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FTTH Testing solutions

Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

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Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

All Rights Reserved

EXFOs FTTH leadership

Our objective: Maintain our dominant leadership in FTTH testing


We started very early in the FTTH history (during UNE-P discussions, spring 2003) We worked closely with US Tier 1 telcos to develop test solutions We invested massively into R&D to get the most complete FTTH testing product portfolio With above 80% of the market and our test instrument deployed in most of the FTTH project, we have gained a dominant position worldwide
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EXFOs FTTH We Launched Many FTTx products World first PON Power meter: The PPM-350B
Passthrough and built-in filtering allowing simulatenously measurement of all 3 PON signals Allows burst signal mesurement (ONT) Pass-warning-fail

FTB-7000D OTDR
Best dead zones of the industry allowing measurment of close optical events Test through splitters PON wavelengths

FOT-930/FTB-3930 Automated OLTS


New FTTx features PON wavelengths

300 & 600 series OLTS


PON wavelengths
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EXFOs FTTH

FTTH Council member Active member Litterature Articles in many magazines PON FTTH testing pocket Guide
~ 2nd edition ~ For field technicians

FTTx Survival guide FTTH testing book by Andre Girard Training Video
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Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

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FTTH technical review : Standards

Full Service Access Network (FSAN) APON (ATM-PON) - ITU-T G.983.1.


~ Mid-1990s ~ ATM based 155 Mbps ~ Not deployed

BPON (Broadband PON) - ITU-T G.983.3


~ Addition of Video ~ 155 Mbps upstream / 622 Mbps downstream ~ Current solution in North America

GPON (Gigabit PON) -ITU G.984


~ 2001 ~ 2.5 Gps Upstream/Downstream ~ Future solution in North America

Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) EPON (Ethernet Based PON)
~ ~ ~ ~
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2001 IEEE (group 802.3ah) 1.25 Gb/s symmetrical system Most popular solution in Asia

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FTTH technical review : Topologies

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FTTH technical review : Outside Plant

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FTTH technical review : Passive equipment PON = Passive Optical Network No active equipment between the C.O. and the subscriber Passive components: Optical fiber WWDM Coupler Splitter Drop Terminal Drop Cables Connectors Enclosures Splices
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FTTH technical review : Passive equipment

WDM coupler:
Central Office (CO)
Video Video

Data

1490nm

WWDM Coupler

In Controlled Environment Wide WDM 0.7 to 1.0 dB IL Bidirectional High Input Power at 1550 nm
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1550nm

1550nm 1490nm 1310nm


Data

FTTH technical review : Passive equipment


PON Splitters:
Various PON deployment scenarios are available depending on Housing development topology Cost/benefit analysis and deployment environment Typical: 32 branches maximum 1x32 (one stage) Other combinations (multiple stages)

Installed inside the Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) or enclosures for small splitters
Some installers will use splices instead of conectors UPC connectors can be used where video is digital or absent
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FTTH technical review : Passive equipment FDH Enclosures:

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FTTH technical review : Passive equipment


Drop Terminal or Drop Enclosure: Connection point between the Drop Cable and the cable from the splitter Multpile drop terminals are be linked to one splitter depending on the subscriber density at the drop location
Mutliple Drop Terminal Scenario

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Drop technical Terminal in Hand hole

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Drop technical Terminal

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FTTH technical review : Passive equipment


Drop Cables:
Can be pre-connectorized for fast deployment (requires connectoirized drop terminals) Makes the link between the Drop Terminal and the subscriber Can be spliced in the Drop Terminal

Drop cables

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FTTH technical review : Active Equipment

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Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

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Construction Testing

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Construction Testing

Optical loss measurement Optical return loss (ORL) measurement At three PON wavelengths End to end or per segment

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Construction Testing
Optical Return Loss (ORL) Defined by the standards. The ITU organization will specify the maximum ORL in order to get an error free transmission If the ORL specification is not respected, the effects could be:
~ ~ ~ ~ Multipath interference (MPI) ghost images (analog video) Fluctuations in the laser output power Limited speed Increased BER in digital systems

Connector type UPC APC

Typical Reflection (dB) -50 to -55 -65 to -70

ITU Rec. G.983.1 G.984.2

Max. ORL (dB) (for the link) 32 32

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FOT-930/FTB-3930: FTTH features

Point to Multi-Point testing

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FTTx result in FOT-930

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FTTx result in FTB-3930

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Testing FTTH

Construction & installation tests Link characterization using an OTDR


~ End to end ~ Per Segment

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OTDR Testing Through a Splitter


Required OTDR characteristics for testing PONs High dynamic range: Must exceed the PON loss budget by a reasonable margin in order to perform end-to-end link characterization. Minimum requirement of 30 dB Short dead zones: Required to characterize closely spaced events Triple-wavelength testing: Required to test the PON at 1310, 1490 and 1550 nm Recovery Must be able to see after the splitter (high loss) distinguish between the splitter loss and an end of fiber

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Testing Through a 1x32 Splitter


Standard OTDR:

Blind after the splitter

PON-Optimized OTDR:

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Potential Problems
High loss due to Macro-bendings (many manipulations) Damaged connectors Dirty connectors Will result in Increased BER No ONT detection Transmission problems dues to High ORL High reflectance Will result in MPI Ghost images
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High reflections in an Analog CATV System

Signal type: Amplitude Modulation Vestigial Side Band (AM-VSB) transmission Cause: Important localized reflections (e.g. -55 dB)
~ Before or after the splitter ~ Even though total ORL can be as low as 32 dB

Problem: Multipath interference (MPI) ghost images Standards specify reflections less than 55 dB (ORL above 55 dB) Bellcore GR-326-CORE TIA/EIA-568-B.3 Testing method: The only way to verify that each connection in the network meets this standard is to use an OTDR APC connectors are required

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Connector Type UPC APC

Typical ORL (dB) 50-55 65-70

Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

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Service Activation Testing

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Service activation testing


Subscriber Activation Scenario
1. 2. 3. 4. ONT is installed Drop fiber is installed (can be pre-connectorized) ONT is powered up Optical signals are measured (must meet power-level criteria)

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Service activation testing


New challenge: Will be performed by access technicians Often called I&R or I&M Experienced with Copper only Newly trained on fiber They need and want a low cost meter providing pass/fail information.

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PPM-350B PON Power Meter

LCD showing all 3 power values simultaneously LEDs provide pass/fail information for all three signals Green = Pass Yellow = Warning Red = Fail
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PPM-350B: PON Power Meter measuring capability

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PON Power MeterTesting Procedure

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Service Activation Scenarios

Two major types of installation schemes can be done:


1. Connectorized
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

2. All spliced
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

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Service Activation Testing


- Testing points

Connectorized networks allows multiple test points: Test point 1: At the splitter output
~ Output power for Video downstream at 1550nm ~ Output power for Data downstream at 1490nm ~ Each splitter port can be tested individually
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

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Parking

Service Activation Testing


- Testing points

Connectorized networks allows multiple test points: Test point 2: At the Drop Terminal
~ ~ ~ ~ Output power for Video downstream at 1550nm Output power for Data downstream at 1490nm Signal from the CO through the splitter Each drop port can be tested individually
FDH DT ONT

CO
OLT

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Service Activation Testing


- Testing points

Connectorized networks allows multiple test points: Test point 3: At the ONT (pass through unit required)
~ ~ ~ ~ Output power for Video and Data downstream Output power for Data upstream Signal through each component of the PON network The EXFO PPM-350B features a Pas Through feature for PON activation
FDH DT ONT

CO
OLT

Parking

1310nm

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Parking

1490nm 1550nm

Service Activation Testing


- Testing points

All spliced networks allow only two test points: 1. At the CO 2. At the ONT
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

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Service Activation Testing


- Pass/Fail testing

The EXFO PPM-350B features programmable thresholds: A set of thresholds for each wavelength:
~ 1310, 1490, 1550nm

A set of thresholds for different test points:


~ Drop, ONT, FDH, etc Example at ONT location:
1310 nm ONT 1490 nm OLT 6 dBm (pass) 2 dBm (warning) 1 dBm (fail) 1550 nm VIDEO -4 dBm (pass) -22 dBm (warning) -25 dBm (fail)

Fail (blink) Pass Warning Fail


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Fail (blink) Pass Warning Fail

Fail (blink) Pass Warning Fail

6.9 dBm (pass) -10.6 dBm (warning) -13.6 dBm (fail)

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Service Activation Testing


- Expected signal levels

Typical thresholds levels (dBm) according to ITU 983


ONT Data Up (1310 nm) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2004 Name ONT Split Out Split In OLT ONT G (pour GPON) Split Out G Split In G OLT G ONT EPON FAIL -5.5 -7 -24 -31.5 -1 -2.5 -19.5 -27 1 -25 WRNG -4.5 -6 -23 -28.5 0 -1.5 -18.5 -24 2 -22 Pass 2 1 -14 -8 4 3 -12 -6 5.5 -4.0 OLT Data Down (1490 nm) FAIL -26.5 -25.5 -10.5 -0.5 -25 -24 -9 1 -25 0.5 WRNG -23.5 -22.5 -7.5 0.5 -22 -21 -6 2 -22 1.5 Pass -6 -4.5 4 4 -4 -2.5 6 6 -4 6.0 VIDEO Cable TV (1550 nm) FAIL -7.7 -6.7 8.3 18.3 -13.6 -12.6 2.4 12.4 -13.6 12.4 WRNG -4.7 -3.7 11.3 19.3 -10.6 -9.6 5.4 13.4 -10.6 13.4 Pass 12.8 14.3 23 23 6.9 8.4 16.9 16.9 6.9 16.9

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Outline

FTTH introduction EXFOs FTTH FTTH technical review FTTH testing solutions Construction Service Activation Trouble Shooting

2004

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Troubleshooting steps for specific problems

No communication between OLT and ONT


PPM-350B to verify optical signals OTDR to localise break

Increased BER
If a signal level is outside the transmission window (above or under) BER may increase The PPM-350B is the best tool to monitor each signal level OTDR can be used to localise fault

Macrobendings
A VFL can be used to find and correct macrobends in splice trays OTDR can be used to detect and localise problem

Bad connectors
A Fiber Probe can be used to find and clean dirty connectors

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Main ONT types and alarms

When the communication is disturbed between the OLT and ONT, alarms will be generated. The alarm codes will vary depending on the system vendor Alarms are sent to the OSS and redirected to technicians for field service OLT

OSS
(Operation Support System)

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Main ONT types and alarms

Alarm examples:
Alarm code TF Description
Transmitter Failure: The OLT transmitter is declared in failure when there is no nominal backfacet photocurrent or when the drive currents go beyond the maximum specification. Signal Degraded of ONUi: When the upstream BER of ONUi becomes 10-5 , this state is entered. Loss of signal of ONUi: No valid optical signal at the O/E receiver received for ONUi when expected during eight upstream sequential cells.

SDi

LOSi

Reference: ITU G.983.1

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Troubleshooting Steps
- No communication between OLT and ONT

Trouble example: Loss of signal from ONT


Testing with the PPM-350B can be done from to ONT towards the OLT to identify the defective section
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

The PPM-350B allows to measure the power in dBm for each wavelength simultaneously

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Troubleshooting Steps
- No communication between OLT and ONT Trouble example: Loss of signal from ONT (suite)
If a section of fiber is defective, an OTDR can be used to locate the break Fiber must be disconnected at the FDH or CO to ensure no signal is present (only dark fibers can be tested with regular OTDRs !) The OTDR can be connected at the FDH or ONT location
CO
OLT

FDH

DT

ONT

This OTDR test location allows to test the link from the Splitter OUT to the ONT

This OTDR test location allows to test the link from the ONT to the FDH or CO depending if the PON is active before the splitter

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2nd line testing - OTDR


Trouble example: Weak signal at ONT Requires Out of band OTDR Filtered 1650nm Allows in service testing

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FTTH Testing whats the future

Construction testing Large deployments imply


~ Efficient link qualification tools
Testing all the fibers and complete link Usable by non experts Easy data export Fast

~ Reliable solutions
Complate end to end testing Transposed (wrong ports) fibers

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FTTH Testing whats the future

Service Activation & Troubleshooting Same reliability and availability as standard POTS must be offered. This implies
~ More simple, compact, user friendly & affordable tools to complement the PPM-350B
Provide more information on problem source/cause Easy to interpret by non experts

~ Complete OAM strategies


The protocol layer and network elements are currently addressed The physical layer must also be included Fault isolation Fault location
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Isporueni instrumenti T-HT za FTTH

OPREMA SE POKAZALA KORISNA I UBRZALA RAD I GRUPAMA ZA ODRAVANJE I IZGRADNJU BACKBONE MREA

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PODRKA TVRTKE m.TEH


ODRANI TEAJEVI KORITENJA OPREME PREMA UGOVORU ODRAVANJE CERTIFICRANIH TEAJEVA EXFO Bean-Expert NA HRVATSKOM JEZIKU PODJELJENE KNJIGE EXFO FTTH PODJELJENA TRI FILMA: 1. EXFO FTTH TESTING 2. EXFO FTB-200 TRAINING 3. EXFO FOT-930 TRAINING PODRKA PRILIKOM MJERENJA TELEFONSKI I NA TERENU PODRKA U IZRADI IZVJETAJA USKLAIVANJE PREMA ZAHTJEVIMA PLANIRANJA
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Ogromne koliine mjerenja to bre mjerenje te izrada i spremanje izvjetaja LITE REPORTER besplatni softver za izradu OTDR izvjetaja FAST REPORTER sva mjerenja (OTDR FTB-200, OLTS FOT-930, PON Mjera snage PPM-350B) integrirana u jedan softver baza podataka FTTH mree DOBRO POZNAVANJE MREE- SMANJENJE OPEXa PRILIKOM EKSPLOATACIJE, TE BRE RJEAVANJE PROBLEMA POJEDINIH KORISNIKA

IZVJETAJI BAZA PODATAKA

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Thank You!

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