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CONVENTION

ON

INTERNATIONAL CIVI L AVIATION


DONE

AT CHICAGO
ON THE
7TH

DAY O P DECEMBER 1944

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION PREAMBLE WHEREAS t h e f u t u r e development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l a v i a t l o r i can g r e a t l y h e l p t o c r e a t e and p r e s e r v e f r i e n d s h i p and u n d e r s t a n d i n g among t h e n z t f o n a and p e o p l e s o f t h e world, y e t its a b u s e can become a t h r e a t t o t h e g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y ; and

WHEREAS i t i~ d e s i r a b l e t o a v o i d f r i c t i o n and t o promote t h a t


c o o p e r a t i o n between n a t i o n s and p e o p l e s upon which t h e p e a c e of t h e world depends; THEREFORE, t h e u n d e r s i g n e d governments having a g r e e d on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s and arrangements i n o r d e r t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l a v i a t i o n may be developed i n a s a f e and o r d e r l y manner and t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s may be e s t - a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s of e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y and o p e r a t e d soun&ly and. economically ; Have a c c o r d i n g l y concluded t h i s Convention t o t h a t end,
PART -&.

NAVIGATION
CHAPTER I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION OF THE CONVENTION Article 1 Sovereignty The c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s r e c o g n i z e t h a t every S t e t e

has comglete and e x c l u s i v e s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e a i r -

1
II
- .

s p a c e above i t s t e r r i t o r y .
2 Article -

Iirritoq
-

F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s Convention t h e t e r r i t o r y of a S t a t e s h a l l be deemed t o be t h e l a n d a r e a s and


A

I
I

t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s a d j a c e n t t h e r e t o under t h e s o v e r e i g n t y , s u z e r a i n t y , p r o t e c t i o n o r mandate of Article C i v i l and state aircraft (a)

I such S t a t e

This Convention shall be a p p l i c a b l e only t o

c i v i l a i r c r a f t , and s h a l l n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o s t a t e aircraft
(b)

.
A i r c r a f t u s e d i n m i l i t a r y , customs and p o l i c e

s e r v i c e s s h a l l be deemed t o be s t a t e a i r c r a f t . (c)
N s t a t e a i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e o

s h a l l f l y o v e r t h e t e r r i t o r y of a n o t h e r S t a t e o r l a n d t h e r e o n w i t h o u t a u t h o r i z a t i o n by s p e c i a l agreement o r o t h e r w i s e , and i n accordance w i t h t h e t e r n s t h e r e o f .


(d)

The c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s u n d e r t a k e , when l s s u -

ing regulations f o r t h e i r s t a t e a i r c r a f t , t h a t they


w i l l have due r e g a r d f o r the safety of navigation of

civil aircraft

Article 4 Misuse of civil s.viation Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a g r e e s n o t to u s e c i v i l a v i a t i o n f o r any purpose i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e aims of t h i s Convention. CHAPTER I1
FLIGHT OVER TERRITORY

CONTRACTING STATES

Article --2 Right o f nonscheduled flight Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a g r e e s that a l l a i r c r a f t of t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s , b e i n g a i r c r a f t n o t engaged i n s c h e d u l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e s s h a l l have t h e r i g h t , s u b j e c t t o t h e observance of t h e t e r m s o f t h i s Convention, t o make f l i g h t s i n t o o r i n t r a n s i t non-stop a c r o s s i t s t e r r i t o r y and t o make s t o p s f o r

n o n - t r a f f i c p u r p o s e s w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y of o b t a i n i n g p r i o r p e r m i s s i o n , and s u b j e c t t o t h e r i g h t of t h e S t a t e flown o v e r t o r e q u i r e l a n d i n g . Each c 3 n t r a c t i n g

S t a t e nevertheless r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t , f o r reasons of s a f e t y of f l i g h t , t o r e q u i r e a i r c r a f t d e s i r i n g t o p r o ceed o v e r r e g i o n s which a r e i n a c c e s s i b l e o r w i t h o u t adequate a i r n a v t g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o f o l l o w p r e s c r i b e c r o u t e s , o r t o o b t a i n s p e c i a l p e r m l e s i o n f o r such flights. Such a i r c r a f t , i f engaged i n t h e c a r r i a g e of p a s s e n g e r s , c a r g o , o r m a i l f o r remuneration o r h i r e on o t h e r than scheduled i n t e r n a t i o n a l air s e r v i c e s , s h a l l a l s o , s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of A r t i c l e 7 , have t h e p r i v i l e g e of t a k i n g on o r d i s c h a r g i n g p a s s e n g e r s , c a r g o , o r mail, s u b J e c t t o t h e r i g h t o f any S t a t e where s u c h embarkation o r d i s c h a r g e t & e s p l a c e t o impose such r e g u l a t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s o r l i m i t a t i o n s as

i t may c o n s i d e r d e s i r a b l e .
Article Scheduled air services N s c h e d u l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e m a y be o o p e r a t e d o v e r o r i n t o t h e t e r r i t o r y of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , except w i t h t h e s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n o r o t h e r a u t h o r i z a t i o n of that S t a t e , and i n accordance w i t h t h e terms of s u c h p e r m i s s i o n o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n . Article Cabotage

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e shall have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e p e r m i s s i o n t o t h e a i r c r a f t of o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s t o t a k e on i n i t s t e r r i t o r y p a s s e n g e r s ,


m a i l and cargo c a r r i e d f o r remuneration o r h i r e and

deetined f o r another point within i t s t e r r i t o r y .

Eaoh

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes n o t t o e n t e r i n t o any arrangement s which s p e c i f i c a l l y g r a n t any such p r i v i l e g e on an e x c l u s i v e b a s i s t o m y o t h e r S t a t e o r an a i r l i n e of any o t h e r S t a t e , and not t o o b t a i n any euch exclus i v e p r i v i l e g e from any o t h e r S t a t e . Article 8 Pilotless aircraft

N a i r c r a f t capable of being flown without a p i l o t o


s h a l l be flown without a pilot o v e r the t e r r i t o r y of

a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e without s p e c i a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n by
t h a t S t a t e and i n accordance w i t h t h e terms of euch

authorization.

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertake8 t o

i n s u r e that t h e f l i g h t of such a i r c r a f t without a p i l o t i n r e g i o n s open t o c i v i l a i r c r a f t s h a l l be so c o n t r o l l e d as t o o b v i a t e danger t o c i v i l a i r c r a f t , Article 9 Prohibited areas (a)

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may, f o r r e a s o n s of

m i l i t a r y n e c e s s i t y o r p u b l i c s a f e t y , r e s t r i c t o r proh i b i t uniformly t h e a i r c r a f t of o t h e r S t a t e s from f l y i n g over c e r t a i n a r e a s o f i t s t e r r i t o r y , provided th%'b no d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s made between t h e a i r c r a f t of t h e S t a t e whose t e r r i t o r y i s involved, engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l scheduled a i r l i n e s e r v i c e s , and t h e a i r c r a f t of t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s l i k e wise engaged. Such p r o h i b i t e d a r e a s e h a l l be of

reasonable e x t e n t and l o c a t i o n so a s not t o i n t e r f e r e

~I

unnecessarily w i t h air navigation.

D e s c r i p t i o n s of

such p r o h i b i t e d a r e a s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , as w e l l ae any subsequent a l t e r a t i o n s

r-

t h e r e i n , s h a l l be communicated as soon as p o s s i b l e t o t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s and t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization. (b) Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e r e s e r v e s a l s o t h e

r i g h t , i n exceptional circumstances o r during a period of emergency, o r i n t h e i n t e r e s t of p u b l i c s d e t y , and


w i t h immediate e f f e c t , t e m p o r a r i l y t o r e s t r i c t o r pro-

h i b i t f l y i n g o v e r t h e whole o r any p a r t of

i t 6

terri-

t o r y , on c o n d i t i o n t h a t s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n o r p r o h i b i t i o n e h a l l be a p p l i c a b l e w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y t o a i r c r a f t of a l l o t h e r S t a t e s . (c) tions
a8

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , u n d e r such r e g u l a i t may p r e e c r i b e , may r e q u i r e any a i r c r a f t

e n t e r i n g t h e a r e a s contemplated i n subparagraphs ( a ) o r ( b ) above t o e f f e c t a l a n d i n g as soon a s p r a c t i c a b l e t h e r e a f t e r at some d e s i g n a t e d a i r p o r t w i t h i n i t s territory. A r t i c l e 10 Landing at cuetoms airport Except i n a c a s e where, under t h e terms of t h i s Convention o r a s p e c i a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n , a i r c r a f t a r e p e r m i t t e d t o c r o s s t h e t e r r i t o r y of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e w i t h o u t l a n d i n g , every a i r c r a f t which e n t e r s t h e t e r r i t o r y of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l , if t h e r e g u l a t i o n s of t h a t S t a t e so r e q u i r e , l a n d at a n a i r p o r t d e s i g n a t e d
by t h a t S t a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e of customs and o t h e r

examination.

On d e p a r t u r e from t h e t e r r i t o r y of a

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , such a i r c r a f t e h a l l d e p a r t from a s i m i l a r l y d e s i g n a t e d customs a i r p o r t . Particulars

of a l l d e s i g n a t e d customs a i r p o r t s s h a l l be p u b l i s h e d
f

by t h e S t a t e and t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d under P a r t I1 of t h i s Convention f o r communication t o a l l o t h e r contracting States. Article Applicability of a i r regu-

1 1

S u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n e of t h i s Convention, t h e
laws and r e g u l a t i o n s o f a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e r e l a t i n g

t o t h e admission t o o r d e p a r t u r e from i t s t e r r i t o r y of a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n , o r t o t h e o p e r a t i o n and n a v i g a t i o n of s u c h a i r c r a f t w h i l e w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y , shall be a p p l i e d t o t h e a i r c r a f t of a l l c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n as t o n a t i o n a l i t y , and shall be complied w i t h by such airc r a f t u2on e n t e r i n g o r d e p a r t i n g from o r w h i l e w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h a t S t a t e . Article Rules of t h e

12

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e u n d e r t a k e s t o adopt measu r e s t o i n s u r e t h a t every a i r c r a f t f l y i n g o v e r o r maneuvering w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y and that every airc r a f t c a r r y i n g i t s n a t i o n a l i t y mark, wherever s u c h a i r c r a f t may be, shall comply w i t h t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f l i g h t and maneuver of a i r c r a f t there i n force. Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e u n d e r t a k e s t o keep i t s own r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s uniform, t o t h e greatest poesible extent, with thoee established from t i m e t o t i m e under t h i s Convention. Over t h e

h i g h s e a s , t h e r u l e s i n f o r c e shall be t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s Convention. Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e

u n d e r t a k e s t o i n s u r e t h e p r o a e c u t i o n of all p e r s o n s violating the regulations applicable. Article E n t r y and clearance regulations

1 3

The laws and r e g u l a t i o n s of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a s t o theadmissiontoordeparturefromiteterrit o r y of p a s s e n g e r s , crew o r cargo of a i r c r a f t , s u c h


as r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o e n t r y , c l e a r a n c e , immigra-

t i o n , p a s s p o r t s , customs, and q u a r a n t i n e s h a l l be complied w i t h by o r on b e h a l f of such p a s s e n g e r s , crew o r cargo upon entra.nce i n t o o r d e p a r t u r e from, o r w h i l e w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h a t S t a t e . A r - 14 -t i c l e P r e v e n t i o n of s p r e a d of disease Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a g r e e s t o t a k e e f f e c t i v e measures t o p r e v e n t t h e s p r e a d by meons of a i r navigat i o n of c h o l e r a , typhus ( e p i d e m i c ) , smallpox, y e l l o w f e v e r , p l a g u e , and such o t h e r communicable d i s e a s e s as t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s shall from t i m e t o time d e c i d e t o d e s i g n a t e , and t o t h a t end c o n t r a c t i n g
S t a t e s w i l l keep i n c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e agen-

c i e s concerned w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o s a n i t a r y measures a p p l i c a b l e t o a i r c r a f t . Such c o n s u l t a t i o n shall be w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of any e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l oonvent i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t t o which t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s may be p a r t i e s . Article A i r p o r t and similar charges

1 5

Every a i r p o r t i n a c o n t r a c t i n g S t & : t e which i s open t o p u b l i c u s e by i t s n a t i o n a l a i r c r a f t s h a l l l i k e w i s e , s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of A r t i c l e 68,

be open under uniform c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e a i r c r a f t of


a l l the other contracting States.

The l i k e uniform

c o n d i t i o n s s h a l l apply t o t h e use, by a i r c r a f t of every c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , of a l l a i r n a v i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g r a d i o and meteorological s e r v i c e s ,

which may be provided f o r p u b l i c use f o r t h e s a f e t y


end e x p e d i t i o n of a i r n a v i g a t i o n .

Any charges t h a t may be imposed o r p e r m i t t e d t o be imposed by a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e f o r t h e use of such a i r p o r t s and a i r n a v i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by t h e a i r c r a f t of any o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l n o t be h i g h e r ,


( a ) A s t o a i r c r a f t not engaged i n sched-

uled international air services, than those t h a t would be p a i d by i t s n a t i o n a l a i r c r a f t of t h e same c l a . s s engaged i n similar o p e r a t i o n s , and (b)
A s t o a i r c r a f t engaged i n scheduled

i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r e e r v i c e e , t h a n t h o s e t h a t would be p a i d by i t s n a t i o n a l a i r c r a f t engaged i n aimilar international a i r services.


A l l such charges shall be p u b l i s h e d and communicated

t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization: provided t h a t , upon r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by an i n t e r e s t e d c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , t h e charges imposed f o r t h e u s e of a i r p o r t s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o review by t h e Council, which shall r e p o r t and make recommendations thereon f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e S t a t e o r S t a t e s concerned. N f e e s , dues o r o t h e r o

charges shall be imposed by any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e i n r e s p e c t s o l e l y of t h e r i g h t of t r a n s i t o v e r o r e n t r y

i n t o o r e x i t from i t s t e r r i t o r y of any a i r c r a f t of a contracting S t a t e o r persons o r property thereon. A r t i c l e 16

a i r c r a f t of t h e o t h e r con-

The a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s of each of t h e cont r a c t i n g S t a t e s s h a l l have t h e r i g h t , without unreasonable delay, t o -arch

t r a c t i n g S t a t e s on l a n d i n g o r d e p a r t u r e , and t o i n s p e c t t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s and o t h e r documents p r e s c r i b e d by t h i o convention.


CHAPTER I11
NATIONALITY OF AIRCRAFT

Article A i r c r a f t have t h e n a t i o n a l i t y of t h e S t a t e I n which they a r e r e g i s t e r e d . Article

1 8

An a i r c r a f t cannot be v a l i d l y r e g i s t e r e d i n more

t h a n one S t a t e , but i t s r e g i s t r a t i o n may be changed f r o = one S t a t e t o another. Article

19

The r e g i s t r a t i o n o r t r a n s f e r of r e g i s t r a t i o n of a i r c r a f t i n any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l be made i n accordance w i t h i t s l a w s and r e g u l a t i o n s . Artiole

20

Every a i r e r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n e h a l l b e a r i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n a t i o n a l i t y and r e g i s t r a t i o n marks.

Article Report of registrations

21

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes t o supply t o any o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e o r t o t h e I n t e r n ~ . t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization, on demand, information concerning t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n and ov.mership of any particular aircraft registered in that State. I n ad-

I
H

d i t i o n , each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l f u r n i s h r e p o r t s t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Orga.nlza.tlon, und-er) such r e g u l a t i o n s a s t h e l a t t e r may p r e s c r i b e , g i v i n g such p e r t i n e n t d a t a as can be made a v a i l a b l e concerni n g t h e ownership and c o n t r o l of a i r c r a f t r e g i e t e r e d i n t h a t S t a t e and h a b i t u a l l y engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r navigation. The d a t a t h u s o b t a i n e d by t h e I n t e r -

n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization s h a l l be made a v a i l a b l e by i t on r e q u e s t t o t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g States. CHAPTER I V MEASURES TO FACILITATE AIR NAVIGATION Article Facilitation of f o m a l i ties

I/
22

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a g r e e s t o adopt a l l pract i c a b l e measures, through t h e i s s u a n c e of e p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n 8 o r otherwise, t o f a c i l i t a t e and e x p e d i t e n a v i g a t i o n by a i r c r a f t between t h e t e r r i t o r i e s of c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t ee, and t o p r e v e n t unnecessary d e l a y s t o a i r c r a f t , crews, passengere and cargo, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e administre.tion of t h e laws r e l a t i n g t o irnmlgrat i o n , q u a r a n t i n e , cuetoms and c l e a r a n c e . Article 23

Cu~tomsand immigration procedure8

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakee,

80

far a s i t

may f i n d p r a c t i c a b l e , t o e s t a b l i e h custome and

immigration p r o c e d u r e s ~ f e f t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r c n a v i g a t i o n i n accordance w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e s which may be e s t a b l i s h e d o r recommended from t i m e t o t i m e , purs u a n t t o t h i s Convention. Nothing i n t h i s Convention

shell be c o n s t r u e d as p r e v e n t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of

customs-f r e e a i r p o r t s. Article customs duty (a)

24

A i r c r a f t on a f l i g h t t o , from, o r a c r o s s

t h e t e r r i t o r y of a n o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e e h a l l be a d m i t t e d t e m p o r a r i l y f r e e of d u t y , s u b j e c t t o t h e customs r e g u l a t i o n s of t h e S t a t e . Fuel, l u b r i c a t i n g

o i l s , s p a r e parts, regu1a.r equipment and a i r c r a f t s t o r e 8 on b o a r d an P - i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , on a r r i v a l i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of a n o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e and r e t a i n e d on b o a r d on l e a v i n g t h e t e r r i t o r y of that S t a t e s h a l l be e x e ~ p tfrom customs d u t y , i n s p e c t i o n f e e s o r similar n a t i o n a l o r l o c a l d u t i e s and cha-rges.
This exemption s h a l l n o t apply t o any

q u a n t i t i e s o r a r t i c l e s unloaded, e x c e p t i n a c c o r d a n c e
with t h e customs r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e , which may

r e q u i r e that t h e y shall be k e p t under customs s u p e r vision.


(b)

S p a r e parts a n d equipment imported i n t o t h e

t e r r i t o r y of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n o r u s e on m a i r c r a f t of a n o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n s h d l b e a d m i t t e d f r e e of custome d u t y , s u b j e c t t o compliance


w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s of t h e S t a t e concerned, which

may p r o v i d e t h a t t h e a r t i c l e s shall be k e p t u n d e r customs s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l .

A r t i c l e 25 Aircraft i n

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertake8 t o p r o v i d e such measures of a s s i s t a n c e t o a i r c r a f t i n d i s t r e s s I n i t s t e r r i t o r y a8 i t may f i n d p r a c t i c a b l e , and t o p e r m i t , s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o l by i t s own a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e owners of t h e a i r c r a f t o r a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e S t a t e i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s r e g i s t e r e d t o provide such measures of a s s i s t m c e a s may be n e c e e s i t a t e d by t h e circumstances. Each a m t r a c t i n g S t a t e , when undertaking

search f o r missing a i r c r a f t , w i l l collaborate i n c o o r d l n a t ed measure8 which may be recommended from time t o time pureuant t o t h i s Convention. Article
o f accident8

26

Inveet i g a t i o n

I n t h e event of an a c c i d e n t t o an a i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e o c c u r r i n g i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of ano t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , and involving d e a t h o r s e r i o u s i n j u r y , o r i n d i c ~ t i n ge e r i o u e t e c h n i c a l d e f e c t i n t h e a i r c r a f t o r air navigation f a c i l i t i e s , t h e S t a t e i n which t h e ~ c c i d e n toccur8 w i l l i n s t i t u t e an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e circumstances of t h e a c c i d e n t , I n accordance, so f a r as
it8

laws permit, w i t h t h e procedure which

m a y be recommended by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n

Organization.

The S t a t e i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s

r e g i s t e r e d shall be given t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p o i n t observer8 t o be p r e e e n t a t t h e i n q u i r y and t h e S t a t e h o l d i n g t h e i n q u i r y s h a l l communicate t h e r e p o r t and f i n d i n g s i n t h e m a t t e r t o that S t a t e .

Article 27

(a) While engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r navigat i o n , any a u t h o r i z e d e n t r y of a i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e i n t o t h e t e r r i t o r y of a n o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e o r a u t h o r i z e d t r a n s i t a c r o s s t h e t e r r i t o r y of such S t a t e w i t h o r without l a n d i n g s s h a l l not e n t a i l any e e i z u r e o r d e t e n t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t o r any claim a g a i n s t t h e ormer o r o p e r a t o r t h e r e o f o r any o t h e r i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e r e w i t h by o r on behalf of such S t a t e o r any person t h e r e i n , on t h e ground t h a t t h e c o n e t r u c t i o n , mechanism, p a r t s , a c c e s s o r i e s o r operat i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i s an infringement of any p a t e n t , d e s i g n , o r model duly g r a n t e d o r r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e S t a t e whoee t e r r i t o r y i s e n t e r e d by t h e a i r c r a f t , i t being agreed t h a t no d e p o s i t of s e c u r i t y i n connection w i t h t h e f o r e g o i n g exemption from s e i z u r e o r detent i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t e h a l l i n any c a s e be r e q u i r e d i n t h e S t a t e e n t e r e d by such a i r c r a f t . (b) The p r o v i s i o n s of paragraph (a) of t h i s

A r t i c l e s h a l l a l s o be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e e t o r a g e of s p a r e p a r t s and epare equipment f o r t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e r i g h t t o u s e and i n s t a l l t h e same i n t h e r e p a i r of an a i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of any o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , provided t h a t any p a t e n t e d p a r t o r equipment so s t o r e d shall n o t be s o l d o r d i s t r i b u t e d i n t e r n a l l y i n o r exported commerc i a l l y from t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e e n t e r e d by t h e aircraft.

(c)

The b e n e f i t e of t h i e A r t i c l e s h a l l apply

only t o such S t a t e s , p a r t i e e t o t h i e Convention, a6 e i t h e r (1) a r e p ~ r t i e e o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention t f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n of I n d u s t r i ~ P r o p e r t y and t o any l amendments t h e r e o f ; o r ( 2 ) have enacted p a t e n t lawe which recognize and g i v e adequate p r o t e c t i o n t o i n v e n t i o n s made by t h e n a t i o n a l e of t h e o t h e r S t a t e s p a r t i e s t o t h i e Convention. Article
A i r navigation

28

facilitiee 2nd standard

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakee, so f a r as

i t may f i n d p r a c t i c a b l e , t o :
( a ) Provide, i n i t s t e r r i t o r y , a i r p o r t s ,
radio services, meteorological service8 a d other air navigation f a c i l i t i e s t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n , i n accordance
w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s and p r a c t i c e e recommended

o r e e t a b l l e h e d from time t o time, pureuant t o t h i s Convention;


(b)

Adopt and p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n t h e ap-

p r o p r i a t e standard systems of communications procedure, codee, markings, s i g n a l e , l i g h t i n g and o t h e r o p e r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e e and r u l e s which may be recommended o r e e t a b l i e h e d from time t o time, pureuant t o t h i s Convention; (c) C o l l a b o r a t e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l meae-

u r e e t o s e c u r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of a e r o n a u t i c a l mapa and c h a r t s i n a c c o r d m c e w i t h etandarde which m a y be recommended o r e s t a b l i s h e d from time t o t i m e , pursuant t o t h i e Convention.

CHAPTER V CONDITIONS TO BE FULFILLED WITH RESPECT TO AIRCRAFT

Article Documents carried i n aircraft

29

Every a i r c r a f t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n , s h a l l c a r r y t h e followi n g docunents i n conformity w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d i n t h i s convention:


(a)

I t s c e r t i f i c a t e of r e g i s t r a t i o n ;

(b) (c)

I t s c e r t i f i c a t e of a i r w o r t h i n e e s ;
The a p p r o p r i a t e l i c e n s e e Tor e ~ c h

member of t h e crew; (d) (e)


It8 journey l o g book;

If i t i s equipped w i t h r a d i o a p p a r a t u s

t h e a i r c r a f t radio s t a t i o n license;
f

If i t c a r r i e e paesengers, a l i s t of

t h e i r name8 and p l a c e s of embarkation and dest ination; (g)

If i t c a r r i e s cargo, a manifest and

d e t a i l e d d e c l a r a t i o n s of t h e cargo.
30 Article -

Aircraft radio equipment

(a)

A i r c r a f t of each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may, i n

o r o v e r t h e t e r r i t o r y of o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s , c a r r y r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g a p p a r a t u s only i f a l i c e n s e t o i n s t a l l and o p e r a t e such a p p ~ r a t u s a s been i s s u e d h by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e S t a t e i n which t h e a i r c r ~ f ti s r e g i s t e r e d . The u s e of r a d i o t r a n s -

m i t t i n g a p p a r a t u s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e whoee t e r r i t o r y i e flown over s h a l l be i n accordance with t h e r e g u l a t i o n s p r e e c r i b e d by t h a t State.

'(I

(b)

Radio t r a n e m i t t i n g apparatue may be ueed

only by membere of t h e f l i g h t crew who a r e provided

t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e S t a t e i n which the aircraft i e registered. Article Cert if i c a t e a of a i r w o r t h i -

Every a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l navigat i o n s h a l l be provided w i t h a c e r t i f i c a t e of airw o r t h i n e s s i s s u e d o r rendered v a l i d by t h e S t a t e i n which i t i s r e g i s t e r e d . Article

32

(a) The p i l o t of every a i r c r a f t and t h e o t h e r

membere of t h e o p e r a t i n g crew of every a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t l o n a l n a v i g a t i o n e h a l l be provided


w i t h c e r t i f i c a t e 8 of conpetency and l i c e n s e e ieeued

o r rendered v a l i d by t h e S t a t e i n which t h e a i r c r a f t
i s registered.

(b)

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e r e s e r v e 8 t h e r i g h t

t o r e f u s e t o recognize, f o r t h e purpose of f l i g h t above i t s own t e r r i t o r y , c e r t i f i c a t e s of competency


and l i c e n s e s g r a n t e d t o any of
it8

n a t i o n a l e by

another contracting State. Article

33

C e r t i f i c a t e s of a i r w o r t h i n e s s and c e r t i f i c a t e s of competency and l i c e n s e s i s s u e d o r r e n d e r e d valid by t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i e r e g i s t e r e d , s h a l l be recognized a8 v a l i d by t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e e , provided that t h e

r e q u i r e m e n t s u n d e r which s u c h c e r t i f i c a t e s o r l i c e n s e s were i s s u e d o r r e n d e r e d v a l i d a r e e q u a l t o o r above t h e minimum e t a n d a r d e which may be e s t a b l i s h e d from t i m e t o t i m e p u r s u a n t t o t h i s Convention. A r34 -t i c l e Journey l o g books There s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d i n r e s p e c t of every a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n a j o u r ney l o g book i n which s h a l l be e n t e r e d p a r t i c u l a r s of t h e a i r c r a f t , i t s crew a n d of e a c h Journey, i n s u c h form as may be p r e s c r i b e d from t i m e t o t i m e p u r s u a n t t o t h i s Convention. Article Cargo reetrictions

35

( a ) No m u n i t i o n e of w a r o r implements of w a r may be c a r r i e d i n o r above t h e t e r r i t o r y of a S t a t e i n a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n , e x c e p t by p e r m i s s i o n o f such S t a t e . Each S t a t e shall d e t e r -

mine by r e g u l a t i o n s what c o n s t i t u t e s m u n i t i o n s of w a r o r implements o f w a r f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s A r t i c l e , g i v i n g due c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of u n i f o r m i t y , t o s u c h recommendations as t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n may from t i m e t o t i m e make.

(b)

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t ,

f o r r e a s o n s of p u b l i c - o r d e r and e a f e t y , t o r e g u l a t e o r p r o h i b i t t h e c a r r i a g e i n o r above i t s t e r r i t o r y of a r t i c l e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e enumerated i n p a r ~ g r a p h ( a ): p r o v i d e d t h a t no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n t h i s

r e e p e c t between i t e n a t i o n a l a i r c r a f t engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n and t h e a i r c r a f t of t h e

.-

o t h e r S t z t e s so engaged; and provided f u r t h e r t h a t no r e s t r i c t i o n s h a l l be imposed which may i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c a r r i a g e and u s e on a i r c r a f t of a p p a r a t u s necessary f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o r n a v i g a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t o r t h e s a f e t y of t h e personnel o r passengers. Article

36

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may p r o h i b i t o r r e g u l a t e t h e use of photographic a p p a r a t u s i n a i r c r a f t o v e r i t e territory.

CHAPTER VI INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PEACTICES


Article international

37

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes t o c o l l a b o r a t e

formity i n r e g u l a t i o n e , s t a n d a r d s , procedures, and o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o a i r c r a f t , personnel, a i r ways and a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s i n a l l m a t t e r s i n which such uniformity w i l l f a c i l i t a t e and improve a i r navigation. To t h i s end t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization s h a l l adopt and amend from time t o time, as may be necessary, i n t e r n a t i o n a l . s t a n d a r d s and r e c ommended p r a c t i c e s and procedures d e a l i n g with: (a) Communications systems and e.ir naviga-

t ion a i d s , i n c l u d i n g ground marking;


(b)

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r p o r t s and l a n d -

ing a r e a s ; (c) Rules of t h e a i r and a i r t r a f f i c

control practicee;

.*

(d) pereonnel; (e)


(f )

Licensing of o p e r a t i n g and mechanical

Airworthiness of a l r c r a f t ; R e g i s t r a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of

aircraft ;
(g)

C o l l e c t i o n and exchange of meteoro-

l o g i c a l Information; (h) Log booke;

( i ) Aeronautical maps and c h a r t s ;

(j)

Customs and immigration procedures; A i r c r a f t i n d i s t r e e s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n

(k)

of a c c i d e n t s ; and euch o t h e r m a t t e r s concerned with t h e s a f e t y , r e g u l a r i t y , and e f f i c i e n c y of a i r n a v i g a t i o n as may from time t o time appear a p p r o p r i a t e . Article Departures from i n t e r n a t ion81 standards and procedures

38

Any S t a t e which f i n d s i t impractica.ble t o comply

i n a l l r e s p e c t 8 w i t h any such i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d or.procedure, o r t o bring


it6

own r e g u l a t i o n s o r

p r a c t i c e e i n t o f u l l accord w i t h any i n t e r n a t i o n a l e t a n d a r d o r procedure a f t e r amendment of t h e l a t t e r , o r which deems i t neceeeary t o adopt r e g u l a t i o n s o r p r a c t i c e e d i f f e r i n g i n any p a r t i c u l a r r e s p e c t from t h o s e e e t a b l i s h e d by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard, s h a l l g i v e immediate n o t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i ~ t i o nOrganization of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between i t s own p r a c t i c e and t h a t e e t a b l i s h e d by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard. I n t h e c a s e of amendments t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l

s t a n d a r d s , any S t a t e which does not make t h e


P

7
a p p r o p r i a t e amendments t o i t s own r e g u l a t i o n s o r p r a c t i c e s shall g i v e n o t i c e t o t h e Council w i t h i n s i x t y days of t h e adoption of t h e amendment t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard, o r i n d i c a t e t h e a c t i o n which i t proposes t o t a k e . I n any such c a s e , t h e Council

shall make immediate not ifi c a t i o n t o a l l o t h e r s t a t e s

of t h e d i f f e r e n c e which e x i s t s between one o r more f e a t u r e s of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d and t h e corresponding n a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of t h a t S t a t e . Artiole Endorsement of c e r t i f i -

39

( a ) Any a i r c r a f t o r p a r t thereof w i t h r e s p e c t
t o which t h e r e e x i s t s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard of a i r w o r t h i n e s s o r perforrnanoe, and which f a i l e d i n any r e s p e c t t o s a t i s f y t h a t s t a n d a r d a t t h e time of i t s c e r t i f i c a t i o n , s h a l l have endorsed on o r a t t a c h e d t o i t s a i r w o r t h i n e s s c e r t i f i c a t e a complete enumerat i o n of t h e d e t a i l s i n r e s p e o t of which i t so f a i l e d . (b) Any person h o l d i n g a l i c e n s e who does not

s a t i s f y i n f u l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s l a i d down i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d r e l a t i n g t o t h e c l a s s of l i c e n s e o r c e r t i f i c a t e which he h o l d s s h a l l have endorsed on o r a t t a c h e d t o h i s l i c e n s e a complete enumeration of t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i n which he does not s a t i s f y such conditions. A r t i c l e 40 N a i r c r a f t o r personnel having c e r t i f i c a t e s o r o certificates and l i c e n s e s l i c e n s e s so endorsed s h a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n , except w i t h t h e permission of t h e S t a t e o r S t a t e s whose t e r r i t o r y i s e n t e r e d . The

r e g i s t r a t i o n o r u s e of any s u c h a i r c r a f t , o r of any c e r t i f ' i c a t e d a i r c r a f t p a r t , i n any S t a t e o t h e r t h a n t h a t i n which i t was o r i g i n a l l y c e r t i f i c a t e d s h a l l be a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e S t a t e i n t o which t h e a i r c r a f t o r p a r t i s imported. Article Recognition of e x i s t i n g ~tand-ards of a i r w o r t h i ness

41

The p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Chapter shall n o t a p p l y t o a i r c r a f t and a i r c r a f t equipment of t y p e s of which t h e prototype i s submitted t o t h e appropriate n a t i o n a l authorities f o r certification prior to a date three y e a r s a f t e r t h e d a t e of a d o p t i o n of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d of a i r w o r t h i n e s s f o r such equipment. A r t i c l e 42

Recognition of e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s of competency of p e r s o n n e l

The p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Chapter s h a l l n o t a p p l y t o p e r s o n n e l whose l i c e n s e s a r e o r i g i n a l l y i s s u e d p r i o r t o a d a t e one y e a r a f t e r i n i t i a . 1 a d o p t i o n of a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d o f q u e l i f i c a t i o n f o r such p e r s o n n e l ; b u t t n e y s h a l l i n any c a s e ~ p p l yt o a l l p e r s o n n e l whose l i c e n s e s remain v a l i d f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e d a t e of a d o p t i o n of such s t a n d a r d .

PART --11. THE INTEPdATIONAL

CIVIL AVIATIOJ

ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER VII

THE ORGANIZATION Article Name and composition tion.

43

An org'a-nization t o be named t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l

C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n i s formed by t h e Conven-

It i s made up of an Assembly, a Council, and

such o t h e r b o d i e s as may b e n e c e s s a r y .

Article

44

The aims and o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Organization a r e t o develop t h e p r i n c i p l e s and. techniques of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n tins- t o f o s t e r t h e planning and development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r t r a n s p o r t so a s

(a)

I n s u r e t h e s a f e and o r d e r l y growth of

i n t e r n a t ion& c i v i l a v i a t i o n throughout t h e

(b)

Encourage t h e a r t s of a i r c r a f t design

and o p e r a t i o n f o r p e a c e f u l purposee;
( c)

Encourage t h e development of airways,

a i r p o r t s , and a i r n a v i g a t i o n f a c l l i t i e s f o r International c i v i l avistion;


(d)

Meet t h e needs of t h e p e o p l e s of t h e

world f o r s a f e , r e g u l a r , e f f i c i e n t and economical

air transport;
(e) Prevent economic waete ca.used by un-

reasonable c o n p e t i t ion; (f) I n s u r e t h a t t h e r i g h t s of c o n t r a c t i n g

S t a t e e a r e f u l l y r e s p e c t e d end t h a t every cont r a c t i n g S t a t e has a f a i r opportunity t o operate international airlines; (g) Avoid d i s c r i n i n a t i o n between c o n t r a c t -

ing States;
(h)

Promote s a f e t y of f l i g h t i n i n t e r n a -

a t i o n a l ~ i nr v i g a t i o n ;
( i ) Promote g e n e r a l l y t h e development of

a l l a s p e c t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l aeronaut i c s

Article Permanent seat

45

The permanent s e a t of t h e Organization s h a l l be

at such p l a c e a e shall be determined a t t h e f i n a l


n e e t i n g of t h e I n t e r i m Assembly of t h e P r o v i s i o n a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation Organization s e t up by t h e I n t e r i m Agreement on I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l Aviation s i g n e d a t Chicago on December 7, 1944. The s e a t may

be t emporarily t r a n s f e r r e d elsewhere by d e c i s i o n of t h e Council. Article


F i r s t meet-

46

t i n g of Assembly

The f i r s t meeting of t h e Assembly s h a l l be summoned by t h e I n t e r i m Council of t h e above-mentioned P r o v i s i o n a l Organization as soon as t h e Convention has come i n t o f o r c e , t o meet at a time and p l a c e t o be decided by t h e I n t e r i m Council. A r t i c l e 47

Legal capacity

The O r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l enjoy i n t h e t e r r i t o r y of each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e such l e g a l c a p a c i t y a s may be necessary f o r t h e performance of i t s f u n c t i o n s . F u l l J u r i d i c a l p e r a o n a l i t y s h a l l be g r a n t e d wherever compatible w i t h t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n m d laws of t h e S t a t e concerned.

CHAPTER VIII
THE ASSEMBLY

A r t i c l e 48 Meetings of Assembly 1 and v o t i n g

(a) The Assembly s h a l l meet a n n u a l l y and s h a l l

be convened by t h e Council a t a s u i t a b l e time and place. E x t r a o r d i n a r y meetings of t h e Assembly may

be h e l d a t any time upon t h e c a l l of t h e Council o r

a t t h e r e q u e s t of any t e n c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s ~ d d r e s s e d
t o t h e S e c r e t a r y General. (b)
A l l c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s s h a l l have an equal

r i g h t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d at t h e meetings of t h e Assembly and each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o one vote. Delegates r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n t r a c t i n g

S t a t e s may be a s s i s t e d by t e c h n i c a l a d v i s e r s who may p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e meetings but s h a l l have no v o t e . (c)


A m a j o r i t y of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s i s

r e q u i r e d t o c o n s t i t u t e a quorum f o r t h e meetings of t h e Assembly. Unless o t h e r w i s e provided i n t h i s

Convention, d e c i s i o n s of t h e Assembly s h a l l be t a k e n by a m ~ j o r i t yof t h e v o t e s c a s t . Article Powers and d u t i e s of Assembly

49

The powers and d u t i e s of t h e Assembly s h a l l be to:


(a)

Elect

8.t

each meeting i t s P r e s i d e n t

and o t h e r o f f i c e r s ;
( b ) E l e c t t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s t o be

r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e Council, i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter I X ; (c) E x m i n e and t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n on

t h e r e p o r t s of t h e Council and d e c i d e on any matt e r r e f e r r e d t o i t by t h e Council; (d) Determine i t s own r u l e s of procedure

and e s t a b l i s h such s u b s i d i a r y commissions a s i t


may c o n s i d e r t o be necessary o r d e s i r a b l e ;

(e)

Vote an annual budget and determine

t h e f i n a n c i a l arrangements of t h e Organization, i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter X I I ; (f) Review e x p e n d i t u r e s and approve t h e

accounts of t h e Organization; (g) Refer, at i t s d i s c r e t i o n , t o t h e

Council, t o s u b s i d i a r y c o m i s s i o n s , o r t o any o t h e r body any m a t t e r w i t h i n i t s sphere of a c t i o n


(h)

Delegate t o t h e Council t h e powers and

a u t h o r i t y necessary o r d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e d i s charge of t h e d u t i e s of t h e Organization and revoke o r modify t h e d e l e g a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y a t m y time;


( i ) Carry out t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i s i o n s

of Chapter X I I I ;
( j)

Consider p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e modifica-

t i o n o r amendment of t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Convention and, if i t approves of t h e p r o p o s a l s , recommend them t o t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter XXI;

(k) Deal w i t h any m a t t e r w i t h i n t h e sphere


of a c t i o n of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n not s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e Council. CHAPTER I X
THE COUNCIL

Article Composition a n d e l e c t ion of Council

50
It s h a l l be composed of twenty

(a) The Council shall be a permanent body respon


s i b l e t o t h e Assembly.

one c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s e l e c t e d by t h e Assembly.

A n

e l e c t i o n shall be h e l d a t t h e f i r s t meeting of t h e Assembly and t h e r e a f t e r every t h r e e y e a r s , and t h e memb e r s of t h e Council so e l e c t e d shall h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l t h e next f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n .
(b) I n e l e c t i n g t h e nembers of t h e Council, t h e

Assembly s h a l l g i v e adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o (1) t h e S t a t e s of c h i e f importance i n a i r t r a n s p o r t ; ( 2 ) the S t a t e s not o t h e r w i s e i n c l u d e d which make t h e l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l a i r n a v i g a t i o n ; and ( 3 ) t h e S t a t e s n o t otherwise i n c l u d e d whose d e s i g n a t i o n w i l l i n s u r e that
a l l t h e major geographic a r e a s of t h e world a r e r e p r e -

s e n t e d on t h e Council.

Any vacancy on t h e Council

s h a l l be f i l l e d by t h e Assembly as soon ns p o s s i b l e ;

any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e so e l e c t e d t o t h e Council shall h o l d o f f i c e f o r t h e unexpired p o r t i o n of i t s predec e s s o r ' s term of o f f i c e . (c) N r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e on o

t h e Council s h a l l be a c t i v e l y a.ssocia.ted with t h e o p e r a t i o n of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e o r f i n a n c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n such a s e r v i c e , Article 2 The Council shall e l e c t i t s P r e s i d e n t f o r a t e r n


.

of Council of t h r e e y e a r s . no v o t e . He may be r e e l e c t e d . He s h a l l have The Council shall e l e c t from among i t s mem-

b e r s one o r more Vice P r e s i d e n t s who s h a l l r e t a , i n t h e i r i g h t t o v o t e when s e r v i n g as a c t i n g P r e s i d e n t . The

P r e s i d e n t need n o t be s e l e c t e d from among t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e members of t h e Council b u t , if a

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s e l e c t e d , h i s s e a t s h a l l be deemed vacant and i t s h a l l be f i l l e d by t h e S t a t e which he represented. The d u t i e s of t h e P r e s i d e n t s h a l l be

(a.)

Convene meetings of t h e Council, t h e

A i r T r ~ n s p o r tCommittee, and t h e A i r Navigation

Commission; (b) Serve as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e

Council; and (c)


C~rry out on behalf of t h e Council t h e

f u n c t i o n s which t h e Council a s s i g n s t o him. Article

52
The Council may d e l e -

Decisions by t h e Council s h a l l r e q u i r e approval by a m a j o r i t y of i t s members.

g a t e a u t h o r i t y with r e s p e c t t o any p a r t i c u l a r m a t t e r
t o a committee of i t s members.

Decisions of any com-

m i t t e e of t h e Council may be appealed t o t h e Council by any i n t e r e s t e d c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e . Article Participation without a

53

Any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may p a r t i c i p a t e , without


a vote, i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e Council and by

i t s committees and commiseions of any q u e s t i o n which

especially a f f e c t s i t s i n t e r e s t s .

N member of t h e o

Council she.11 v o t e i n t h e c o n e i d e r a t i o n by t h e Council of a d i s p u t e t o which i t i s a p a r t y .

54 ~rticle
The Council s h a l l : of Council
(a)

Submit a n n u d r e p o r t s t o t h e Assembly;

Assembly and d i s c h a r g e t h e d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s which a r e l a i d on i t by t h i s Convention; (c) Determine i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and r u l e s

of procedure; (d) Appoint and d e f i n e t h e d u t i e s of an

A i r Transport Committee, which s h a l l be chosen

from among t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e members of t h e Council, and which s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e t o i t ; (e) E s t a b l i e h an A i r Navigation Commission,

i n accordance with t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter X;


(f)

Administer t h e f i n a n c e s of t h e Organi-

z a t i o n i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapters X I 1 and XV; (g) Determine t h e emoluments of t h e P r e s i dent of t h e Council; (h) Appoint a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r who

s h a l l be c a l l e d t h e S e c r e t a r y General, and make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e appointment of such o t h e r personnel as may be necessary, i n accordance with t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter X I ; (i) Request, c o l l e c t , examine and p u b l i e h

information r e l a t i n g t o t h e advancement of a i r n a v i g a t i o n and t h e o p e r a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g information about t h e c o s t s of o p e r E t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r s of s u b s i i i i e s p a i d t o a i r l i n e s from p u b l i c funds;


(J)

Report t o c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s any i n -

f r a c t i o n of t h i s Convention, a s w e l l as any f a i l u r e t o c a r r y o u t recommendations o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n s

(k) Report t o t h e Assembly any i n f r a c t i o n

of t h i s Convention where a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e h a s f a i l e d t o take appropriate action within a reas o n a b l e t i m e a f t e r n o t i c e of t h e i n f r a c t i o n ;


(1) Adopt, i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i -

s i o n s of Chapter V I of t h i s Convention, i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s and recommended p r a c t i c e s ; f o r convenience, d e s i g n a t e them as Annexes t o t h i s Convention; and n o t i f y a l l c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s of t h e a c t i o n taken;

(m) Consid.er recommendations of t h e A i r


N a v i g a t i o n Commission f o r amendment of t h e Annexes and t a k e a c t i o n i n accordance with t h e p r o v i s i o n s of Chapter XX; (n) Consider any m a t t e r r e l a t i n g t o t h e contracting State refers

Convention which
it.

Article

55

The Council may: Permissive functions of Council


( a ) Where a p p r o p r i a t e and as e x p e r i e n c e
m a y show t o be d e s i r a b l e , c r e a t e s u b o r d i n a t e a i r

t r a n s p o r t commissions on a r e g i o n a l o r o t h e r b a s i s and d e f i n e g r o u p s of s t a t e s o r a i r l i n e s
with o r t h r o u g h which i t m a y d e a l t o f a c i l i t a t e

t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e aims of t h i s Convention; (b) D e l e g a t e t o t h e A i r N a v i g a t i o n Com-

mission d u t i e s a d d i t i o n a l t o those s e t f o r t h i n t h e Convention and revoke o r modify s u c h d e l e g a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y at any time;

(c)

Conduct r e s e a r c h i n t o a l l a s p e c t s of

a i r t r a n s p o r t and a i r n a v i g a t i o n which a r e of
i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance, communicate t h e r e s u l t s of i t s r e s e a r c h t o t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s , and f a c i l i t a t e t h e exchange of information between c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s on a i r t r a n s p o r t and a i r navigation matters; (d) Study any m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e organ-

i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r tre.nsport , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ownership and o p e r a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l air s e r v i c e s on t r u n k r o u t e s , anc? submit t o t h e Assembly pla.ns i n r e l a t i o n thereto; (e) I n v e s t i g a t e , at t h e r e q u e s t of any

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , any s i t u a t i o n which may appear t o present avoidable obstacles t o the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r n a v i g a t i o n ; and, a f t e r such i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i s s u e such r e p o r t s as may appear t o i t d e s i r a b l e . CHAPTER X

THE AIR NAVIGATION COI4MISSION


Article Nomination and appointment of Commission

The A i r Navigation Commission shall be composed of twelve members appointed by t h e Council from among persona nominated by c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s . These

p e r s o n s s h a l l have s u i t a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and exper i e n c e i n t h e s c i e n c e and p r a c t i c e of a e r o n a u t i c s . The Council s h a l l r e q u e s t a l l c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s t o submit nominations. The P r e s i d e n t of t h e A i r Naviga-

t i o n Commission shall be appointed by t h e Council.

Article D u t i e s of Commission

57

The A i r Navigation Commission s h a l l :

(a) Consider, and recommend t o t h e Council


f o r adoption, m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t h e Annexes t o t h i s Convention; (b) E s t a b l i s h t e c h n i c a l subcommissions on

which any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may be r e p r e s e n t e d ,


if i t so d e s i r e s ;

(c)

Advise t h e Council concerning t h e c o l -

l e c t i o n and communication t o t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n which i t c o n s i d e r s necessary and u s e f u l f o r t h e advancement of a i r navigation. CHAPTER X I PERSONNEL Article Appointment of p e r s o n n e l

58

Subject t o any r u l e s l a i d down by t h e Assembly and t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Convention, t h e Council


shall determine t h e method of appointment and. of

t e r m i n a t i o n of appointment, t h e t r a i n i n g , and t h e s a l a r i e s , allowances, and c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e of t n e S e c r e t a r y General and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l of t h e Organization, and may employ o r make u s e of t h e s e r v i c e s of n a t i o n a l s of any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e . A r t i c l e 59 International c h a r a c t e r of personnel

The P r e s i d e n t of t h e Council, t h e S e c r e t a r y General, and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l shall not seek o r r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t h e d i s c h a r g e of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from any a u t h o r i t y e x t e r n a l t o t h e

Organization.

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes

f u l l y t o r e s p e c t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e p e r s o n n e l and not t o seek t o i n f l u e n c e any of i t s n a t i o n a l s i n t h e d i s c h a r g e of t h e i r responsibilities. Article Immunities and p r i v i l e g e s of personnel

60

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes, so f a r as p o s s i b l e under i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . procedure, t o a c c a r j t o t h e P r e e i d e n t of t h e Council, t h e S e c r e t a r y General, and t h e o t h e r p e r s o n n e l of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e iinrnunities and p r i v i l e g e s which a r e accorded t o corresponding personnel of o t h e r p u b l i c i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizations.
I f a g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement

on t h e immunities and p r i v i l e g e s of i n t e r n a t l o n a l c i v i l s e r v a n t s i s a r r i v e d a t , t h e irnmunitiee and p r i v i l e g e s accorded t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , t h e S e c r e t a r y General, and t h e o t h e r personnel of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n


s h a l l be t h e immunities and p r i v i l e g e s accorded under

t h a t g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement.

CHAPTER XI1
FINANCE

Article Budget and apportionment of expenses

61

The Council s h a l l submit t o t h e Assembly an


annual budget, annual s t a t e m e n t s of accounts and e s t i m a t e s of a l l r e c e i p t s and expenditures. The

Assembly s h a l l v o t e t h e budget with whatever modific a t i o n i t s e e s f i t t o p r e s c r i b e , and, w i t h t h e exception of assessments under Chapter XV t o S t a t e s consenting t h e r e t o , shall a p p o r t i o n t h e expenses

of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n among t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s on t h e b a s i s which i t shall from time t o time determine. Article Suspension of v o t i n g power

62

The Assembly may suspend t h e v o t i n g power I n t h e Assembly and I n t h e Council of m y c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e


that f a i l s t o dissharge within a reasonable period i t s

f i n a n c i a l obligations t o t h e Organization. Article Expenses of delegations and o t h e r representatives

63

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s h a l l b e a r t h e expenses of

i t s own d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e Assembly and t h e remunerat i o n , t r a v e l , and o t h e r expenses of any person whom


i t a p p o i n t s t o s e r v e on t h e Council, and of i t s

nominees o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on any s u b s i d i a r y committ e e s o r cornmiesions of t h e Organization. CHAPTER XI11

OTHER INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS


Article Security arrangement s

64

The O r g a n i z a t i o n may, w i t h r e s p e c t t o a i r m a t t e r s

w i t h i n i t s competence d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g world secur i t y , by v o t e of t h e Assembly e n t e r i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e arrangements w i t h any g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t up by t h e n a t i o n s of t h e world t o p r e s e r v e peace. Article

65

with o t h e r

Arrangements international bodies

The Council, on behalf of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n , may e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s f o r t h e maintenance of common s e r v i c e s and f o r cornmon arrangements concerning personnel and, with t h e

approval of t h e Assembly, may e n t e r i n t o suzh o t h e r arrangements a e may f a c i l i t a t e t h e work of t h e Organization. Article (a)

66

The Organization s h a l l a l s o c a r r y o u t t h e

f u n c t i o n s p l a c e d upon i t by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r S e r v i c e s T r a n s i t Agreenent and by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l


A i r Transport Agreement drawn up a t Chicago on

December 7, 1944, i n accordance with t h e terms and conditions therein s e t forth. (b) Members o f t h e Assembly and t h e Council who have not accepted t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r S e r v i c e s T r a n s i t Agreement o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r Transport Agreement drawn up a t Chicago on December 7, 1944 s h a l l not have t h e r i g h t t o v o t e on any q u e s t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o t h e Aseembly o r Council under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e r e l e v a n t Agreement.

PART 111. -- -

INTERNATIONAL

fi TRANSPORT

CHAPTER X I V
INFORMATION AND REPORTS

Article

67

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes t h a t i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r l i n e s s h a l l , i n accordance with r e quirements l a i d down by t h e Council, f i l e w i t h t h e Council t r a f f i c r e p o r t s , c o s t s t a t i s t i c s and f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s showing among o t h e r t h i n g s a l l r e c e i p t s and t h e sources t h e r e o f .

Article Designation of r o u t e s and a i r p o r t s

68

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may, s u b J e c t t o t h e prov i s i o n s of t h i e Convention, d e s i g n a t e t h e r o u t e t o be followed w i t h i n it s t e r r i t o r y by any i n t e r n a t i o n a l


a i r s e r v i c e and t h e a i r p o r t s which any such s e r v i c e
may use.

Article Improvement of- ~ i r navigation facilities

69

If t h e Council i a of t h e o p i n i o n that t h e a i r -

p o r t s o r other air navigation f a c i l i t i e s , including r a d i o and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s , of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e a r e n o t reasonably adequate f o r t h e s a f e , r e g u l a r , e f f i c i e n t , and economical o p e r a t i 3 n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e s , p r e s e n t o r contemplated, t h e Council sha.11 c o n s u l t w i t h t h e S t a t e d i r e c t l y concerned. and o t h e r S t a t e s a f f e c t e d , w i t h a view t o f i n d i n g means by which t h e s i t u a t i o n may be remedied, and m a y make recommendations f o r that purpose. No

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e shall be g u i l t y of an i n f r a c t i o n of t h i s Convention i f i t f a i l 9 t o c a r r y o u t t h e s e recommendat i o n s . Article Financing of a i r navigation facilities

A c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , i n t h e circumstances a r i a -

i n g under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of A r t i c l e 69, may conclude


en arrangement with t h e Council f o r g i v i n g e f f e c t t o

such recommendations.

The S t a t e may e l e c t t o b e a r

a l l of t h e c o s t s involved i n any such armngement.

If t h e S t a t e does not so e l e c t , t h e Council may

agree, a t t h e r e q u e s t of t h e S t a t e , t o provide f o r
a l l o r a p o r t i o n of t h e c o s t s .

Article Provision and maintenance of facilities by Council If


R

71

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e so r e q u e s t s , t h e

Council may a g r e e t o provide, man, maintain, and


and o t h e r a i r a d m i n i s t e r any o r a l l of t h e a i ~ o r t s

n a v i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g r a d i o and meteorol o g i c a l services, r e q u i r e d i n i t s t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e


saf e , r e g u l a r , e f f i c i e n t and economical o p e r a t i o n

of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n ~ la i r s e r v i c e s of t h e o t h e r c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s , and may s p e c i f y j u s t and r e a sonable charges f o r t h e u s e of t h e f a c i l i t i e s provided. A r t i c l e 72 Acquisition Where l a n d i s needed f o r f a c i l i t i e s financed i n whole o r i n p a r t by t h e Council at t h e r e q u e s t of
a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , t h a t S t a t e shall e i t h e r pro-

v i d e t h e l a n d i t s e l f , r e t a i n i n g t i t l e i f i t wishes,
o r f a c i l i t a t e t h e use of t h e l a n d by t h e Council on

j u s t and reasonable terms and i n accordance w i t h t h e laws of t h e S t a t e concerned. A r t i c l e 73 Expenditure and a s s e s s ment of funds Within t h e l i m i t of t h e funds which may be made a v a i l a b l e t o i t by t h e As~emblyunder Chapter
X I I , t h e Council may m ~ k ec u r r e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r

t h e purposes of t h i s Chapter from t h e g e n e r a l funds


of t h e Organization.

The Council shall a s s e s s t h e

Chapter i n p r e v i o u s l y agreed p r o p o r t l o n e over

Pea,-

6 0 n ~ b l e e r i o d of time t o t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s p consenting t h e r e t o whose a i r l i n e s u s e t h e f a c i l i t i e s . The Council may a l s o a s s e s s t o B t a t e s t h a t consent any working f u n d s that a r e r e q u i r e d . Article assistance and u t i l i revenues

74

When t h e Council, a t t h e r e q d e s t of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e , advances funds o r p r o v i d e s a i r p o r t s o r o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s i n whole o r i n p a r t , t h e arrangement may p r o v i d e , with t h e conaent of t h a t B t a t e , f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and o p e r a t i o n of t h e a i r p o r t s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , and f o r t h e payment, from t h e revenues d e r i v e d from t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e a i r p o r t s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , of t h e o p e r a t i n g expenses of tht; a i r p o r t s and t h e o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , and of i n t e r e s t and a m o r t i z a t i o n charges. Article

75

A c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may at any time d i s c h a r g e

any o b l i g a t i o n i n t o which i t h a s e n t e r e d under

Article

? O D and

t a k e over a i r p o r t s and o t h e r f a c i i -

i t i e s which t h e Council has provided i n i t s t e r r i t o r y pursuant t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of A r t i c l e s 71 and


72, by paying t o t h e Council an emount which i n t h e

opinion of t h e Council i s reasonable i n t h e circumstances.


If t h e S t a t e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e amgunt

Tixed by t h e Council i s unreasona,ble i t may appeal t o t h e Assembly a g a i n s t t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e Council

lip

i )

and t h e Aesembly may oonfirm o r amend t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e Council. Article Return of funds

Funds o b t a i n e d by t h e Council through reimbursement under A r t i c l e 75 and from r e c e i p t s of i n t e r e s t and a m o r t i z a t i o n payments under A r t i c l e 74
s h a l l , i n t h e caee of advances o r i g i n a l l y f i n a n c e d

by S t a t e s under A r t i c l e 73, be r e t u r n e d t o t h e S t a t e s which were o r i g i n a l l y aeseseed i n t h e proport i o n of t h e i r assessments, as determined by t h e Council. CHAPTER X V I
J O I N T OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS AND POOLED SERVICES

Article

77

Nothing i n t h i s Convention s h a l l p r e v e n t two o r more c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s from c o n s t i t u t i n g j o i n t


air transport operating organizations o r interna-

t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s and from p o o l i n g t h e i r a i r s e r v i c e s on any r o u t e s o r i n any r e g i o n s , but such o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r a g e n c i e s and such pooled s e r v i c e 8 s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i e Convention, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n of agreements with t h e Council. The Council

s h a l l determine i n what manner t h e p r o v i s i o n s of


t h i s Convention r e l a t i n g t o n a t i o n a l i t y of a i r c r a f t

shall apply t o a i r c r a f t o p e r s t ed by i n t e r n a t i o n a l

operating agencies.

Article Function of Council

The Council may suggest t o c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s concerned t h a t they form j o i n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o opera t e a i r s e r v i c e s on any r o u t e s o r i n any r e g i o n s . Article

Participation i n operating organizations

A S t a t e may p a r t i c i p 8 , t e I n j o i n t o p e r a t i n g organ-

i z a t i o n s o r i n p o o l i n g arrangements, e i t h e r through I t s government o r through an a i r l i n e company o r comp a n i e s d e s i g n a t e d by i t s government. The companies

may, a t t h e s o l e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e S t a t e concerned, be

state-owned o r p a r t l y state-owned o r p r i v a t e l y owned.

PART -I V
-*

FINAL PROVISIONS
CHAPTER XVII

OTHER AERONAUTICAL AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGENENTS


Article @ P a r i e and Habana Conventione Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e undertakes, immediately upon t h e coming i n t o f o r c e of t h i s Convention, t o g i v e n o t i c e of denunciation of t h e Convention r e l a t i n g t o t h e Regulation of A e r i a l Navigation s i g n e d at P a r i s on October 13, 1919 o r t h e Convention on Commercial Aviat i o n signed at Habana on February 20, 1928, i f i t i s
a party t o either.
A s between c o n t r ~ c t i n g t a t e s , t h i s S

Convention supersedes t h e Conventions of P a r i s and Habana p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o . A r t i c l e 81 Registrat ion of e x i s t i n g agreements


A l l aeronautica.1 agreements which a r e i n e x i s t -

ence on t h e coming i n t o f o r c e of t h i s Convention, and

which a r e between a oontra,cting S t a t e and any o t h e r S t a t e o r between an a i r l i n e of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e and

any o t h e r S t a t e o r t h e a i r l i n e of any o t h e r S t a t e ,
shall be f o r t h w i t h r e g i e t e r e d w i t h t h e Council.

Article

82
a8

The c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s accept t h i e Convention

a b r o g a t i n g a l l o b l i g a t i o n s and understanding6 between them which a r e i n c o n a i s t e n t with i t s terme, wid undert a k e not t o e n t e r i n t o any euch o b l i g a t i o n s and undelstandings.
A c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e which, b e f o r e beoom-

i n g a member of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n hae undertdcen any o b l i g a t i o n s toward a non-contracting S t a t e o r a n a t i o n a l of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e o r of a non-contracting S t a t e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e terms of t h i e Convention, s h ~ l tl a k e immediate e t e p s t o procure i t s r e l e a s e from t h e o b l i g a t i o n s .
I f an a i r l i n e of any c o n t r a c t -

i n g S t a t e hae e n t e r e d i n t o any such i n c o n e i s t e n t o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e S t a t e of which i t i s a n a t i o n a l shall use i t s beet e f f o r t e t o secure t h e i r terminatlon f o r t h w i t h and e h a l l i n any event cause them t o be termi-

n a t e d a e eoon a e such a c t i o n can l a w f u l l y be t a k e n a f t e r t h e coming i n t o f o r c e of t h i s Convention. Article Regletration arrangement8

83

SubJect t o t h e p r o v i e i o n s of t h e preceding A r t i c l e , any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may make arrangement6 not I n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Convention.


Any such arrmgement e h a l l be f o r t h w i t h

r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e Counail, which e h a l l make i t p u b l i c aa soon ae p o s s i b l e .

CHAPTER XVIII
DISPUTES AND DEFAULT

Article Settlement of d i s p u t e s

84

I f any disagreement between two o r more c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r applicat i o n of t h i s Convention and i t s Annexes c ~ n n o tb e s e t t l e d by n e g o t i a t i o n , i t s h a l l , on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of any S t a t e concerned i n t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t , be d e c i d e d by t h e Council. No member of t h e Council a h a l l v o t e

i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e Council of any d i s p u t e t o which i t i s a p a r t y . Any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e mag,

s u b J e c t t o A r t i c l e 85, a p p e a l from t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Council t o a n

ad & a r b i t r a l

t r i b u n a l a g r e e d upon

with the other parties t o the dispute o r t o the Permanent Court of I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u s t i c e .


Any s u c h

a p p e ~ lshall b e n o t i f i e d t o t h e Council w i t h i n s i x t y d a y s of r e c e i p t of n o t i f i c a t i o n of t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e Council. A r t i c l e 85 Arbitration procedure


If any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e p a r t y t o a d i s p u t e i n

which t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e Counci.1 i s u n d e r a p p e a l h a s n o t a c c e p t e d t h e S t a t u t e of t h e Permanent Court of I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u s t i c e and t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t e t e s p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e cannot a g r e e on t h e c h o i c e of t h e a r b i t r a l t r i b u n a l , each of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e s h a l l name a s i n g l e a r b i t r a t o r who a h a l l name an umpire.
If e i t h e r c o n t r a , c t i n g

S t a t e p a r t y t o t h e d i s p u t e f a i l s t o name an a r b i t r a t o r w i t h i n a p e r i o d of t h r e e months from t h e d a t e of t h e a p p e a l , a n a r b i t r a t o r s h a l l be named on b e h a l f of


-

G,

t h a t S t a t e by t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e Council from a

l i s t of q u a l i f i e d and a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n s m a i n t a i n e d by
t h e Council. I f , w i t h i n t h i r t y days, t h e a r b i t r e t o r s

cannot a g r e e on an umpire, t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e Council s h a l l designs-te a n umpire from t h e l i s t p r e viously referred t o . The a r b i t r a t o r s and t h e umpire

s h a l l t h e n J o i n t l y c o n s t i t u t e an a r b i t r a l t r i b u n a l .
Any a r b i t r a l tribuna.1 e s t a b l i s h e d under t n i s o r t h e

p r e c e d i n g A r t i c l e she.11 s e t t l e i t s own p r o c e d u r e and g i v e i t s d e c i s i o n s by m n J o r i t y v o t e , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e Council may determine p r o c e d u r a l q u e s t i o n s i n t h e e v e n t of any d e l a y kthich i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h e Council

i s excessive.
Article

86

Unless t h e Council d e c i d e s o t h e r w i s e , any d e c i s i o n by t h e Council on whether an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r l i n e i s o p e r a t i n g i n conformity w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Convention s h a l l remain i n e f f e c t u n l e s s r e v e r s e d on a p p e a l . On any o t h e r m a t t e r , d e c i s i o n s of

t h e Council s h a l l , i f a p p e a l e d from, be suspended u n t i l t h e appeal i s d e c i d e d . The d e c i s l o n s of t h e

Permanent Court of I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u s t i c e and of a n ~ r b i t r a l r i b u n a l s h a l l be f i n a l and b i n d i n g . t Article

Each c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e u n d e r t a k e s not t o a l l o w

n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a a i r l i n e of a c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e
t h r o u g h t h e a i r s p a c e above i t s t e r r i t o r y if t h e Council h a s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e a i r l i n e concerned i s not conforming t o a f i n a . 1 d e c i s i o n r e n d e r e d i n accordance

Article 88 Penalty f o r non-conf o m I t y by S t a t e The Assembly s h a l l suspend t h e v o t i n g power i n t h e Assembly and i n t h e Council of any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e that i s f o u n d i n d e f a u l t under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s C h a p t e r . CWTER X I X
WAR

Article

89

I n c a s e of war, t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Convent i o n s n a l l n o t a f f e c t t h e freedom of a c t i o n of a.ng of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a . t e s a f f e c t e d , whether a s b e l l i g e r e n t s o r as n e u t r a l s . The same p r i n c i p l e shall

a p p l y i n t h e c a s e of any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a , t e which declares


E?

s t a t e of r i a t i o n a l emergency and n o t i f i e s t l i e

f a c t t o t h e Council. CHAPTER XX
ANNEXES

Article Adoption and ,mendL~entof


(a)

90

The a d o p t i o n by t h e Council of t h e Annexes

d e s c r i b e d i n A r t i c l e 54, subparagraph ( I ) , s h a l l r e q u i r e t h e v o t e of t w o - t h i r d s of t h e C o u n c i l a t a meeting c a l l e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e and s h a l l t h e n be subm i t t e d by t h e C o u n c i l t o e a c h c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e . Any

s u c h Annex o r any amendment of a n Annex s h a l l become e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n t h r e e months a f t e r i t s submission t o t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s o r a t t h e end of such l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e as t h e C o u n c i l may p r e s c r i b e , u n l e s s i n t h e memtime a m a j o r i t y of t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s r e g i s t e r t h e i r disapproval w i t h t h e Council.

(b)

The Council s h a l l immediately n o t i f y a l l

c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s of t h e coming i n t o f o r c e of any Annex o r amendnent t h e r e t o ,

RATIFICATION3, ADHERENCES, AMENDMENTS, AND DENUNCIATIONS Article Ratif icat i o n of Convention


(a)

91
The i n s t r u m e n t s

This Convention s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o r a t i -

f i c a t i o n by t h e s i g n a t o r y S t a t e s .

o f r a t i f i c a t i o n shall be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a r c h i v e 6 of t h e Government of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, which s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e of t h e d a t e of t h e d e p o s i t t o e a c h of t h e s i g n a t o r y and a d h e r i n g S t a t e s ,


(b)
A s soon as t h i s Corivention 'has been r a t i -

f i e d o r a d h e r e d t o by t w e n t y - s i x S t a t e s i t s h a l l come i n t o f o r c e between them on t h e t h i r t i e t h day a f t e r d e p o s i t of t h e t w e n t y - s i x t h i n s t r u m e n t .


It

s h a l l come i n t o f o r c e f o r e a c h S t a t e r a t i f y i n g t h e r e -

a f t e r on t h e t h i r t i e t h day ~ f t e t h e d e p o s i t of i t s r i n s t r u m e n t of r a t i f i c a t i o n . (c)
I t shall be t h e d u t y of t h e Government of

t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of America t o n o t i f y t h e governrflent of e a c h of t h e s i g n a t o r y and a d h e r i n g S t a t e s of t h e d a t e on which t h i s Convention comes i n t o f o r c e . Articls Adherence to Convention (a)

92

T h i s Convention s h a l l be open f o r adher-

ence by members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d S t a t e s ass o c i a t e d with them, and S t a t e s which remained n e u t r a l d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t world c o n f l i c t .

(b)

Adherence s u a l l be e f f e c t e d by a n o t i f i c a -

t i o n a d d r e ~ s e dt o t h e Government of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of America and shall t a k e e f f e c t as from t h e t h i r t i e t h day from t h e r e c e i p t of t h e n o t i f i c a t i o n by t h e Government of t h e United S t a t e s of America, which
shall n o t i f y a l l t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s .

Admission of other States

S t a t e s o t h e r than those provided f o r i n A r t i c l e s 9 1 a-nd 9 2 ( a ) may, s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l by any g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t up by t h e n a t i o n s of t h e world t o p r e s e r v e peRce, be adirnitted t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s Convention by means of a f o u r - f i f t h s v o t e of t h e Assembly md on s u c h c o n d i t i o n s as t h e Assembly may p r e s c r i b e : p r o v i d e d t h a t i n each c a s e

t h e a s s e n t of any S t a t e i n v a d e d o r a t t a c k e d d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t war by t h e S t a t e s e e k i n g admission s h a l l be n e c e s s a r y . Article Amendment of Convention

94

( a ) Any proposed amendment t o t h i s Convention must be approved by a t w o - t h i r d s v o t e of t h e Assembly and s h a l l t h e n come i n t o f o r c e i n r e s p e c t of S t a t e s which have r a t i f i e d such amendment when r a t i f i e d by t h e number of c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s s p e c i f i e d by t h e Assembly. The number so s p e c i f i e d shall n o t be l e s s

t h a n t w o - t h i r d s of t h e t o t a l number of c o n t r a c t i n g States. (b)


If i n i t s o p i n i o n t h e amendment i s of such

a n a t u r e as t o J u s t i f y t h i s c o u r s e , t h e Assembly i n

i t e r e s o l u t i o n recommending a d o p t i o n may p r o v i d e t h a t

any S t a t e which has n o t r a t i f i e d w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d


p e r i o d a f t e r t h e amendment h a s come i n t o f o r c e s h a l l thereupon c e a s e t o be a member of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and a p a r t y t o ' t h e Convention.
7

A r t i c l e 95

Denunciation Convention

(a) Any c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e may g i v e n o t i c e of


d e n u n c i a t i o n of t h i s Convention t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r i t s coming i n t o e f f e c t by n o t i f i c a t i o n a d d r e s s e d t o t h e Government of t h e United S t a t e s of America, which s h a l l a t once inform e ~ c h t h e c o n t r a c t i n g S t a t e s . of (b) Denunciation s h a l l t a k e e f f e c t one y e a r

from t h e d a t e of t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e n o t i f i c a t i o n and
shall o p e r a t e o n l y as r e g a r d s t h e S t a t e e f f e c t i n g t h e

denunciation.

CHAPTER X X I I
DEFINITION3
Article

96

For t h e purpoee of t h i e Convention t h e expres-

(a) H A i r s e r v i c e n means any echeduled a i r


s e r v i c e performed by a i r c r a f t f o r t h e p u b l i c t r a n e p o r t o f p a s s e n g e r s , mail o r c a r g o . (b) H I n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r e e r v i c e N means an

a i r s e r v i c e which p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e a i r s p a c e
o v e r t h e t e r r i t o r y of more t h a n one S t a t e . (c) L A 1 r l i n e u means any a i r t r a n s p o r t

e n t e r p r i e e o f f e r i n g o r o p e r a t i n g an i n t e r n a tlonal a i r service.

(d) ''Stop f o r n o n - t r a f f i c p u r p o s e s "

means a l a n d i n g f o r any purpose o t h e r t h a n t a k i n g on o r d i s c h a r g i n g p a s s e n g e r s , cargo o r mail.

SIGNATUX OF CONVENTION

I N WITNESS lJJHEREOF, t h e u n d e r s i g n e d p l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s , having

been d u l y a u t h o r i z e d , s i g n t h i e Convention on b e h a l f of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e governments on t h e d a t e s a p p e a r i n g o p p o s i t e t h e i r

DONZ a t Chicago t h e s e v e n t h day of December 1944, i n t h e


E n g l i s h language.
A t e x t drawn up i n t h e E n g l i s h , French, and

S p a n i s h langu.?,ges, each of which s h a l l be of e q u a l a u t h e n t i c i t y , s h a l l be open f o r s i g n a t u r e a t Washington, D. C . Both t e x t s s h a l l

be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a r c h i v e s of t h e Government of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, and c e r t i f i e d c o p i e s s h a l l b e t r a n s m i t t e d by t h a t Governaent t o t h e governments of a l l t h e S t a t e s which may s i g n o r a d h e r e t o t h i a Convention.

FOR THE GOVE;flR-'ENT OF THE

FOR BOLIVIA:

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The Delegation e t the ~ e p y b l i cof Panama signs t h i s Convention geferendum, and subJe'ct to the following reservations: d 1 ~ e c i u s of i t s s t r a t e g i c position and responsibility . i n the protection of the means of communication in its t e r r i tory which are of the u t r o s t importance t o world trade, a d v i t a l t o the defense of' the Western Hemisphere, the Republic of Panama reserves the r i g h t t o take. with respect t o all f l i g h t s through the a i r -space ibove Its t e r r i t o r y , a11 measures which i Its -judgment may be proper f o r its own security n o r the protection of said means of cormaunication.
2. The Republic of Panama understands that the technicax w x e s t o which reference is made in the Convention constitute recommendations only, and not binding obligations.

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