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A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

11.

AIRFOIL CHARACTERISTICS

11.1 BACKGROUND
11.1.1 OBJECTIVES: During this experiment, you will: 1. Measure lift and drag for various airfoil sections. 2. Measure the static pressure distribution about a NACA 2415 airfoil. 3. Find the stall angles for the airfoils. 11.1.2 Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to study the aerodynamic characteristics of typical low-subsonic airfoil profiles. Several different airfoil profiles are available for study. 11.1.3 Discussion After a century of theoretical research on the subject of airfoil and wing theory, the final word on the performance of an airfoil must still come from wind tunnel testing. The reason for this state of affairs is that the flow field about a wing is extremely complicated. The simplifying assumptions that are frequently introduced in order to treat the problem theoretically are much too severe to fail to influence the final results. Many of these assumptions ignore the effects of viscosity, nonlinearities in the equations of motion, three-dimensional effects, nonsteady flow, free stream turbulence, and wing surface roughness. Nevertheless the theoretical prediction of lift produced by a wing has been reasonably successful (not quite so true for drag) and serves as an effective basis with which to study the experimental results. When studying the flow about an airfoil it is best to begin with the simplest case, a flat plate. After understanding this case, it is possible to slowly work up the a shape resembling a general airfoil, by gradually changing the shape of the flat plate and examining the flow about the body at each stage of change. Some of the important results of two-dimensional airfoil theory concerning Cl and Cm are shown in Figures 111, 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4. By definition: Lift Coefficient:
Cl = L / unitspan 0.5 U c
M / unitspan 0.5 U 2 c 2

Pitching Moment Coefficient:


Cm =

where: Cl = Lift coefficient

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

Cm = Pitching moment coefficient L = Lift M = pitching moment = freestream density U = freestream velocity c = chord length Figure 11-1 shows the flow around a flat place placed in uniform flow. Results for Cl and Cm are shown.

Figure 11-1: Flat Plate Airfoil

Figure 11-2 shows the flow around a symmetric airfoil placed in uniform flow.

Figure 11-2: Symmetric Airfoil

The effect of thickening the flat plate is to increase the lift curve slope dCl/d slightly as can be seen from Figure 11-1 and Figure 11-2. However, this theoretical prediction is not observed experimentally, probably because of the viscous effects that are neglected in the inviscid theory. With respect to force and moment, the flat plate can be considered as a limiting case of a symmetric airfoil, as the ratio of thickness to chord approaches zero. Flow about a Circular Arc Airfoil is shown in Figure 11-3.

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

Figure 11-3: Circular Arc Airfoil

The effect of introducing circular-arc camber into the flat-plate airfoil is to decrease the angle of zero lift, i.e., L = 0 for = -2k/c. It also introduced a nose-down pitching moment about the 1/4 chord. The flow around a Joukowsky Airfoil is depicted in Figure 11-4.

Figure 11-4: The General Joukowsky Airfoil

Although the Joukowsky airfoil is a very special profile shape, the theoretical results are still useful in exhibiting the composite effect of thickness and camber. 11.1.4 Vortex-Sheet Thin-Airfoil Theory An arbitrary thin airfoil can be treated by representing the airfoil by a vortex sheet (a sheet of flow eddies, an important concept in aerodynamic analysis), distributing the vortex intensity in such a way that the fluid flow is tangent to the mean camber line. The results of this approach are similar to the results for the general Joukowsky airfoil and roughly the same general conclusions can be drawn with regard to camber and

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

thickness.

Figure 11-5: Flat Plate Pressure Distribution. Also, comparison between measured and various theoretical pressure distributions for a NACA 4412 wing section. (Data from Abbott and Von Doenhoff)

11.1.5 Pressure Distribution The pressure distribution across a flat plate is quite helpful in understanding the pressure distribution over a practical airfoil. Knowing the pressure distribution is useful since it can be used to find the pressure force acting on the body studied. For a wing, the lift can be found in this manner. 11.1.6 Airfoil Characteristics In this experiment the lift and drag forces on a number of airfoils will be determined. Also, the pressure distribution for one airfoil will be found. Figure 11-6 shows the apparatus. A NACA 2415 airfoil has a series of pressure taps on it to measure the static pressure distribution. The pressure distribution from the tapped airfoil will be obtained in a manner similar to that used in the Supersonic Nozzle Tunnel experiment: by using the PSI digital manometer and the PC computer. This apparatus is new in Spring 1998, so be sure you get the current procedure. The stall characteristics of this airfoil will also be examined. The actual lift and drag values from the other airfoils will also be gathered by the computer. The program used offers a menu, from which you can enter the parameters about the airfoils as well as displaying and printing the data. It will also allow you to tare and calibrate the lift and drag. These measurements are used to determine the lift and drag forces from the voltages measured on the balance strain gauges. The computer will then be ready to take data. When prompted by the computer, you will enter the angle of attack of the airfoil. The computer will then take the data and print the results for the lift and drag. You will

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

continue to change the angle of attack and obtain lift and drag values from the computer until the airfoil stalls. After stalling the airfoil, another airfoil will be placed in the tunnel and another set of lift and drag data will be taken.

TSI Pressure Box

Figure 11-6: Schematic of Apparatus

11.1.7 NACA Nomenclature For Airfoils Most of the NACA airfoils are classified among three types: the four-digit, the five-digit, and the series 6 sections. The meanings of these designations are illustrated by the examples below. NACA 4415 4 - The maximum camber of the mean line is 0.04c. (first digit) 4 - The position of the maximum camber is at 0.4c. (second digit) 15 - The maximum thickness is 0.15c. (third and fourth digits) NACA 23012 2 - The maximum camber of the mean line is approximately 0.02c. The design lift coefficient is 0.15 times the first digit for this series. 30 - The position of the maximum camber is at 0.30/2 = 0.15c. 12 - The maximum thickness is 0.12c.

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

NACA 653-421 6 - Series designation. 5 - The minimum pressure is at 0.5c. 3 - The drag coefficient is near its minimum value over a range of lift coefficients of 0.3 above and below the design lift coefficient. 4 - The design lift coefficient is 0.4. 21 - The maximum thickness is 0.21c. For further information, see Theory of Wing Sections, by Ira H. Abbott & Albert E. Von Doenhoff, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1959. 11.1.8 Description of Airfoils Figure 11-7 shows the geometry of the single-element airfoil, which was CNC machined from aluminum in Fall 1997.

Figure 11-7: Drawing of Single-Element Airfoil

Figure 11-8 shows an assembly drawing of the 3-element airfoil, which was CNC machined in Fall 1997. The airfoils are made of aluminum and the endplates are stainless steel. The flap and slat gap of the 3-element assembly remains to be optimized. Drawings of the 2-element airfoil will be handed out in lecture.

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

Figure 11-8: Assembly Drawing of 3-Element Airfoil

11.2 PRE-LAB

Figure 11-9: Schematic of Airfoil with Endplates

1. A typical airfoil used in the Airfoil Characteristics Experiment is shown in Figure 119. It has a finite length, and detachable plexiglas endplates. With the endplates attached, it is assumed that the airfoil behaves like a two-dimensional wing. Justify this assumption. NOTE: You need to say more than just the endplates make the airfoil act like an infinite wing.

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

2.

Look up the formula for the theoretical lift coefficient Cl for a General Joukowski airfoil. At what angle of attack (degrees) will this airfoil produce zero lift? For S.T.P. conditions, a freestream dynamic pressure of 0.044 psid, and a chord equal to 2.0 ft, determine the theoretical lift/unit span for a NACA 0012 airfoil at = 9? At what angle of attack (degrees) would this airfoil produce zero lift?

3.

11.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


11.3.1 Introduction A number of airfoils will be tested in the High Contraction Subsonic Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical airfoil profile. The airfoils are fitted with large end plates to minimize the wing-tip effects and to simulate an airfoil in two dimensional flow. The experiment will consist of two parts. The first part will be the testing of a plain NACA 2415 airfoil which contains a number of pressure taps, for measuring the local static pressure along the airfoil. This pressure distribution will be displayed on a manometer board, and recorded by a computer. In the second part, airfoils will be attached to a balance system enabling lift and drag to be determined as a function of angle of attack (). The first airfoil tested will be a plain NACA 2415 airfoil. The other airfoils tested will be the basic 2415 section, with various flaps added. 11.3.2 Equipment/Usage 1. High Contraction Wind Tunnel Test various flow phenomena. 2. Tunnel On-Off Switch Starts and stops tunnel.
3.

Wind Tunnel Cranks (on Top of Tunnel, at Large White Plenum Box) Control air flow speed in tunnel by blocking or opening exhaust vents.

4. Pitot-Static Tube and Inclined Manometer Measures Dynamic Pressure.


5. 6.

NACA 2415 Airfoil Section with Pressure Taps For finding pressure distribution on airfoil. Manometer Board

Displays pressure distribution along airfoil, for immediate qualitative feedback. (This is used only as a back-up device in case of failure of the transducer system) 7. Elevation Crank Sets angle of attack. 8. Balance Uses strain gauges to measure the lift and drag.

A & AE 334L Background Information and Laboratory Procedures, Fall 2004

9. Balance Electronics Drives strain gauges, provides voltages or other outputs proportional to lift and drag.
10. 11. 12.

Lift Bar Used to calibrate the lift measured with the balance. Drag Pan Used to calibrate the drag measured with the balance. PC Computer Provides instructions for lab procedures, controls the PSI Digital Manometer, reads output of pressure transducers and balance, and displays graphics.

Computer Printer Prints results of experiment.


13.

14. PSI Digital Manometer A multi-channel pressure transducer system that rapidly samples 16 channels of pressure taps. 15. Airfoils/Airfoil Support Mechanism For making lift and drag measurements. 16. Collar Push Pins Used to secure airfoil in tunnel. 11.3.3 Data to be Taken 1. In Section 11.3.5 a 2415 section with pressure taps will be used. The following is needed:
A)

Observe how the static pressure distribution across the airfoil section varies with angle of attack (). The pressure taps are connected to a digital manometer system that will display and also record the pressures. A static pressure distribution will be obtained for a specified . ( = 10 degrees). Find the stalling angle, , at which the 2415 section stalls. Observe how the 2415 section stalls and unstalls, as varies around the stalling angle. Observe how the point of separation varies on the 2415 section, as varies.

B) C) D) E)

2.

In Section 11.3.6, the following is needed, for 3 wing sections: Using the computer program, find LIFT, CL , DRAG, and CD, over a range of 's (angle of attack). should start at -10 and be increased by 2 increments until the wing section stalls. The 3 wing sections are: (1) a 2415 Section, (2) a 2415 Section with a slot, (3) a 2415 Section with a slot and flap.

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11.3.4 Setting Air Speed in the High Contraction Wind Tunnel NOTE: Make sure NO airfoils are in the upstream test section! 1. 2. DO NOT turn on the wind tunnel until instructed. This part just explains how to start and stop the tunnel and set the tunnel speed. The High Contraction Subsonic Wind Tunnel can be started by pushing the black START button and stopped by pushing the red STOP button. These buttons are located on the South side of the large white wooden fan box. DO NOT start the tunnel. The speed of the wind tunnel can be adjusted with the CRANKS located on top of the FAN BOX at the (EAST) end of the wind tunnel. A PITOT-STATIC TUBE measures the freestream DYNAMIC PRESSURE in the tunnel. The PITOT-STATIC TUBE is connected to a manometer located on the (EAST) end of the wind tunnel. This manometer gives the freestream value of the dynamic pressure. Remove the cover from this manometer. After adjusting the dynamic pressure (speed) of the wind tunnel using the cranks, you should wait about 1 minute before reading the actual dynamic pressure from the manometer.

3. 4. 5. 6.

11.3.5 Pressure Distribution on a 2415 Wing Section 1. 2. 3. Measure the ambient pressure and temperature using the precision barometer. Examine the NACA 2415 airfoil section with the pressure taps. The small crank is used for adjusting the geometric angle of attack. When the pointer reads 90 on the protractor, then = 0. Estimate the accuracy with which this is true. The plastic tubes coming from the airfoil section measure the static pressure on the airfoil at designated locations. These static pressure taps are connected to a digital manometer. The numbering system used on the manometer is shown below. There are many tubes, and many tiny pressure taps in the airfoil. Do not be surprised if some of the taps become plugged. How can you tell if some of the pressure taps are plugged with dust? Tufts (short white strings) are located on the upper surface of the airfoil. These Tufts aid in determining the separation point on the airfoil. If a Tuft is laid back smoothly along the airfoil, the flow is laminar and the Tuft is upstream of the separation point. If a Tuft is twirling around, it is in turbulent flow and is downstream of the separation point. The digital manometer is similar to the one used in the supersonic nozzle lab. In directory \qb45\334L type pressure to run the program that operates the digital manometer (check with your lab TA on the day of your experiment for the latest in software). Approximately twice per second, the screen will be updated with the current pressure distribution. The program will average over a user-specified number of screens to determine a average pressure

4.

5.

6.

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distribution, and then clear the screen. The scatter in individual measurements, displayed on the screen before the screen is cleared, gives an idea of the fluctuations in pressure on the airfoil. Averaging about 20 screens, as suggested in the program, gives a fairly stable average. When the user types s during operation, the program will complete an averaged set of data, and then prompt for an angle of attack value. The data will then be appended to pressure.dat, along with the time of acquisition, and the screen will be printed. Just as in the supersonic nozzle lab, you will need to note the airfoil state and experimental conditions at the time the data was saved, so they are correctly associated. 7. LEVEL the slant-tube manometer used to read the freestream dynamic pressure. Adjust the initial reading to a desired value. Record the initial reading. START the wind tunnel and set the FREESTREAM DYNAMIC PRESSURE to approximately 1.0 in. H20. See Section 11.3.4. Record the dynamic pressure. Set the airfoil to = 0.0.

8.

9.

10. Increase angle of attack in increments of no more than 4.0, until = 10.0 is reached. At each value of record the following:
A)

value of . stall status of airfoil. tuft status.

B) C)

Note: The airfoil should be considered stalled when the static pressure distribution on the airfoil changes significantly, for a small change in . 11. At = 10, save the pressure distribution using the computer. 12. Increase (by no more than 2.0 increments) a few degrees beyond stall, recording necessary data as above. Save the pressure distribution again. 13. Decrease until the airfoil is no longer stalled, recording necessary data. 14. Again increase a few degrees beyond the stalling point, then decrease until the airfoil no longer stalls, recording necessary data. NOTE: The value of for which the airfoil stalls and unstalls is not the same. The difference is called a hysteresis effect. 15. Turn off the wind tunnel. 16. Record a final reference value for the slant-tube manometer which measures dynamic pressure.

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11.3.6 Lift and Drag on Various Airfoil Sections 1. 2. The balance electronics and computer should already be turned on. Three different airfoils will be used: A) B) C) 3. 4. 5. NACA 2415 Plain Section. NACA 2415 (nominal) w/flap. NACA 2415 w/slot and flap.

Measure the chord and span for each airfoil for which data is to be taken (see Data To Be Taken). Record these values. Place the desired airfoil in the tunnel (See Placing Airfoil In Tunnel). The angle of attack () is set by means of the elevation dial. One complete turn of the elevation dial will change the angle of attack by 1.0 degrees, the scale attached to the rotating knob measuring in increments of 0.01 degree. The scale located just above the rotating dial measures changes in degrees. When the dial is set to 0.0, the airfoil will be at an angle of attack () of about 0.0. A change of one number means the angle of attack has changed one degree. The scale only goes from 1 to 14. If the dial is turned so it goes past zero, you must add 15 degrees to the scale reading to get the angle of attack. When finding negative 's, you must count backwards on the dial. (The dial reading will not give you the correct number for .) One complete revolution of the dial, however, still changes by 1.0 degrees. With the single element airfoil placed in the tunnel, use the precision inclinometer to check the accuracy of the dial setting for angle of attack. Measure the angle of the top and bottom of the tunnel. The flat on the endplate of the airfoil is parallel to the mean chord line. Measure the angle of the flat at several angle of attack settings. This data can be used to determine and correct for errors in the angle of attack setting. The airfoil is mounted on a BALANCE which will measure the lift and drag on the airfoil. The LIFT BAR and DRAG PAN are the places where the weights are to be placed when calibrating the balance. This calibration will be done later. The PC computer will be used to obtain lift and drag data.

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. Make sure the printer is ON. 11. Level the slant-tube manometer that measures dynamic pressure. Set the initial reading, and record this initial value. 12. The computer and computer terminal will be used to take data from the balance. The following should be noted when using the computer (but do

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check with your TA on the day of your lab as these procedures do change as operating systems and other software are upgraded):
A)

B)

C) D)

E)

The "set Parameters" (Option Number 6) should be used first for each airfoil. In this part of the program, just type the number of the parameter you wish to change. The first airfoil you run will be wing 1, the second wing 2, etc. Options 1 and 2, "Tare" and "Calibrate," should then be used to tare and calibrate the balance. Note that every time this program is executed, i.e. for each airfoil, these two steps have to be performed. After entering a response to a computer prompt, press the RETURN key. If an error is made while entering a response, one may just re-enter the response. If errors are made during collection of the angle-of-attack data, the program will have to be run again. Please obtain assistance if you have any questions about what you are doing.

13. Place the NACA 2415 plain airfoil into the tunnel. See Placing Airfoil in Tunnel. 14. Start the computer program by typing LIFTDRAG, while in the \qb45\334l directory. 15. Set the parameters for this airfoil. Use a tunnel dynamic pressure of 1.00 inches of H20. 16. Tare and calibrate the balance. When using the 2-element fiberglas airfoil, you need to add 3 pounds of weight to the balance to keep the total load in the same range as that for the aluminum airfoils. 17. Start the tunnel and set the tunnel dynamic pressure to 1.00 inches of H20. 18. The values for lift and drag are now to be taken. Read steps A-F completely before continuing. A) B) C) Enter 3 on the computer, in order to take data. Make sure the parameters printed on the screen are correct before continuing. The computer is now ready to take data. When a value for the angle of attack is entered, the computer will sample several data values from the balance for the lift and drag, and take an average value. This average value for the lift and drag will be displayed on the terminal, and printed on the printer. Take data starting at a value of = -10.0. Increase (by increments of no more than 2.0) until the airfoil is about 5.0 beyond stall. Take data after each increment of . Do not take more than 25 values of . If the lift voltage reaches a maximum

D) E)

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F)

and does not increase when you think it should, have the TA check to see if the load cell screw is still in contact with the balance. If you get dumped out of the program, you'll have to re-run the program.

19. Turn off the tunnel and record the final value from the manometer measuring dynamic pressure. Display all data. 20. Repeat steps 15-19 for all desired airfoils. 21. Enter commands to obtain data for all group members. Acquisition.) 22. Quit the program, to reset it for the next group. 11.3.7 Placing Airfoil in Tunnel 1. Be extremely careful when doing this. Open the top of the plexiglas tunnel section. Do not bump the tunnel. 2. Select the desired airfoil and insert the airfoil supports into the top of the balance supports. Make sure the airfoil supports are inserted until the position collars are flush against the top of the balance supports, and the holes in the position collars are aligned with the holes in the balance supports. 3. CAREFULLY insert both collar push pin snaps around the balance support. If you are having trouble with pins, PLEASE OBTAIN ASSISTANCE. Do not force the pins through the holes if they get stuck. 4. Close the top of the tunnel. Watch the chain, and make sure it doesnt get jammed. 5. If you just installed the fiberglas airfoil, put 3 pounds of weight in the right place on the balance. If you just replaced the fiberglas airfoil with an aluminum airfoil, remove the weights. 11.3.8 Data Acquisition 1. Display the data on the terminal to check that data has been received by terminal. 2. Use the menu to print out all graphs and numeric data. (See Data

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11.3.9 Setup Information The fluid in the manometer board (the two Meriam manometers) is Meriam Oil. The manometers are scaled in inches. The specific gravity of the Meriam Oil is 1.00. The airfoil chord = 5.0 inches, for the 2415 section with the pressure taps. TABLE 1: POSITION OF STATIC TAPS ON AIRFOIL Static No. Upper Surface. Distance from Leading Edge (inches) 0.142 0.235 0.373 0.500 0.827 1.106 1.276 1.597 1.825 2.135 2.335 2.521 2.830 3.081 3.316 3.540 3.783 4.050 4.221 4.450 Static No. Lower Surface. Distance from Leading Edge (inches) 0.050 0.176 0.325 0.458 0.713 0.977 1.258 1.465 1.691 1.972 2.236 2.452 2.700 2.947 3.211 3.500 3.771 4.029 4.240 4.510

U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16 U17 U18 U19 U20

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 L13 L14 L15 L16 L17 L18 L19 L20

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TABLE 2: IDENTIFICATION OF PRESSURE TAPS Digital Manometer Tap Number


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Digital Manometer Unit and Tap Number South = S, North = N


N1 S1 N2 S2 N3 S3 N4 S4 N5 S5 N6 S6 N7 S7 N8 S8 N9 S9 N10 S10 N11 S11 N12 S12 plug plug N13 S13 plug plug N14 S14 plug plug N15 S15 plug plug N16 S16

Pressure Tap Number


U1 L1 U2 L2 U3 L3 U4 L4 U5 L5 U6 L6 U7 L7 U8 L8 U9 L9 U10 L10 U11 L11 U12 L12 U13 L13 U14 L14 U16* L15 U15* L16 U17 L17 U18 L18 U19 L19 U20 L20

Example: L5 is static tap #5 on the lower surface of the section. It is connected to digital manometer channel 10. U14 is static tap #14 on the upper surface of the wing. It is connected to digital manometer channel 25. The upper surface taps are connected to

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the north manometer unit, and the lower surface taps to the south unit. Note that U15 and U16 are out of pattern, this is because U16 gives invalid readings. Figure 11-8 shows the numbering convention for the tufts on the airfoil. Tufts are short white strings used to examine boundary-layer separation.

Figure 11-8: Tuft locations on Airfoil

TABLE 3: SUGGESTED DATA SHEET FOR TUFTS 0.0 IS AIRFOIL STALLED (YES OR NO) NO WHICH TUFTS ARE DOWNSTREAM OF SEPARATION POINT NONE

11.3.10

Discussion of Computer Programs

The pressure program will be very similar to the supersonic nozzle program. More information will be provided prior to the lab. See Tables 1 and 2 for identification of the pressure taps.

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11.4 A NOTE ON INTEGRATION OF PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS


Issues 4, 5, and 6 require analysis of the airfoil pressure distributions. The chord position x is normalized by the chord c to give the nondimensional chord position
x . c

The chord position x is measured from the quarter chord location, positive towards the trailing edge, to ease computations of the moments, measured as usual about the quarter chord. Thus, the airfoil lies between
x x = -1/4 , the leading edge, and = 3/4 , the c c

trailing edge. The lift coefficient, required in problem 5, can be obtained from the integral of the pressure coefficient over the surface of the airfoil.
3 x Cl = 144 C Plower C Pupper d c

C Plower = C P on lower surface of airfoil


C Pupper = C P on upper surface of airfoil

Since C Plower and C P

upper

are not available at the same

x , the easiest way to c

perform this integration is to perform the integrals separately and subtract

Cl

3 3 x x = 144 C Plower d 144 C Pupper d c c

Both of these integrals can be obtained from your pressure data using, for example, the trapezoid rule for numerical integration. If we have n data points (xi, yi), the integral is
x 1n ydx 1 2( x i +1 x i )( y i +1 + y i ) x
i =l n l

Issue 6 is similar.

11.5
1.

ISSUES TO ADDRESS
From your plots of Cl vs. for each of the following airfoils: A)

2415 section, B) 2415 section with flap, C) 2415 section with slot and flap discuss qualitatively the effects of slots and flaps. 2. 3. Plot a theoretical curve of Cl vs. for the 2415 section (A above), modeling it as a General Joukowski airfoil. Plot this on the graph from Question 1. Plot the drag coefficients for each airfoil against angle of attack. Plot drag polars. Compare the lift and drag performance of the three airfoils.

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4.

Compare the angle of zero lift l o for your experimental result for the plain 2415 section and for the theoretical model used in #2. Why is there a large difference? Why is there no stall for the theoretical curve? Plot the experimental CP (from pressure distribution measurements) versus relative chord position (
x ) for the 2415 section. Show in detail how the c

5.

pressure coefficients are calculated. Write a computer program to do the data analysis, and include a listing. 6. Using the plot from Question #4, calculate Cl where:

Cl =
7.

3 4 1 4

[C

Plower

x C Pupper d c

Show what approximations you make during the integration. Using the plot from Question #4, calculate the moment coefficient about the quarter chord point, C m 14 :

C m 1 = 144 C Plower C Pupper


3 4

] xd x c c

Show what approximations you make during the integration. Is this a "nose down" or "nose up" pitching moment? 8. 9. Compare the Cl's obtained from theory, computer and Question #5. Add the Cl from Question #5 to the plot of Cl vs. . If the deflection angle of the flap on the flapped airfoil were increased, what would you expect to happen to C m 14 ? Why? What would you expect to happen to the CL vs. curve? Why? 10. For all three airfoils, calculate the tunnel freestream speed necessary to generate 5 lbf/ft of lift for = 8. Why is the above result important for aircraft?