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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 55

CHAPTER 6
LINES AND ANGLES
Points to Remember :
1. If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180 and vice-versa. This
property is known as the Linear Pair Axiom.
2. If two lines intersect each other, then the vertically opposite angles are equal.
3. If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then
(a) each pair of corresponding angles is equal.
(b) each pair of alternate interior angles is equal.
(c) each pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal is supplementary.
4. If a transversal intersects two line such that, either
(a) any one pair of corresponding angles is equal, or
(b) any one pair of alternate interior angles is equal, or
(c) any one pair of interior angles on the same side of of the transversal is supplementary, then the lines
are parallel.
5. Two intersecting lines cannot both be parallel to the same line.
6. Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel to each other.
7. The sum of three angles of a triangle is 180.
8. If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior
opposite angles.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Example 1. If two lines intersects, prove that vertically opposite angles are equal.
Solution. Given : Two lines AB and CD intersects at O.
To prove : Z1 = Z3 and Z2 = Z4
Proof : OB stands on line COD.
Z1 + Z2 = 180 ( linear pair) ...(1)
Also, OD stands on line AOB
Z2 + Z3 = 180 ( linear pair) ...(2)
from (1) and (2)
Z1 + Z2 = Z2 + Z3
Z1 = Z3
Similarly, Z2 = Z4 Hence proved
Example 2. The complement of an angle is half of itself. Find the angle and its complement.
Solution. Let the given angle be x. Then, its complement is 90 x.
According to given question,
90 x =
2
1
x = + 90
2
x
x

3
90 2
90
2
3
= = x
x
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56 LINES AND ANGLES MATHEMATICSIX
x = 60
Hence, the given angle is 60 and its complement is 90 60 i.e. 30.
Example 3. Two supplementary angles are in the ratio 3 : 2. Find the angles.
Solution. Let the angles be 3x and 2x.
according to given question,
3x + 2x = 180 ( angles are supplementary)
5x = 180 36
5
180
= = x

)
`

= =
= =
72 36 2 2 and
108 36 3 3 are Angles
x
x

Ans.
Example 4. What value of x would make AOB a line in given figure if ZAOC = (3x 10) and
ZBOC = (7x + 30)?
Solution. Since, OB and OA are opposite rays
ZBOC + ZAOC = 180
7x + 30 + 3x 10 = 180
10x + 20 = 180 10x = 180 20
10x = 160
10
160
= x
= 16 x Ans.
Example 5. Rays OA, OB, OC, OD and OE have the common initial point O. Show that :
ZAOB + ZBOC + ZCOD + ZDOE + ZEOA = 360
Solution. Let us draw a ray OF oposite to ray OA.
B
D
2
3
4 0
5
E
F A
C
6
1
so, Z1 + Z2 + Z3 = 180 and ...(1)
Z4 + Z5 + Z6 = 180 (

linear pair axiom) ...(2)


adding (1) and (2),
(Z1 + Z2 + Z3) + (Z4 + Z5 + Z6) = 180 + 180
Z1 + Z2 + (Z3+ Z4) + Z5 + Z6 = 360
ZAOB + ZBOC + ZCOD + ZDOE + ZEOA = 360
Hence shown.
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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 57
Example 6. Prove that if a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then each pair of interior angle on the same
side of the transversal is supplementary.
Solution. Given : A transversal l intersects two parallel lines AB and CD at P and Q.
To prove : Z4 + Z5 = 180 and
Z3 + Z6 = 180
Proof : Ray QD stands on line l
Z1 + Z4 = 180 ...(1) (

linear pair axiom)


also, Z1 = Z5 ...(2) ( corresponding angles)
from (1) and (2)
Z4 + Z5 = 180
Again, ray QC stands on line l
Z2 + Z3 = 180 ...(3) (

linear pair axiom)


and, Z2 = Z6 ...(4) ( corresponding angles)
from (3) and (4)
Z3 + Z6 = 180 Hence proved.
Example 7. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, prove that the bisectors of the two pairs of
interior angles encloses a rectangle.
Solution. Given : Two parallel lines AB and CD are intersected by a transversal at P and R respectively.
PQ, RQ, RS and PS are bisectors of ZAPR, ZPRC, ZPRD and ZBPR respectively.
To prove : PQRS is a rectangle
Proof : Since AB || CD and l is a transversal
ZAPR = ZPRD (

alt. interior angles)

2
1
ZAPR =
2
1
ZPRD ZQPR = ZPRS
But, these are alternate interior angles.
PQ || RS. Similarly QR || PS.
PQRS is a parallelogram.
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58 LINES AND ANGLES MATHEMATICSIX
Now, ray PR stands on AB
ZAPR + ZBPR = 180 (

linear pair)

2
1
ZAPR +
2
1
ZBPR = 90
ZQPR + ZSPR = 90
QPS = 90
Thus, PQRS is a parallelogram, one of whose angle is 90
PQRS is a rectangle.
Hence proved.
Example 8. In the given figure lines XY and MN intersect at O. If ZPOY = 90 and a : b = 2 : 3, find c.
NCERT
Solution. Since XY is a line a + b + 90 = 180 ( linear pair)
a + b = 180 90
a + b = 90
But a : b = 2 : 3. Let a = 2x and b = 3x.
2x + 3x = 90 5x = 90 x = 18
a = 2x = 2 18 = 36 and b = 3x = 3 18 = 54
Now, OM and ON are opposite rays. MON is a line.
Since ray OX stands on MN ZMOX + ZXON = 180 (

linear pair)
c + b = 180
c + 54 = 180 C = 180 154 = 126
c = 126 Ans.
Example 9. It is given that XYZ = 64 and XY is produced to point P. Draw a figure from the given information.
If ray YQ bisects ZZYP, find ZXYQ and reflex ZQYP. NCERT
Solution. Since XY is produced to point P, XP is a straight line.
Since, YZ stands on XP, ZXYZ + ZZYP = 180 ( linear pair)
64 + ZZYP =1 80
ZZYP = 180 64 = 116
Since ray YQ bisects ZZYP
=

= Z = Z 58
2
116
ZYQ QYP
Now, ZXYQ = ZXYZ + ZZYQ
ZXYQ = 64 + 58 = 122
and reflex ZQYP = 360 ZQYP = 360 58 = 302 Ans.
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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 59
Example 10. In the given figure, if AB || CD, CD || EF and y : z = 3 : 7, find x. NCERT
Solution. Since, AB || CD and CD || EF AB || CD || EF.
Now, CD || EF and PR is a transversal.
ZPQD = ZPRF
180 y = z
y + z = 180
also, y : z = 3 : 7. Let y = 3a and z = 7a
3a + 7a = 180 10a = 180 a = 18
y = 3 18 = 54 and z = 7 18 = 126
Now, AB || CD and PQ is a transversal.
x + y = 180 ( consecutive interior angles are supplementary)
x + 54 = 180
x = 180 54 = 126
x = 126 Ans.
Example 11. In the given figure, ZX = 62, ZXYZ = 54. If YO and ZO are the bisectors of ZXYZ and ZXZY
respectively of AXYZ, find ZOZY and ZYOZ. NCERT
Solution. In AXYZ, ZYXZ + ZXYZ + ZXZY = 180 ( angle sum property of a triangle)
62 + 54 + ZXZY = 180
ZXZY = 180 62 54 = 64
Since, YO and ZO are bisectors of ZXYZ and ZXZY,
= = Z = Z 27 54
2
1
XYZ
2
1
OYZ
and, = = Z = Z 32 64
2
1
XZY
2
1
OZY
In AOYZ, we have ZYOZ + ZOYZ + ZOZY = 180 (

angle sum property of a triangle)


ZYOZ + 27 + 32 = 180
ZYOZ = 180 27 32 = 121
Hence, ZOZY = 32 and ZYOZ = 121 Ans.
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60 LINES AND ANGLES MATHEMATICSIX
Example 12. In the given figure, if PQ PS, PQ || SR, ZSQR = 28 and ZQRT = 65, then find the values of x
and y. NCERT
Solution. ZQRT = ZRQS + ZQSR (

Exterior angle property in ASRQ)


65 = 28 + ZQSR
ZQSR = 65 28 = 37
Since, PQ || SR and the transversal PS intersects then at P and S respectively.
ZPSR + ZSPQ = 180 ( sum of consecutive interior angles is 180)
(ZPSQ + ZQSR) + 90 = 180
y + 37 + 90 = 180
y = 180 37 90 = 53
Now, in the right ASPQ, we have ZPQS + ZPSQ = 90
x + 53= 90
x = 90 53 = 37
Hence, x = 37 and y = 53 Ans.
Example 13. In each of the following figures, AB || CD, find x.

O
25
B
D
C
A
50
x
(i)

Solution. (i) Through O, Draw EOF || AB || CD.
then, Z1 + Z2 = x
Now, EO || AB and BO is the transversal.
Z1 + 50 = 180
(

Interior angles on the same side of the transversal)


O
25
B
D
C
A
E F
50
1
2
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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 61
Z1 = 180 50 Z1 = 130 ...(1)
Again, EO || CD and OD is a transversal
Z2 + 25 = 180
Z2 = 180 25 Z2 = 155 ...(2)
adding (1) and (2)
Z1 + Z2 = 130 + 155 = 285
i.e. 285 = x Ans.
(ii) Produce AB to intersect CE and F.
C
A
x
105
D
B
E
125
G F
Now, ZABE + ZEBF = 180 ( Linear pair)
125 + ZEBF = 180
ZEBF = 180 125 = 55
Again, CD || FG and CF is a transversal
ZDCF + ZCFG = 180 ( Interior angles on same side of transversal)
105 + ZCFG = 180
ZCFG = 180 105 = 75
Also, ZBFE = ZCFG = 75 ( vertically opposite angles)
Now, In ABEF,
ZBEF + ZEBF + ZBFE = 180 ( angle sum property)
x + 55 + 75 = 180
x + 130 = 180
x = 180 130
= 50 x Ans.
Example 14. The side QR of APQR is produced to a point S. If the bisectors of ZPQR and ZPRS meet at point
T, then prove that ZQTR =
2
1
ZQPR. NCERT
Solution. Side QR of APQR is produced to S,
Ext. ZPRS = ZP + ZQ (

Exterior angle sum property of a triangle)

2
1
Ext ZPRS =
2
1
ZP +
2
1
ZQ
Z2 =
2
1
ZP + Z1 ...(1)
R
1
1
2
2
S
Q
P
T
Again, In AQRT.,
Ext. ZTRS = ZT + Z1 ( same as above)
Z2 = ZT + Z1 ...(2)
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Equating (1) and (2), we get
2
1
ZP + Z1 = ZT + Z1
ZT =
2
1
ZP or ZQTR =
2
1
ZQPR
Hence Proved.
Example 15. Bisectors of exterior angles of AABC (obtained by producing sides AB and AC) meet at O. Prove
that ZBOC = 90
2
1
ZA.
Solution. Given : AABC in which bisectors of exterior angles meet at O (as shown)
To prove : ZBOC = 90
2
1
ZA
Proof : In AOBC
Z1 + Z2 + Z0 = 180 ( angle sum property of a triangle)

2
1
ZCBD +
2
1
ZBCE + ZO = 180
ZCBD + ZBCE + 2ZO = 360
(180 ZB) + (180 ZC) + 2ZO = 360
ZB + ZC = 2ZO
180 ZA = 2ZO
ZO =
2
1
(180 ZA)
ZBOC = 90
2
1
ZA. Hence proved.
PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. If an angle is 24 less than its complement. find its measure.
2. An angle is 40 less than one-third of its supplement. Find the angle and its supplement.
3. Two supplementary angles are in the ratio 11 : 7. Find them.
4. Find the angle whose supplement is four times its complement.
5. Find the measure of an angle if, three times its supplement is 60 more than six times its complement.
6. In the following figure, it is given that 2a 5b = 10 find a and b.
a
b
A B
7. In the following figures, what value of x will make AOB a straight line?

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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 63
8. In the following figure, ZCOA = 90 and AOB is a straight line. Find x and y.
9. Prove that the bisectors of the angles of a linear pair are at right angles.
10. If the bisectors of two adjacent angles form a right angle then prove that their non-common arms are in
the same straight line.
11. In given figure, AOB is a line. Ray OD is perpendicular to AB . OC is another ray lying between OA and
OD. Prove that ZDOC =
2
1
(ZBOC ZAOC)
A B
D
90
12. In the following figure, AB and CD intersects at O and ZBOE = 70. Find value of a, b and c.
13. In the given figure Z1 : Z2 = 5 : 4 and AB || CD. Find all the labelled angles.
8
7
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64 LINES AND ANGLES MATHEMATICSIX
14. Find missing x in the following diagrams. Given AB || CD.



140
85
x
E
B
A
C
D
(v)
15. In the following figure AB || CD. Find the values of a, b and c.
16. In the following figure, show that AB || CD.
160
20
30
50
E
F
C
D
B
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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 65
17. In the following figure, AB || CD and CD || EF. Also EA AB. If ZBEF = 65, find the value of a, b and c.
18. The angles of a triangle are

|
.
|

\
|
+ 50
2
x
,

|
.
|

\
|
+ 60
3
x
and (2x 15), find the angles.
19. If a transversal cuts two parallel lines and is perpendicular to one of them, show that it will be perpen-
dicular to the other also.
20. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, show that the bisectors of any corresponding angles
are parallel.
21. If two lines are intersected by a transversal in such a way that the bisectors of a pair of corresponding
angles are parallel, show that the lines are parallel to each other. NCERT
22. Prove that the bisectors of a pair of alternate angles of two parallel lines are themselves parallel.
23. Prove that if the arms of an angle are, respectively, parallel to the arms of another angle, then the angles
either have equal measure or they are supplementary.
24. PQ and RS are two mirrors placed parallel to each other. An incident ray AB strikes the mirror PQ at B, the
reflected ray moves along the path BC and strikes the mirror RS at C and again reflects back along CD.
Prove that AB || CD. NCERT
Q
S
P
R
D
A
B
C
25. If two straight lines are perpendicular to the same line, prove that they are parallel to each other.
26. One of the angles of a triangle is 55. Find the remaining two angles, if their diffrence is 35.
27. In the given figures find x :
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66 LINES AND ANGLES MATHEMATICSIX
28. Sides QP and RQ of APQR are produced to points S and T respectively. If ZSPR = 140 and ZPOT = 105,
find ZPRQ.
29. A square ABCD is surmounted by an equilateral triangle EDC. Find x.
C
E
x
D
A B
30. In the following figure, AB || DC. If
2
y
x = and z y
9
4
= . Find the values of x, y and z.
y
x
z
C
D
B
A
PRACTICE TEST
MM : 30 Time : 1 hour
General Instructions :
Q. 1-4 carry 2 marks, Q. 5-8 carry 3 marks and Q. 9-10 carry 5 marks each.
1. What value of x would make AOB a straight line?
B A
(3 + 3) x
(2 15) x
x
O
C
D
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MATHEMATICSIX LINES AND ANGLES 67
2. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, prove that the bisectors of two interior alternate
angles are parallel.
3. Find the value of x.
4. Find the value of x, it is given that AB || CD.
5. If two straight lines are perpendicular to the same line, prove that they are parallel to each other.
6. In the given figure, show that AB || CD.
145
35
45
80
A
B
C
D
F
E
7. In the following figure, AB || CD, find a and b.
B
D
G
135
F
a
b
E
55
C
A
8. Angles A, B and C of a triangle satisfy B A = 30 and C B = 45. Find all the angles.
9. Prove that the sum of three angles of a triangle is 180.
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10. In the given figure, the sides AB and AC of AABC are produced to points E and D respectively. If
bisectors BO and CO of ZCBE and ZBCD respectively meet at O, then prove that :
ZBOC = 90
2
1
ZBAC
C B
E D
O
A
ANSWERS OF PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. 33 2. 15, 165 3. 110, 70 4. 60 5. 20
6. 130, 50 7. (i) x = 20 (ii) x = 33 (iii) x = 15 8. x = 33, y = 11
12. a = 22, b = 44, c = 92 13. Z1 = Z3 = Z5 = Z7 = 80, Z2 = Z4 = Z6 = Z8 = 100
14. (i) x = 115 (ii) x = 40 (iii) x = 55 (iv) x = 80 (v) x = 135
15. a = 100, b = 35, c = 45 17. a = 25, b = 115, c = 115
18. 65, 70, 45 26. a = 80, b = 45
27. (i) 65 (ii) 95 28. 65
29. x = 45 30. 24, 48, 108
ANSWERS OF PRACTICE TEST
1. x = 32 3. x = 110 4. 290
7. a = 55, b = 80 8. A = 25, B = 55, C = 100
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