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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO HRM

1. MEANING AND DEFINITION


Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function that helps managers recruit, select, train and develop organization members. Some well-known definitions of HRM are:1. "Human Resource Management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual organizational and social objectives are accomplished." - Edwin B. Flippo 2. "Personnel administration is a code of the ways of organizing and treating individuals at work so that they will each get the greatest possible realization of their intrinsic abilities, thus attaining maximum efficiency for themselves and their group, and thereby giving to the enterprise of which they are a part its determining competitive advantage and its optimum results." - Prof. Thomas G. Spates 3. "The field of management which has to do with planning, organizing, directing and controlling various operative functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labour force, such that (a) the objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively, (b) objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, and (c) objectives of the community are duly considered and served." - Prof. Jucius 4. "Personnel Management may be defined as a set of programmes, functions and activities designed to maximize both personal and organizational goals." - M.R.Carrel & F.E.Kumits 5. "The Personal Management is the process of attracting, holding and motivating people involving all managers -line and staff." - Dunn and Stephens 2

6. "It is a function of guiding human resources into a dynamic organization that attains its objective with a high degree of morale and to the satisfaction of those concerned, it is concerned with getting results through people." - Lawrence Appley 7. "Personal Management is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization of and accommodation to human resources by organizations. The human resources of an organization consist of all individuals regardless of their role, who are engaged in any of the organizations activities." - French

2. SCOPE OF HRM
The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All the major activities in the working life of a worker - from the time of his or her inception in the organization until he or she leaves come under the purview of human resource management. Specifically, the activities included are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Introduction to Human Resource Management Employee hiring Employee and executive remuneration Employee motivation Employee maintenance Industrial relations Prospects of human resource management

Fig. 2.1. Scope of Human Resource Management 4

OBJECTIVES OF HRM
The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of competent and willing work force to an organization. Beyond this, there are other objectives are fourfold:

Fig. 3.1. Objectives of HRM 2.1. Societal Objectives: To be ethically and socially responsible for the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demand upon the organizations to use their resources for society's benefit in ethical ways may lead to restrictions. For example, the society may limit human resource decisions through laws that enforce reservation in hiring and laws that address discrimination, safety or other such areas of societal concern. 2.2. Organizational Objectives: To recognize the role of human resource management in bringing about organizational effectiveness. Human resource management is not an end in itself, it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated the department exists to serve the rest of the organization. 5

2.3. Functional Objectives: To maintain the departments' contribution at a level appropriate to the organizations needs. Resources are wasted when human resource management is either more or less sophisticated to suit the organizations demands. The departments' level of service must be tailored to fit the organization it serves. 2.4. Personal Objectives: To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least in so far as these goals enhance the individuals' contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated, otherwise employees' performance and satisfaction may decline and employees may leave the organization.

HRM Objectives 1. Social objectives

Supporting Functions 1. Legal compliance 2. Benefits 3. Union-Management Relations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Human Resource Planning Employee Relations Selection Training and development Appraisal Placement Assessment

2. Organizational objectives

3. Functional objectives

1. Appraisal 2. Placement 3. Assessment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Training and development Appraisal Placement Compensation Assessment

4.Personal Objectives

Table 3.1. HRM Objectives and Functions

CHAPTER II QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


The term "QUALITY OF WORK LIFE" has different connotations to different persons. For example to a worker in an assembly line, it may just mean a fair day's pay, safe working conditions and a supervisor who treats him with dignity. To a young new entrant it may mean opportunities for advancement, creative tasks and a successful career. To academics it means the degree to which members of work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experiences in the organization. Quality of working life has assumed increasing interest and importance in both industrialized as well as developing countries of the world. In India, its scope seems to be broader than many labour legislations enacted to protect the workers. It is more than a sheer work organization movement, which focuses on job security and economic growth to the employees.

4.1.

Definitions

1. "The degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through the experience in the org." - J. Richard & J. Loy 2. "A process of work organizations which enables its members at all levels to actively participate in shaping the org s environment, methods and outcomes." -The American Society of Training and Development 3. "Quality of work life refers to the level of satisfaction, motivation, involvement and commitment individuals experience with respect to their lives at work." -Bernardin Russell

4.2.

Factors

There are many factors that can contribute to "QUALITY OF WORK LIFE". Some of these factors are given by Richard E. Walton. He explains "QUALITY OF WORK LIFE" in terms of eight broad conditions of employment that constitute desirable "QUALITY OF WORK LIFE". 8

4.2.1. Adequate and Fair Compensation This refers to a just and fair balance between effort and reward. It includes such things as a fair job evaluation, training to perform the job reasonably, ability of the org to pay, the demand and supply of talent and skills and profit sharing. In summary, it should respond to whether the compensation helps in maintaining a socially desirable standard and whether compensation" bears an appropriate relation ship to the pay received for other work. It may be useful to point out that in India such labour legislations as Payment of Wages Act, 1936 and Minimum wages Act, 1948 ensure adequate and fair compensation to the employees. The committee on fair wages defined fair wage as "The wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living wage". 4.2.2. Safe and Healthy Environment In order to improve QWL the work environment should be free from hazards or other factors detrimental to health and safety of the employees. Walton refers to reasonable hours of work, zero risk, and physical conditions of work and age restrictions on both lower and upper side. Concern for safety in the work place in India is enshrined in the Factories Act, 1948 which lays down minimum standards of protection from machine and other hazards (noise, pollution, fume, gases etc.,) at the place of work. 4.2.3. Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capacities The work today has become repetitive and fragmented. The average worker often response mechanically to the demands of machine without much control on them. Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved "to the extent that the worker can exercise more control over his or her work, and the degree to which the job embraces an entire meaningful task" but not a part of it. Further QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities. 4.2.4. Opportunity for Career Growth

Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers pr due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL 9

provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding ones capabilities, knowledge and qualifications. Here the focus is on career opportunities as against the job. How much and what kind of opportunities are available to develop new and expand existing abilities to avoid obsolescence. 4.2.5. Social Integration in the Work Force One of the objectives of QWL is to generate satisfying identity with the organization and develop a feeling of self-esteem. Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work groups, a sense of community and interpersonal openness, legalitarianism and upward mobility. 4.2.6. Constitutionalism in the Work Org Enhanced QWL should also ensure zero violation of the constitutional guarantee by executing organizational decision. QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the management's action is challenged in every action bureaucratic procedures need to be followed at that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process. 4.2.7. Work and Quality of Life QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non-work and family aspects of life. In other words family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacations etc. 4.2.8. Social Relevance of Work

The organization which has lack of concerns for social causes like waste disposal, low quality product, overaggressive marketing, employment practices make workers depreciate the value of their work and career which in turn effect their self-esteem. QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers self-esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society. 10

4.3.

Specific Issues in QWL

Trade unions claim that they are responsible for the improvement in various facilities to workers where as management takes credit for improved salaries, benefits and facilities. However, P/HR manager has specific issues in QWL besides normal wages, salaries, fringe benefits etc., and takes lead in providing them so as to maintain higher order QWL. 4.3.1. Pay and Stability of Employment Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. Enhancing the facilities for human resource development can provide stability to a greater extent. 4.3.2. Occupational Stress Stress is a condition of strain on one's emotions, thought process and physical condition, stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedule, workers abilities and nature and match with the job requirements. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyper-excitation or depression, unstable behavior, fatigue, stuttering, trembling pains, heavy smoking and drug abuse. Stress adversely affects employee's productivity. The P/HR manager, in order to minimize the stress has to identify prevent and tackle the problem. He may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company. 4.3.3. Organizational Health Programmes Organizational health programmes aim at educating employees about health problems, means of maintaining and improving of health etc., these programmes cover drinking and smoking cessation hyper tension control, other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning etc. Effective implementation of these programmes result in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization, disability, excessive job turnover and premature death. This programme should also cover relaxation, physical exercise, diet control etc, 4.3.4. Alternative Work Schedules Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours, 11

staggered hours, reduced work per week, part-time employment which may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time, flexible hours of work is preferred. 4.3.5. Participation Management and Control of Work Trade unions and workers believe that workers participation in management and decision - making improves QWL. Workers also feel that they control over their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to participate in creative and decision- making process. 4.3.6. Recognition Recognizing the employee as a human being more than as a laborer increases the QWL. Participative management, awarding the rewarding systems, congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering prestigious designations to the jobs, providing well furnished and Decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association, providing vehicles, offering vacation trips are some means to recognize the employees. 4.3.7. Congenial Worker Supervisor Relations Harmonious supervisor worker relations give the worker a sense of social association, belongingness, achievement of work result etc, this in turn leads to better QWL. 4.3.8. Grievance Procedure Workers have a sense of fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. 4.3.9. Adequacy of Resources Resources should match with stated objectives; otherwise, employees will not be able to attain the objectives. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. 4.3.10. Seniority and Merit in Promotions Seniority is generally taken as the basis for promotion in case of operating employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people where 12

as seniority cum-merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL. 4.3.11. Employment on Permanent Basis Employment of workers on casual, temporary, probationary basis gives them a sense of insecurity. On the other hand, employment on permanent basis gives them security and leads to higher order QWL.

Quality of Work Life and Human Resource Management


Quality of Work Life is broader than motivation though these two terms seems to be similar. All personal related activities affect QWL. Some examples are HR Activity 1. Job Analysis Effect on QWL Analyze the job in such a way that human needs like redeem, challenging work, autonomy can be satisfied. 2. Selection Selecting the right and placing thing in the right position. This satisfies his needs for rewards, interesting work etc. Satisfy higher order needs like pride ego. Equitable wages.

3. Job Enrichment 4. Job Evaluation

Table 4.1. HR Activities and their Effects on QWL

4.4.

Barriers to QWL

QWL suffers from barriers like any other new scheme. Management, employees and unions fear the effect of unknown change. All these parties feel that the benefits of this concept are few though they are convinced about its effect on personal management as a whole and on the individual parties separately management should develop strategies to improve QWL in view of the barriers. 4.5.

Strategies for Improvement of QWL


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The strategies for improvement in QWL include self managed work teams, job redesign, enrichment, effective leadership and supervisory behavior, career development, alternative work schedules, job security, administrative or organizational and participative management. 4.5.1. Self-managed Work Team: These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan, coordinate and control the activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. Each team has authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. The group as a whole is accountable for the success or failure. Salaries are fixed both on the basis on individual and group achievement. 4.5.2. Job Redesign and Enrichment: Narrow jobs can be combined into large units of accomplishment. Jobs are redesigned with a view to enriching them to satisfy higher order human needs. 4.5.3. Career Development: Provision for career planning,

communicating and counseling the employees about the career opportunities career path, education and development and for second career should be made. 4.5.4. Alternative Work Schedules: Provision for flexible working hours, part-time employment, job sharing and reduced work week should be made. 4.5.5. Job Security: This tops the employees list of priorities. It should be adequately taken care of. 4.5.6. Administrative or Organizational Justice: The principles of justice, fair and equity should be taken care of in disciplinary procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, transfer, demotion, work assignment, leaves etc. 14

4.5.7. Participative Management: Employees should be allowed to participate in management, participative schemes which may be of several types. The most sophisticated among them is quality circle. Implementation of these strategies ensures higher level of Quality of Work Life.

4.6.

QWL and Productivity

The general perception is that improvements in QWL costs much to the organization, but it is not so, as improvement over the existing salary, working conditions and benefits will not cost much. However, the rate of increase in productivity is higher than the cost of QWL. Thus increase in QWL results in increase in productivity, but continual increase in QWL eventually leads to reduction in productivity due to increase in cost of output. This is because the workers output does not increase proportionately after a certain level even though QWL increases. Improved QWL leads to improved performance. Performance should mean not only physical out put but also the behavior of the workers in helping colleagues in solving job related problems, accepting orders with enthusiasm, promoting a positive team spirit and accepting temporary unfavorable work conditions without complaint.

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CHAPTER - III BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

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5. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM


Organizations, in the past, gave more importance on advanced technology for higher productivity surpassing the needs and mental state of its employees. This created a negative impact on the working environment among the employees. Thus it was realized that 'societal support goes hand in hand with technical innovations. This integration can only be made through quality of work life programmes. Quality of work life denotes all the organizational inputs that aim at the employee's satisfaction and enhancing organizational effectiveness. In the late 1950s the term QWL was used to stress the prevailing poor quality of Life at work place and it was first defined then in terms of people's reaction to work, particularly an individual's job satisfaction and mental health. It also refers to favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment for people. Multifarious criteria that characterize this industrial orientation include fair compensation, healthy working conditions, and opportunities for developing skills. Continued growth and security, conducive work environment, protection of workers rights, social relevance and balance between work and personal life. Later, quality came to be recognized as an approach or method used for improving work. It was viewed to be synonymous with methods used for improving work. It was viewed to be synonymous with methods such as job enrichment, self managed teams and managed committees. The management in every organization should sincerely invite their employees to suggest ways to improve their operation and the quality of their work life, only if these ideas are received in a spirit of appreciation. The employees should then be asked to participate in studying the feasibility and recommend appropriate means of implementing each suggestion that survives such review. The quality of life at work probably would then be enhanced. A management practice that manifests concern about job enrichment, employee security, career opportunities and the opportunities for employees to have voice in matters which affect them is entirely consistent with meticulously controlled operations in the interest of efficiency, effectiveness, quality assurance, customer service, profitability 17

and high employee morale. As a part of fulfilling the above mentioned responsibility with regard to improving the quality of work life of employees Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd., which was established in 1996 assigned me this task as part of my M.B.A. project work. By measuring three motivational dimensions employee participation, employee involvement, and employee satisfaction, the Company would like to take preventive measures if any loop holes are find out with the help of my study. better manage their work and life responsibilities. So, that they will be able to take personalized approach to help employees locate the resources and support needed to

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CHAPTER IV NEED FOR THE STUDY

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NEED FOR THE STUDY


Mankind needs to be related with one self, with others, with the society, and with the world. This relatedness provides us the basic stimuli and motivations to live, perform and achieve at home and at work. Having concern with the life on the job is not new. It's a fact that quality of work life and quality of life are interdependent. The degree to which employees are able to satisfy their personal needs with the experience they gained in professional life acts as a motivational factor for employees. The increased ferment of union activities in the 30s and 40s, through collective bargaining and legislations, led to improved working conditions. Even before that, labour was vigorously protesting management attempts to change the work environment. A study by Professor Robert F .Hoxie, Chicago University in 1915, reported how the unions, particularly the machinists, were fighting scientific management techniques. The so-called scientific management, and labour complaint, condemned the workers to a monotonous routine, destroyed their creativity, and drove them to the brink of exhaustion. There are generally two types of workers-some accept the life as they find it, i.e. a job, which provides a living, is enough. But for some others, 'taking home a pay is not all'-they want a chance for self-fulfillment in workplace. Thus most of the employees in the organizations want this activity to be conducted, though a few reject the idea and do show alienation. These workers generally do not want increased responsibilities, nor want to learn new skills. They only need a specially tailored approach to cope with their feelings. This minority should be permitted to continue in their respective skills and familiar tasks so long as they perform satisfactorily. Today's aspirations for an improved work life, however, go well beyond 20

continuing efforts to improve benefits and working conditions. Minority groups have fought for equal opportunities. Youth has gained greater degree of freedom from parents and other adult authorities. Citizen groups and environmentalists have called for more corporate responsibility, at the expense of profits, if necessary. Many companies are responding with thoughtful plans and tangible actions.

Conclusion
There is a positive correlation between quality of work life and quality of life. Some factors such as intrinsic motivation, control job involvement job attractiveness are factors that potentially influence both QWL and quality of life. Quality of Work Life has a distinct bearing on Quality of Life. Private sector companies, if they want to elevate the level of performance, should take enough initiatives to improve QWL. Accurate and consistent scales should be developed to measure the above factors and regular monitoring needs to be done. The present study is meant to detect the various activities Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited currently adopting in order to improve the QWL of employees, so that corrective measures can be taken if any bottlenecks are found in the study.

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CHAPTER V OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Mankind to be related, with one self, with others, with the society, and with the world. This relatedness provides us the basic stimuli and motivations to live, perform and achieve at home and at work. Quality of work life and quality of life are correlated. Some factors such as intrinsic motivation, control, job involvement and job attractiveness are factors that potentially influence both QWL and quality of life. The primary objective of the present study is to study the three basic motivational factors (which together build a qualitative work life for the employees) Employee job satisfaction Employee job involvement

Employee Participation, with regard to the employees of Ganpati Sugar Industry Limited with the following specific objectives.

6.1.

Specific Objectives

With the help of different questionnaires (Closed end) for both blue-collar and white-collar workers of GSIL, the present study tried to achieve the following specific objectives. The availability and satisfaction level of employees with regard to the following issues of the company, so that the primary objective of the study can be achieved. Adequate and fair compensation Safe and healthy working conditions Opportunity to use and develop human capacities Opportunity for continued growth and security 23

Social integration in work environment Constitutionalism or the 'rule of law' in the work organization Work span in the total life space The social relevance of work life

6.2.

Type of Study

Based on the type of information required, research is divided into three categories. They are Exploratory study Descriptive study Causal study Our study is Descriptive type of study because the information required for in this study- has a particular specified objective.

6.3.

Data Needs

1. Information on the workers and on all Departments as Finance, Engineering, Manufacturing, Cane, Personnel, Commercial and Stores. 2. Information from the Human Resources about the employees.

6.4.

Source of data

There are two types of sources of data required for this study. They are Primary source of data and Secondary source of data. 6.4.1. Primary Data: Primary data are the data that are collected to help, solve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity on which a decision is pending. Here in this study the primary data is collected by means of questionnaires administered to workers and employees 24

of GSIL. 6.4.2. Secondary Data: Secondary data are the data that were developed for some purpose other than helping to solve the problem at hand. For this study the secondary data was obtained from various documents like business plan etc., provided by the management of GSIL.

6.5.

Sample Plan
6.5.1. Population Specification: The populations for this survey are divided into two broad groups. They are shop-floor workers from different departments and administrative staff.

Total No. of Shop-floor workers Total Administrative staff

- 434 86

6.5.2. Sample Profile: Random sample taken for our study was with a general sample profile of workers as being highly experienced and working for a long time in the company. All the employees in this study were middle aged and well experienced. 6.5.3. Method of Sampling: The method of sampling chosen for this study is non-probability sampling. Several kinds of non-probability samples in common use are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Convenience sampling Judgment sampling Quota sampling Purposive sampling

In this study we have taken Convenience sampling as our method of sampling. The 25

sample was arbitrarily chosen to be 100 in number out of the total population of 510. 6.5.4. Size of the Sample: The sample size for this study is 100. This sample contains 80 workers and 20 people from administrative staff. This is according to the ratio of workers and administrative staff in GSIL.

6.6. Method of Analysis


Method of analysis for this study is simple statistical analysis.

6.7.

Limitations of the study


The study was restricted to only about 100 employees.

Only two shifts of workers were considered due to lack of time. Respondents being influenced by responses of other respondents. Limited ability to comprehend questions by workers. There may have been little apprehension in giving information due to fear of higher authorities.

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CHAPTER - VI SUGAR INDUSTRY A CURTAIN RAISER


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7. SUGAR INDUSTRY
7.1. Background

Sugar industry is the largest agro-based industry located in the rural India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and a large number of agricultural laborers are involved in sugarcane cultivation, harvesting and ancillary activities, constituting 7.5% of the rural population. Besides, about 0.5 million skilled and semi-skilled workers, mostly from the rural areas, are engaged in the sugar industry. The sugar industry in India has been a focal point for socio-economic development in the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources, generating employment & higher income, transport and communication facilities. Further, many sugar factories have established schools, colleges, medical centers and hospitals for the benefit of the rural population. Some of the sugar factories have also diversified into byproduct based industries and have invested and put up distilleries, organic chemical plants, paper and board factories and cogeneration plants. The industry generates its own replenishable biomass and uses it as fuel without depending on fossil fuel. The sugar industry's contribution to the Indian economy is, therefore, enormous. There are 426 installed sugar mills in the country with a production capacity of 200 lakh MTs of sugar. These mills are located in 18 states of the country. About 60% of these mills are in the cooperative sector, 35% in the private sector and rest in the public 28

sector. The minimum price of raw material, namely sugarcane, is statutorily fixed by the Central Government on the basis of the recommendation made by Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP). Sale of sugar produced by the mills is regulated by the Central Government through monthly fixation of quota. 90% of the sugar produced is allowed to be sold by mills as free sale quota (free in regard to price and movement) and 10% is allowed to be sold as levy to State Governments or their nominees at predetermined prices. The sale of sugar produced in 4-5 months of the sugar season is staggered over a period of a year or more. Agriculture in the country being largely rain fed, monsoon plays an important role in the production of sugarcane, the basic raw material for the sugar industry. On the back of successive good monsoons, sugar production in the country increased rapidly in the last five years, reaching 20.1 million tons in 2002-03 from 15.5 million tons in 1998-99. The sugar production in the last 15 years may be seen at following table 7.2.

Sugar Production in India


Year 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997 -98 1998-99 29 Sugar Production (Million Ton) 8.75 10.99 12.04 13 .40 10.60 9.83 14.64 16.45 12.90 12.85 15.53

1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

18.20 18.51 18.52 20.14 13.55 12.78 19.50

Table 8.1. Sugar Production in India

Without any major increase in consumption of sugar, large accumulation of sugar stocks took place during 1998-99 and 2002-03, leading to low price realizations. The exfactory price of sugar fell from a high of Rs.1630/quintal in 2001 to a low of Rs.1130/quintal in 2003. The ex-factory price of sugar remained even below the cost of production for long periods of time. As it is, the competitive edge of Indian sugar in international market is weak. This was further weakened due to depressed price of sugar in the international market, eroding export possibilities and earnings from export. Although efforts by the industry and incentives from Central Government culminated in the export of about 40 lakh tons of sugar in the last three years, yet domestic price continued to remain low. The low cash realizations led to serious financial crunch for the sugar industry. The value of sugar stocks was not even enough to cover the working capital advances taken, seriously affecting cash flows and the ability of sugar mills to service debts and interest on loans for modernization/expansion/byproduct utilization. Even routine maintenance was affected in the case of many factories. Interest rate on loans and advances have generally been falling in the country. However, the advantages of falling interest rates did not flow to the sugar industry, as the perspective of financial institutions/banks with regard to the sugar industry remained negative in the adverse sugar market scenario 30

mentioned above. Huge increases in production up to 2002-03 has been followed by low sugar production in 2003-04 (and projected low production in 2004-05) on account of drought and pest infestation in certain major sugar producing States. Although this has resulted in stabilization of sugar prices, the loss in production has compounded the problems of the sugar industry. The loss in production is not only likely to reduce the ability of sugar factories to service their debts, but may even affect running of the sugar factory because of inadequate availability of working capital. Low capacity utilization resulting from low availability of cane is likely to lead to higher costs of production. As many as 100 factories are unlikely to come into production in 2004-05 because of non-availability of cane creating difficulties in meeting fixed costs and wages of mill employees. Thus by April 2004, the sugar industry found itself entangled in a complex web of problems of high stocks, low prices, poor profitability, mounting cane price arrears, financial crunch (or outright sickness) limited modernization/expansion/ diversification, and weak international competitive edge. It was in this context, that the Interim Budget 2004-05 provided that "The Government will prepare a package for the revitalization of sugar industry, in consultation with all the stakeholders". Accordingly, a Committee, consisting of all stakeholders was set up on March 12, 2004 under the Chairmanship of Shri S.K. Tuteja, Secretary, Ministry of Food, Consumer Affairs & Public Distribution, Government of India for the purpose of identifying the problems faced by the sugar industry and suggest a package for its revitalization to enable make it viable, self sustaining and globally competitive.

7.3.

Sugar Scenario - National & International


7.3.1. National

The sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry, next to textiles in the country. The first sugar mill in the country was set up in 1903 in the United Provinces. There are 553 installed sugar mills, of which 453 were in operation in the year 2002-03 and utilized 194.4 million ton of sugarcane (69% of total cane production) to produce 20.14 million tons of sugar. About 5 lakh workmen are directly employed in the sugar industry besides many in industries, which utilize by-products of sugar industry as raw 31

material. Sugar industry contributes about Rs.1650 crores to the Central Exchequer as excise duty and other taxes annually. In addition, about Rs.600 crores is realized by the State Governments annually through purchase tax and cess on cane. At the prevailing sugar cane price, the total sugar cane produced in the country value at about Rs.24000 crores per year. The Government of India licensed new units with an initial capacity of 1250 TCD up to the 1980s and with the revision in minimum economic size to 2500 TCD, the Government issued licenses for setting up of 2500 TCD plants thereafter. The Government de-licensed sugar sector w.e.f. 11.9.1998. The entrepreneurs have been allowed to set up sugar factories or expand the existing sugar factories as per the techno-economic feasibility of the project. However, they are required to maintain a radial distance of 15 kms from the existing sugar factory. This stipulation is further legalized by the Govt. of India order recently. After de-licensing, a number of new sugar plants of varying capacities have been set up and the existing plants have substantially increased their capacity. The increase in number of units and capacities during the period 1980-2003 is shown in Table. Year 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987 -88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 No. of Units 315 320 321 326 339 342 354 357 365 377 385 392 393 394 32 Average capacity (t/d) 1718 1721 1779 1779 1834 1885 1862 1888 1925 2036 2088 2167 2325 2388

1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997 -98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

408 416 412 400 427 423 436 434 453 422 400 426

2483 2531 2656 2863 2855 3049 3203 3285 3343 3343 3380 3415

Table 8.2. Number of Sugar Factories in Operation in India and Average Capacity Decennial period ending No. of units % increase in units over the base per year 1980 -26 41 52 Average capacity per unit (ton) 1650 2030 3000 3340 % increase in capacity over the base year (1980) --23 82 102

1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006

299 377 423 453 No spurt some of the inefficient old units are closed.

Table 8.3. Number of Sugar Units in Operation The average per capita consumption of sugar is estimated at 18.3 kg/year in the year 2002-03. Based on the existing trend, this is estimated to increase to 23-24 kg/year by year 2010. At an annual population growth rate of 1.6% per annum, the population of India is expected to be 116 Crores by the year 2010 and therefore the corresponding estimated requirement of sugar will be 24.3 million tons. To achieve this, the sugar cane needs to be cultivated on an area of about 5.5 million ha with an average yield of 65 T /ha. As the increase in area of the sugarcane from the present 4.36 million hectare to 5.5 million hectare, may not be possible due to other competing crops, it becomes necessary to improve the productivity and yield of sugarcane and sugar recovery. The State wise scenario in respect of sugarcane production, cane consumption by sugar industry, sugar 33

produced, season duration, number of units etc. in different key sugar producing States is as per following table.

State

No. of units in operation 35 10 15 15 36 135 22 36 101 10

Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Maharashtra Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal

Season duration (davs) 119 117 152 162 142 125 147 195 150 138

Sugarcane Production (Million tons) 18.08 5.21 12.46 9.27 33.01 45.14 9.25 32.62 117.98 7.55

Sugar Production (Million tons) 1.05 0.34 1.05 0.62 1.55 5.61 0.59 1.83 5.26 0.44

Table 8.4. State-Wise Sugar Production

Phased decontrol of the sugar industry In pursuance to the decision to decontrol sugar industry, the Central government reduced compulsory levy obligation of the sugar industry from 40% to 30% with effect from 1/1/2000, 15% with effect from 1/2/2001 and 10% with effect from 1/3/2002. In November 2001, the Central Government announced that the sugar factories would be given quarterly releases for non-levy free sale sugar from January 2002 in place of the monthly releases. In February 2002, the Central Government decided to dispense with the 34

release mechanism with effect from 1st April 2003. However, in March 2003, it was decided to continue with the release mechanism up to September 2005 and to review the position in February 2005. Introduction of Futures/Forward trading in sugar The Central Government has decided to introduce futures/forward trading in sugar, a step that is necessary before effecting complete decontrol of sugar. A notification to this effect has been issued under the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952 in May 2001. In November 2001, the Government has given in principle clearances to three proposed exchanges - two in Mumbai and one in Hyderabad - that are in the process of completing the procedural formalities to set up exchanges and to commence futures trading. Restructuring of Public Distribution System (PDS) for sugar Consequent upon reduction of levy percentage, the PDS for sugar has been restructured. Sugar in the PDS is supplied to the Below Poverty Line (BPL) families in all States/Union Territories, except the North Eastern States, hilly States and island territories, where sugar in the PDS is available to all the ration cardholders. Liberalization of sugar trade The Central Government has lifted restrictions on fortnightly sales by the sugar factories. It has also removed the stockholding and turnover period limits on the dealers of sugar. Decanalisation of export The Sugar Export Promotion Act, 1958 under which export of sugar was canalized through agencies nominated by the Central Government has been repealed with effect from 15.1.1997. Removal of Quantitative ceiling on export of sugar The central government has removed the quantitative ceiling on export of sugar. It has also dispensed the registration requirement for export of sugar with the Agricultural & Processed Food Export Development Authority (APEDA) with effect from 1.4.2001. Promotion of export of sugar 35

The central Government took the following measures to promote export of sugar: Exemptions from compulsory levy obligation on the exported quantity of sugar. Deferment of adjustment of the exported quantity of sugar in the stocks of the sugar factories for the purpose of domestic free sale releases. (This deferment was initially given for six months, which was later increased to twelve months and in November 2001 to eighteen months). Reimbursement of expenditure of internal transport and freight on export shipment of sugar Neutralization of disadvantage in ocean freight charges to the extent of Rs.350/- per ton of sugar exported. Reimbursement of marketing and handling charges @ Rs.500/- per ton sugar exported. The above have been withdrawn for exports made against Release Orders issued on or after June 21, 2004, keeping in view the lower production of sugar in 2003-04 sugar season. Revival of sick sugar mills As on April 01, 2004, there were 45 sick sugar companies in the public/private sectors. The number of cooperative sugar units with negative net worth as on 31/3/2003 was 130, as per information provided by NABARD. Loans from the Sugar Development Fund (SDF) at concessional rates of interest are available now for the revival of potentially viable sick sugar mills. In regard to the cooperative sugar mills, which are not within the purview of BIFR, the Government has constituted a Committee under the Chairmanship of Joint Secretary, Food & Public Distribution, to recommend revival packages for potentially viable sick cooperative sugar mills. Promoting utilization of by-products The Central Government has amended the Sugar Development Fund Act, 1982 to provide for loans from the SDF at concessional rate of interest to sugar factories for 36

undertaking bagasse based cogeneration of power projects and for production of anhydrous alcohol/ethanol from alcohol/molasses. International Sugar is produced in 110 countries. The leading sugarcane producing countries are Brazil, India, Australia, Thailand, China and Cuba. Sugar is extracted from two different raw materials, sugarcane and beet. Both produce identical refined sugar. Sugarcane is grown in semi-tropical regions, and accounts for around two-thirds of world production. Beet is grown in temperate climates, and accounts for the balance one third of world production. The Russian Federation, Ukraine and Europe account for around 80 per cent of total beet sugar production. In addition to weather conditions, diseases, insects, and quality of soil, production of sugarcane and beet are affected by international trade agreements and domestic price support programmes. India was among the largest producers of sugar in the world in 2002-03 and ranks as the largest growing global market for the product. India has 20% of the total sugar mills in the world and accounts for about 15% of the global production. Now, Brazil occupy the first position in production and export. Now, India has maintained its position as the 2nd largest sugar producing country in the world, having a share of over 15 percent of the world's sugar production. The production of sugar in India, from 1996-97 to 2003-03 sugar season (October - September) vis-a.-vis the global production of sugar has been as follows: Sugar Consumption India is also the largest consumer of sugar in the world. Consumption of sugar in India increased from 16 million tones in 1996-97 to 18.5 million tones in 2005-06. Per Capita Consumption Apart from white sugar India also consumes alternate sweeteners jaggery and khandsari, which are produced in large quantities, representing about 35% of the total sweeteners production in the country. Taking into account all the three sweeteners i.e. white sugar, jaggery, and khandsari, on a per capita basis, India's consumption stands at a reasonably high figure. This would be evident from data of per capita consumption of sugar in various countries. 37

The production is expected to increase in Brazil, China and Australia whereas, it is expected to fell short in India in sugar season 2004-05 and 2005-06 due to severe drought as compared to the previous season. In 2005-06 there was good rain and it is expected to have a bumper production during 2006-07 season. In the new season the market will be shaped by developments in two sugar giants - Brazil the world's largest sugar producer and exporter and India the world's largest sugar consumer.

CHAPTER VII SUGARCANE AGRICULTURE

38

8. SUGARCANE AGRICULTURE
Sugarcane is an important commercial crop in the country occupying about 4.36 million hectors with an annual sugarcane production of 281.6 million ton (2002-03). Sugarcane occupies about 3.0% of the total cultivated area and it is one of the most important cash crops, contributing about 7.5% of the gross value of agricultural production in the country. cane farms. Sugarcane is the primary raw material for all major sweeteners produced in the country. It also supports two important cottage industries; viz., Gur (jaggery) and khandsari industries, which together produce about 10 million ton of sweeteners (gur and khandsari sugar) consuming about 28-35% of the cane produced in the country. About 50 million farmers depend on sugarcane cultivation for their livelihood and equal number of agricultural laborers earn their living by working in sugar

8.1.

Availability of Cane

At present, sugarcane is being cultivated throughout the country except in certain hilly tracts in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh etc., The sugarcane growing areas may be 39

broadlyl classified into two agro-climatic regions viz.sub-tropical and tropical. Major portions of sugarcane cultivation in India lies in the sub-tropical belt. U.P., Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana are the important cane growing States in the region. Sugar cane is also grown in a few pockets in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan and Assam, but the productivity in these States is very low. Sugarcane is grown extensively in the tropical belt including States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, as sugar cane, which is a tropical crop, has favorable agro climatic conditions for its growth in these States. The yields are substantially higher in the tropical belt as compared to the sub-tropical regions. The availability of sufficient quantity of good quality sugarcane in the mill area is an important pre-requisite for the factory to be economically viable. Further, the cost of transportation and deterioration in quality increases significantly with the distance of the areas from where sugarcane is procured. It is therefore necessary that suitable steps are taken by the various stake holders (including State Governments) to ensure that sufficient sugarcane is developed and grown in the mill area for the purpose. Therefore scientific rationalization of cane area will have a direct impact on the economy of the sugar industry to enable it to compete globally.

Major reasons for low productivity


Recently there has been a major reduction in area under sugarcane cultivation and its yield mainly due to drought in almost the whole of tropical and sub-tropical regions. The effect of drought, delayed payment of cane price and low sugar prices in the recent past have led to fall in sugarcane production and closure of some sugar mills. The incidence of woolly aphid as a new pest on sugarcane came to light in August 2002 in Belgaum district and moved swiftly to Bhadra canal areas and Cauvery basin in southern Karnataka. The incidence and alarming rate of spread and severity has created panic among the cane growers in Cauvery basin who have already suffered substantial losses due to drought during the previous years. 40

8.2.

Sugarcane Variety

Various experiments conducted under All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) has shown that the newly developed varieties are suitable to be grown under specific climatic conditions. Therefore only the recommended varieties are to be cultivated suitable to the regions. Bihar records the lowest sugar recovery % cane as compared to other major sugar producing States of the country. Against an all India average recovery of 10.36% in 200203, Bihar's recovery was only 9%, some factories have even recorded recovery as low as 7.0 - 8.23%. This is against an average recovery of 10.93%, which was achieved by the Bihar factories in 1942-43.

Special attention is therefore required to be given to varietal composition in regions recording low sugar in cane. It was suggested by the stake holders that the Sugarcane Research Institute, Pusa which is the only Research Institute in Bihar should be allocated adequate funds by the Central and State Government for developing suitable varieties of sugarcane which are high yielding and have high sugar content. It was noted that in some regions like Uttar Pradesh a number of low sugared cane varieties continue to occupy large areas in spite of being rejected by the State Government. Therefore, there is an urgent need for replacement of such rejected varieties through extension services.

41

42

CHAPTER VIII OVERVIEW OF GSIL

9.

AN OVERVIEW OF GANAPATI SUGAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED


9.1. Origin

GSIL was started in 1996 at Fasalwadi Ikulabgoor village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak District. Mr. Bal Govind Lohia is Founder and Chairman of GSIL Mr. P.M.Nair is Director of Operations and Projects, Mr. K.Harinath is Executive Director, Mr. M.Janaki Manohar is Executive Director Mr. G.Bhaskar Reddy is General Manager (Cane) and Mr.S.Nagaraj is General Manager (Process). 43

Factory is located in Fasalwadi village just 5 Kms away from Sangareddy town. It has beautiful environment and peaceful atmosphere as it is situated adjacent to river Manjeera. Mr.K.Harinath (Executive Director) is the Head of the Company. He is looking after all the functional areas of GSIL. GSIL is working round the clock in season. It has three shifts A, B, & C. Shift A: 6A.M to 2 P.M (lunch time - 11.30A.M to 12 noon) Shift B: 2P.M to 10P.M (Break time - 7P.M to 7.30 P.M) Shift C: 10 P.M to 6A.M (Tea break - 00.30A.M) General Shift for Administrative Staff is 8.30 A.M to 5 P.M The entire organization is divided into eight different departments viz; 9.2. Production Personnel Engineering Mechanical Lab Stores Commercial A/C Department Cane Departments

Functional Departments of the Organization

Human Resource Department Production / Process Marketing Department Finance Department Chief Engineering Department Chief Chemist 44

Cane Department 9.3.

Product Profile of the Company


9.3.1. Products

Sugar Power (co-generation) Ethanol 9.3.2. Bi-products

Bagasse Molasses Press mud Sugar: The sugar plant presently has an installed crushing capacity of 5,000 tonnes of sugarcane per day (8,00,000 tonnes per annum) with recovery rate of 10.40%. Power (cogeneration): Existing power plant is able to generate electricity by using bagasse, a biproduct in the process of manufacturing sugar, as under 03.000 mega watt (old power plant) + 15.575 mega watt (new power plant) = 18.575 mega watt. Power generated will be first captively consumed for its existing sugar plant and the surplus is being sold to the Sate Government. Ethanol: Ethanol is produced from Molasses which is a bi-product obtained during manufacture of sugar as well as obtaining from outside sources. Ethanol is being currently used as additive to petrol and diesel. The bi-products generated during crushing of sugarcane and manufacture of sugar are: Bagasse: is used as a fuel in a co-generation plant. It is also used as a raw material in the manufacturing of paper. Molasses: Industrial alcohol and down stream chemicals can be produced from molasses. Industrial alcohol is a vital raw material for a number of chemicals and it also has great potential as fuel. Press Mud: As this contains cane was, it is used as recovery for commercial use. Press 45

mud is used as manure. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sugar Bagasse Molasses Press Mud / Press cake 10.40% to 10.65% 30% 4.50% 3%

Table 10.1. Recovery rate of various product 9.4.

Production Process

Sugar: The technological process adopted by the company involves production of white crystal sugar by double sulphitation process. Sugar is produced in modem vacuum pan factories and the method of manufacture comprises five operations. Extraction of juice Clarification of juice Evaporation Crystallization Centrifugation

Marketing Sugar is sold in the market through the following three channels orders. Marketing Channels: Free sugar will be sold through Government appointed dealers. Dealers require license to handle this product. Factory enlist such dealers in different business areas and sell the sugar or fix up quota to this dealer depending upon the order by the Government and allow them to sell it to actual users and to retail shops. Through Exports: India is a major producer and consumer of sugar in the world. The sugar policy has so far been directed towards achieving self-sufficiency in production to meet the consumption requirements. With three successive years of bumper production, 46 Own marketing and sale efforts Marketing channels Through exports

Own Marketing and Sale Efforts: includes sales to multinational companies through

Government has decided to open export market with certain attractive concessions to the sugar manufacturing units. Sales analysis for the year 2005-06 is presented representing percentage distribution of market segment Direct Sales Through Network Sale to Government (levy sugar) Export 3.95 10.48 0.60 0.79

Table 10.2. Sales Analysis (2005-06) GSIL Customer Profile Pepsi Coca-cola Nestle SmithKline Beecham Hindustan Liver Limited Indian Tobacco Company Limited Haldiram Many other major customers

Category No. of Persons Management positions 10 Administration 86 Workmen 434 Total 530 Table 10.3. The Total Manpower Strength of the Company - Cadre wise

9.5.

HR Policies
47

9.5.1. Recruitment Process - Rules followed All sugar factories are governed by the rule of All India Sugar Board. All the employees up to supervisory A grade which come under this are Unskilled labor, Semiskilled labor, Skilled labor, Highly skilled labor, operators, supervisory staff. All the post above this is not governed by rules and regulations and all the other staff comes under Factories Act, 1948, Workers compensation Act etc. The structure of wage board is specific with fixation of salary grades, yearly increments, and other benefits like medical allowance, washing allowance, eligibility of leave, gratuity, provident fund and insurance linked retirement benefits. The retirement age of personnel is 60 years and no fixed pension scheme is now available in sugar industry. Career progression depends upon merit, experience attained, availability of higher post and personal capacity. Unskilled and up to supervisory A are recruited by a committee constituted by company's general manager or personnel manager and as per qualification, physical health etc as required by the specific post. Chief executive or other officer will issue appointment order and appointing authority can only take disciplinary action if required. Only recruitment is for new units and generally there would not be any recruitment once the specific factory stabilizes. Vacancy arises out of retirement, absconding, etc and will be filled by generally promoting eligible candidates to the higher post to lowest post recruitment could be carried out. Preference will be given to local candidates in the order of same district, nearby district and state. Outside candidates are generally avoided. 9.5.2. Managerial cadre recruitment In this category highly competent, efficient and qualified personnel are required. The recruitment is carried out by all India basis and first preference is given to the candidate from the same state. Advertisement will be released in newspapers (vernacular and other languages) with specific qualification, experience age etc. giving enough time for applying. After receipt of application by personnel manager or general manager, as the case may be, it will 48

be scrutinized for their competency and short-listed. This is to avoid ineligible candidates and to get only competent persons. Once the segregation work is over, list will be put up to chief executive and after his approval individual interview calls will be sent to the candidates specifically asking them to attend the interview on a particular date. A committee consisting of highly competent persons from the officers like chief engineers, general manager personnel, chief process controller, finance manager and outside experts are present depending on the requirement of the post. Written exam will be conducted if need be otherwise only oral interview will be conducted. Additional weightage will be given to extra experience, merits, awards etc. and most suitable competent person will be selected. This category of employees start from assistant manager, deputy manager, manager, senior manager, vice-presidents, presidents etc, For them there will be a fixed grade and will be fixed in that grade as per their merit. Along with basic salary, dearness allowance and other allowances etc they will also be paid one month salary as medical benefit over and above they are eligible for thirty day earned leave, fifteen day sick leave and twelve days casual leave in a year. This facility is extended not only to higher grades but applicable from unskilled category onwards. As hitherto applied in these categories also generally capable persons are promoted to higher posts as and when fresh vacancies are available. Similarly if no opportunities are present then employees are given higher grades with better incentives to hold them in the company and to avoid frustration in their work. Wage board employees are also given the benefit of dress(uniform), washing allowance, children's educational allowance and family planning incentives etc to encourage them and to keep them in good spirits. On the job training is provided to all the low grade employees to make them competent in specified jobs.

49

CHAPTER IX
50

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

10. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


ADEQUATE AND FAIR COMPENSATION
S. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measurement
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

% of Respondents
15 70 5 10 0

Total

100%

Table 11.1. Adequate and Fair Compensation 51

10% 5%

0%

15%

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

70%

Highly Dissatisfied

ADEQUATE AND FAIR COMPENSATION


Fig. 11.1. Adequate and Fair Compensation As 70% of the respondents have replied as satisfied with their salary it shows that there is fair job evaluation present in the organization and it has ability to pay well. Adequate compensation helps in maintaining a socially desirable standard of life. Only a small percent of employees' feel that they are not paid accordingly for their services rendered to the organization. There is also always difference of opinion from person to person, which may cause this aberration.

FRINGE BENEFITS
S. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measurement
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied, Highly Dissatisfied

% of Respondents
10 65 15 10 0

Total
Table 11.2. Fringe Benefits

100%

52

10% 0% 10% 15%

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied

65%

Highly Dissatisfied

Fig. 11.2. Fringe Benefits These are the various benefits at the fringe of the wage, management provides these benefits to motivate the employees and to meet their lives contingencies. In this study about 65% of employees have responded to be satisfied with the fringe benefits provided by the organization. Some have not responded positively, as they have not yet perceived any real benefit in the organization.

RECOGNITION
S. No. 1. 2. 3.
4.

Measurement Congratulating Monetary Rewards Non-monetary Rewards Others Total


Table 11.3. Recognition

% of Respondents 50 35 10 5 100%

53

10%

5%

Congratulating M onetary Rewards Non-M onetary Rewards Others

50% 35%

Fig. 11.3. Recognition Recognizing the employees for their contribution towards the organization increases the QWL of the employees. Awarding the rewarding systems, congratulating the employees for their achievements, and providing non-monetary rewards such as job enrichment, providing well furnished and decent workplaces, providing vehicles, offering vacation trips etc. 50% of respondents say that congratulating is the way of recognition for their contribution. 35% of them feel they are provided with monetary rewards. Only 10% of them feel that non-monetary rewards are present in the organization.

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS
S. No. 1. 2. 3.
4.

Measurement High Stress Moderate Stress Low Stress No stress Total

% of Respondents 50 35 0 15 100%

Table 11.4. Occupational Stress

54

15% 0% 50% 35% High Stres Moderate Stress Low Stress No Stress

Fig. 11.4. Occupational Stress Stress is a condition of strain on ones emotions, thought process and physical condition. Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedules, nature and match with the job requirements. 50% of respondents feel the high stress involved in their job, 35% of them say that their job involves moderate stress and the rest feet no stress performing their job.

CAREER GROWTH
S. No. Measurement 1. 2. 3.
4. 5

% of Respondents 60 15 5 10
10

Promotions Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Career counseling


Training

Total
Table 11.5. Career Growth

100%

55

10% 10% 5% 60%

Promotions Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Career counseling Training

15%

Fig. 11.5. Career Growth Here the focus is on career opportunities as against the job. How much and what kind of opportunities are available to develop new and expand existing abilities to avoid obsolescence? Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. For employees surveyed, the most common career growth opportunity is in the form of promotions. Only 15% have said job enlargement and for career counseling & training 10% each have said as their career growth opportunity.

INFORMAL GROUPS
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. No Restrictions Few Restrictions High Restrictions

% of Respondents
50 15 35

Total
Table 11.6. Informal Groups

100%

56

35% 50%

No Restrictions Few Restrictionsq High Restrictions 15%

Fig. 11.6. Informal Groups Informal groups depict the picture of social integration in an organization. The freedom to form informal groups within and outside the workplace is found to be detrimental to the quality of work life. Here we have found half of the employees find no restrictions to form informal groups. About 15% said they feel few restrictions in forming informal groups. Also 35% of them said to have high restrictions to form informal groups.

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
S.No.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Measurement Always Taken & Implemented


Taken and implemented some times Taken but not implemented No Opinions taken

% of Respondents
50 45 5 0

Total
Table 11.7. Participative Management

100%

57

5%

0%

Always taken & Implemented Take n & Implemented sometimes Take n but not implemented No opinions taken

45%

50%

Fig. 11.7. Participative Management

Employees' participation in management and decision_ making improves QWL. Employees also feel that they control their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to participate in creative and decision-making process. In this survey 50% of the employees say that their views and opinions are taken and implemented, 45% of them feel their participation in management is present but not always.

WORKING SCHEDULES
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

% of Respondents
10 75 15 0 0

Total

100%
Table 11.8. Working Schedule

58

15%

0% 10%

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neithe r satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

75%

Fig. 11.8. Working Schedule Working hours and flexibility in working schedules is also determinant to the Quality of Work Life. Occupational stress, strain and fatigue are directly related to the working hours and flexibility in work schedules of the employees. Only 10% of respondents have responded to be highly satisfied with the work hours and 75% of them are satisfied. None of them have responded as dissatisfied with their working hours.

EMPLOYEE - SUPERIOR RELATIONS


S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. Congenial Relation Fair Relations Poor Relations

% of Respondents
60 35 5

Total

100%
Table 11.9. Employee Superior Relations

59

5% Congenial Relation 35% 60% Fair Relations Poor Relations

Fig. 11.9. Employee Superior Relations

Harmonious employee-superior relation gives the employee a sense of social association, belonging ness, achievement of work result etc. This in turn leads to better QWL. Here 60% of the employees say they have good congenial relations with their superiors and 35% of them have fair relations. Only 5% do not have good relation with their superiors.

DISCRETION IN WORK
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Complete discretion Moderate Discretion Minimum Discretion No Discretion

% of Respondents
25 50 25 0

Total
Table 11.10. Discretion in Work

100%

60

0% 25% 25%

Complete Discretion M oderate Discretion M inimum Discretion No Discretion

50%

Fig. 11.10. Discretion in Work

QWL can be improved if the job allows sufficient autonomy and control, use a wide range of skills and abilities, provides immediate feedback to employees to take corrective action, is seen as a total activity, and provides opportunity to plan and implement by himself. Only a quarter of the respondents feel they have complete discretion over their work and half of them feel to have moderate discretion in their job, other quarter of them say they have minimal discretionary powers.

CONSTITUTIONALISM S. No. Measurement % of Respondents 1. Strictly adhered to rules 60 2. Follow as much as possible 30 3. Many lapses 10 4. Minimum adherence 0 Total
Table 11.11. Constitutionalism

100%

61

10% 0%

Strictly adhered to rules Follow as much as possible 60% M any lapses M inimum adherence

30%

Fig. 11.11. Constitutionalism Enhanced QWL should also ensure zero violation of the constitutional guarantee by executive organizational decision. Such guarantees a fight to personal privacy, free speech equitable treatment and governance by the "Rule of law" are necessary to uphold to improve QWL. 60% of them say that all rules are strictly adhered to in the organization and 30% of them feel there may be a few concessions as 10% say constitutionalism is prevalent to a limited extent.

SOCIAL RELEVANCE
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. High Relevance Average Relevance Low Relevance Very low Relevance

% of Respondents
25 70 0 5

Total
Table 11.12. Social Relevance

100%

62

5% 0% 25% High Relevance Average Relevance Low Relevance Very Low relevance

70%

Fig. 11.12. Social Relevance QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers self esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society. The organizations' lack of concern for social causes make employees depreciate the value of their work and career which in turn effects their self-esteem. 25% of employees seem to attribute high social relevance to their work and 70% of them attribute average social relevance.

WORK AND TOTAL LIFE SPACE SOCIAL RELEVANCE


S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Very pleasant Reasonably O.K. Unpleasant Very unpleasant

% of Respondents
55 45 0 0

Total

100%

Table 11.13 Social Relevance in Work and Total Life Space

63

0% 0% Very pleasant 45% 55% Reasonably O.K. Unpleasant Very Unpleasant

Fig. 11.13 Social Relevance in Work and Total Life Space

Family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacation etc. Employee's perception of their work life is detrimental to QWL in an organization. Here 55% of the employees said their work life is very pleasant and the remaining is reasonably satisfied. No one responded that his or her work life is unpleasant.

How do they feel when they start from home?

SOCIAL RELEVANCE
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Enthusiastic Eager Anticipative Hesitant

% of Respondents
60 35 5 0

Total
Table 11.14. Social Relevance

100%

64

5%

0% Enthusiastic

35% 60%

Eager Ancipative Hesitant

Fig. 11.14. Social Relevance Attitude of the employees towards work determines their productivity and performance in the organization. How they feel performing their day to day chores is important to determine their QWL. 60% of the employees said that they are very much enthusiastic about their work daily. 35% of them said they are eager to reach their work place daily and 5% of them are anticipative of their work. None of them are hesitant to reach their work place.

Do they take pride in showing the work place to their family?

SOCIAL RELEVANCE
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Yes Indifferent Hesitant Not at all

% of Respondents
75 10 10 5

Total
Table 11.15. Social Relevance

100%

65

10% 10%

5% Yes Indifferent Hesitant Not at all 75%

Fig. 11.15. Social Relevance When asked the question that whether they would like to bring their family to their work place then 75% of the employees said that they take pride in showing their work place to their families. 10% of the employees said that they are indifferent to whether their family visit their work place or not and another 10% of them were hesitant to show their work place to their family.

ADEQUATE AND FAIR COMPENSATION


S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

% of Respondents
8 52 24 11 5

Total

100%

Table 11.16. Adequate and Fair Compensation

66

Highly Satisfied 11% 5% 8% Satisfied Neithe r satisfied Nor dissatisfied 24% 52% Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Slice 6 Slice 7 Slice 8 Fig. 11.16. Adequate and Fair Compensation

If there is adequate and fair compensation it shows that there is fair job evaluation present in the organization and it has ability to pay well. Adequate compensation helps in maintaining a socially desirable standard of life. The general feeling is that of satisfactory compensation. Only a small percent of employees' feel that they are not paid accordingly for their services rendered to the organization. There is also always difference of opinion from person to person, which may cause this aberration. Also there has been a general tendency observed in humans so as to not being satisfied with what they have and they crave for more.

FRINGE BENEFITS
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

% of Respondents
11 50 23 11 5

Total
Table 11.17. Fringe Benefits

100%

67

Highly Satisfied 11% 5% 11% Satisfied Neithe r satisfied Nor dissatisfied 23% 50% Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Slice 6 Slice 7

Fig. 11.17. Fringe Benefits These are the various benefits at the fringe of the wage, management provides these benefits to motivate the employees and to meet their lives contingencies. In this study about 11 % of employees have responded to be highly satisfied and 50% of them are satisfied with the fringe benefits provided by the organization. 23% of them are indifferent to the fringe benefits provided. Some have not responded positively, as they have not yet perceived any real benefit in the organization.

WORK SCHEDULE
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Highly Flexible Flexible Less Rigid Very Rigid

% of Respondents
20 44 32 4

Total
Table 11.18. Work Schedule

100%

68

4%

20% Highly flexible Flexible Less Rigid Very Ridig 44%

32%

Fig. 11.18. Work Schedule Working hours and flexibility in working schedules is also determinant to the Quality of Work Life. Occupational stress, strain and fatigue are directly related to the working hours and flexibility in work schedules of the workers. Only 20% of respondents have said to have highly flexible work schedules and 44% of them agree that they are flexible. For 32% of the workers, the work schedules seem to be a bit rigid and for the rest it's very rigid.

Informal groups depicts the scenario of social integration in the organization

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Highly Stress Moderate Stress Low Stress No Stress

% of Respondents
11 41 28 20

Total
Table 11.19. Occupational Stres

100%

69

20%

11% High Stress M oderate Stress Low stress 41% No stress

28%

Fig. 11.19. Occupational Stres Stress is a condition of strain on ones emotions, thought process and physical condition. Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedules, nature and match with the job requirements. Stress adversely effects worker's productivity. More than half of the of workers in this study feel the high or moderate stress involved in their work, 28% of them say that their job involves low stress and the rest feel no stress involving their work.

PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Seniority Merit Job Rotation Others

% of Respondents
60 26 11 3

Total
Table 11.20 Promotion Opportunities

100%

70

11%

3% Seniority M erit

26% 60%

Job Rotation Others

Fig. 11.20 Promotion Opportunities

Seniority is generally taken as the basis for promotion in case of operating employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority cum-merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL. About 60% of the workers have the opinion that promotion opportunities are seniority based and a quarter of them think they are linked to merit.

INFORMAL GROUPS
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. No Restrictions Few Restrictions High Restrictions

% of Respondents
68 30 2

Total
Table 11.21. Informal Groups

100%

71

2% 30% No Restrictions Few Restrictions High Restrictions

68%

Fig. 11.21. Informal Groups

Informal groups depict the picture of social integration in an organization. The freedom to form informal groups within and outside the workplace is found to be detrimental to the quality of work life. Here we have found most of the workers find no restrictions to form informal groups. About 30% said they feel few restrictions in forming informal groups.

VENTILATION
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Highly ventilated Good Ventilation Minimum Ventilation No Ventilation

% of Respondents
44 30 26 0

Total
Table 11.22. Ventilation

100%

72

0% 26% Highly ventilated 44% Good ventilation M in. ventilation No ventilation 30%

Fig. 11.22. Ventilation

Ventilation is Important for good working conditions in all sugar industries. If proper ventilation is not provided for, the work life deteriorates as well as productivity. 44% of the employees feel their work place is highly ventilated. 30% say they have good ventilation, as 26% are not satisfied with the ventilation at their work place. Thus we may infer that not all parts of the factory are properly ventilated and some workers have to work in ill-ventilated areas.

CANTEEN FACILITIES
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Very Hygienic Acceptably Hygienic Unhygienic Very Unhygienic

% of Respondents
20 71 9 0

Total
Table 11.23. Canteen Facilities

100%

73

9% 0%

20%

Very Hygienic Acceptably Hygienic Unhygienic Very unhygienic

71%

Fig. 11.23. Canteen Facilities

Workers look forward to having good canteen facilities at their work place. As canteen facilities are considered to be one of the recreational facilities, it is also an important factor of QWL. 20% of them are satisfied and say their canteen is very hygienic. Most of the others, barring a few, say they get acceptably hygienic food in their canteen.

EMPLOYEESUPERIOR RELATIONS
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. Congenial Relation Fair Relations Poor Relations

% of Respondents
54 46 0

Total

100%

Table 11.24. Employee-Superior Relations

74

0% Congenial Relation 46% 54% Poor Relations Fair Relations

Fig. 11.24. Employee-Superior Relations

Harmonious employee-superior relation gives the employee a sense of social association, belongingness, achievement of work result etc. This in turn leads to better QWL. Here 54% of the employees say they have good congenial relations with their superiors and 46% of them have fair relations. None of the workers said they have poor relations with their superiors.

CONSTITUTIONALISM
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Strictly adhered to rules Follow as much as Possible Many lapses Minimum adherence

% of Respondents
33 56 6 5

Total
Table 11.25. Constitutionalism

100%

75

6%

5% 33%

Strictly adhered to rules Follow as much as possible M any lapses M in. adherence

56%

Fig. 11.25. Constitutionalism

Enhanced QWL should also ensure zero violation of the constitutional guarantee by executive organizational decision. Such guarantees a right to personal privacy, free speech, equitable treatment and governance by the "Rule of law" are necessary to uphold to improve QWL. 33% of them say that all rules are strictly adhered to in the organization and 56% of them feel there may be a few concessions as 11 % say constitutionalism is prevalent to a limited extent.

GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Structured Unstructured Highly Unstructured No such procedure

% of Respondents
72 19 3 6

Total
Table 11.26. Grievance Procedures

100%

76

3% 6% 19%

Structure d Unstructured Highly Unstructured 72% No such procedure

Fig. 11.26. Grievance Procedures Workers have a sense of fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievance and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. According to 72% of the workers there exists a structured grievance handling system in the organization. Thus we can infer that most of the workers are well aware of the present system in the organization.

SOCIAL RELEVANCE
S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. High Relevance Average Relevance Low Relevance Very Low Relevance

% of Respondents
44 52 4 0

Total
Table 11.27. Social Relevance

100%

77

4%

0%

High relevance Average Relevance Low Relevance Very Low Relevance

44% 52%

Fig. 11.27. Social Relevance

QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers self esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society. The organizations' lack of concern for social causes make employees depreciate the value of their work and career which in turn effects their self-esteem. 44% of workers seem to attribute high social relevance to their work and 52% of them attribute average social relevance.

WORK AND TOTAL LIFE SPACE WORK LIFE


S. No. Measurement
1. 2. 3. 4. Very Pleasant Reasonably O.K. Unpleasant Very Unpleasant

% of Respondents
40 52 5 3

Total

100%

Table 11.28. Work and Total Life Space

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5% 3% Very pleasant Reasonably O.K. Unpleasant 52% Very Unpleasant

40%

Fig. 11.28. Work and Total Life Space Family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacation etc. Employee's perception of their work life is detrimental to QWL in an organization. QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non-work and family aspects of life. Here 40% of the workers said their work life is very pleasant and 52% are reasonably satisfied. Only 5% and 3% responded that their work life is unpleasant and very unpleasant.

CHAPTER X
79

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

11. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


After analyzing the data collected from the employees of Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited the following conclusions were drawn. There is fair job evaluation system present in the organization and it has ability to pay well as most of the employees of the organization (both blue and white collar workers) are satisfied with their salary. But a small percent of employees' feel that they are not paid accordingly for their services rendered to the organization. It is also found that the management is able to motivate the employees by providing them various fringe benefits and most of the employees are satisfied with fringe benefits provided by the management. But some employees have not responded positively, as they have not yet perceived any real benefit out of the fringe benefits.

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Proper recognition for the contribution of employees is present in the organization and this was taking place to a large extent by non-monetary means though monetary rewards are also available.

The employees of GSIL are highly satisfied with the physical working conditions and recreational facilities as well as good canteen available in the organization.

A high percentage of employees in the organization feel that stress is involved in their job and the range of stress is moderate to high.

Most common career growth opportunity in the organization is in the form of promotions, though job enlargement and career counseling & training are also available.

Employees in the organization are happy with the liberty given in the organization while forming informal groups. But a very small portion of employees' still feel that freedom given in forming informal groups is not sufficient.

In GSIL employees views and opinions are taken and implemented. But a considerable percentage of employees feel that their participation in management is present but not always.

Some employees are highly satisfied and most others are satisfied with their work schedules but nobody in administrative staff is dissatisfied with the work schedules. But a considerable percentage of blue-collar workers are feeling that the working hours are rigid.

It was found that most of the employees feel that they have congenial relations with their superiors but a very small percentage of employees feel that they don't have good relations with their superiors.

Most of the employees feel they have discretion over their work, which ranges from complete discretion to moderate. But a considerable percentage of employees feel that they have minimal discretionary powers.

Most of the employees of GSIL are satisfied with the constitutionalism prevailing in 81

the organization. But a small percentage of employees are dissatisfied and most of them belong to operational level. Large percentage of employees is satisfied with the structured grievance procedure that is being implemented in the organization. Though most of the employees seem to attribute high social relevance to their work but a considerable number of them attribute average social relevance. From the data analysis it was found that a large percentage of employees said that their work life is very pleasant and the remaining said they are reasonably satisfied. But a very small portion of blue-collar workers feels that their work life is not pleasant. Most of GSIL employees take pride in showing their work place to their families, though a very small portion never wants to show their work place to their families.

12. SUGGESTIONS
With respect to the findings and conclusions drawn from the study the following suggestions were made for the organization. As a small percent of employees' are not satisfied with the wages it is suggested for the organization to take care of these employees as this dissatisfaction level may become contagious. Though various fringe benefits are available in the organization some employees still feel that they have not yet perceived any real benefit in the organization. Due care is need for this, as this may lead to job dissatisfaction. With regard to reward system it is suggested for the organization to increase the 82

frequency of monetary rewards at least for blue-collar workers in order to increase employee morale. As the employees of GSIL are highly satisfied with the physical working conditions available in the organization, it is suggested to the management to continue with the present working conditions and try to increase the recreational facilities like sports meet, picnics, get together, cultural meets etc., Most employees from that hygienic food is provided in the canteen and also the condition can be further improved by taking suggestions from those employees who are dissatisfied with it. In order to reduce the occupational stress of the employees, management should provide them with the Stress-buster programs along with the above mentioned recreational facilities. It should also plan to increase the frequency of rest periods, which currently does not last for more than 5 to 10 minutes. The company can increase the career counseling and training programmes, which will cause less financial burden on the company when compared to continuous promotions. As employees in the organization are happy with the liberty available in the organization while forming informal groups, the Management can utilize these groups for mutual benefit of company and individual employees. And it was also suggested that the Management should encourage the employees in framing Quality Circles. It was suggest for the Management to maintain the current participation of workers in decision making process and they can increase the participation level with the help of Quality Circles. The Management shall try to reduce that dissatisfaction level of workers with regard to work schedules by increasing the frequency of rest breaks especially for those workers who work in night shifts. As it was found that congenial relations between superiors and subordinated are 83

prevailing in the organization, it was suggested for the Management to help both the supervisors and the workers to maintain congenial relationships by nominal intervention when need arises. It may not be possible for the Management to provide complete discretionary powers to all categories of employees in their jobs but it was suggested them to take measures which will reduce the dissatisfaction arises in a small portion of employees. It was suggested to the Management to utilize proper communication channels so that employees may aware of the constitutionalism prevailing in the organization as a small portion of operational level employees feel constitutionalism is not prevailing in the company. The Company may continue to maintain the current structured grievance procedure, as most of the workers are highly satisfied with the procedure. It is suggested to the Management to try to motivate the employees so that their job satisfaction level increases and they can attribute high social relevance to their work.

CHAPTER XI
84

ANNEXURE

I. PROPOSAL
Name of the Learner : Registration No Program Name : : Maradana Lakshmi Phani Prasanna 200762668 Post Graduate Diploma In Business Administration (HumanResource Management) Address : Falt No 108, SMR Instyle, Near Dubai Gate, Hasmadpet, Bowenpally, Secunderabad-500011

85

Title of the Project

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Quality of work life and quality of life are correlated. Some factors such as intrinsic motivation, control, job involvement and job attractiveness are factors that potentially influence both QWL and quality of life. The primary objective of the present study is to study the three basic motivational factors (which together build a qualitative work life for the employees) Employee job satisfaction Employee job involvement

Employee Participation, with regard to the employees of Ganpati Sugar Industry Limited with the following specific objectives. Specific Objectives 86

With the help of different questionnaires (Closed end) for both blue-collar and white-collar workers of GSIL, the present study tried to achieve the following specific objectives. The availability and satisfaction level of employees with regard to the following issues of the company, so that the primary objective of the study can be achieved. Adequate and fair compensation Safe and healthy working conditions Opportunity to use and develop human capacities Opportunity for continued growth and security Social integration in work environment Constitutionalism or the 'rule of law' in the work organization Work span in the total life space The social relevance of work life

NEED FOR THE STUDY


Mankind is related with one self, with others, with the society, and with the world. This relatedness provides us the basic stimuli and motivations to live, perform and achieve at home and work. It's a fact that quality of work life and quality of life are interdependent. The degree to which employees are able to satisfy their personal needs with the experience they gain in professional life acts as a motivational factor for employees. The increased ferment of union activities in the 30s and 40s, through collective bargaining and legislations, led to improved working conditions. Even before that, labour was vigorously protesting when ever management attempts to change the work environment. There are generally two types of workers-some accept the life as they find it, i.e. a job, which provides a living, is enough. But for some others, 'taking home a pay is not all'-they want a chance for self-fulfillment in workplace. Thus most of the employees in the organizations want this activity to be conducted, though a few reject the idea and do 87

show alienation. Today's aspirations for an improved work life, however, go well beyond continuing efforts to improve benefits and working conditions. Minority groups have fought for equal opportunities. Many companies are responding with thoughtful plans and tangible actions. Conclusion There is a positive correlation between quality of work life and quality of life. Some factors such as intrinsic motivation, control job involvement job attractiveness are factors that potentially influence both QWL and quality of life. Private sector companies, if they want to elevate the level of performance, should take enough initiatives to improve QWL. Accurate and consistent scales should be developed to measure the above factors and regular monitoring needs to be done. The present study is meant to detect the various activities Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited currently adopting in order to improve the QWL of employees, so that corrective measures can be taken if any bottlenecks are found in the study.

METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE OF WORK


Type of Study Based on the type of information required, research is divided into following categories: Exploratory study Descriptive study Causal study

Data Needs 3. Information on the workers and on all Departments as Finance, Engineering, Manufacturing, Cane, Personnel, Commercial and Stores. 4. Information from the Human Resources about the employees. Source of data

88

There are two types of sources of data required for this study. Primary Data: Data collected by means of questionnaires administered to workers and employees of GSIL. Secondary Data: Secondary data was obtained from various documents like business plan etc., provided by the management of GSIL. Sample Plan Population Specification: The population for the survey is divided into two groups: Total No. of Shop-floor workers - 434 Total Administrative staff- 86

Sample Profile: Random sample taken for our study was general sample of workers who were middle aged, highly experienced and working for a long time in the company. Method of Sampling: The method of sampling chosen for this study is non-probabilityConvenience sampling which was arbitrarily chosen to be 100 in number out of the total population of 510. Size of the Sample: The sample size for this study is 100. This sample contains 80 workers and 20 people from administrative staff. Method of Analysis Method of analysis for this study is simple statistical analysis. Limitations of the study The study was restricted to only about 100 employees.

Only two shifts of workers were considered due to lack of time. Respondents being influenced by responses of other respondents. Limited ability to comprehend questions by workers. There may have been little apprehension in giving information due to fear of higher authorities. 89

DETAILED INFORMATION OF GUIDE Name of Guide Address : : Mr. P.M.Nair Kulabagoor/Fasalwadi Village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak Dist. - 502294 Qualification Designation Special Field of Work Experience : : : : 20 Years MBA (HR) Director (O&P)

II. QWL Questionnaire


(For White Collar Employees) Name: Designation:
1) Are you satisfied with your compensation? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied 2) How satisfied are you with the fringe benefits offered? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied 3) Achievement in employment is recognized through a) Congratulating c) Non-monetary Rewards 4) b) Monetary Rewards d) Others (...............................................) d) Not satisfied d) Not satisfied

Date: Dept:

How do you rate occupational stress involved in your work?


90

a) High Stress 5)

b) Moderate Stress c) Low Stress d) No Stress

What are the opportunities provided by organization for your career growth? a) Promotions b) Job Enlargement d) Career Counseling e) Training c) Job Enrichment f) Others

6)

How free are you to form informal groups? a) No restrictions b) Few restrictions c) High restrictions

7)

To what extent your opinions are taken in framing policies affecting you? a) Always taken and Implemented b) Taken and Implemented sometimes c) Taken but not implemented d) No opinions taken

8)

Are you satisfied with the working hours? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied How are your relations with your superiors? a) Congenial Relations b) Fair Relations d) Not satisfied

9)

c) Poor Relations

10)

Amount of discretion allowed in your work a) Complete Discretion c) Minimum Discretion b) Moderate Discretion d) No Discretion

11)

Do you enjoy freedom of speech at work place? a) Fully enjoying b) Partly enjoyed c) No freedom of speech

12)

To what extent your work has got social relevance? a) High b ) Average c) Low d) Very Low

13)

How do you describe your work life?


91

a) Very Pleasant b) Reasonably O.K c) Unpleasant d) Very Unpleasant 14) How do you feel when you start from your home to your work place? a) Enthusiastic 15) b) Eager c) Anticipative d) hesitant

Do you take pride in showing your work place to your family? a) Yes b) Indifferent c) Hesitant d) Not at all

Thanks for Your Co-operation

III. QWL Questionnaire


(For Blue Collar Employees) Name: Designation: Date: Dept:

1)

Are you satisfied with your compensation? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied d) Not satisfied

2)

How satisfied are you with the fringe benefits offered? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied d) Not satisfied

3)

Are you satisfied with your working conditions? a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Partly satisfied
92

d) Not satisfied

4)

How flexible are the work schedules? a) Highly Flexible b) Flexible c) Less Rigid d) very Rigid

5)

How do you rate occupational stress involved in your work? a) High Stress b) Moderate Stress c) Low Stress d) No Stress

6)

Promotion opportunities are provided based upon a) Seniority b) Merit c) Job Rotation d) Others

7)

How free are you to form informal groups? a) No restrictions b) Few restrictions c) High restrictions

8)

Safety and Health measures provided by the organization are a) Maximum b) Average c) Minimum d) No measures

9)

Is adequate ventilation provided? a) Highly Ventilated b) Minimum b) Good Ventilation d) No Ventilation

10)

How would you rate your canteen facilities in your organization?


a) Very hygienic

c) Unhygienic 11)

b) Acceptably hygienic d) Very unhygienic

How are your relations with your superiors? a) Congenial Relations b) Fair Relations c) Poor Relations

12)

To what extent constitutionalism is prevalent in your organization? a) Strictly adhered to rules b) Follow as much as possible c) Many lapses d) Minimum adherence

13)

Is proper grievance procedures prevalent in the organization?


93

a) Structured procedure c) Highly Unstructured 14)

b) Unstructured d) No such

To what extent your work has got social relevance? a) High b ) Average c) Low d) Very Low

15)

How do you describe your work life? a) Very Pleasant b) Reasonably O.K c) Unpleasant d) Very unpleasant

Thanks for Your Co-operation

IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY
The books referred to for various topics concerned with this project are:

. C.B. MAMORIA (Personnel Management)

. SUBBA RAO (Human Resource Management)

. UDAY PAREEK (Training & Development) . ARUN MONAPA, MIRZA S. SAIYADAIN (Personnel Management) . MIRZA S. SAIYADAIN (Human Resource Management)
. S.K. CHAKRABORTY (Managerial Effectiveness & QWL)

. Business Plan and other information provided by GSIL.


94

V. LIST OF FIGURES
OBJECTIVES OF HRM...............................................................................................5 CHAPTER VIII............................................................................................................43 OVERVIEW OF GSIL....................................................................................................43 Table 11.4. Occupational Stress......................................................................................54 Fig. 11.4. Occupational Stress.........................................................................................55 EMPLOYEE - SUPERIOR RELATIONS...................................................................... 59 DISCRETION IN WORK...............................................................................................60

95