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The study of management as a discipline is relatively new, especially when compared with other scientific disciplines.

Yet, to truly understand current management thought, it is necessary to examine the historical links. It is best to consider not only management pioneers' management theories, but also the contextual and environmental factors that helped to clarify the developmental process behind the theories. Therefore, management pioneers may be easily placed along a historical timeline. Using the work of aniel !ren as a guide, the following categories are employed" #$% early management thought& #'% the scientific management era& #(% the social man era& and #)% the modern era. EARLY MANAGEMENT THOUGHT: THE ECONOMIC FACET *dam +mith and ,ames !att have been identified as the two men most responsible for destroying the old -ngland and launching the world toward industriali.ation. *dam +mith brought about the revolution in economic thought and ,ames !att's steam engine provided cheaper power that revolutioni.ed -nglish commerce and industry. In doing so, they also laid the foundation for modern notions of business management theory and practice. ADAM SMITH. *dam +mith #$/'(0$/12% was a +cottish political economist. 3is Wealth of Nations, published in $//4, established the 5classical school5 and with its publication, he became the father of 5liberal economics.5 +mith argued that market and competition should be the regulators of economic activity and that tariff policies were destructive. The speciali.ation of labor was the mainstay of +mith's market system. *ccording to +mith, division of labor provided managers with the greatest opportunity for increased productivity. JAMES WATT AND MATTHEW BOULTON. ,ames !att #$/(40$6$1%, aided by 7atthew 8oulton #$/'60$621%, and building on the work of his predecessors, developed his first workable steam engine in $/49. Together the partners founded the engineering firm of 8oulton, !att, and +ons. :ecogni.ed as !att's greatest breakthrough, in $1/$ he developed a steam engine with rotary, rather than the traditional up;and;down, movement. This made the engine more adaptable to factory uses as the engine replacing water wheel power for grinding grain, driving textile machines, and operating bellows for iron works. +team power lowered production costs, lowered prices, and expanded markets. In $622 the sons of 8oulton and !atts took over the management of the company and instituted one of the first complete applications of scientific management. In this plant there is evidence of market research, including machine layout study involving workflow, production standards, cost accounting, employee training, employee incentives, and employee welfare programs. EARLY MANAGEMENT THOUGHT: MANAGEMENT PIONEERS IN THE FACTORY SYSTEM The division of labor, combined with the advances in technology, provided the economic rationale for the factory system. 3owever, the factory system brought new problems for owners, managers, and society. <our management pioneers proposed solutions for coping with the pressures of the new large;scale industrial organi.ations. They were :obert =wens, >harles 8abbage, *ndrew Ure, and >harles upin. ROBERT OWENS. :obert =wens #$//$0$696% was a successful +cottish entrepreneur and a utopian socialist who sowed the first seeds of concern for the workers. 3e was repulsed by the working conditions and poor treatment of the workers in the factories across +cotland. =wen became a reformer. 3e reduced the use of child labor and used moral persuasion rather than corporal punishment in his factories. 3e chided his fellow factory owners for treating their e?uipment better than they treated their workers. =wen deplored the evils of the division of labor and in his ideal system believed each man would do a number of different @obs switching easily from one @ob to another. *dditionally, =wen hated the modern factory system, so he decided to revolutioni.e it. In $6$( he proposed a factory bill to prohibit employment of children under the age of ten and to limit hours for all children to $2 $ A' hours per day with no night work. The bill became law six years later, but was limited to cotton mills, reduced the age limit to nine, and included no provision for inspections& therefore, the law had little impact. <eeling frustrated in his attempts to reform 8ritain, =wen traveled to *merica in $6'). 3e continued on to Bew 3armony, Indiana, where he had purchased a large plot of land. Bew 3armony was the first and most famous of sixteen U.+.;based =wenite communities appearing between $6'9 and $6'1. Bone, however, lasted more than a few years as full;fledged socialist communities. CHARLES BABBAGE. >harles 8abbage #$/1'0$6/$% is known as the patron saint of operations research and management science. 8abbage's scientific inventions included a mechanical calculator #his 5difference engine5%, a versatile computer #his 5analytical engine5%, and a punch;card machine. 3is pro@ects never became a commercial reality& however, 8abbage is considered the originator of the concepts behind the present day computer.

8abbage's most successful book, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers, described the tools and machinery used in -nglish factories. It discussed the economic principles of manufacturing, and analy.ed the operations& the skills used and suggested improved practices. 8abbage believed in the benefits of division of labor and was an advocate of profit sharing. 3e developed a method of observing manufacturing that is the same approach utili.ed today by operations analysts and consultants analy.ing manufacturing operations. ANDREW URE AND CHARLES DUPIN. *ndrew Ure #$//60$69/% and >harles upin #$/6)0$6/(% were early industrial educators. Ure provided academic training at *nderson's >ollege in Clasgow for managers in the early factory system. 3e published a text in $6(9 that dealt mainly with the technical problems of manufacturing in the textile industry, but also dealt with problems of managing. =bviously pro;management, Ure advocated an 5automatic plan5 to provide harmony and to keep any individual worker from stopping production. 3e was a defender of the factory system and believed workers must recogni.e the benefits of mechani.ation and not resist its introduction. upin was a <rench engineer and professor who pioneered industrial education in <rance. 3e is credited with having a great influence on the writings of 3enri <ayol. upin published Discours sur le Sort Des Ouvriers, translated iscourse on the >ondition of the !orkers, in $6($. This manuscript included concepts such as time study and the need to balance workloads after introducing division of labor. 3e wrote of the need for workers to receive concise instructions and the need to discover and publish the best way to perform work with the least amount of worker energy. THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ERA +ince management relied heavily on engineers for advice in the new factories, it is not surprising that associations of engineers were some of the first to examine and write about management problems. The *merican +ociety of 7echanical -ngineers #*+7-% was founded in $662 and was one of the first proponents of the search for scientific management. HENRY TOWNE. 3enry Towne, president of the Yale and Towne 7anufacturing >ompany, began applying systematic management practices as early as $6/2. In $644 he wrote a paper, The Engineer as an Economist, that suggested that *+7- become a clearinghouse for information on managerial practices, since there was no management association. Towne also published several papers and a book, Evolution of Industrial Management, on the use of 5gain sharing5 to increase worker productivity. In his last book Towne contrasted the status of scientific management in $664 and in $1'$, noting the establishment of industrial management courses, and crediting <rederick Taylor as the apostle of the scientific movement. FREDERICK A. HALSEY. <rederick *. 3alsey was another engineer who wrote papers presented to *+7- outlining his ideas about wages. 3e attacked the evils of profit sharing and proposed a special 5premium plan5 for paying workers based on time saved. 3alsey proposed incentives based on past production records, including a guaranteed minimum wage and a premium for not doing work. 3alsey's plan, along with Taylor's ideas on piece rates, had a ma@or influence in the United +tates and Creat 8ritain on the design of pay schemes. HENRY METCALFE. *nother early application of the scientific principles of management occurred when >aptain 3enry 7etcalfe developed a system of controls that he applied to the management of the <rankford *rsenal. In $669, 7etcalfe published The Cost of Manufactures and the Administration of Wor sho!s, "u#lic and "rivate$ This book is considered a pioneer work in the area of management science. DANIEL MCCALLUM. Unlike many industries, the rail;road industry forced managers to develop special ways of managing a labor force that was dispersed over a wide geographical area. aniel 7c>allum #$6$90$6/6% became general superintendent of the -rie :ailroad in $69). 3e developed principles of management that included discipline, division of labor, detailed @ob descriptions, promotion and pay based on merit, fre?uent and accurate reporting of worker performance, and a clearly defined chain of command. 7c>allum also designed a formal organi.ational chart and a sophisticated information management system using the telegraph. 3is system and rules, however, ran afoul of the militant union and he resigned after a six;month strike. Dater, 7c>allum successfully ran the Borthern railroads during the >ivil !ar. 3e also served as a management consultant for several railroads after the war. FREDERICK TAYLOR. Erobably the most famous management pioneer of all is <rederick !. Taylor #$6940$1$9%, the father of scientific management. Taylor rose from common laborer to chief engineer in six years, and completed a home study course to earn a degree in mechanical engineering in $66(.

In trying to overcome soldiering by the workers, Taylor began a scientific study of what workers ought to be able to produce. This study led to the beginnings of scientific management. Taylor used time studies to break tasks down into elementary movements, and designed complementary piece;rate incentive systems. Taylor believed management's responsibility was in knowing what you want workers to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way. 3e developed many new concepts such as functional authority. In other words, Taylor proposed that all authority was based on knowledge, not position. 3e wrote Sho! Management in $12(, became the president of the *merican +ociety of 7echanical -ngineers in $124, and was a widely traveled lecturer, lecturing at 3arvard from $121 to $1$). In $1$$, Taylor published "rinci!les of Scientific Management in $1$$. Its contents would become widely accepted by managers worldwide. The book described the theory of scientific management. +cientific management was defined as methods aimed at determining the one best way for a @ob to be done. uring this same period organi.ed labor waged an all;out war on Taylorism resulting in a congressional investigation. In <ebruary of $1$', however, the committee reported finding no evidence to support abuses of workers or any need for remedial legislation. Taylor did not neglect the human side of work, as often suggested. 3e simply emphasi.ed the individual worker not the group. Taylor called for a revolution that would fuse the interests of labor and management into a mutually rewarding whole. HENRY GANTT. 3enry Cantt #$64$0$1$1% worked with Taylor at the 7idvale +teel >ompany and was considered a Taylor disciple. Cantt felt the foreman should teach the workers to be industrious and cooperative which, in turn, would facilitate the ac?uisition of all other knowledge. Cantt also designed graphic aids for management called Cantt charts using hori.ontal bars to plan and control work. +imilar to Taylor, Cantt called for the scientific study of tasks, movements, working conditions, and worker cooperation. 3e also focused on the connection between the involvement of management and financial interests. FRANK GILBRETH. <rank Cilbreth #$6460$1')% and Dillian Cilbreth #$6/60$1/'% were a husband and wife team that brought many significant contributions, as well as color, to scientific management. <rank began working at age seventeen as an apprentice bricklayer, and later became a chief superintendent and independent contractor. <rank's early work parallels Taylor's and, in later years, <rank formed his own management consulting company, which was closely associated with scientific management methods. <rank Cilbreth published a series of books describing the best way of laying bricks, handling materials, training apprentices, and improving methods while lowering costs and paying higher wages. In $12/, <rank Cilbreth met <rederick Taylor and soon became one of Taylor's most devoted advocates. <rank turned his attention away from construction, and extended his interest in motion study #similar to Taylor's time study% to the general field of management. In order to supplement the human eye, Cilbreth used motion picture cameras, lights, and clocks calibrated in fractions of minutes to create 5micromotion5 study. Cilbreth also developed a list of seventeen basic motions he called 5therbligs5 #Cilbreth spelled backwards% to help analy.e any worker movement. Unfortunately, the partnership of <rank and Dillian came to an end in $1') when <rank died of a heart attack. Dillian continued their work through motion study seminars and consulting, later becoming a professor of management at Eurdue University #$1(90$1)6%. LILLIAN GILBRETH. r. Dillian Cilbreth, known as the first lady of management, played an important role in <rank's research and made many contributions of her own. Dillian pursued a degree in psychology, and in addition to her marriage and family of twelve, she assisted <rank with his work. Dillian's thesis;turned;book, The "sychology of Management, is one of the earliest contributions to understanding the human side of management. Dillian faced many incidents of discrimination during her life, including the fact that her book could only be published if her initials were used so readers would not know she was a woman. r. Cilbreth's work was always more management than psychology. 3er work illustrated concern for the worker and attempted to show how scientific management would benefit the individual worker, as well as the organi.ation. Dillian wrote about reduction of worker fatigue, how to retool for disabled veteran workers returning to the workplace, and how to apply principles of scientific management to the home. HARRINGTON EMERSON. 3arrington -merson #$69(0$1($% was educated in Cermany and symboli.ed a new breed of 5efficiency engineers5 who were bringing new methods of time and cost savings to *merican industry. -merson practiced his system as general manager of the 8urlington :ailroad, but saw the need for applications of his system in other industries. The Engineering Maga%ine published a series of articles by -merson in $126 and $121 that were later issued as a single volume. To -merson, organi.ation was one of the greatest problems that led to inefficiency. -merson embraced the general staff concept where each firm was to have a chief of staff and four ma@or sub groupings of staff under him" one for employees, one for machines, one for materials, and one for methods. +taff advice was available to all levels and focused on planning.

-merson made other contributions in the areas of cost accounting and in setting standards for @udging workers and shop efficiency. In $1$(, -merson published T&elve "rinci!les of Efficiency$ This publication became a landmark in the history of management thought. 3arrington -merson achieved renown in his time and his legacy lives on today. MORRIS COOKE. !hile Taylor, the Cilbreths, Cantt, and -merson were working with industrial enterprises, 7orris >ooke #$6/'0$142% was extending the gospel of efficiency in non; industrial organi.ations. >ooke focused his attention on educational and municipal organi.ations. >ooke conducted a study of administration in educational organi.ations funded by the >arnegie <oundation for the *dvancement of Teaching. The resulting study was a bombshell in the academic world. >ooke's findings included, among other things, widespread use of inbreeding #hiring your own graduates%, inefficient committee management, autonomous departments working against university coordination, and pay based on tenure. In $1$$, >ooke was selected as director of public works and brought scientific management to the governance of Ehiladelphia. In four years he saved the city over F$ million in garbage collection costs alone. >ooke wrote Our Cities A&a e #$1$6% to put forth his case for using scientific management for better;managed municipalities. >ooke became a close friend of +amuel Compers, president of the *merican <ederation of Dabor, and tried to bring labor and management together in a time when they were becoming more antagonistic. HUGO MUNSTERBERG. !hile the efficiency engineers studied mechanical efficiency, the industrial psychologists studied human efficiency, with the same goal in mind of improving productivity. The father of industrial psychology was 3ugo 7unsterberg #$64(0$1$4%. In $61', 7unsterberg established his psychological laboratory at 3arvard, which was to become the foundation stone in the industrial psychology movement. 7unsterberg published "sychology and Industrial Efficiency #$1$(%, which included theories directly related to Taylor's scientific management. The book contained three parts. Eart one, the 5best possible man,5 was a study of the demand @obs made on people, and the importance of finding people whose mental capabilities made them well;matched for the work. Eart two, the 5best possible work,5 described the psychological conditions under which the greatest output might be obtained from every worker. Eart three, the 5best possible effect,5 examined the necessity of creating the influences on human needs that were desirable for the interests of business. 7unsterberg's proposals were based on his own evidence from studies involving telephone operators, trolley drivers, and naval officers. WALTER DILL SCOTT. !alter ill +cott #$6410$199% taught at Borthwestern University from $12$ to $1'2 and then served as president of the university for nineteen years. +cott was interested in employee attitudes and motivation in production and devised a system, adopted by the army, for classifying personnel and testing officer candidates. In fact, he was awarded the istinguished +ervice 7edal for his work. <rom 7arch $1$2 till =ctober $1$$, +cott wrote a series of articles entitled The "sychology of 'usiness later published in System maga.ine. These articles were based on actual business cases and represented one of the earliest applications of the principles of psychology to motivation and productivity in industry. THE EMERGENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY HENRI FAYOL. Two contributors to the administrative theory of management are 3enri <ayol #$6)$0$1'9% and 7ax !eber #$64)0$1'2%. 8oth wrote during the scientific management era in *merica, but neither was accorded the full measure of his contribution until some decades after his death. <ayol was trained as a mining engineer and became the managing director of a coal;mining and iron foundry combine. <rom his own experience, he formulated and wrote papers about his ideas of administrative theory as early as $122. 3is first mention of the 5elements5 of administration came in a book published in $1$4. 3owever, *merica was not thoroughly exposed to <ayol's theory until the book was translated in $1)1 and entitled (eneral and Industrial Management$ <ayol identified the ma@or elements or functions of management as planning, organi.ation, command, coordination, and control. Elanning and organi.ation received the ma@ority of his attention in his writings. <ayol believed that management could be taught, that managerial ability was sorely needed as one moved up the ladder, and that management was a separate activity applicable to all types of undertakings. <ayol's fourteen principles of management included" division of labor, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centrali.ation, scalar chain, order, e?uity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and es!irit de cor!s #morale%. MAX WEBER.

The work of 7ax !eber #$64)0$1'2% runs chronologically parallel to that of <ayol and Taylor. !eber was a Cerman intellectual with interests in sociology, religion, economics, and political science. 3e was a professor, editor, government consultant, and author. !eber used the concept of 5bureaucracy5 as an ideal organi.ational arrangement for the administration of large;scale organi.ations. 3is work was not translated into -nglish until $1)/. !eber's concept of the best administrative system was actually similar to Taylor's. +ome of !eber's essential elements included division of labor, and chain of command. 3e also believed that selection should be based on technical ?ualifications, officials'Amanagers' appointments should be based on ?ualifications, managers should not be owners, and impersonal and uniform rules should be applied. PETER DRUCKER. Eeter rucker #b. $121% made an enduring contribution to understanding the role of manager in a business society. Unlike the previous <ayolian process texts, rucker developed three broader managerial functions" #$% managing a business& #'% managing managers& and #(% managing workers and work. 3e proposed that in every decision the manager must put economic considerations first. rucker recogni.ed that there may be other non;economic conse?uences of managerial decision, but that the emphasis should still be placed on economic performance. THE SOCIAL MANERA The behavioral school of management thought began late in the scientific management era, but did not achieve large;scale recognition until the $1(2s. The real catalyst for the emergence of the behavioral school was a series of research studies conducted at the 3awthorne plant of !estern -lectric between $1') and $1('. This research became known as the 3awthorne experiments. ELTON MAYO AND THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES. -lton 7ayo #$6620$1)1% @oined the 3arvard faculty in $1'4 as associate professor of industrial research, and two years later was asked to work with !estern -lectric, as part of the 3arvard research group, to continue the 3awthorne studies. 7ayo was intrigued by the initial results of the early illumination studies that showed output had increased upon changes in illuminationGeither brighter or darkerGbut no one knew why. 7ayo believed the increased output came from a change in mental attitude in the group as the workers developed into a social unit. =ther experiments included the piecework experiment, the interviewing program, and the bank wiring room experiments. <rom these experiments the 7ayoists concluded that employees have social needs as well as physical needs, and managers need a mix of managerial skills that include human relations skills. MARY PARKER FOLLETT. *nother contributor to the behavioral school of thought was 7ary Earker <ollett. <ollett #$6460$1((% was trained in philosophy and political science, and became interested in vocational guidance and the emerging field of social psychology. +he had an international reputation as a political philosopher and in $1') published Creative E)!erience, a book that was widely read by businessmen of the day. <ollett advocated a business philosophy that embraced integration as a way to reduce conflict without compromise or domination. +he also proposed the 5law of the situation,5 where parties agree to take their orders from the situation instead from an individual. *nother facet of her philosophy focused on coordination as a fundamental principle of organi.ation. <ollett believed the primary leadership task was to define the purpose of the organi.ation and integrate that purpose with individual and group purposes. In other words, she thought that organi.ations should be based on a group ethic rather than individualism. Thus, managers and employees should view themselves as partners rather than adversaries. CHESTER BARNARD. >hester 8arnard #$6640$14$% was a self;made scholar who attended 3arvard on a scholarship, but never graduated because he lacked a laboratory science course. 3e @oined the *THT system in $121 and became the president of Bew ,ersey 8ell in $1'/. 8arnard's best known work, The *unctions of the E)ecutive #$1(6%, was a collection of eight lectures in which he described a theory of organi.ations in order to stimulate others to examine the nature of cooperative systems. Dooking at the disparity between personal and organi.ational motives, 8arnard described an 5effective; efficient5 dichotomy. *ccording to 8arnard, effectiveness deals with goal achievement, and efficiency is the degree to which individual motives are satisfied. 3e viewed formal organi.ations as integrated systems where cooperation, common purpose, and communication are universal elements, whereas the informal organi.ation provides communication, cohesiveness and maintenance of feelings of self;worth. 8arnard also developed the 5acceptance theory of authority5 based on his idea that bosses only have authority if subordinates accept that authority. THE MODERN ERA: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

* ?uality revolution swept through the business sector during the latter part of the twentieth century. The universal term used to describe this phenomenon was 5total ?uality management5 or TI7. This revolution was led by a small group of ?uality gurus, the most well;known were !. -dwards eming #$1220$11(% and ,oseph ,uran #b. $12)%. W. EDWARDS DEMING. eming, an *merican, is considered to be the father of ?uality control in ,apan. In fact, eming suggested that most ?uality problems are not the fault of employees, but the system. 3e emphasi.ed the importance of improving ?uality by suggesting a five;step chain reaction. This theory proposes that when ?uality is improved, #$% costs decrease because of less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials& #'% productivity

improves& #(% market share increases with better ?uality and prices& #)% the company increases profitability and stays in business& and #9% the number of @obs increases. eming developed a $);point plan to summari.e his teachings on ?uality improvement. These fourteen points are listed in Table $. JOSEPH M. JURAN. ,oseph ,uran's experience led him to conclude that more than 62 percent of all ?uality defects are caused by factors within management's control. 3e referred to this as the 5Eareto principle.5 <rom this theory, he developed a management trilogy that included ?uality planning, control, and improvement. ,uran suggested that an area be selected which has experience chronic ?uality problems. It should be analy.ed, and then a solution is generated and finally implemented. The ?uality work of ,oseph ,uran and !. -dwards eming changed the way people looked at business. THE MODERN ERA: CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT HISTORIANS The following group of individuals have proven themselves to be great teachers and intellectual leaders in matters of fundamental concern to management history. Their leadership and research have contributed greatly to our understanding of the evolution of management. ARTHUR BEDEIAN. *rthur 8edeian, a management professor at Douisiana +tate University, is a management historian with universal interests. 3e has written on a variety of management; related topics, many of which fall within the area of management history. 8edeian has made several significant contributions to management history. These include his research into specific areas of in?uiry such as scientific management and his bibliographic investigations and memoriams. 3owever, perhaps his most important contribution to the field is his editorship of the four volumes of the Management +aureates, A Collection of Auto#iogra!hical Essays$ ALFRED BOLTON. *lfred 8olton was born in >anada in $1'4. *t the age of fifty;four, he began work on his doctorate at Bova University. It was during this time that he developed an interest in management history. 3is most significant contribution to the body of management history knowledge is his work with :on Creenwood regarding the 3awthorne study participants. The work resulting from this collaborative effort has provided a uni?ue glimpse into the groundbreaking experiments at !estern -lectric. DANIEL WREN. aniel !ren #b. $1('% is considered one of the leading authorities on the history of management thought. 3e is one of the most prolific writers in this field. 3is textbook, The Evolution of Management Thought, focuses on describing management history by providing a conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of management. 8oth his research and teaching in this area have led many to consider !ren as one of the management history gurus of the twentieth century.

Freder !" T#$%&r #$694;$1$9% was perhaps the first ever thought leader of management who pioneered the concepts of efficiency movement and productivity improvement. *cknowledged as the father of scientific management, Taylor brought precision and rationale to managerial processes, and laid the foundations for a whole new management science called industrial engineering. He'r$ F&rd #$64(;$1)/%, the founder of the <ord 7otor >ompany pioneered the concept of modern assembly line as a tool of mass production. 3is introduction of 7odel T automobile revolutioni.ed the transportation industry with concepts of standardi.ation, cost leadership and customer reach. <ord was perhaps the only business leader who relied on inventions and management to create huge wealth, without his company employing any ma@or accounting or auditing practices. A%(red S%&#' #$6/9;$144%, the famed chief of Ceneral 7otors was perhaps the antithesis of <ord. 3e grew Ceneral 7otors as a global leader in automobiles, pioneering the concepts of product and customer differentiation, planned obsolescence and accounting driven management. 3e was also instrumental in establishing the concepts of market segmentation and product branding. A)r#*#+ M#,%&- #$126;$1/2%, the creative psychologist brought a new humanistic face to psychology to understand and define the basic motivators of human living and performance. 3is framework of the J9 need hierarchyK remains to date the fundamental foundation of managerial theories of motivation. 7aslow created the psychological basis for human resources management to come on its own in an organi.ational setting. D&./%#, M!Gre/&r #$124;$14)%, the management professor ushered in a radical transformation in the practice of people management with his Theory L and Theory Y. That people do not seek to avoid work but rather are intrinsically self;motivated to perform and that people could be motivated to perform not by autocratic control but by actuali.ation opportunity were the pioneering changes in managerial mindset proposed by him. 7cCregor provided a practical and sustainable execution framework for 7aslowMs need hierarchy. Pe0er Dr.!"er #$121;'229%, one of the most prolific management writers, explored how humans are organi.ed across all sections of the society, whether business, government or not;for;profit. 3e could predict and guide dramatic changes in management of economies, industries and organi.ations. 3is emphasis on lifelong learning and coinage of the term Jknowledge workerK reflect the superior role he accorded to knowledge as a driver of growth. 3is multitude of books and countless scholarly and popular papers are a lasting contribution to management. He'r$ M '01)er/, born in $1(1, has been famous for his critical review of established organi.ational dogmas and hyped;up managerial styles. 3is theory of organi.ational forms threw new light on how organi.ations can be configured for performance. 3e is one of the few exponents of a process driven managerial culture in organi.ations. 3e made an incisive attempt at separating style and substance, especially with reference to strategic planning. Ke' !* O*+#e, born in $1)(, belongs to a rare breed of ,apanese management experts who made an impact on the global management space. * pioneer of J(>Ms 7odelK, =hmae is an authority on strategic management practice, which has a measure of universality covering multiple industrial sectors. !ith his academic depth and practical insight he defined a new paradigm of knowledge driven management consultancy. Re', , L "er0 #$12(;$16$%, proposed four systems of management applicable in industrial settings and commended a participative style of management. Dikert developed and validated several hypotheses of relationship between employee management and corporate performance, linking individual attributes such as loyalty, attitude, motivation, etc. to variables of organi.ational achievement such as productivity, cost and earnings. 3is Dikert +cale and Dinking Ein 7odel are enduring contributions to studies of organi.ational structure and supervision. T# !* O*'& #$1$';$112%, the perceptive engineer of Toyota is considered to be the developer of the world;famous Toyota Eroduction +ystem. Eerhaps, no system of operations management had as profound influence on industrial management as =hnoMs TE+ had. It represented not only ToyotaMs competitive advantage in global automobile manufacture but ?uickly became ,apanMs national comparative advantage, which even today is unmatched by any nation. =hnoMs principles of J,ust In TimeK extended outside manufacture into virtually all facets of industrial management. W %% #+ De+ '/ #$122;$11(% was one of the foremost experts in ?uality control and ?uality management. 3e was respected for his ?uality management methodologies by the ,apanese. 3is principles of business and ?uality management, and his teachings of statistical process control and other techni?ues to the ,apanese companies contributed in no small measure to the eventual dominance of the ,apanese in global ?uality standards. 3e earned an enduring place in history not only for his expertise in applying statistics for ?uality improvement, but also for his principles of management focused on ?uality. J&,e2* J.r#' #$12);'226% was an evangelist for ?uality and ?uality management who fused the best of oriental and western ?uality and management practices. ,uranMs trilogy of ?uality planning, ?uality control and ?uality improvement and his advocacy of cross;functional participation in ?uality were uni?ue for the times. 3is application and adaptation of Eareto Erinciple #Jvital few and useful manyK% to ?uality management, his focus on human and cultural issues in ?uality improvement and his amalgamation of ,apanese ?uality circle concepts in his ?uality teachings enabled him to assume a broader role in ?uality management in ,apan, U+* as well as other countries. T*e&d&re Le3 00 #$1'9;'224%, was an epitome of marketing vision and creativity. :arely did a single thesis influence the course of the discussion in the domains of marketing and business strategy as did his paper on marketing myopia. 3is was perhaps the first clarion call for the >-=s to view their businesses in broader rather than narrower contexts and redefine their product;market strategies to spur growth. Devitt was insightful, provocative, practical and pragmatic, offering a uni?ue synthesis of academic and industrial perspectives. A%(red C*#'d%er #$1$6;'22/%, the eminent business historian researched and wrote extensively on the scale, scope, strategy and structure of modern corporations. >handlerMs identification of the large industrial firm as the focus and driver of economic growth and his thesis on how structure follows strategy of a firm are solid foundations of the modern theory of firm. 3is proposition of managerial processes rather than the market forces as the prime component of industrial revolution was perhaps the precursor for the later day management thoughts on corporation as an entity of competencies and competitive strategies. R&)er0 K#2%#' #born $1)2%, the co;creator with avid Borton, of the 8alanced +core >ard #8+>% provided a mechanism to connect a companyMs current actions to its long term goals. The 8+> has helped the industry captains with a methodology to empower as well as control its senior executives by means of several indicators that balance the short term and the long term. The 8+> methodology seeks to convert even seemingly ?ualitative goals and activities into measurable deliverables and efforts, integrating individual and functional or business unit performance into corporate performance. C K Pr#*#%#d #born $1)$% belongs to the new generation of management gurus who focused attention on the corporation as an entity. Nnown globally as one of the most incisive and influential management thinkers, Erahalad propounded the theory of core competencies. 3is later research focused on emerging countries and how

fortune could be found at the bottom of the pyramid by deploying innovative products and services, and by relying on corporate constructs that reach every segment of the population. M !*#e% P&r0er #born $1)/% literally took the world of strategic management by storm with his path;breaking theories of competitive advantage and comparative advantage. 3is distilled analysis of the five forces of competition, generic competitive strategies, strategic grouping, entry barriers and mobility barriers and value chain management have helped business strategists and industry chiefs position their companies in a competitive manner for sustainable growth. Bo other management thinker has probably propounded strategy as a key driver of corporate, industry or even national performance as Eorter has done. E% $#*. G&%dr#00 #born $1)6%, created new paradigms in pro@ect management and capacity scheduling by deploying uni?ue systemic approaches and software solutions. ColdrattMs theory of constraints and critical chain pro@ect management techni?ues are designed to unlock value from a companyMs assets, overcoming and correcting traditional employee and corporate practices that sub;optimi.e goal setting and execution in organi.ations. <ew management thinkers and practitioners have been as iconoclastic and aggressive as Coldratt has been in propagation of production and operations management techni?ues that avowedly seek to convert turnover into profit for organi.ations. M !*#e% H#++er #$1)4;'226%, the creator of the theory of business process reengineering was a highly influential thinker who believed that corporations ought to reinvent and reengineer themselves to stay competitive. 3e proposed that the way a business organi.es itself structurally and the manner in which it conducts its business processes would strongly influence the efficiency and effectiveness of its business. !hile he focused on the operating nuts and bolts of business, 3ammerMs uni?ueness was in his emphasis on business processes rather than individual tasks.