You are on page 1of 20

Ramp Handling Handbook TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 1.1 Contents Parking -Security 1.1.1 Security 1.1.2 Parking and Night Stop 1.1.2.1 General

Page: 1 Chapter: 1 Revision. 0 Date: 08-08-2008

1.1.2.2 Parking during stops shorter than 2 hours- Normal wind 1.1.2.3 Parking during stops shorter than 2 hours - Unfavorable wind and parking conditions ... 4 1.1.2.4 Parking during prolonged stops longer than 2 hours 1.1.3 General precactions against fire 1.1.4 Ground Personnel Safety Precautions 1.2 1.3 Handling Company Services Arrival - Aircraft Marshalling 1.3.1 General 1.3.2 Marshall equipment 1.3.3 Definitions 1.3.4 Procedure 1.4 1.5 Passenger Boarding Stairs/Bridge Opening and closing of cabin and compartment doors 1.5.1 Cabin doors 1.5.2 Cargo Compartments doors 1.6 1.7 Aircraft handling in strong winds Fuelling and de-fuelling

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: 2 Chapter: 1 Revision. 0 Date:

1.7.1 General 1.7.2 Approved Fuel Types 1.7.3 Fuelling Area 1.7.4 Admittance to fuelling area 1.7.5 Fuelling with crew or other staff on board 1.7.6 Passengers on Board 1.7.7 Fuel spillage 1.8 1.9 1.10 Cleanig of aircraft interior Catering and other pantry suppliers Potable Water 1.10.1 General 1.10.2 Procedures and responsibilities 1.11 Toilet service 1.11.1 General 1.11.2 Procedures 1.12 1.13 Departure Activities Start-up Procedure 1.13.1 Hand signals 1.13.2 Roll clearance 1.13.3 Pushback 1.13.4 Push-back Procedure 1.13.5 Standard Phrases 1.13.6 Towing 1.14 Loading

1.14.1 General 1.14.2 Loading and unloading

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.14.3 Lashing requirements 1.14.4 Capacities of Lashing Equipment 1.14.5 Restraint rating 1.14.6 Supporting 1.14.6.1 Area Load Limitation 1.14.6.2 Contract Load Limitation 1.14.6.3 Supporting Planks 1.14.7 Forklift 1.14.8 Precaution Against Damage 1.15 De-icing and Anti-icing on ground Reserved

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.1

Parking - Security

1.1.1 Security Action shall be taken as to prevent unauthorized access to aircraft during ground stop. If any unauthorized person(s) have accessed the aircraft or found in the immediate vicinity of the aircraft, Airport Security and the Commander must be informed prior to departure as to assess the need for security check. If unauthorized access has been established and the need for security check established, the following areas shall be screened: passenger cabin including lavatories and galleys, flight deck, engines, compartments and electronic equipment bays or compartments. 1.1.2 Parking and Night Stop 1.1.2.1 General If the aircraft is parked for i.e. a night stop or otherwise left unattended, all doors shall be locked, sealed or alarmed, jetty disconnected and/or stairs removed. If unauthorized access has been established, the aircraft must be screened according to 1.1 above prior to departure. The personnel responsible for reception of the aircraft shall supervise and be responsible for parking of the aircraft. The Commander is responsible to secure proper aircraft reception. When the wheel chocks are in position, the Commander shall be notified. 1.1.2.2 Parking during stops shorter than 2 hour - Normal wind and parking conditions Upon arrival As soon as engines are stopped place chocks in front of and behind nose gear and/or one of main gear wheel. At departures Establish interphone contact or if not available eye to eye contact with the Flight Deck and remove wheel chocks on the pilots command. 1.1.2.3 Parking during stops shorter than 2 hours - unfavorable wind and parking conditions In case of high wind velocity and gusts or if the parking area is slippery because of snow or ice it may be necessary to take additional precautionary measures to prevent the aircraft from sliding depending on what type of wheel chocks are used.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

NOTE: Pilot head covers and engine blanking covers shall always be fitted when weather condition so necessitates. .1.2.4 Parking during prolonged stops longer than 2 hours

The aircraft must be parked with the nose against the wind, if possible. There must be ample space between the parked aircraft and the nearest runway or taxi strip. Ensure that the parking place is chosen so that the slip-stream from the aircraft performing engine tests or starting up the engines, does not affect the parked aircraft. Wheel chocks must be placed in front of and behind the main wheels. If the weather conditions are unfavorable, e.g. strong wind or slippery ground, special precaution must be taken. Make sure that the wheel chocks available serve the purpose, otherwise additional precautions must be taken to secure the aircraft properly. Ballast bags filled with sand can often be successfully used if the ground is slippery. Install covers, plugs and shields as determined by aircraft status and weather conditions. Equipment, stairs and ladders must be removed to a safe distance from the aircraft.

NOTE: During darkness it may prove necessary to mark the aircraft position with lamps. The Airport Authorities must be contacted for permission in each separate case. Aircraft left idle overnight shall preferably be parked in an illuminated area. Aircraft left parked at unattended areas of an airport or at unmanned airports shall be sealed according to the Security Manual. The final decision lies with the Commander.

????? General precautions against fire Smoking, use of open fire and any type of activity that can cause sparks, are strictly forbidden in the fuelling area.

Ground equipment should-as a general rule-not be positioned or operated in the fuelling area. Combustion engines (APU) and burners shall not be started or stopped during fuelling and within the fuelling area. Electrical equipment, e.g. GPU, shall not be connected to or disconnected from the aircraft within the fuelling area. Ground Staff should acquaint themselves with the method and operation of the equipment also with the local fire procedures.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.1.4 Ground Personnel Safety Precautions

Training of personnel in correct operating procedures and safe work practices, with the reasons for these procedures and practices, from an integral part of any organizations structure. Companies enforce the application of all safety rules, procedures and requirements in all activities connected with aircraft handling. Ground support equipment, when driven or operated on the apron, particularly in the vicinity of an aircraft, must be operated with extreme care to avoid any hazard to personnel and/or any damage to aircraft or load. Only adequately trained, qualified / authorized personal should be permitted to operate equipment. Equipment should never move embarking/disembarking aircraft. across the path of taxiing or

Passengers, aircraft and pedestrians should always have the right -of-way. Apron equipment is to be positioned behind the equipment restraint line with the parking brakes applied prior to the arrival of the aircraft at the parking position. Equipment, when approaching or leaving an aircraft should not be driven faster than walking speed. Safety shoes or boots should be worn to prevent foot injuries. Personnel working in noise-intensity areas, i.e. on the apron, maintenance lines. etc., shall wear approved hearing protection. Clothing/Reflective jackets appropriate to the weather conditions should be made available to personnel Gloves should be worn by material handling personnel and equipment operators. Face protection should be worn where there is the possibility of fluid splash back. In the job function, personnel shall not walk or stand on a moving conveyor belt. Personnel should keep clear of aircraft engine intake/exhaust areas Personnel should stand clear of exits/entrances of facilities when a train of carts/dollies passes. In weather conditions aircraft doors should be closed and secured, as appropriate Ground support equipment should be moved away from than aircraft vicinity and secured. Vehicles MUST NOT be parked under the aircraft wing-trip fuel vents. The ground area beneath exit doors should be kept clear of any obstructions.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.2

Handling Company Services The Handling Company must report to the Carriers representative immediately all loss of or damage threatened or actual, to aeroplane and loads noticed in the course of handling or which in any other way comes to the knowledge of the Handling Company. All ground support equipment shall mean all equipment used in the performance of ground handling services to service the aircraft that has to be rented from the handling agent according to the standard local procedures and regulations. The responsible personnel of Handling Agent assures that all safety regulations are applied to perform the ground service. Supervisor of Handling Agent shall arrive at the station early enough to do all the necessary preparations for the ground handling. They are responsible to perform the ground handling of the flight including the conclusion of final works after departure of the aircraft. Arrival-Aircraft Marshalling

1.3

1.3.1 General Marshalling of aircraft shall be executed according to the marshalling signals adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). To aid the Commander when maneuvering the aircraft on the tarmac, a qualified person (Signalman) shall give signals, as shown in this instruction. The Signalman is responsible for giving clear and correct signs to the Commander. However, it is still the Commander who is responsible for the safe maneuvering of the aircraft. 1.3.2 Marshalling equipment The Signalman shall use bats in daylight and illuminated wands in darkness. 1.3.3 Definitions Signalman: A qualified person who assists the Commander: during the arrival at and departure from the parking area, or when the aircraft is passing close to obstacles. Wingman: Position: A qualified person who assists the Signalman in judging the safe distance between aircraft and obstacles. The signalman must stand in a fixed position, to the left and forward of the final position of the nose wheel, so that the Commander clearly

understands that this is the parking place. If used, the wingman shall be in a position so that he can be seen by the signalman and

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

clearly can observe the distance between aircraft and obstacles. 1.3.4 Procedure The Signalman is in continuous eye contact with the Commander and shall give clear and distinct signals during the complete arrival/departure procedure if necessary. A recommendable rhythm is 60 arm movements per minute. If a wingman is used he shall give clear and distinct signals to the signalman. He shall use the signals stated in this instruction. If a signal from wingman to signalman is unclear or cannot be seen, the signalman shall give a STOP sign. When marshalling has started, it shall continue until the aircraft has come to a stop. The Signalman shall stay in the same position until the chocks are in place. If the Commander does not receive clear and understandable signals from the signalman he will STOP the aircraft. In case the Commander does not follow the directions given by the signalman, the signalman shall give STOP sign. If the wingman or the signalman sees the slightest possibility of a collision, they shall not hesitate to signal SLOW DOWN or STOP. WARNING: Be aware of the fact that the wing tip speed is higher during turns, even when aircraft is taxiing slowly.

The signals to be used are illustrated in section 1.9. 1.4

Passenger Boarding Stairs/Bridge The stairs/bridge must be adjusted to the correct height before being positioned to the aeroplane. Care must be taken to ensure that the stairs/bridge do not damage the aeroplane. Ensure before positioning passenger stairs/bridge, that the stairs are in food condition, that no edging strips or non-slip covering are loose and that all buffering is in good condition. It is imperative, both for the safety of the passengers and ground staff, that when these stairs/bridge are positioning to the aeroplane, the side panels are slid forward to close the gap between the stairs/bridge and the aeroplane. These panels should be locked in secure position. After the stairs/bridge have been positioned the stabilizers must be engaged and locked.

1.5

Opening and Closing of cabin and compartment doors

1.5.1 Cabin doors

Principally all passenger and service doors may only be opened and closed by crew members from inside or, if there is no crew on board, by trained technical staff or crew

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

members also from outside. When opening a cabin door from outside it must be ensured by knocking on the door that nobody is standing in the danger area on the inside and that the emergency exit Escape slides have been disarmed. Only then the door lever may slowly be operated and the door opened. After opening the door it must be ensured that the positioning of passenger step/jet way has definitely been completed and an OK-sign (thumb up) has been given by the ground staff to the crew responsible for the door before crew members and passengers enter the steps/jet way in order to avoid accident. In addition, passenger steps/jet ways and catering trucks may only be removed from the aircraft when the cabin door is either closed or when crew is ready to start closing the door. WARNING:

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO OPEN DOOR WHEN PASSENGER COMPARTMENT IS PRESSURIZED. Check through window for outside obstructions Open door only in accordance with displayed instructions.

1.5.2 Cargo Compartment doors Opening and closing of the cargo compartment doors shall only be performed by staff having been duly instructed by the company. Extreme care must be exercised during operation of the cargo compartment doors in order not to collide with loading equipment positioned. In any case it is the duty of the station mechanic or Flight crew to check after completion of loading that the compartment doors are closed and properly locked. Doors have to be closed at least 10 minutes before scheduled time of departure. 1.6 Aircraft handling in strong winds

For aircraft handling between 40 and 60 knot winds the following safety regulations shall be adhered to: Parking brake shall be set ON. Wheel chocks shall be placed in front of and behind the main leading gear wheels. The wheel chocks in front of and behind the nose landing gear shall be removed. After unloading the aircraft all cabin & cargo compartments shall be closed. After unloading the aircraft all servicing equipment and passenger steps not immediately needed for the loading shall be removed at least 5 meters from the aircraft and secured. Generally, the operation of catering trucks lifting platform shall be stopped when wind exceeds 40 knots.

Companys policy is not to perform refueling during strong meteorological phenomena.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

It is always preferable to have headwind during engine start up. In any case Flight Manual Instructions will be followed by the crew. Passengers shall embark/disembark by small groups during strong meteorological phenomena according the instructions of the cabin crew/ground staff. 1.7 Fuelling and de-fuelling

1.7.1 General The Commander will order the amount of fuel required for the flight. The flight crew, Aircraft mechanic or ramp agents depending on local arrangements is responsible for the punctual request for fuel trucks. Fuelling is considered to start as soon as the filler hose is connected to the aircraft and pressurized. Fuelling/de-fuelling shall only be considered terminated after all the hoses have been disconnected from the aircraft. The Aircraft mechanic or a member of the cockpit crew will supervise the fuelling/de fuelling process and enforce adherence to the required safety regulations. Spilled fuel shall be removed or dried up immediately in the presence of the airport fire Brigade before passengers are boarding the aircraft.

1.7.2 Fuelling Area Is the area where rise of combustible gases can be expected? The size of the fuelling area corresponds to the shape of the wings extended by 2m in all extensions(over-wing fuelling) or 3m radius around the wing tip vent holes (under-wing fuelling),.according the local security requirements 1.7.3 Admittance to fuelling area When fuelling is in progress, only persons associated with the handling of the aircraft shall have admittance to the fuelling area. 1.7.4 Fuelling with crew or other staff on board The Commander shall inform the fuelling personnel that crew or other staff is on board and the crew/staff on board shall also be informed that fuelling is taking place. The Commander, or a person delegated by him shall monitor the fuelling from the ground and immediately alert the crew or other staff on board, should any hazardous

situation arise.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

PHOTO FOR SCAN

1.7.5 Passengers on Board When passengers are to be allowed to embark, disembark or remain on board during refueling or refueling. Air traffic control and the aerodrome fire services are to be advised that refueling/ refueling will be taking place with passengers on board. Crew, staff and passengers are to be advised that refuelling/ defuelling is about to take place and in the presence of a fire vehicle. Fasten Seat Belt signs must be off, No Smoking signs must be on together with interior lighting to enable emergency exits to be identified; Passengers are to be briefed not to smoke at any time on the ground and to remain seated, but with seat belts/harnesses unfastened, until the refuelling has been completed; A crew member is to be stationed at the main exit door to assist in the evacuation if an emergency should occur and other emergency door exits must be guarded by cabin crew members who must be prepared for an immediate emergency evacuation; If the presence of fuel vapour is detected inside the aeroplane, or any other hazard arises refuelling / defuelling must be stopped immediately; No individual items of electrical equipment may be switched on or off while refuelling/defuelling is in progress; The position of the fuel bowser/installation relative to the aeroplane is to be such that it will not impede the rapid exit of passengers if an emergency evacuation becomes necessary; However notwithstanding the foregoing an operator shall ensure that no aeroplane is re/defuelled.

1.7.6 Fuel spillage The emergency fuel cut-off must be pressed in any fuel spillage. In case of a fuel spillage: Immediately initiate a removal or dry up of spilled fuel according to local aerodrome regulations Inform the Commander Inform the Station or the Duty Manager Inform Operations Control Spilled fuel must be removed or dried up before passengers are boarding If passengers are on board, they shall, under appropriate supervision by crew and

ground staff, leave the aeroplane.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

Fuel Spillages If a fuel browser or Aircraft fuel tank in involved, ensure the flow of fuel has been stopped. Ensure that the area is cordoned off, and that work in the area has stopped. Ensure that fire extinguishers are available and placed adjacent to the spill area. Ensure that any vehicles within 20 feet are switched off. Use absorbent materials to clean spillage All materials used for clean-up must be disposed of in correctly identified waste bin, and arrange proper disposal.

1.8

Cleaning of aircraft interior

The handling agent is responsible for punctual deposition of cleaning staff and equipment as well as for the proper cleaning on transit and turn-around flights. Aircraft cleaning must be finished and cleaning staff must have left the aircraft before passengers are boarded. If passengers remain on board during short transit stops, cabin cleaning must be performed in such a way that the passengers are not disturbed. Cleaning is not allowed during fuelling procedures if passengers are onboard. 1.9 Catering and other pantry suppliers

It is Air Bagans objective to only use suppliers approved by the Civil Aviation Authority along the standards and recommendations laid down in Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention and ECAC Document 30. If the supplier does not meet those criteria, a written contract shall be compel the supplier to: Nominate a security responsible person in the company Meet the standards and recommendations laid down in Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention and ECAC Document 30 Establish training requirements for staff concerned along Air Bagans security programme A random check of the goods supplied shall be made or, if the supplies are sealed, check that the seals are unbroken. Potable Water Drinking water shall only be uplifted water is bacteriological safe. 1.10.2Procedures and responsibilities The quantity of potable water uplift is predefined according each aeroplane type.

1.10

1.10.1 General

In any case the senior cabin crew member is responsible for the pre selection of

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

water uplift at out-stations.. The station engineer or a ramp agent is responsible for pre-selecting the water uplift. 1.11 Toilet service Toilet service is to be performed in every turn-around. The senior cabin crew member or the ramp agent are responsible for the supervision of the toilet service. Approval of the senior cabin crew member should be taken before living the aeroplane. 1.11.2Procedures 1.12 Empty and flash the wastewater tanks twice. Refill the toilet water tanks with the needed quantity.

1.11.1 General

Departure Activities All necessary handling activities shall be performed within the time available before departure. The handling agent is responsible for determining when boarding call shall be made. The ramp agent will obtain clearance to board the passengers from the cockpit crew or the purser. Load and aircraft clearance documents shall be handed over to the Purser. The weight and balance documents should be handed over to the Commander at least 5 minutes prior to scheduled departure time. After examination by the Commander the original is kept in the cockpit, the first copy to be handed over to Purser while the second copy is kept by the ramp agent and filed together with a slip from the aircraft technical logbook and a copy of the fuelling order. Notification to Commander (NOTOC) shall, where applicable, be handed over to the Commander well in advance i.e at check-in or, if transit or turn-around flight, immediately after landing so that the Commander can initiate or personally perform necessary activities related to such NOTOC. A final report shall be given to the Commander. Prior to the final report it must be checked that the entries in the weight and balance documents corresponds with the actual loading status of the aircraft. In case differences (LMC- Last Minute Changes) are found between the actual loading status and the figures used in the mass & balance documents, the changes have to be reported to the Commander. Note: Differences in fuel may never be registered as LMC. Before closing the compartment doors it must be ensured that the load is properly secured according to company regulations. Before initiation of any removal concerning any ground vehicle that could be attached by cable or other attachment with the aircraft, it is essential that a visual check will take place by the ground vehicle handler, In order to ensure that the vehicle has correctly been detached from the aircraft and can securely mover

away from the aircrafts service site.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.13

Start-up Procedure

For all departures ground to cockpit communication, signals for starting engines, removal of ground power/air starter units and wheel chocks as well as clearance for taxiing shall be given by the station mechanic or authorized personnel of the handling agent being familiar with the applicable procedures. During the start-up and push-back no information shall be exchanged via ground to cockpit which is not relevant to these activities (i.e. LMC reports). If the ground to cockpit communication performed by hand signals: 1.13.1 Hand Signals

1.13.2

Roll clearance

The staff responsible (mechanic, ramp agent or other authorized staff) must ensure that the engine blast and intake areas are free from personnel or equipment before start-up clearance is given.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

Following signals for roll-off clearance shall be observed: NO roll-off clearance The right arm to be kept by side downward, the thumb pointing to the ground.

Roll-off clearance The right arm to be raised over the head, the thumb pointing upward.

When the aircraft starts taxiing the Commander assumes responsibility for safe manoeuvring of the aircraft on the apron. Since he cannot overlook the whole traffic on the tarmac he relies upon the clearance signals of the staff responsible on ground.

1.13.3

Pushback

Before starting a pushback, the Commander shall make sure that clearance or approval has been received. When slippery conditions exit in the pushback area, the commander should delay of engine start until pushback is completed. LP shall establish two way communication over the interphone an and/or visual contact with the Qualified Ground Person during the entire pushback/towing manoeuvre.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.13.4

Push-back Procedure

At station where push-back is applied, the responsibilities must be clearly defined. As a rule, the qualified Ground Person assumes full responsibility for the safe manoeuvring of the airplane. The LP must be ready to apply the brakes upon request from the Ground Person. The BEFORE ENGINE START check list must be fully completed before push-back procedure is initiated. Depending on local procedures, engines may be started during or after push-back. The RH (No.2) engine is normally started first during the push-back and then followed by LH (No.1) engine The interphone system shall be used for communication between cockpit and ground, person hand signals may be used as agreed by the LP and the Qualified Ground Person prior to commencing push-back, if it is not possible to use interphone system. 1.13.5 Standard Phrases The normal phraseology between the pilot on the LH seat (LP) and Ground Mechanic (M) should be as follows: Ground Mechanic Ready for push-back and start-up? Release Parking brakes. Commencing push-back Clear to start Right engine clear to start Left engine Push-back completed, set Parking brakes. LH Pilot Affirmative Ready for push-back and start-up. Parking Brakes released. Stop push-back (If necessary) Clearance to start Right engine Starting Right engine Clearance to start Left engine Starting Left engine Parking breaks are set. Two good starts remove all ground equipments clear signal from the Left/Right side. Steering pin has to be observed removed before commencing Taxi

Ok, disconnecting, standby for visual signal at your left (or right). Side NOTE 1:

This exchange is followed by a visual signal with the streering pin to the pilot to indicate that disconnect is completed and all is clear for taxiing. NOTE 2: If engine(s) are started before or after push-back, the phraseology above has to be changed accordingly.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.13.6

Towing Never tow the aeroplane while any of its engines are operating. Never tow the aeroplane without having someone in the flight compartment to operate the brakes. Never tow the aeroplane faster than a slow walk, avoid quick starts and

stops. Never tow the aeroplane near obstacles without having someone walking at each wing. Never allow anyone to enter or leave the aeroplane while it is moving, ensure that all the doors are closed. Never allow persons to stand in or near the part of the aeroplane. Never remove the chocks until ready to tow the aeroplane. Make sure the person in The flight compartment is ready to operate th brakes. Never tow the aeroplane if wind exceeds 30 knots. Pull wheel chocks and keep them readily available for use. Never tow without gear pins to be found behind Co-pilots seat. Note: A person in change must be in a position to observe towing operation! 1.14 1.14.1 Loading General Aircraft loading is probably the most important function for which one authorized staff of Ground Handling Department is responsible. Proper loading is important for several different reasons, of which the first and foremost is flight safety. The goods must be properly secured to prevent shifting while the aircraft is in flight.

The cargo must be inspected and properly distributed to avoid concentrated weight loads which may damage the aircraft floor structure. It is also important that the aircraft is not damaged by ground equipment while the loading taking place. Correct loading is also important to efficient and economical operation. Goods should be segregated in a manner that will allow for expeditious handling at en-route and destination stations. To the same token, proper loading leads to savings in damage claims. 1.14.2 Loading and unloading A careful planning of all activities must be made. All goods must be inspected for leakage or otherwise damaged shipments. All goods must be labeled clearly indicating point of unloading. Mail should not be mixed with cargo.

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

2.14.3Lashing requirements All individual items, which by nature, shape or density may constitute a hazard, shall be lashed. Pieces weighing 330 Lbs or 150 kgs or more, when loaded as bulk in lower compartments should be tied down except when the compartment is volumetrically full. Compartments that are filled up to three-quarters are considered to be volumetrically full. Particular attention must be given to lashing of Dangerous Goods. In general, all packages containing Dangerous Goods must be stowed in an upright position if so indicated, have the Hazard label visible, and they must be lashed to prevent themselves from shifting or any crushing, tipping or damage by other load. Capacities of Lashing Equipment Tie down ring (double stud) 5000 Lbs 2270 kg (minimum distance between rings:50cm / 20 in., single stud: 30 cm / 12 in.) Standard strap 5000 Lbs 2270 kg Heavy duty strap 10000 Lbs 4540 kg Note: The capacities are reduced for unfavorable angles. See table below: Tables below shows how the capacity will be reduced for two angles Standard Strap (Lbs/Kg) 0 deg 5000/2270 30 deg 4330/1965 45 deg 3525/1600 60 deg 2500/1135

Heavy duty strap (Lbs/Kg) 0 deg 10000/4540 1.14.5Restraint rating When determining the number of straps, rings and shackles needed for lashing, the restraint capacity must be base upon the lowest of the ratings applicable to the strap, ring, shackle or attach point. Straps must be arranged to provide restraint in all directions. Since forward, backward, sideward and upward forces do not appear simultaneously, one strap can secure an item against more than one force. 30 deg 8665/3930 45 deg 7055/3200 60 deg 50000/2270

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date:

1.14.6Supporting 1.14.6.1 Area Load Limitation Whenever the maximum area load is exceeded, the weight must be distributed over a larger area to avoid damage to the aircraft structure underneath the floor (beams, cross beams etc.) The area to take into account is not the crates or the surface of its feet but the area defined by the external contours of its contact points. 1.14.6.2 Contact Load Limitation The floor load limitation is used to prevent the weight imposed by those parts of the load in direct contact with floor from exceeding the capacity of the horizontal floor panels (metal sheets, honey comb sandwich panels). An item loaded on will contact the surface with its entire bottom area, or, if the item is furnished with slats, the area provided by the slats only, as apparent figs below. If no floor load limit is provided, check the area load limit and use spreaders as to have the contact surface be at least equivalent to one quarter of the external contour area used for checking max area load. 1.14.6.3 Supporting Planks whenever it becomes necessary to distributes the weight over a larger area than the one provided by the item, supporting planks should be used. If supporting is required, planks used according to the table below, will provide the shown supporting capacities. Length cm 50 100 150 200 250 300 Width cm 15 15 15 15 15 15 Thickness cm 2.5 2.5 5 5 5 5 Weight Lbs/Kg 4.5/2 6.5/3 15.5/7 22/10 26.5/12 31/14 Support Capacity Lbs/Kg 120/54 241/109 362/164 482/219 603/273 724/328

Having determined that a certain contact area to be enlarged, the required number of planks may be obtained from the table above in the following way: Select a standard plank of length being equal to, or slightly longer than the largest measurement of the item and divide the weight of the item by the applicable capacity of the plank. The result is the number of planks needed. The planks may be placed cross-or lengthways underneath the cargo item but always in such a way that most of the weight is supported by the planks. No other cargo shall be loaded on top of the supported item or on accessible parts of the

supporting plank. 1.14.7Forklift When a forklift is used the following instructions must be adhered to: Utmost care must be exercised when the forklift is subject to transversal forces. All movements must be performed smoothly. An extra man must always be present during the forklift positioning at the aircraft to guide the driver and help to prevent damage to the fuselage and engines. When the forklift is in the final position, its parking brake shall be applied, and the drive or steering mechanism shall not be used until the loading/unloading has been completed. Only special trained personnel may operate forklifts. Precaution Against Damage In order to keep the weight of the aircraft as low as possible, the floors, walls and ceilings are comparatively and easily exposed to damage. For this reason, levers, crowbars and similar tools may never be used directly against the surfaces. 1.15 De-icing and Anti-icing on ground

1.14.8

RESERVED

Ramp Handling Manual

Page: Chapter: Revision. 0 Date: