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Contents

Series Preface

XI

XV

XXI

XXV

XXXI

Recommended Notation

1.4

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.3.1 1.4.3.2 1.4.3.3 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.1.1 1.5.1.2

1

P. Perre, R. Remond, I. W. Turner Microscopic Foundations of the Macroscopic Formulation The Macroscopic Set of Equations 6

Physical Phenomena Embedded in the Equations 7

Low-temperature Convective Drying 7

The Constant Drying Rate Period 8

The Decreasing Drying Rate Period 9

Drying at High Temperature: The Effect of Internal Pressure

on Mass Transfer 10

Computational Strategy to Solve the Comprehensive Set of

Macroscopic Equations 11

The Control-volume Finite-element (CV-FE) Discretization

Procedure 13

Evaluation of the Tensor Terms at the CV Face 14

Solution of the Nonlinear System 15

Outer (Nonlinear) Iterations 16

Construction of the Jacobian 17

Inner (Linearized System) Iterations 17

Possibilities Offered by this Modeling Approach:

Convective Drying 19

High-temperature Convective Drying of Light Concrete 19

Test 1: Superheated Steam 20

Tests 2 and 3: Moist Air, Soft and Severe Conditions 22

Modern Drying Technology. Edited by Evangelos Tsotsas and Arun S. Mujumdar Copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved ISBN: 978-3-527-31556-7

VI

COl1tel1ts

] .6.2

1.6.3 1.7 1.8 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.2.1 1.8.2.2 1.8.2.3 1.8.2.4 1.8.2.5 1.8.2.6

Sapwood and Heartwood 25

Possibilities Offered by this Modeling Approach: Less-common

Drying Configurations 29

Drying with Volumetric Heating 29

The Concept of Identity Drying Card (IDC) 32

Drying of Highly Deformable Materials 34

Homogenization as a Way to Supply the Code with Physical

Parameters 37

The Multiscale Approach 42

Limitations of the Macroscopic Formulation 42

The Stack Model: An Example of Multiscale Model 43

Global Scale 46

Local Scale 46

Coupling Approach 46

Samples Simulations 47

Accounting for Wood Variability 49

Accounting for Drying Quality 50

Conclusion 52

at the Pore Level and Understand the Influence ofStructure

on Drying Kinetics

57

T. Metzger, E. Tsotsas, M. Prat 2.1 Introduction 57

Isothermal Drying Model 58

2.2 Model Description 58

2.2.1 2.2.1.1 Network Geometry and Corresponding Data Structures 59

2.2.1.2 Boundary-layer Modeling 60

2.2.1.3 Saturation of Pores and Throats 62

2.2.1.4 Vapor Transfer 63

2.2.1.5 Capillary Pumping of Liquid 64

2.2.1.6 Cluster Labeling 65

2.2.1.7 Drying Algorithm 66

Simulation Results and Experimental Validation 68 2.2.2 Gravity and Liquid Viscosity- Stabilized Drying Front 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 Modeling Gravity 71

2.2.3.2 Modeling Liquid Viscosity 72

2.2.3.3 Dimensionless Numbers and Length Scales 75

2.2.3.4 Phase Distributions and Drying Curves 77

Film Flow 79 2.2.4 Wettability Effects 83

2.2.5 First Drying Period 85 2.2.6 Model Extensions 87 2.3

71

Contents

VII

Heat Transfer 87

Multicomponent Liquid 92

Influence of Pore Structure 92

Pore Shapes 92

Coordination Number 94

Bimodal Pore-size Distributions 95

Outlook 100

Towards an Assessment of Continuous Models

Continuous Thermomechanical Models using

Volume-averaging Theory

100

103

3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3 3.2.2.4 3.2.3 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5

4

Introduction 103

Modeling 105

Nature of Product Class 106

Averaged Internal Equations 107

State Equations and Volume Conservation 108

Mass-conservation Equations 109

Momentum-conservation Equations 109

Energy-conservation Equations 112

Boundary Conditions for Convective Drying 113

Simulation 114

Numerical Resolution Technique 114

Comparison between Real Viscoelatic and Assumed

Elastic Behavior 115

Liquid Pressure as Driving Force 120

Conclusions 122

Theory of Mixtures

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2

125

S. j. Kowalski Preliminaries 125

Global Balance Equations 126

Constitutive Equations in the Skeletal Frame of Reference Rate Equations for Heat and Mass Transfer 132

Differential Equations for Heat and Mass Transfer 134

Differential Equation for Heat Transfer 134

Determination of the Microwave Heat Source m 135

Differential Equation for Mass Transfer 139

Thermomechanical Equations for a Drying Body 141

Physical Relations 141

Differential Equations for Body Deformation 143

Drying of a Cylindrical SampIe made of Kaolin 144

Convective Drying of a Kaolin Cylinder 144

Microwave Drying of a Kaolin Cylinder 150

130

VIII

Contents

4.8

Acknowledgments 152

Additional Notation used in Chapter 4

153

155

5.1

5.1.1 5.1.2

5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.2.1 5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.2.4 5.2.2.5 5.2.2.6 5.2.2.7 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.3.1 5.4.3.2 5.4.3.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 5.6.1

Introduction 155

Introduction to CFD 155

Introduction to Multiphase Flow Modeling 158

State-of-the-art in Spray-dryer Computations 160

The Euler-Lagrange Approach: an Extended Model for

Spray-dryer Calculations 162

Fluid-phase Modeling 163

Fundamentals of Lagrangian Particle Tracking 166

Drag Force 167

Virtual Mass Force 168

Basset History Force 168

Forces Caused by Pressure Gradients in the Fluid 168

Magnus Force 168

Saffman Force 169

Gravitational Force 169

Particle Tracking 169

Particle Turbulent Dispersion Modeling 171

Two-way Coupling Procedure 173

Droplet-drying Models 173

Introduction 173

Review of Droplet-drying Models 175

Exemplary Drying Model for Whey-based Milk Products 176

Numerical Implementation 178

Collisions of Particles 181

Introduction 181

Extended Stochastic Collision Model 182

Modeling of Particle Collisions: Coalescence and Agglomeration 187

Surface-tension Dominated Droplets (STD Droplets) 187

Droplets Dominated by Viscous Forces (VD Droplets) 188

Dry Particles 189

Collisions of Surface-tension Dominated Droplets (STD-STD) 190

Collisions of Viscous Droplets 190

Collisions of Dry Particles 191

Example of a Spray-dryer Calculation 192

Geometry and Spatial Discretization of the Spray Dryer 192

Results for the Fluid Phase 193

Results of the Dispersed Phase 195

Prediction of Product Properties 200

Particle-size Distribution 200

Contents

IIX

Heat Damage 201 Particle Morphology 201 Summary 203 Additional Notation used in Chapter 5

204 209

J.

6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.2.1 6.2.2.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.2.1 6.3.2.2 6.3.2.3 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9.1 6.9.2

Introduction 209 Pure Breakage 214 Population-balance Equation 214 Numerical Methods 214 The CeH-average Technique 216 The Finite-volume Scheme 222 Pure Aggregation 225 Population-balance Equation 225 Numerical Methods 226 The Fixed-pivot Technique 226 The CeH-average Technique 227 The Finite-volume Scheme 231 Pure Growth 233 Population balance Equation 233 Numerical Methods 233

Combined Aggregation and Breakage 239

Combined Aggregation and Nucleation 242

Combined Growth and Aggregation 244

Combined Growth and Nucleation 245

Multidimensional Population Balances 247

Reduced Model 247

Complete Model 250

Additional Notation used in Chapter 6 256

261

I. C. Kemp

7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3 7.4 7.4.1

Introduction 261

Summary of Contents 261

The Solids Processing ChaHenge 262

Types of Software for Dryers 263

Numerical Calculation Procedures 263

Categorization of Dryer Models 264

Equipment and Material Model 265

Parametric Models 266

Heat and Mass Balances 268

Scoping Design Methods 269

Continuous Convective Dryers 269

Contents

7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.2.1 7.6.2.2 7.6.3 7.7 7.7.1 7.7.2 7.7.2.1 7.7.2.2 7.7.3 7.8 7.8.1 7.8.2 7.9 7.9.1 7.9.1.1 7.9.1.2 7.9.1.3 7.9.1.4 7.9.2 7.10 7.10.1 7.10.2 7.11 7.11.1 7.11.1.1 7.11.1.2 7.11.1.3 7.11.1.4 7.11.2 7.12 7.12.1 7.12.2

Batch Dryers 270

Simple Allowance for Falling-rate Drying 271

Scaling Methods 272

Basic Scale-up Principles 273

Integral Model 274

Application to Fluidized-bed Dryers 274

Detailed Design Models 276

Incremental Model 277

Application to Pneumatic Conveying, Rotary and Band Dryers 278

Pneumatic Conveying Dryers 278

Cascading Rotary Dryers 281

Advanced Methods - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 281

Ancillary Calculations 283

Processing Experimental Data 283

Humidity and Psychrometry 284

British Standard BS1339 for Humidity Calculations 284

Plotting Psychrometric Charts 286

Physical-properties Databanks 286

Process Simulators 287

Current Simulators and their Limitations 287

Potential Developments 288

Expert Systems and Decision-making Tools 289

Dryer Selection 289

Tree-search Algorithms 289

Matrix-type Rule-based Algorithms 289

Qualitative Information 292

Alternative Tree-search Approach 292

Troubleshooting and Problem Solving in Dryers 294

Knowledge Bases and Qualitative Information 295

Internet Websites 295

The Process Manual Knowledge Base 295

Commercialization of Drying Software 296

Barriers to Drying-software Development 297

Complexity ofthe Calculations 297

Difficulties in Modeling Solids 297

Limited Market and Lack of Replicability 298

Changes in Operating-system Software 298

The Future: Possible Ways Forward 300

Conclusions 301

Range of Application of Software in Drying 301

Overall Conclusion 302

Additional Notation used in Chapter 7 303

Index

307

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