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chapter 8 : DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM 8.

1 - The abiotic and biotic components of the environment a) state 5 examples of abioticand biotic components of an ecosystem in a table form. b) give an example with the picture of the following types of interactions : * commensalism * parasitism * prey-predator c) read the information given below and stady the table carefully. * " 3 small bottles are labelled A, B and C. paramecium aurelia and paramecium caudatum are caltured separately in a bottles A and B. Both species are cultured 2gether in bottle C. Equal emount of food are supplied to all the cultures. tha population of each species is measured regularly and recorder in tables given. " # table c (1) the population of paramecium aurelia and paramecium caudatum when cultured separately.. time (days) - 0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18 no of p.aurelia - 4,10,60,150,180,200,220,220,220,220 no of p.caudatum - 4, 25, 60, 120,130,140,140,140,140,140 # table c(2) the population of paramecium aurelia and parameciun caudatum when cultured together. time (days) - 0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18 no of p.aurelia - 4,8,50,80,100,120,130,150,160,168 no of p.caudatum - 4,8,35,50,40,25,22,18,10,5 1. plot 2 separate graph based on de data in the table c(1) and c (2) 2. answer the discussions below. DISCUSSION.. 1) what type of growth curve is shown by 2 speciesof paramecium are cultured seperately. 2) basedon the graphs, indentifythe type of cmopetitions in the both situations. 3) in the mixed culture, what resources are the 2 species competing for? which species has a competitive advantage ? explains ur answer.. 8.2 - Colonisation and succession in an ecosystem a) explain briefly the following terms : * ecosystem * community * population * species * niche b) describe each processes below in flow chart and provide pictures for every adaptations : * colonisation n successes in a pond * colonisation n succession in mangrove swamps

8.3 - biodiversity a) explain what is biodiversity

b) what is the important of biodiversity c) what is toxonomy d) explain briefly and states at least 4 examples for each major kingdoms. provide pictures for every examples. e) show the hierarchy in the classification of organisms. f) why is the Linnaeus binomial system important g) using the Linnaeus binomial syste m, states the scientific names for : * human * cat * tamarind * papaya nie keje bio yg kene wat.. yg tnde # nie jdual..so pndai2 la pdankan sndry.. 1 lg kne bwat esei knaper plih bio lau de pe2 ag tnye la..

8.1 a) Biotic components Dog Cat human fish worms b) 1) commensalism Abiotic components Air currents Moisture Light Soil Temperature

*shark and remora fish..

2) mutualism *hermit crab and sea anemone

3)parasitism

*barnacles and plants

8.2 a)

Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight. community and its physical environmen t.[1]
[1]

It is all the organisms in

a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological

Community
In biological terms, a community is a group of interacting organisms sharing a populated environment. In human communities, intent, belief,resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. In sociology, the concept of community has led to sig nificant debate, and sociologists are yet to reach agreement on a definition of the term. There were ninety -four discrete definitions of the term by the mid -1950s.[1] Traditionally a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. The word is often used to refer to a group that is organized around common values and is attributed with social cohesion within a shared

geographical location, generally in social units larger than a household. The word can also refer to the national community or global community. The word "community" is deriv ed from the Old French communit which is derived from the Latin communitas (cum, "with/together" + munus, "gift"), a broad te rm for fellowship or organized society. [2] Since the advent of the Internet, the concept of community no longer has geographical limitations, as people can now virtually gather in an online community and share common interests regardless of physical location.

Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define the population is such that interbreeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border. [1] In sociology, a collection of human beings. Statistical study of human populations occurs within the discipline of demography. This article refers mainly to human population.

Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more p recise or differing measures are often used, such as similarity of DNA, morphology or ecological niche. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies. The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, "lion," "walrus," and "Camphor tree" each refers to a species. In other cases common names do not: for example, " deer" refers to a family of 34 species, including Eld's Deer, Red Deer and Elk (Wapiti). The last two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge. Each species is placed within a single genus. This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus than to species of other genera. All species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name and specific name (or specific

epithet). For example, Boa constrictor , which is commonly called by its bionomial name, and is one of five species o f the Boa genus. A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species are essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuringbiodiversity. Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. Extinct species known only from fossils are generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to. Because of the difficulties with both defining and tallying the total numbers of different species in the world, it is estimated that there are anywhere between 2 and 100 million different species. [1]

Niche
In ecology, a niche (pronounced / ni / or / n t /)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem to each other; e.g. a dolphin could potentially be in another ecological niche from one that travels in a different pod if the members of these pods utilize significantly different food resources and foraging methods. [1] A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those s ame factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). [2]

8.3 a)

 What is Biodiversity?
Biological diversity, or the shorter "biodiversity," (bio -di-ver-si-ty) simply means the diversity, or variety, of plants and animals and other living things in a particular area or region. For instance, the species that inhabit Los Angeles are different f rom those in San Francisco, and desert plants and animals have different characteristics and needs than those in the mountains, even though some of the same species can be found in all of those areas. Biodiversity also means the number, or abundance of d ifferent species living within a particular region. Scientists sometimes refer to the biodiversity of an ecosystem, a natural area made up of a community of plants, animals, and other living things in a particular physical and chemical environment. In practice, "biodiversity" suggests sustaining the diversity of species in each ecosystem as we plan human activities that affect the use of the land and natural resources.

What Is Biodiversity?

The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth. Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognize this as being integral to any approach to preserving biodiversity. Almost all cultures have their roots in our biological diversity in some way or form. Declining biodiversity is therefore a concern for many reasons.

b)
Why Is Biodiversity Important?
Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms

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Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters.

And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife.

The biodiversity important


Biodiversity supports a number of natural ecosystem processes and serv ices. Some ecosystem services that benefit society are air quality, climate (e.g., CO2 sequestration), water purification, pollination, and prevention of erosion. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is one measure of the health of ecosystems. Life on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. The United Nations declared the year 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. Biodiversity is not consistent across the Earth. It is consistently rich in the tropics and in specific regions such as the Cape Floristic Province; it is less rich in polar regions where conditions support much less biomass. Rapid environmental changes typically cause extinctions. 99.9 percent of species that have existed on Earth are now extinct. Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions have led to large and sudden drops in Earthly biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon (the last 540 million years) marked a ra pid growth in biodiversity in the Cambrian explosion a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared. The next 400 million years was distinguished by periodic, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. The most recent, the Cretaceous Tertiary extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago, and has attracted more attention than all others because it killed the nonavian dinosaurs. The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing re duction in biodiversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly the destruction of plant and animal habitat. In addition, human practices have caused a loss of genetic diversity. Biodiversity's impac t on human health is a major international issue.

c)

Taxonomy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the science of classifying living things, see biological classification and alpha taxonomy.
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek , taxis (meaning 'order' or 'arrangement') and , nomos(meaning 'law' or 'science'). Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).

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d)
The followi are descri tions of the 5 kingdoms:

KIN DOM MONERA (monerans) *1 cell *no true nucleus - prokaryote (genetic material scattered and not enclosed by a membrane) *some move (flagellum); others don't *some make their own food (autotrophic); others can't make their own food (heterotrophic) *examples - bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) KIN DOM PROTISTA (protists) *1 cell *have a true nucleus - eukaryote *some move (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia); others don't *some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic *examples - amoeba, diatom, euglena, paramecium, some algae (unicellular), etc KIN DOM FUNGI *multicellular *have nuclei *mainly do not move from place to place *heterotrophic (food is digested outside of fungus) *examples - mushroom, mold, puffball, shelf/bracket fungus, yeast, etc. KIN DOM PLANTAE (plants) *multicellular *have nuclei *do not move *autotrophic

*examples - multicellular algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants (dandelions, roses, etc.), trees, etc KINGDOM ANIMALIA (animals) *multicellular *have nuclei *do move *heterotrophic *examples - sponge, jellyfish, insect, fish, frog, bird, man

g)
Humans-Homo Sapien Sapiens. Cats- Felis catus Tamarind- Tamarindus indica Papaya- Carica papaya L