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In view of these circumstances, the Theater Commander should be duly authorized to receive the unconditional surrender of Japan on behalf

of all of the United Nations at war with Japan. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx? type=turn&id=FRUS.FRUS1944v05&entity=FRUS.FRUS1944v05.p12 90&isize=text&q1=surrender&q2=capitulations The Four Nation Declaration signed at Moscow, November 1, 1943, implies that such is the case. It reads: Those of the signatories at war with a common enemy will act together in all matters relating to the surrender and disarmament of that enemy. 6. What Nations Should Discharge the Responsibilities and Exercise the Powers Resulting from the Unconditional Surrender of Japan? Many of the United Nations at war with Japan will be unable to participate in combat operations against the homeland of Japan or to discharge the responsibilities arising from this unconditional surrender, such as the responsibilities connected with the military government of Japan. The Department of State has recommended that: With the completion of military operations and after the unconditional surrender of Japan, there should be, so far as practicable, allied representation by those countries which have actively participated in the war against Japan in the army of occupation and in military government. (Japan: Occupation and Military Government: Composition of Forces to Occupy Japam-PWC-111.) If such a policy is adopted, it is impossible to determine at the moment just what countries would be affected, but it is reasonable to assume that at least the United States, the United Kingdom, and China would be considered as having actively participated in the war against Japan. Other countries which so far are in a position to make a similar claim include Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Netherlands and the Philippines. Additional countries having territories in the Far East which so far have not participated in the war 1280

against Japan, may at a subsequent date do so and thereby establish a claim for representation. To be consistent with the recommendation of the Department just cited, the responsibilities resulting from unconditional surrender should be discharged, and the powers should be exercised primarily by the United States, China and the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, if it has entered the war against Japan, with the assistance of those United Nations which have actively participated in the war against Japan. 7. Extent of Authority to be Exercised The Department of State has recommended the military occupation of Japan, and that adequate forces be available. To occupy all of the prefectural capitals, other important cities and strategic areas, including divisional headquarters and industrial districts, as soon as possible after capitulation of Japan. (See: Japan: Occupation and Military Government: Extent of OccupationPWD-11Oa.) 87 The unconditional surrender of Japan would make it possible for the United Nations to assume the supreme authority with respect to Japan and to exercise powers beyond those given a military occupant by international law. There would seem to be considerable advantage in the United Nations incorporating in a document or documents those measures which they intend to impose on Japan following its unconditional surrender and the general policy they expect to follow in regard to the post-war treatment of Japan. The documents should be transmitted to the Japanese upon the receipt of their acknowledgment of unconditional surrender and should specify the initial military measures with which Japan must comply as the consequence of unconditional surrender. They should, for example, provide for military government by the United Nations in Japan and for the demobilization and disarmament of the Japanese armed forces. They should state that, in addition, the United Nations would exercise whatever political and economic functions may

be necessary to achieve their objectives and that directives to that effeet would be issued from time to time. If it is apparent that the highest recognized military authorities cannot exercise control over any such units the allied occupation authorities should be prepared, nevertheless, to accept the unconditional surrender of Japan in the homeland. 8 May 4, p. 1235. 1282 It is recommended that: 1. The Emperor should proclaim that Japan has surrendered unconditionally to the United Nations at war with Japan and should command the armed forces and people of Japan to offer no opposition to any measures which the Allies may adopt. At the same time, a document acknowledging Japan's unconditional surrender and stating that the armed forces and people of Japan have been ordered to offer no opposition to the Allies should receive the Emperor's official signature and privy seal, should be countersigned by the highest available representatives of the Japanese High Command, and should be delivered to the Allied Theater Commander. This document will constitute the instrument of unconditional surrender of Japan. 1283 JAPAN FOREIGN RELATIONS, 19 4 4, VOLUME V 2. The Allied Theater Commander for Japan, being duly authorized, should receive the unconditional surrender of Japan on behalf of all of the United Nations at war with Japan. 3. If the several requirements as to the acknowledgment of unconditional surrender by the Emperor are not fulfilled, the Theater Commander should be empowered to determine whether, in the light of existing circumstances, he would accept unconditional surrender of Japan by the highest military authorities of Japan or whether he would by proclamation take over supreme authority of Japan, ex-

ercise the necessary powers, and issue directives as provided in Recommendations 7, 8 and 9. In view of the political implications of such a decision, he might wish to have the question brought to the attention of the political authorities of the United Nations principally concerned. 4. In order to fulfill any obligations arising from the United Nations Declaration to the effect that they will not make a separate peace, the United States, the United Kingdom, and China, and the Soviet Union, if it has entered the war against Japan, should, at the appropriate time, inform the other United Nations at war with Japan that they intend to proceed on the basis of the provisions of Recommendation One and Two. 5. To determine the basic policies and procedures to be followed subsequent to Japan's surrender, the United States should present its views on this subject to the United Kingdom and China, and the Soviet Union, if it has entered the war against Japan, as a preliminary step towards reaching a general agreement. These nations should then invite the other United Nations which have actively participated in the war against Japan to express their views. After receiving suggestions which may be presented, the leading powers should formulate definitively the documents containing the basic policies and procedures and transmit these documents to the other United Nations which have actively participated in the war against Japan. 6. The United States, the United Kingdom, and China, and the Soviet Union, if it has entered the war against Japan, should, with the assistance of those other countries which have actively participated in the war against Japan, exercise the powers and discharge the responsibilities resulting from the unconditional surrender of Japan.

7. Upon Japan's unconditional surrender the Allied Theater Commander for Japan, being duly authorized, should deliver to Japan the documents referred to in Recommendation Five which would state (a) the initial military and other measures with which Japan must comply in consequence of unconditional surrender, and (b) the general policy of the United Nations in regard to the treatment of Japan. 1284 10. The Allied Theater Commander for Japan, being duly authorized, should be prepared to receive the unconditional surrender of Japan, even though certain contingents of Japanese armed forces refuse to acknowledge that surrender and continue resistance. 11. The leaders of the United Nations should, in anticipation of unconditional surrender, publicly affirm that (a) the measures consequent upon unconditional surrender will not be enforced in a vindictive spirit; (b) the necessary restrictions and controls on Japan following surrender will be progressively relaxed as Japanese attitudes and actions warrant; (c) the ultimate aim of the United Nations is not the destruction of Japan as a state but the emergence of a Japan properly discharging its responsibilities in the family of nations. 12. The Department of State should, as soon as possible, take such steps as are necessary to obtain the approval of these policies and procedures by the United Kingdom and the Republic of China, and the Soviet Union, if it has entered the war against Japan. Originally prepared and reviewed by the Inter-Divisional Area Committee on the Far East. Reviewed and revised by the Committee on Post-War Programs, November 10, 1944.