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ABSTRACT

Remote sensing is the art of acquiring data about the earths surface and then using it to derive information on resources, climate and other features which can utilized for the purpose of planning, land use allocation, urban planning, environmental monitoring and many more. This advantage of remote sensing technology has found wide application in epidemic prediction and modelling response. This is done by sensing the feature relevant to the growth and proliferation of the pathogens and vectors responsible for the disease and then comparing the data to past record and thus obtaining a model of the disease dynamics and thus predicting its spreading.

The population density which is found by sensing urban features and infrastructure can help in detailing the effect of a disease on the population. It can also help in finding the population that may be affected by a particular disease. This can help in the proper planning of health fac ilities in an area.

The major diseases that are being monitored and predicted using remote sensing technology are Malaria and cholera. Other diseases include dengue fever, yellow fever, plague filariasis and many more. The main sensors used for these purposes include Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), Hemispherical resonance grounding (HRG), Ikonos, Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS), Orbview-3, Synthetic aperture radiometer (SAR), Thematic monitor (TM) and Visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR).

Thus remote sensing has been found to be important tool for the purpose of improving health care. It so helps in achieving proper response towards the spread of deadly epidemics thus improving and saving valuable human lives.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES AND ABBREVATIONS

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INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

TYPES OF DISEASES 3.1 Vector borne diseases 3.2 Water borne diseases

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REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY 4.1 Fundamentals of Remote sensing technology 4.2 Resolution of an image 4.2.1 Spatial resolution 4.2.2 Temporal resolution 4.2.3 Spectral resolution 4.2.4 Radiometric resolution 4.3 Sensors

4 4 6 6 6 6 7 7

FACTORS IN DISEASE PREDICTION 5.1 Rainfall

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5.2 Temperature 5.3 Humidity 5.4 Surface Water 5.5 Vegetation 5.6 Urban Features 5.7 Soil Moisture

10 10 11 11 11 12

MODELLING RESPONSE 6.1 Mathematical model A basic approach

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CASE STUDIES 7.1 Cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh 7.2 Malarial response prediction in Afghanistan

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CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

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REFERENCES

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE

4.1

Various sensors and features they sense related to disease prediction.

5.1

Various environment factors and disease associated with them.

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE

4.1

The different steps involved in remote sensing.

2.1

The map used by Dr. John Snow to solve the Broad way pump Cholera outbreak of 1854.

6.1

Steps involved in prediction and response modelling of a disease using remote sensing.

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7.1

Datasets used to model the temporal patterns of cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh.

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7.2

Afghanistan map and environmental data for malaria response modelling.

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7.3

Predicted and actual malaria cases in 6 months (JulyDecember 2007) for 23 provinces.

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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVATIONS

m km C N. S. AVHRR CCD DN EMS FAO GVMI HRG IFOV IR

Micrometer Kilometre Degree Celsius North South Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Cold Cloud Duration Digital Numbers Electromagnetic Spectrum Food And Agriculture Organization Global Vegetation Moisture Index Hemispherical Resonance Grounding Instantaneous Field Of View Infra Red

LPDAAC Land Processing Distributed Active Archive Centre LST MODIS MSS NDVI NOAA SAR SPOT SSH SST SWIR TM Land Surface Temperature Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Multispectral Scanner Normalized Difference Vegetation Index The National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Synthetic Aperture Radiometer Systme Pour lObservation De La Terre Sea Surface Height Sea Surface Temperature Short Wave Infrared Thematic Mapper

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US USGS VISSR WHO

United States U.S. Geological Survey Visible And Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer World Health Organization