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DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA

Introduction Democracy is a form of government in wich all citizens have in equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. The term comes from the GREEK DEMOKRATIA wich was coined from DEMOS THAT MEAN PEOPLE and KRATOS THAT MEAN POWERThere are several varieties of democracy but Representative Democracy(selection of government officials by the people being represented), Consensus Democracy, and Deliberative Democracy are the major examples of attempts at a form of government that is both practical and responsive to the needs and desires of citizens.

Ancient origins in Africa

Defined by Greeks the possible example of primitive democracy outside of Europe may have been the early Sumerian city-states.

In some African societies, IGBO ethnic in Nigeria had an organization of government very akin to democracy. Just before colonization some of old kingdom conquered by theocratic movements in West Africa was organized similarly than in democracy. The leaders were chosen after a vote in the region which power return.

African democracy nowadays To understand the state of democracy nowadays in Africa its important to remind that: All (except Ethiopia and Liberia) countries were colonized by Europe. After colonization All are multinational states, with multiple languages and dialects and various religions Between 1960 and 1980s There are some success stories like Ivory Coast, Senegal, or Kenya politically stable and have to one degree or another been able to press ahead economically.

Since the beginning of the 1990s,

Africa has experienced a new phase of democratic transition. In most African countries this process has led to the adoption of new constitutions, establishing a democratic system whose fundamental features are: the acceptance of pluralism, of political opposition and the guarantee of fundamental rights and liberties. This democratic renewal has also been characterized by the gradual establishment of the rule of law and the organization of competitive elections opening the way to a real political alternative in several countries. Significant progress has been made in numerous African countries, yet there are still many obstacles. 1. There have been ill-prepared or rigged elections which have led to violence and have put a halt to the democratic process and the dialogue between the different political actors. 2. In order to stay in power, certain heads of State have modified the constitution or misused some institutions (notably the Parliament), thereby calling into question the principle of the separation of powers. In addition, the persistence of armed conflicts and the resurgence of coups dtat in certain countries have undermined the democratic transition.

Question: Is democracy compatible to African culture? According too me its YES because many of African societies knew this kind of organization. We have just to build nations where ethnic, religion or gender is no more determinant in minds. And the best way to achieve this aim is to work for African unity.

Conclusion Democracy is a system that allows coexistence of different communities in justice, equality and human freedoms that are fundamental event if sometimes somes leaders of democratic countries misused it for personnal avantages. Africa would benefit from consolidating democracy by having:

stronger civil society By solving problem of gender in the contribution of development And to awareness populations in their rights by education.

Thanks for attention.

debate

Notes
All citizens were eligible to speak and vote in the assembly, which set the laws of the city-state. However, Athenian citizens were all-male, born from parents who were born in Athens, and excluded women, slaves, foreigners A possible example of primitive democracy may have been the early Sumerian city-states.[28] A similar proto-democracy or oligarchy existed temporarily among the Medes (ancient Iranian people) in the 6th century BC, but which came to an end after the Achaemenid (Persian) Emperor Darius the Great declared that the best monarchy was better than the best oligarchy or best democracy.[29] Although the term "democracy" is not often used for civilizations outside of Europe in ancient times there were organizations of government very akin to democracy in some African societies[30] such as the Igbo nation of what is now Nigeria.[