of relationship is readily assigned using a few determined rules. This article will not discuss the
Bondgraph technique, but the interested reader is referred to some excellent text books [1619]. Due to the complexity of the
physical system (Fig. 1), the model of the complete system has been developed integrating its different sub-models.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, Fig. 3 shows the block diagram representation of the system. Along with the input voltage V
inp
, the
feedback signal proportional to load pressure P
l
and the motor speed
m
are given to the PI controller. The amplied resultant
output signal i
tm
drives the torque motor of the servo-valve. The supply and the return ow of the valve

V
im
and

V
om

depend on
the position of the valve spindle (x
sp
), the movement of which is caused due to the angular displacement of the apper
a
.
Fig. 2. The complete physical system.
Fig. 3. Block diagram representation of the system.
1018 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The sub-models of the complete system are as follows:
a. Sub-model of the torque motor and the valve spindle
b. Sub-model of the ow and pressures through the apper-nozzle and the valve spindle
c. Sub-model of the hydro-motor drive system
d. Sub-model of the PI controller
The following assumptions are made in developing the models:
A constant pressure source to the inlet port of the valve is considered,
The uid considered in the analysis has Newtonian characteristics,
Resistive and capacitive effects are lumped wherever appropriate. All springs are assumed to be linear,
Sump pressure is assumed to be zero,
The masses of the feedback spring, apper and the exure tube lumped into one inertial element, as are the damping forces.
Similar considerations are made for the main valve spindle,
The steady state ow forces that act on the valve spindle and the apper are considered, while the dynamic ow forces are
neglected.
2.1. Model of the torque motor and the spool position feedback
Fig. 4 shows the physical systemof the exure tube, feedback spring and the spindle position that occurs with the deection of
the spring. Fig. 5 shows the bondgraph model of the system. The transformer element (TF) transforms the driving current of the
torque that causes rotation

a
of the torque motor. The transformer modulus K
tm
denotes the gain of the torque motor. The
oriented arrowed arc over the TF indicates the way the transformer is dened. In the present study, the modulus is declared
relating ow to ow. The I, R and C elements on the

a
junction represent the torque that corresponds to the mass moment of
inertia J
a
of the armature assembly, damping coefcient R
a
, torsional stiffness of the exure tube K
a
, respectively. The
electromagnetic spring of the torque motor provides an additional torque on the armature. This is taken into account by the SE
element (K
m

a
). The movement of the exure tube causes the deection of the apper with the feedback spring. The TF element
that connects the 1

a
and 0 junctions transforms the angular movement of the spring into its linear displacement. The modulus of
the TF element that is l
fb
is the length of the feedback spring. The C element on 0 junction that denotes the stiffness of the feedback
Fig. 4. Torque motor and valve spindle.
1019 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
spring K
fb
takes into account the force exerted due to the deformation of the spring. Referring to Fig. 6, due to the displacement of
the apper closer to one of the nozzles, the differential pressure (P
lfb
P
rfb
) acts across the spool ends. The TF modulus A
sp
(cross-
sectional area of the spindle end) transforms it into the force. The SE element connected with the 1
xsp
junction represents the ow
Fig. 5. Model of the Torque motor and valve spool.
Fig. 6. Flow and pressure in apper-nozzle.
1020 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
force F
ff
that acts on the valve spindle. Similarly I, R and SE elements on the 1
xsp
represent the inertia force due to spindle mass m
sp
,
the resistive force due to the viscous damping coefcient R
sp
and the Coulomb friction force F
c
that exists at the very low speed of
the valve spindle, respectively. The activated C element on the same junction records the valve displacement x
sp
.
The systemequations derived fromthe model are based on the lumped elements (I and C) with integral causality present in the
system. They are as follows:
In the model, 1

a
junction in the mechanical part of the torque motor comes from a force balance, resulting from the constitutive
equations of each element. Referring to the Fig. 5, the inertia torque on the torque motor armature is expressed as:
p
a
= K
tm
i
tm
+K
m

a
F
fb
l
fb
T
fp

a
R
a
K
a

a
1
The rst term of the above equation indicates the inertia torque of the torque motor, the second term is the driving torque, the
third termis the electro-magnetic spring torque, fourth termis the torque due to the deformation of the feedback spring, fth term
is the torque due to the deformation of the apper, the sixth term indicates the viscous friction torque of the armature with the
exure tube and the seventh term is the torque due to the bending of the exure tube, respectively.
The force F
fb
caused due to the deformation of the feedback spring is expressed as:
F
fb
= K
fb
x
fb
2
where the deformation of the spring x
fb
is given by
x
fb
=

a
l
fb
x
sp
The angular velocity of the apper is given by

a
= p
a
= J
a
3
Fig. 7. Model of the ow and pressure in apper-nozzle.
1021 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The torque T
fp
=F
h
l
fp
causes deformation of the apper, expression of which is given by Eq. (9) in Section 2.2.
The valve dynamics due to the mechanical part of the valve spindle is expressed as:
p
sp
= P
lfp
P
rfp

A
sp
K
fb
x
fb
R
sp
x
sp
F
c
F
ff
4
In the above equation, F
c
is the dry friction force that acts on the spindle given by [20]:
F
c
=
F
cn
sign x
sp

; x
sp
0
Z; Z j j b F
co
F
co
sign Z ; Z j j F
co;
x
sp
=0

where Z=(P
lfp
P
rfp
) A
sp
F
fb
F
ff
.
The ow force that acts on the valve spindle in the event of opening of valve is given by [21]: F
ff
=0.43 d
sp
(P
s
P
l
) x
sp
.
After complete opening of the valve port, i.e., x
sp
x
spm
, to arrest the spindle motion, high damping has been considered for
the valve seat. In Fig. 5, it has been considered by changing the value of the damping coefcient of the valve spindle R
sp
accordingly.
The velocity of the valve spindle is expressed as:
x
sp
= p
sp
= m
sp
5
2.2. Model of the ow and pressure of the apper-nozzle and valve spindle
Fig. 6 shows the physical system of the ow and the pressure of the valve that occur with the deection of the apper.
Fig. 7 shows the bondgraph model of the system. The transformer element (TF), the modulus of which is the length of the
feedback spring l
fp
, converts the angular movement of the apper

a
(i.e., the rotation of the torque motor) to its linear velocity.
The force acting on the apper tip is proportional to the differential pressure (P
lfp
P
rfp
) across it. The C element on 1
x
fp
junction
takes into account the elastic impact (F
i
) of the apper on the nozzle. Such force only occurs at the extreme displacement of the
apper. The ow force F
h
that acts on the tip of the apper is represented by the SE element connected with the 1
x
fp
junction. The
owis supplied to the nozzles fromthe constant pressure source through the xed orices. The SE and R elements connected with
the 1

Vo
junction represent the pressure source P
s
and the orice resistance R
o
, respectively. The chamber uid compressibility at
the left and the right nozzles are represented by the C element at the 0 junctions.
The inuence of the annular restrictions created by the apper and the two nozzles are represented by the resistive
elements R
lnz
and R
rnz
that are modulated by the displacement of the apper as well as pressure difference across it. The
resistance R
od
of the drain orice is represented by the R element connected with the 1
v
od
junction; the ow through which
Fig. 8. Model of the ow through valve spindle and motor circuit.
1022 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
depends on the pressure difference (P
d
P
smp
) across it. The force acting on the valve spool is proportional to the differential
pressure (P
lfp
P
rfp
). In the above model, the ow through the orices and the nozzles are represented by their corresponding
resistive elements. Since the resistances are in conductive causalities, while deriving the system equations they are considered
as modulated ow sources, the ow through which depend on the port opening areas and the pressure difference across it.
Similarly, the leakage ow to the nozzle chamber through the valve spindle depends on the pressure difference across the
leakage path. The following system equations are derived from the model:
Considering the compressibility of the uid in the chambers connecting the spool ends with the nozzles, with the deection of
the apper towards the left nozzle, the ow balance equations become:

V
lfp
=

V
ol
+ x
fp
A
nzl
+

V
llkg

V
lnz
x
sp
A
sp
6

V
rfp
=

V
or
x
fp
A
nzl
+

V
rlkg

V
rnz
+ x
sp
A
sp
7
In Eqs. (6) and (7), the rst terms represent the compressibility ow loss of the uid, the second terms indicate the ow
through their respective orice, the third terms are the ow due to the displacement of the apper, the fourth terms are the
leakage ow through the valve spindle to the nozzle chamber that depend on the length of the leakage paths and pressure
difference across it, the fth terms indicate the ow to the discharge chamber from the nozzle and the sixth terms represent
the ow due to the displacement of the valve spindle. Similarly, the ow to the discharge chamber from the nozzles

V
od
is
given by:

V
od
=

V
lnz
+

V
rnz

V
d
8
where

V
d
is the compressibility ow loss of the uid in the discharge chamber.
The expressions of the ow through the orices and nozzles considered in Eqs. (6), (7) and (8) are given in Section 2.5.
The 1
x
fp
junction that represents the apper displacement x
fp
comes from the torque balance, which is expressed as:
T
fp
= P
rfp
P
lfp

A
nzl
+ F
ha
+ F
i

l
fp
9
In the above equation the ow force that acts on the tip of the apper and the elastic impact force of the apper on the nozzle
are given by [1]:
F
ha
= 8 K
2
nl
x
o
x
fp

2
P
lfp
P
d

K
2
nr
x
o
+ x
fp

2
P
rfp
P
d


where K
nl
and K
nr
are the ow coefcients of the nozzle orices.
F
i
= K
is
j x
fp
j x
o

sign x
fp

l
fp
; when x
fp

x
o
where K
is
, x
fp
and x
o
are the impact stiffness, the displacement of the apper and the distance of the apper tip fromeach nozzle at
null position, respectively.
The pressure at the nozzles and the discharge chamber are expressed as:
P
lfp
= K
stf
V
lfp
; P
rfp
= K
stf
V
rfp
and P
d
= K
stf 1
V
d
; respectively:
Fig. 9. Model of the controller.
1023 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The velocity of the apper tip is given by
x
fp
=

a
l
fp
10
2.3. Model of the hydro-motor drive system
Referring to Fig. 2, the ow supplied from the servo-valve drives the motor connected with the viscous and the inertial loads.
Fig. 8 shows the model of the system. A constant supply pressure (P
s
) is maintained at the inlet port of the servo-valve. It is
represented by the SE element on 1 junction. The outlet ow from the motor through the valve port goes to the sump at zero
pressure. The servo-valve ports are considered as variable resistances R
im
and R
om
, the ow through which depends on the
respective port opening area that depends on the displacement of the valve spindle x
sp
and the pressure difference across it. The
valve spindle is considered to be of rectangular ports, symmetrical spindle with critically lapped lands. The 0 junctions represent
the pressures P
mi
and P
mo
correspond to the pressures at the inlet and outlet port of the motor, respectively. The C elements on
these junctions take into account the compressibility loss of the uid. The leakage resistance R
ilkg
represents the internal leakage
ow

V
ilkg
that occurs due to the pressure difference (P
mi
P
mo
) across the motor ports. The valve leakage resistance R
vlkg
depends
on the displacement of the valve spindle. The ow resistances are in conductivity, therefore, they are considered as modulated
ow sources.
Fig. 10. Model of the complete system.
1024 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The TF element that connects the 0
P
m
and the 1

m
junctions transforms the hydraulic power to mechanical power or vice-versa,
where the modulus D
m
indicates the volume displacement rate of the motor. The 1

m
junction representing the mechanical part of
the load corresponds to the speed of the motor output shaft
m
. The I, R and SE elements represent the load inertia J
l
, speed
dependent friction load R
l
and the slip torque T
sl
, respectively. They are with the 1

m
junction that constitutes the load dynamics.
The activated C element on the same junction records the output speed of the motor
m
.
The system equations derived from the model are as follows:
With the compressibility of the uid, the ow balance at the inlet and the outlet ports of the motor are given by

V
imc
=

V
im

V
vlkg

V
ilkg

m
D
m
11

V
omc
=

V
om
+

V
ilkg
+
m
D
m

V
vlkg
12
The pressures at the inlet and outlet ports of the motor are expressed as:
P
mi
= K
mstf
V
mi
and P
mo
= K
mstf
V
mo
; respectively:
The 1 junction in the mechanical part of the motor comes from the torque balance, which is expressed by the following
equation, resulting from the constitutive equation of each element:
p
l
= P
mi
P
mo
D
m

m
R
l
T
sl
13
where the rst termof the above equation is the torque due to the inertia load J
l
, the second termindicates the torque equivalent to
the differential pressure across the motor, the third termis the torque loss due to viscous friction coefcient R
l
and the fourth term
is the slip torque.
The motor speed is given by:

m
= p
l
= J
l
14
2.4. Model of the controller
A feedback control system is used to control the motor speed. Referring to Fig. 2, the feedback strategy is achieved by adopting
the motor speed
m
and load pressure (P
l
=P
mi
P
mo
) and feeding both the signals back and subtracted from the reference input
voltage V
inp
. The resultant voltage is supplied to the PI controller. The current output of the controller is multiplied by the amplier
gain K
v
that drives the torque motor. The bondgraph model of the control unit is shown in Fig. 9.
The SE elements on the 1
pi
junction correspond to the input voltage V
inp
, the pressure and speed feedback signals multiplied
by their respective gain values (K
l
and K
w
). The proportional control action is being implemented by multiplying the resultant
voltage by the proportional gain K
p
K
v
. Also, the resultant signal from 1
pi
junction is integrated at bond C10. The integral
control action is adopted by multiplying the signal obtained at bond C10 by the gain K
i
K
v
. The two feedback signals
Fig. 11. The transient response of the ow through servo-valve.
1025 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
(proportional i
p
and integral i
i
) along with the current input i
vdb
equivalent to the valve dead band are added together at 1
sv
junction and the resultant effort is the driving current i
tm
that actuates the servo-valve.
The action of the proportional and the integral feedback current (i
p
and i
i
) at 1
sv
junction is described by the following
equations:
i
p
= V
inp
K
l
P
l
K
w

m

K
p
K
v
15
i
i
=
t
0
V
inp
K
m
K
l
P
l
K
w

m

K
i
K
v
16
Incorporating the valve dead band, the current driving the servo-valve is expressed as follows:
i
tm
=
i
tm1
+ i
vdb
when i
tm1
bi
vdb
0 when i
vdb
i
itm1
i
vdb
i
tm1
i
vdb
when i
tm1
N i
vdb

17
where i
tm1
=i
i
+i
p.
While studying the dynamics of the system, the value of i
tm
obtained from Eq. (17) is used in Eq. (1).
2.5. Model of the complete system
Integrating all the four models shown in Figs. 5, 7, 8 and 9, the complete model of the system is made. It is shown in Fig. 10.
In the model, the resistances correspond to the nozzles, orices and the valve ports are in conductive causality, while solving
the system equations they are considered as modulated ow sources, the ow through which depend on the port opening areas
and the pressure difference across it. Similarly, the leakage ow to the nozzle chamber through the valve spindle depends on the
pressure difference across the leakage path. The ow through the orices and nozzles are given below [21]:
The ow through the valve nozzles are given by:

V
lnz
= K
nl
d
nzl
x
o
x
fp

2 P
lfp
P
d

18

V
rnz
= K
nr
d
nzl
x
o
+ x
fp

2 P
rfp
P
d

19
Fig. 12. Effect of pressure feedback for the reference speed
mr
=52.2 rad/s, K
i
=5.
1026 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The ow through the left and the right orices to the valve nozzles are expressed by:

V
ol
= C
d
d
2
o
4

2 P
s
P
lfb

20

V
or
= C
d
d
2
o
4

2 P
s
P
rfb

21
Fig. 13. a: effect of K
i
for the reference speed
mr
=52.2 rad/s, K
l
=0.0. b: effect of pressure feedback for the reference speed
mr
=52.2 rad/s, K
i
=1.
1027 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
The ow to the sump from the discharge chamber is given by:

V
od
= C
d
d
2
od
4

2 P
d
P
smp

22
The leakage ow to the nozzle chambers from the valve spindle are expressed as:

V
llkg
=
d
sp

3
sp
12l
1
1 +
3
2
e


2

P
s
P
lfp

23
Fig. 14. Effect of the valve dead band on the transient response of the motor speed
m
.
Fig. 15. Effect of inertia on the motor speed
m
.
1028 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035

V
rlkg
=
d
sp

3
sp
12l
1
1 +
3
2
e


2

P
s
P
rfp

24
The owthrough the valve ports to the inlet and fromthe outlet ports of the motor varies fromlaminar to turbulent depending
upon the pressure difference (P
ri
) across them [21]. At the transition point the critical pressure difference is expressed as
follows:
P
ct
= 2
C
d
p
2
ri

0:32a
ri

2
24
where, p
ri
and a
ri
are the generalized perimeter and the area of the valve port.
Considering the above, the ow through the valve ports in two different cases are expressed as:

V
mi
= C
d
a
ri

2P
ri

for turbulent flow 25

V
mi
=
0:32a
2
ri
P
ri
p
ri

for laminar flow 26


Similar considerations are made for the ow

V
vlkg
through the clearance passage of the valve spindle to the sump.
Fig. 16. Effect of load inertia on the load pressure P
1
.
Fig. 17. Speed and acceleration responses with combined ramp and step input with K
i
=1, K
p
=10.
1029 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
3. Simulation results and discussion
The simulation results are discussed in the following steps:
In the rst step, the servo-valve model in no-load condition is validated by comparing with the results obtained by Gordic et
al. [10].
In the next step, with the PI controller, the closed-loop performances of the complete system are studied.
The systemequations obtained in Section 2 are solved numerically with the help of Symbols, 2000 [22]. This particular package
runs on as self-styled multi-tasking environment through different modules including control system analysis. The pictorial
representation of the bondgraph model of any physical system can be made and subsequently, the state equations are developed,
which are solved numerically along with their graphical representation. It can also take various non-linearities of the system. By
using the software, the observer states can be created additionally by activated bonds which do not change the dynamics of the
system.
3.1. Servo-valve model verication
In validating the servo-valve model in no-load condition, in the complete model shown in Fig. 10, the sub-model of the PI
controller is not considered. A constant source of current (i
tm
) in Eq. (1) for driving the torque motor has been assumed. The
system equations given in Section 2.1 through 2.3 along with the Eq. (18) through (26) of Section 2.5 are solved numerically
using the parametric values given in Appendix A. Additional parameters of the motor are suitably assumed. Fig. 11 compares
the simulation results of the present study with that of Gordic. et.al [10]. The results are presented for the three different
values of i
tm
.
The deviations of the simulated response which is nearly about 5%, when compared with the established results [10], may be
due to the following reasons:
The ow coefcients are assumed for the orices and the apper-nozzle in the present study.
The ow force on the valve spindle indicated in Eq. (9) is considered to be of the usual form [1,21].
The leakages through the clearance passage of the valve spindle as well as the inlet and outlet owof the valve are considered to
be either turbulent or laminar (Eqs. (25) and (26)) depending upon the pressure difference across the ow path.
However, the close agreement between the simulation and experimental results validates the proposed model.
3.2. Dynamic performance of the system
The parametric studies of the dynamic performance of the complete system have been made, by solving all the equations
derived in Sections 2.1 through 2.5. Applying integral control strategy, the effects of pressure feedback on the system's responses
Fig. 18. Speed response with combined ramp and step input with K
i
=1, K
p
=100.
1030 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
are investigated. The inuences of the slip torque T
sl
, dead band i
vdb
of the servo-valve and the load inertia on the system's
performance are studied. The effects of the parameters of the ProportionalIntegral (PI) on the performance of the systemare also
discussed.
3.2.1. Effect of pressure feedback
With integral control action (K
i
=5), using step input (V
inp
) to the servo-valve, the effects of the pressure feedback (K
l
) on the
speed response of the system is shown in Fig. 12. The results show that the response is improved by increasing the value of K
l
,
while oscillations of the transient part of the response are considerably reduced in the maximum overshoot with corresponding
decrease in settling time. It is seen that perceptible damping effect may be introduced by applying the pressure feedback; however,
there exists steady state error. Comparing the speed response with the pressure feedback K
l
=0.0 with that of K
l
=0.1, it is seen
that for K
i
=5 the steady state error is about 3%. However, by increasing K
l
to 0.3 where steady state error is increased by 6%,
further damping is obtained.
The results shown in Fig. 13a indicates that the dynamic response of the system can be improved by decreasing the value of K
i
even without pressure feedback K
l
=0.0. The maximum overshoot is reduced from 58.5% to 25.5% and the settling time also
reduces from 1.5 s to 1.3 s with the decrease in K
i
=5 to K
i
=1.
The response shown in Fig. 13b indicates that further improvement of the response may be achieved by introducing a value of
K
l
=0.1 with K
i
=1.0 that decreases the maximum overshoot by 6.7%. However, this leads to a small steady state error of 5%. The
results shown in Fig. 13b is with the torque load T
sl
=0.5 Nm. that corresponds to the steady state speed of 50.6 rad/s with K
l
=0.1.
With the reduction of friction torque to T
sl
=0.225 Nm, the speed can be further increased to 51.35 rad/s with the same value of
K
l
=0.1. The corresponding results are not shown here for clarity.
3.2.2. Inuence of valve dead band
The inuence of the valve dead band on the system's response is exhibited in Fig. 14. While modelling, it is considered as
equivalent current input (i
vdb
) to the servo-valve as explained in Section 2.4. The results are obtained with the dead bands of
i
vdb
=1 mA, 2 mA and without dead band i
vdb
=0.0 mA. Comparing the results obtained at the reference speed of 52.2 rad/s, it
indicates that the valve dead band has a delay characteristics and it also has the inuence on the maximum overshoot of the
response. With the increase in the valve dead band from0.0 to 2.0 mA, the starting time t
s
, the delay time t
d
and the rise time t
r
are
increased from 0.06 s to 0.08 s, 0.10 s to 0.15 s and 0.50 s to 0.58 s, respectively.
3.2.3. Inuence of load inertia
The effect of load inertia on the dynamics of the speed and the load pressure are shown in Figs. 15 and 16, respectively. With
increase in inertia, the speed and the pressure responses become more oscillatory.
The speed characteristics presented in Fig. 15 indicate that the delay time, dened at 50% of the nal steady state speed,
decreases with decrease in load inertia J
l
from0.05 kg m
2
to 0.02 kg m
2
and the corresponding overshoot of the speed at the higher
inertia is about 15%. It is also clear that with the increase in the load inertia, the settling time of the system response increases
(Fig. 16).
Fig. 19. Speed response with combined ramp and step input with K
i
=10, K
p
=100.
1031 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
3.2.4. Effect of combined ramp and step input
Many applications require the servo-drive to accelerate a load to a constant velocity such as in cutting tool. In the present
analysis, the speed control is achieved with Proportional-Integral control action to obtain the zero error in the desired constant
speed 5.22 rad/s at the end of acceleration (t
1
=0.23 s) as indicated in Fig. 17.
The simulation results also show that when the proportional controller gain is set at K
p
=10, there is an error of about 13% in
the speed (not shown in the present article) at the end of acceleration (t
1
=0.23 s). However, the response becomes more
oscillatory when the proportional controller gain is increased to K
p
=100 as shown in Fig. 18.
By setting K
p
=10 and K
i
=100 yields a smooth response with minor overshoot, that almost satises the performance
specication shown in Fig. 19.
4. Conclusion
The article presents a signicant aspect of an integrated study of modelling and simulation of a closed-loop servo-valve
controlled hydro-motor drive system. The bondgraph model of the complete system has been developed. Comparing the
simulation results with that of Gordic et al. [10], the servo-valve model is validated in Fig. 11, with reasonable accuracy. The servo-
valve model presented in this article may be useful for modelling all similar types of valve. The model includes phenomena and
quantities of inuence on analysed servo-drive, so it can predict its performance in a wider range of expected working regime.
Combining the servo-valve with a motor circuit, the dynamic response of the closed-loop systemis analysed. The effects of various
control parameters on the overall response of the system are discussed. Justiably many plausible parameters like inertia of the
working uid in the conduit and the valve, elasticity of the conduit etc. are not incorporated in the details of the modelling. Still,
model contains several critical parameters those substantially inuence the performance of the system within the range of
operation considered. The following conclusions are derived from the simulation results:
Increasing the pressure feedback with constant integral gain improves the transient response of the system (Fig. 12).
Without pressure feedback, with the decrease in the integral coefcient, the system's oscillations reduces (Fig. 13).
The valve dead band has a delay characteristics and it also increases the maximum overshoot of the system (Fig. 14).
With the increase in inertia load, the speed and the pressure responses become more oscillatory with considerable increase in
the maximum overshoot (Figs. 15 and 16).
With the combined ramp and step input, the response becomes more oscillatory with the increase in speed (Fig. 18). However,
with the proper adjustment of integral and proportional gain, the desired performance may be achieved (Fig. 19).
Attention should be paid to the applicability of the proposed model at very high load pressure, where current driving the servo-
valve saturates and the assumed ow equations are not applicable.
Authors believe that the integrated model of the servo-valve with the motor transmission system proposed here would be
useful to study the control theoretical aspects of the plant, where such system is an integral part and it provides insights for
improving the design of the system. Further study can be made by incorporating more sophisticated controller for the motor
transmission system.
Nomenclature
A
sp
Cross-sectional area of the spindle end
A
nzl
Area of the nozzle
a
r
Area of the valve port
C
d
Discharge coefcient of the orice
C
q
Valve ow coefcient
d
sp
Diameter of the valve spindle
d
nzl
Diameter of the nozzle
d
o
Diameter of the orice
d
od
Diameter of the sump orice
D
m
Volume displacement rate of the hydro-motor
e Spool eccentricity
F
fb
Force due to the deformation of feedback spring
F
c
Dry friction force on the valve spindle
F
cn
Nominal dry friction force on the valve spindle
F
co
Initial dry friction force on the valve spindle
F
ff
Flow force on the valve spindle
F
h
Flow force on the apper
F
i
Elastic impact force on the apper
i
i
Integral feedback current of the controller
i
p
Proportional feedback current of the controller
i
tm
Driving current of the torque motor
i
vdb
Valve dead band
J
a
Mass moment of inertia of the armature assembly
1032 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
J
l
Mass moment of inertia of the load connected with the motor
K
tm
Torque motor gain
K
m
Torque motor electromagnetic spring constant
K
i
Proportional controller gain
K
p
Integral controller gain
K
l
Pressure feedback gain
K
w
Speed feedback gain
k
is
Impact stiffness
K
v
Servo-valve amplier gain
K
a
Stiffness of the exure tube
K
fb
Stiffness of the feedback spring
K
stf
Compressibility of the uid in the nozzle chamber
K
stf1
Compressibility of the uid in the discharge chamber
K
mstf
Compressibility of the uid at the inlet and the outlet ports of the motor
K
fb
Stiffness of the feedback spring
K
nl,
K
nr
Flow coefcients of the left and the right orices of the servo-valve
l
fp
Length of the apper
l
fb
Length of the feedback spring
l
pr
Perimeter of the valve port
l
1
Length between the supply and the actuator port of the servo-valve
m
sp
Mass of the valve spindle
p
a
Angular momentum of the armature assembly
p
l
Angular momentum of the hydraulic motor shaft
p
sp
Momentum of the valve spindle
P
mi
, P
mo
Pressure at the inlet and the outlet ports of the motor
P
lfp
Pressure acting at the left end area of the spindle
P
rfp
Pressure acting on the right end area of the spindle
P
l
Load pressure
P
s
Supply pressure
P
smp
Sump pressure
P
lfp
and P
rfp
Pressures at the left and the right nozzle chambers
P
d
Pressure at the discharge chamber
R
im
and R
om
Resistances of the inlet and outlet port of the valve spindle
R
ilkg
Internal leakage resistance of the motor
R
a
Viscous resistance coefcient of the torque motor
R
l
Viscous load coefcient on the hydro-motor
R
vlkg
and R
llkg
Leakage resistance of the valve spindle
R
lnz
and R
rnz
Nozzle port resistances
R
sp
Viscous friction coefcient of the valve spindle
R
o
, R
od
Resistance of the valve and the drain orices, respectively.
T
fp
Torque caused due to the deformation of the apper
T
f
Stiction load with motor
T
sl
Slip torque applied to the motor
V
inp
Servo-valve input voltage

V
im
and

V
om
Flow through the inlet and the outlet ports of the hydro-motor, respectively.

V
lnz
and

V
rnz
Flow through the valve nozzles to the discharge chamber

V
od
Flow through the discharge port of the servo-valve

V
llkg
and

V
rlkg
Leakage ow through the valve spindle to the nozzle chambers

V
vlkg
Leakage ow through the valve spindle to the return port

V
mi
Generalized ow through the valve spindle that goes/comes out to/from the motor port.

V
ol
and

V
or
Flow through the left and the right orices to the nozzle chambers, respectively

V
lfp
;

V
rfp
Compressibility ow loss of the uid in the left and right side of the apper

V
ilkg
Internal leakage ow of the hydro-motor

V
d
Compressibility ow loss of the uid in the discharge chamber
x
0
Distance of the apper tip to each nozzle at null
x
fp
Displacement of the apper
x
fb
Deformation of the feedback spring
x
sp
Displacement of the valve spindle
x
spm
Maximum displacement of the valve spindle
Density of the uid
Kinematic viscosity of the uid
1033 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
Dynamic viscosity of the uid

sp
Radial clearance between the valve spindle and the bushing

m
The motor speed.

mr
Reference speed of the motor
P
ct
Critical pressure difference across the valve port

fp
Displacement of the apper

a
Angular displacement of the torque motor

It indicates the time derivative of the parameter


Acknowledgement
The rst author gratefully acknowledges the fellowship and facilities provided to him by the Indian National Science Academy
(INSA), India and the DFG/Germany, and the kind cooperation of the University staff during his 2 months work in the Institute of
Fluid Power Transmission and Control, University of Technology Aachen, Germany. The authors are thankful to Dr. S. Pan for the
technical discussion on the paper.
Appendix A. Major parameter values of the system
References
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European Conf. on Structural Control, Vol. 13, Series B,
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[4] J.C. Lee, E. Miswawa, K. Reid, Stability robustness applied to the design of Electrohydraulic servo-valves, Proceedings of IEEE conference on control
applications, Dearborn, USA, 1996, pp. 534539.
Parameter Value Unit
A
sp
16.70 mm
2
A
p
9.00 mm
2
C
q
0.65
C
d
0.60
d
sp
4.62 mm
d
n
0.28 mm
d
o
0.18 mm
d
od
0.40 mm
e 10
3
mm
F
cn
3.4510
4
N
F
co
8.3310
4
N
i
tmax
10 mA
i
vdb
0.0, 1.0, 2.0 mA
J
a
1.6810
7
kg.m
2
J
l
3.410
3
kg.m
2
K
stf1
2.510
17
N/m
5
K
stf
410
16
N/m
5
K
mstf
10
14
N/m
5
K
a
3.6 N m
k
is
310
7
N/m
K
fb
1962 N/m
K
v
0.01 A/v
l
fb
13.30 mm
l
fp
13.00 mm
l
1
5.4 mm
m
sp
3.110
3
kg
R
a
410
4
N m s
R
l
2.9510
3
N m s/rad
x
o
38.510
3
mm
z 210
3
mm
D
m
7.1610
7
m
3
/rad

sp
410
3
mm
850 kg/m
3
1510
6
m
2
/s
0.012 Pa s
1034 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035
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1035 K. Dasgupta, H. Murrenhoff / Mechanism and Machine Theory 46 (2011) 10161035