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A.P.A.C. Ltd.

Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

PREPARED BY DR N PHILLIPS 17TH JUNE2010

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

Contents

Contents............................................................................................................................................ 1 List of Figures .................................................................................................................................. 2 List of Plates..................................................................................................................................... 2 1 Non Technical Summary .......................................................................................................... 3 2 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 3 Location and scope of work ............................................................................................ 3 2.1 2.2 Geology and topography ................................................................................................. 3 2.3 Archaeological and historical background ...................................................................... 4 3 Aims and Objectives ................................................................................................................ 4 Watching Brief & Recording Work ................................................................................ 4 3.1 4 Methodologies .......................................................................................................................... 4 4.1 Watching Brief ................................................................................................................ 4 4.2 Recording ........................................................................................................................ 5 4.3 Processing ....................................................................................................................... 5 Results ...................................................................................................................................... 5 5 5.1 Watching Brief Results ................................................................................................... 5 6 Discussion and Interpretation ................................................................................................... 7 6.1 Reliability of field investigation ..................................................................................... 7 6.2 Overall interpretation ...................................................................................................... 7 7 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. 7 Bibliography and references ..................................................................................................... 8 8 Appendices

Copyright Notice: A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988. The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover photograph DSCO7387 Overview.

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

List of Figures
Figure 01 Figure 02 Figure 03 Figure 04 Location Map Position of Site to Main House Position of trenches and culverts with flow direction and slope Stratigraphic section drawing, south trench culvert and feature.

List of Plates
Plate 01 Plate 02 Plate 03 Plate 04 Plate 05 Plate 06 Plate 07 Plate 08 Plate 09 Plate 10 Plate 11 Plate 12 Plate 13 Plate 14 Plate 15 Plate 16 Plate 17 Plate 18 Plate 19 East trench. West trench South trench South trench with wall Culvert in south east corner South trench, section above culvert Clay base to culvert Culvert construction East trench, northern culvert. East trench southern culvert Drain 2 Drain 1 View along culvert, photomerge Long culvert, west trench, capstone removed Long culvert internal view looking north Short culvert internal view Two culverts in pit Smaller culvert, internal structure Larger culvert, internal structure

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

Non Technical Summary


On 17th May 2010, Dr N Phillips of A.P.A.C. Ltd was contacted by F. Olding, of Blaenau Gwent Leisure Services; in relation to restoration work being undertaken at Bedwellty House, Tredegar. Mr Olding advised A.P.A.C. Ltd. that clearance work at the site, had revealed the presence of a previously unrecorded, stone culverts, believed to be part of a heating system similar to that found at another part of the site. Dr N Phillips, A.P.A.C. Ltd undertook a watching brief at the site whilst the culverts were exposed. The culverts turned out to be parts of drainage works.

2 2.1

Introduction
Location and scope of work

The property: Bedwellty House, Morgan St, Tredegar, Gwent. NP22 3XN, is located at Grid Ref: SO 14320854, fig 01. Bedwellty House, Tredegar, NPRN 36445, is Grade II listed, Cadw record no: 1862. It is a particularly important example of a surviving ironmasters residence in Gwent, (ASL, 7 2008). The property is undergoing extensive restoration, conservation and development in order to convert it to a multi-use facility (Tredegar Forum 2009). The project design for this outcome is outlined in Bedwellty House and Park, Tredegar, Conservation Plan, (revised) ASL 2008. As part of this document, an earlier recommendation by Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division, (GUARD), regarding archaeological concerns was included. The inclusion identifies strategies which should be employed during work on the house and grounds. Bedwellty House is a Grade II listed building and Bedwellty Park a graded II registered historic garden and conservation area, and therefore of national importance. Archaeological monitoring of any future ground disturbance works in the vicinity of the building and within the site is recommended, as they may have direct and irreversible impacts on undiscovered archaeological remains. (GUARDb. 10. 2006). Specific to this project was a watching brief and the recording of lengths of stone lined water culverts; exposed in trenches dug to the west, east and south of a patch of ground known as the kitchen garden area. The insert map in fig 2 identifies the position at the edge of the formal garden area, encircled in red. A.P.A.C. Ltd was contacted to undertake the recording.

2.2

Geology and topography

Tredegar lies at the northern head of the Shirowy valley; one of a series of valleys draining NW-SE from the higher plateau of Mynydd Llangynidr. The site lies within a public park which itself encompasses approximately 26 acres of NW-SE sloping ground, to the south of Tredegar town centre. The underlying drift geology is of glacial deposits of till (boulder clay), whilst the solid geology exposes Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit (BGS 1990).

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

The more visible landscape however is made up from industrial waste derived from mining and iron production, for which Tredegar was a major centre during the 19th century.

2.3

Archaeological and historical background

Both Bedwellty House and the landscaped park, in which it stands, are Grade II listed. The house as a good example of a large 19th century, ironmasters residence whilst the park, itself early 19th century, contains many significant historic resources: an ice house, limestone rockwork, fishponds, a walled garden, a grotto, a long shelter, a bandstand a cast iron fountain and the remains of an orchid house (RBWB/TRE/09). In 1900, the house and grounds were given to The Tredegar Urban District Council for public use, the house becoming the council offices in 1901. The house kept this role until 1974 when through government reorganisation it became the base for the Tredegar Town Council. Tredegar Town Council finally moved out of Bedwellty House in 1994 at which point the house has been in some structural decline (RBWB/TRE/09). This report details the third piece of archaeological work undertaken by A.P.A.C. Ltd during the current works. The earlier undertakings were RBWB/TRE/09, relating to a former Orchid House at the main building and S/TRE/10, a survey of a culvert discovered earlier in the same area as the present work. As stated above, the present work relates ground formerly used as a kitchen garden and associated buildings. It was during ground levelling work, prior to development, that the feature recorded in S/TRE/10 was discovered. Having levelled the ground, (cover photograph DSCO7387), continuing foundation trenching, uncovered the features recorded in this report, fig 03.

3 3.1

Aims and Objectives


Watching Brief & Recording Work

The aim of the watching brief and recording work was to preserve by record, within the resources available, any archaeological deposits uncovered during groundwork. The watching brief also ensured: that in the event of archaeological resources of significance being discovered and requiring treatment beyond the remit of the watching brief; then steps would be implemented to ensure that their treatment would be undertaken within the standards recommended by the IFA. The record of the work will be presented in report form accompanied by an archive of digitised data. The primary archive will remain with A.P.A.C. Ltd and a secondary archive will be kept at Bedwellty House.

4 4.1

Methodologies
Watching Brief

The groundwork at the site entailed the excavation, by tracked mechanical digger, of four adjoining foundation trenches fig 03. All excavation was undertaken by the employees of the building contractor: (John Weaver Contractors Limited) The watching brief consisted of an archaeological fieldworker being present during groundwork at the site. During excavation, the stratigraphic record and initial contexts were noted, with a brief description given where appropriate.

A.P.A.C. Ltd 4.2

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

Recording

All recording of the site features took place during clearance work. The topographic survey was undertaken using a Topcon GPT 3007, Refectorless Total station and a level was included within the survey, of a known manhole cover to give the data an ordnance datum. Correct positioning of the surveyed features was ensured by including the reference position of the east and north walls of the Icehouse. Photographs were taken of exposed areas of culvert during excavation showing: setting, construction and direction of alignment. Photographs were taken with a Sony Cybershot DSC-F828 digital camera.

4.3

Processing

All of the survey data was downloaded into CivilCad 6.7 for processing and adjustment to the National grid, using position and level data described above. The finished data was imported into Autocad 2007 as a dxf file for interpretative alignment and finally exported into Adobe Illustrator for presentation. Copies of the CivilCad files, Autocad files and illustrator PDFs are included in the Archive. The photographs were processed into data sheets and saved in digital Pdf files for the archive. A complete excel database of all the photographs is included in the appendix of this document as well as for the archive. The primary archive will be kept with A.P.A.C. Ltd with a secondary copy to Bedwellty House.

5 5.1

Results
Watching Brief Results

Soils and ground conditions


The site and weather conditions for the entire watching brief were dry. The general are of the site had seen much clearance work prior to the start of the watching brief so trying to pinpoint upper strata contexts was a ineffective.

Description
The overall site At the beginning of the watching brief, the site had undergone extensive work reducing buildings and removing vegetation to produce level ground for further work (cover photograph DSCO7387). The site, as shown, has a gentle west/east slope of approx 1:14 and the western edge is overlooked by an earthen bank varying from 2 to 4 m. The eastern edge of the site drops down through heavy vegetation towards a retaining wall, above the approach road to the house. The north edge is bounded by a path and the south by the remnants of an ornamental garden. The foundation trenches Four foundation trenches were excavated along the edges of this area of ground; two at 35m x 1.5m along the east and west, Plates 01 & 02 respectively and two at 27m x 1.5m along the north and south, Plate 03.

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

The trenches averaged about 1m deep and the north and south trenches were stepped to take account of the overall slope of the ground. The north trench was clear of any archaeological resources, with the exception of the end of the drain culvert as recorded in S/TRE/10. The south trench revealed the partial remains of a mortared masonry wall, Plate 04 and the scant remnants of a culvert at a depth of 0.77m below present surface, Plate 05. The plate shows the void for the stone lined culvert in the south /east corner but there was no trace of its return on the other side, in the opposite bank. Unfortunately, this area was removed prior to the watching brief being initiated, so it is not possible to record the original direction. However, further along the line of the South trench, a length of culvert, Plate 06, was exposed by the mechanical digger; one of the discoveries that initiated the watching brief. Plate 07 shows the brick lined culvert sitting on a bed of brown clay. The culvert was constructed of two courses of yellow brick, laid without mortar, and capped by rough flag stones, Plate 08. The culvert was on average, 0.3m wide. The opportune section shown in Plate 06 was revealed by the bucket of the JCB during excavation and work was halted in this area to await archaeological recording. The cut and fill feature is a deposition of coarse red sandy fill with an amount of possible plaster or lime inclusions. The feature was photographed and drawn, fig 04. The intention is to preserve this feature and so the trench was moved towards the north in order to allow for this. As a result of this mitigation, the line of the culvert was not traced to a possible connection to the south east corner, see above. The east trench had very little visible archaeology but it should be noted that its excavation had been undertaken before the watching brief was implemented. The trench had also been fitted with rebar cages, ready for concreting, when the watching brief started. There were however, two sections of stone capped culvert visible in the section at about 0.7m below surface level Plates 09 & 10. The southernmost culvert was an estimated 0.5m wide and crossed the trench some 5.9m from the south corner. The northernmost culvert was some 0.3m wide crossing the trench some 15m from the south end. It was not possible to examine these culverts very clearly but they did not appear to have been of brick construction, as was the culvert along the south wall, see above. Their assumed direction of flow is shown in fig 03; the recordable slope angle for the northern culvert was 1:10. The western trench provided the majority of the archaeological resource for the report: Starting at the south end of the trench, some 5m north is a brick constructed drain (2, fig 03) with a cast iron grill, Plate 11. This drain was corbelled on the west side and reached a depth of 1.13m below cover level. At a further distance of 3.3m was a second grilled drain, (1, fig 03), Plate 12; also of brick construction but with a straight shaft and a drop of only 0.47m below cover level. The cover level of the second drain was 0.2m below the first therefore any subsurface connection would have to drop 0.5 of a metre at a slope of 1:8. To the north of the second drain were two lengths of stone flag covered culvert, running 9m and 1.7m respectively, Plate 02. The entire runs of the culverts are shown in the merged photograph plate 13. Plate 14 shows part of the long culvert with the capstone removed. The eastern edge of this culvert is constructed of two courses of non-mortared, yellow brick. The west face is on a bed of mortared masonry which shelves backwards to the slope. On this shelf, is a single thin spacer of small stone/brick and the whole is capped with large flagstones. Plate 15 shows the internal construction; looking north. The base is compacted sandy clay. Plate 16 shows the internal view of the easternmost culvert which is constructed of rounded stone. This culvert is quite short and leads from the second drain, in a shallow S, before turning at almost 90 towards the east of the site. After recording, the capstones were lifted from the entire run in order to check for continuity. It was found from observation and survey data that the culvert leading from the south of the trench sloped at 1:8 towards the north and drain 1. The long culvert from the north of the trench sloped south at 1:5 towards drain 2

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

before increasing to 1:8 towards drain 1. The short culvert ran north from drain 1 at 1:3 before turning east at an unknown gradient. The extreme south end of the long culvert was not discovered as it went beyond the limit of the trench. The north end did stop within the excavation but no sign of a connection could be found. Finally, a pit was dug to the west of the site for a drainage installation, fig 03. This pit was approximately 2m x 2m but was water filled at the time of the watching brief. Excavation of this pit cut through two stone lined culverts which must have met at a point within the excavation, before continuing north east, Plate 17. The construction of the smaller culvert to the south, Plate 18 is three courses of yellow brick with a stone flag roof. Floor construction is not known. The larger culvert has sides of five courses of yellow brick with stone flag floor and rough flag ceiling, Plate 19. Alignment would suggest a connection with the culvert recorded in S/TRE/10 but there is some concern about the quantity of water that two large culverts would introduce into one smaller one. Unfortunately, the answer to this question was outside of the watching brief parameter.

Finds
No small finds were collected from the trenching operation although various bits of china and clay pipe stems were noted in the spoil and developed land.

6 6.1

Discussion and Interpretation


Reliability of field investigation

The archaeological resources uncovered during this part of the work were dealt with effectively within the restraints of time and costs. That which was discovered can clearly be stated to have been drainage features, possibly connected to the ponds to the west but also originating within the proximity of the site.

6.2

Overall interpretation

The work has confirmed that the area has had a lot of work undertaken in the past to drain the area. It is also possible to infer from the differences in construction that drainage concerns have been a continuous process requiring adaptation and improvisation. It is possible that the better constructed elements predate the improvised refurbishments.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to John Weaver Contractors Limited, site staff for their help with the work. Thanks also to Frank Olding at BG Heritage for giving A.P.A.C. Ltd the opportunity to undertake this work.

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

Bibliography and references


RBWB/TRE/09 Watching Brief and Recording Project. S/TRE/10 Archaeological Survey. Bedwellty House and Park, Tredegar. Conservation Management Plan. (revised). Blaenau Gwent County Borough Council. 1:50,000, Sheet 232, Abergavenny, Solid and Drift, 1990). AN INITIAL CHRONOLOGY AND CONTEXTUALFRAMEWORK FOR BEDWELLTY HOUSE AND PARK, TREDEGAR. Project 2218. Glasgow University. BEDWELLTY HOUSE AND PARK, DATA STRUCTURE REPORT Project 2232. Glasgow University. An Initial Chronology and Contexturalframework for Bedwellty House and Park, Tredegar. Standard and Guidance for an archaeological watching brief. 2001. Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for the regulation of Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology. 2002. Standard and Guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation and research of archaeological materials. 2001.

A.P.A.C. Ltd. 2009. A.P.A.C. Ltd. 2010. Austin-Smith:Lord LLP, 2008

British Geological Survey. GUARD a 2006

GUARD b 2006

Icosse 2006

Institute of Field Archaeologists,

Management of Archaeological Projects (English Heritage 1991). RCAHMW (Corflein) 14/11/2009 http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/36445/details/BEDWELLTY+HOUSE%2C+TREDEGAR/ Tredegar Forum 14/11/2009 Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 http://.tredegar.co.uk/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC-D=1150&which

A.P.A.C. Ltd, Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire. NP7 7RG . 07734962919. Email: apac.philips@btinernet.com. Company Registration No 5041541. VAT Reg No 826 3628 19. www.apac.ltd.uk Director: Dr N. Phillips. D.Phil. BA (Hons). Cert Ed/FE. AIFA. AAI&S

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

WB2/TRE/10

ARCHIVE COVER SHEET

Site Name: Site Code: PRN: NPRN : SAM: Other Ref No: NGR: Site Type: Project Type: Project Officer: Project Dates: Categories Present: Location of Original Archive:

Bedwellty House, Tredegar WB/TRE/10 N6445 A.P.A.C. Ltd Report No. 114 S0 1432 0854 19th c Watching brief Neil Phillips June 2010 N/A A.P.A.C. Ltd

Location of duplicate Archives: Bedwellty House Number of Finds Boxes: Location of Finds: Museum Reference: Copyright: Restrictions to access: A.P.A.C. Ltd None 0 Bedwellty House

Site Bedwelty House WB2/TRE/10 Photo No


DSCO7330 DSCO7331 DSCO7332 DSCO7333 DSCO7334 DSCO7335 DSCO7336 DSCO7337 DSCO7338 DSCO7339 DSCO7340 DSCO7341 DSCO7342 DSCO7343 DSCO7344 DSCO7347 DSCO7348 DSCO7349 DSCO7350 DSCO7351 DSCO7352 DSCO7353 DSCO7354 DSCO7355 DSCO7356 DSCO7357 DSCO7358 DSCO7359 DSCO7360 DSCO7361 DSCO7362 DSCO7363 DSCO7364 DSCO7365 DSCO7366

Digital Photographic Record Time Camera


8.42 DSC-F828 8.43 DSC-F828 8.45 DSC-F828 8.45 DSC-F828 8.46 DSC-F828 8.52 DSC-F828 8.52 DSC-F828 9.52 DSC-F828 10.01 DSC-F828 10.55 DSC-F828 10.56 DSC-F828 10.56 DSC-F828 10.57 DSC-F828 13.2 DSC-F828 13.21 DSC-F828 13.35 DSC-F828 13.35 DSC-F828 13.36 DSC-F828 14.1 DSC-F828 14.1 DSC-F828 8.08 DSC-F828 8.08 DSC-F828 8.08 DSC-F828 11.01 DSC-F828 11.02 DSC-F828 11.02 DSC-F828 11.02 DSC-F828 12.35 DSC-F828 12.52 DSC-F828 12.52 DSC-F828 12.52 DSC-F828 12.52 DSC-F828 12.53 DSC-F828 12.53 DSC-F828 12.53 DSC-F828

A.P.A.C. Ltd Drawing

Date
17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 17/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010

jpg Size
2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 1944x2592 1944x2592 2592x1944 1944x2592 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 1944x2592 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944

MB Area
2.6 E Trench 2.7 E Trench 2.3 E Trench 2.2 E Trench 2.4 E Trench 3.8 E Trench 4 E Trench 3.6 E Trench 3 S Trench 2.4 S Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.6 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 1.9 S Trench 1.9 S Trench 2.2 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 2.3 S Trench 2.3 E Trench 2.1 E Trench 2 E Trench 4 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench

View Description
SW NE SW NE E NE NE NE SW SE SW V V SE SE SW NE SE SE SE SE SE SE V SE SE NE V V V V V V V V West side, centre culvert with flagstone cap East side, centre culvert with flagstone cap East side, southern culvert East side, southern culvert with some stone capping Corner culvert East trench East trench south end East side, southern culvert with some stone capping South trench showing position of wall South trench showing Cut and fill feature above southern culvert Drain 2, vertical shot showing corbelling on SW side Drain 2, vertical shot showing corbelling on SW side, cover removed Drain 1, vertical shot, cover removed South trench showing cut and fill feature above southern culvert. Cleaned South trench showing cut and fill feature above southern culvert. Close up Internal view up culvert showing construction detail Internal view up culvert showing construction detail Internal view back wall of culvert showing construction detail South trench showing cut and fill feature above southern culvert. Close up South trench showing cut and fill feature above southern culvert. Close up 2 South trench stratigraphy sequence 1 South trench stratigraphy sequence 2 South trench stratigraphy sequence 3 Capstones over double culvert connection, NW of Drain 1 View along inside of main culvert in W trench, towards drain 1 View along inside of secondary culvert in W trench, towards drain 1 NE culverts with stone caps in place W trench culvert sequence 1 south to north W trench culvert sequence 2 south to north W trench culvert sequence 3 south to north W trench culvert sequence 4 south to north W trench culvert sequence 5 south to north W trench culvert sequence 6 south to north W trench culvert sequence 7 south to north W trench culvert sequence 8 south to north

Site Bedwelty House WB2/TRE/10


DSCO7367 DSCO7368 DSCO7369 DSCO7370 DSCO7371 DSCO7372 DSCO7373 DSCO7374 DSCO7377 DSCO7378 DSCO7381 DSCO7383 DSCO7384 DSCO7387 DSCO7389 DSCO7390 DSCO7391 DSCO7392 Merge 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 18/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 24/05/2010 18/06/2010 12.53 DSC-F828 12.53 DSC-F828 12.54 DSC-F828 12.54 DSC-F828 12.54 DSC-F828 12.56 DSC-F828 13.09 DSC-F828 13.1 DSC-F828 13.25 DSC-F828 14.34 DSC-F828 8.5 DSC-F828 8.5 DSC-F828 8.51 DSC-F828 9.37 DSC-F828 10.21 DSC-F828 11.45 DSC-F828 11.45 DSC-F828 11.45 DSC-F828 20.4 DSC-F828 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 1944x2592 1944x2592 1944x2592 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2592x1944 2.3 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.1 W Trench 4.1 S Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.7 W Trench 3.5 W Trench 2.4 W Trench 2.4 Site 2.3 W Trench 2.3 W Trench 2.2 W Trench 2.2 W Trench 7.3 W Trench

Digital Photographic Record


V V V V V V V NE NW SW S SW SW NE SE V NW NW V W trench culvert sequence 9 south to north W trench culvert sequence 10 south to north W trench culvert section under capstone W trench culvert section under capstone showing masonry wall to west of trench W trench culvert section under capstone showing masonry wall to west of trench W trench culvert section. Join of main and secondary culverts W trench culvert section. Join of main and secondary culverts. Caps removed W trench secondary culvert internal view under site S Trench finished W trench Wall running SW NE Internal view of small culvert in trench 2 running S N Internal view of large culvert in trench 2 running SW NE Culverts in Trench 2 Overview Capstones lifted off culverts Extreme south end of culvert, W Trench Extreme south end of culvert, W Trench Extreme south end of culvert, W Trench Internal view Photomerge

A.P.A.C. Ltd

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

N trench: S trench: E trench: W trench: W2 trench:


N. tre nc h

16.5m x 1.5m 15.2m x 1.3m 35.2m x 1.5m 20.2m x 1.7m 2m x 2m

Notes: North set at magnetic

wall
Key:

Previous survey Trench edge

culv ert

Wall
n tre E. ch

Culvert Unexcavated, direction of culvert Capped area Drain

wall

Slope 1:12

Slope 1:10

Location:

Bedwellty House Tredegar


Type:

Slope NA W. trench 2 Wall

Slope NA

Watching Brief
Final record May 2010 BGLS of BGCBC Bar Dr. N. Phillips Dr. N. Phillips 15/06/2010

Stage:

Slope NA Wall Ice House


Period:

nch tre W.

Slope NA Slope NA

Produced for: Scale at A4: Survey:

Slope 1:5

Slope 1:13 Slope 1:8

Drain 1
S

en . tr

ch

Processing:

Drain 2

Slope 1:12 Slope 1:8 Area of site: 0 5 10 metres 900.14m 15 20 section Drain 1 depth below surface: 0.5m Drain 2 depth below surface: 1.14m

A.P.A.C. Ltd

36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire NP7 7RG apac.philips@btinternet.co.uk

Figure 03: Position of trenches and culverts with ow direction and slope

A.P.A.C. Ltd

WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

101

101

103

102

104

105

106

107

108

0 m

1
100 101 102 Black/grey topsoil Greasy black soil with root Grey loam with stone 103 104 105 Cut Red coarse sand with lime Brown/orange clay 106 107 108 Cap stones and rubble brick Brick coarses Brown clay Stone

Figure 04: South trench, section


A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10

Bedwelty House, Tredegar

DSC07335

DSC07358

Plate 01: East trench

Plate 02: West trench

DSC07377

DSC07338

Plate 03: South trench

Plate 04: South trench, with wall

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

DSC07334

DSC07343

Plate 05: Culvert in South east corner

Plate 06: South trench, section above culvert

DSC07349

DSC07347

Plate 07: Clay base to culvert

Plate 08: Caption

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

DSC07333

DSC07331

Plate 09: East trench, northern culvert

Plate 10: East trench, southern culvert

DSC07340

DSC07342

Plate 11: Drain 2

Plate 12: Drain 1

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

Plate 13. West trench full plan view, photomerge

DSCO7359 DSCO7360 DSCO7361 DSCO7362 DSCO7363 DSCO7364 DSCO7365 DSCO7366 DSCO7367 DSCO7368

A.P.A.C. Ltd

WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

DSC07370

DSC07357

Plate 14: Long culvert, west trench, capstone removed

Plate 15: Long culvert internal view looking north

DSC07374

DSC07384

Plate 16: Short culvert internal view

Plate 17: Two culverts in pit

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10

Bedwellty House, Tredegar

DSC07381

DSC07383

Plate 18: Small culvert internal structure

Plate 19: Larger culvert internal structure

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB2/TRE/10