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III THEOLOGY
Norms of Moralify Law &Cottscience t A c c o r d i n go S t .T h o m a sA q u i n a s LAW$ are ORDINANCES of REASON; . thelaw mustbebased theinsight reason value; into of on . recognizes whatis good;goodis whatwe oughtto follow (moral thatis, reason obligations); law makes followwhatis good; the us . cf in lawsmustbereasonable sofar'as theyarearticulatlons thegoodwhich to reason recognizes whichwe aremorally obliged promote. and PROMULGATED.|TIT COMtrfONIGOODT ilte . . . to them, Lawsaremadeknownto those who arebound obserye restrictions; hardships needless Lawsare not menntto inrpose or us Truelaw tends makegoodmen/women of us;liberates from perverse our to judgments, leading to ourultimate cnd. andmistaken us thereby by ONE WIIO I{AS CI{ARGE cf socicty. --

CLASSESOF LATYS
ETERNAL LAW - God'seternal planin creating uniyglse in assigning each to creature therein specific a the and nature - provides the cosmic but for different independent not and orderrvhereFevery creature stands purpose creation fromtheunified apart of

NATURAL LT\W
from the Is the moral order(a directive, orderingman towardsultimateend)which arises lt natureof man and creationandwhich can be recognized man'sreason. is alsodivine by natural law because originis ultirrrately its backto the will of god traced

HUN{AI\ LA\Y
- Laws enacted churchor state by law Ecclesiastical andcivil law - A humanlaw derivesits bindingforce frorn naturallaw and ultimatelyfrom eternallaw a concrete application naturallaw of

Conscience the ability or laculty that distinguishes is whetherone'sactionsare right or wrong. It can lead to feelingsof remorsewhen a humandoesthings that go againsthis/hermoral valuesandto feelingsof rectitude integritywhen actions or conformto suchnorms. The extent to rvhich conscience irrforrnsmoral jr-rdgment before an action and whether suchmoral judgmentsare, or shouldbe, basedwholly in reasonhas occasioned debatethrough much of the history of Westernphilosophy,Commonly used metaphors conscience for include the "yoice vithin" and the ,,inncr liglt,,. The innersense what is right or wrong in one'sconductor motives,impellingone of toward right action:to follow the dictates conscience of

Kinds of Conscience l. TRUE or CORRECT Conscience { The mind making a correctmoraljudgment on sonle action eitherto be performed or alreadydone. '/ When the conscience is true, a person's judgmentcorresponds the subjective to objectivefact that a particular hurnan is morallygood or morallywrong. act ,/ It judgeswhat is good as good and what is evil as evil. '/ The judgment of the mind when it concludes correctlyfrom true principlesthat someact is Iawf,ul sinful or EXAMPLE: Prayingregularlyand willingly helpingothersrvhomever they may be especially in times of greatneed.

FALSE or ERRONEOUS Conscience / The judgment of the mind when it wrongly decides that something lawful but is that in fbct is unlawful,or vice versa. '/ The error may be due to the false principles used or because the mind was darkened confused its reasoning or in process. '/ Erroneous falsejudges incorrectly or that what is good is evil and what is evil is good. ,/ Erroneous or false colscience has two types: the ctrlpable and inculpable conscience. EXAMPLE: Drinking largeamountsof alcoholicbeverages sinceall of my friendsdo it and it makesme look cool. a. CULPABLE Conscience or malice-desiring pain, injury, or distress another. to ) Culpability assumes sufficient awareness and (internal) consentto the evil done.

easier quickly gain a lot of moneythat way to b. INCULPAIILE Conscience objectivelyevil action. because emotional pressure coercion, not reallyguilty beforeGod. of or is

'' EXAMPLE: Didn't really intendto sleepduring classhoursbut couldn't help it due to stayingup late to finishthe project. 3. CERTAIN Conscience '/ Certainconscience a subjective is assurance the lawfulness unlawfulness of or of a certainactivity. '/ A stateof mind when it has no prudentfear of being wrong aboutits judgment on somemoral issueand firmly decidesthat someactien is right or wrong Example: Parents spanking their children whenever he or she did something wrong, believing that it is the bestmethod discipline to them. 4. DOUBTFUL Corrscicnce '/ Doubtful conscience a state of mind when it cannot certainlydecide for or is against courseof actionand leaves person a the unsureaboutthe moralityof what one is to do. or rvhatone ntav hgvedone. '/ One sign oi a doubtful is that it gives rise to a positivejudgment with "onr"i"n"e a prudent fear of being wrong, or more commonly to a negativejudgment in which the persondoesnot know whetheran act is lawful or not. '/ A doubtful conscience a vacillating conscience is unable to form a definite judgmenton a certainaction. EXAMPLE,: Seeingyour friend stealingyour other friend's money and being crossedas to whetheror not you shouldtell for it might destroy your friendship. 5. SCRUPULOUSCONSCIENCI '/ Scrupulous cottscience a rigorousconscience, is extremelyafraid of committing evil. '/ It is meticulous and wantsincontrover-tible proofsbeforeit acts. / An erroneous cottscience when the mind is unduly swayedby fear andjudgesthat something wrongthatin fact is lawful. is Example. Wlteriever lempted, worrieshimselfsick,believing hascommitted lte he sin, evenwhen he hasnot yieldedto the temptation onebit, evenwhen he hasactually abhorred it. 6. LAX COI{SCIENCE / An erroneous conscience when the mind decideson insuffrcientgroundsthat a sinful act is permissibleor that somethinggravely wrong is not serious. '/ Is one which refuses be bothered to aboutthe distinction good and evil. of ,/ It rusheson and is quick to justify itself. '/ A personwith a lax conscience usuallyhasa "huhala na" attitude.

Example: Playingall day long instead studyingfor the exams, of caringlessaboutthe grades thetestresults. of The IMPORTANCE of Conscience Of all God's creatures, only human beingshave a conscience. This is the part within that eitheraccuses excuses or you (Rom.2:15).When you dealwith your conscience, are dealing you with both your spirit and your heart. If your conscience has neverbeen dealt with, you are of no useto the Lord. Example: A radio hasa little receiver, without which it will not work. The paint may be chipped, the but radio will still work as long as the receiveris good.

The sameis true of our conscience, must be kept in good working order.When it we first receivedthe gospel,the Lord/requiredthat we confessour sins.Confessing our sins clearsour conscienceWithout repenting and confessingyour sins, you could not have been saved.The Spirit of God could not have gotten into you. Once you repentand confess,the Spirit enters into you. The more thoroughthe confession the more Spirityou havewithin. is, .ThreeSENSESof Conscience l. Conscience a cnpacity. aS To recognize right and wrong. Conscience a capacityof the humanperson, is this capacityrelatesto your basicorientationtoward the good. 2. Conscience a process moral reasoning. as of This involvessearching eachsituationfor the right thing to do, you needto learn what moral valtres in orcler act according your conscience using are to to by the facts. Your conscience must be formed and inforrned,which is a lifelong process. 3. Conscience a jurlgntent. ts You needto examineall of the factors in order to properly make a judgment, decision,and to go through with your decisionand commit to it. This is the heartof yourcotrscience, cornnrit what you believe, and your you to actions doingwhat you think is right andnot doingwhat you think is wrong. are TERMS TO REMEMBER 1' conscience It is the inner voice that tells us to do good and avoid evil. It guidesus and directsour actions conformitywith the will of God andteachings in of the Church. 2. Beatitudes-The basicprinciplesof life in God's kingdom. 3. Temptation - It is the attraction pressure do what we know is or to sinful.

4. Virtue - A habitthat perlect powers the soul(intellect the will andmemory) inclines of and oneto do good. 5. Occasion sin-A person, of place thingthatcouldleadoneto sin. or
6. Tr.r.cor corrcct- It is tlreconscience hasnrade sincere that a effort to discover truth and the one that actsin accordance with the Word of God and the teachings the church. of 7. Weak consciertcc A conscience that may know what is riglrt but hasn'tthe courageor spiritualpower to do what is right. Or it may know what is wrong and sinful and yet it does it. 8. Scrupulous conscienceThis personfrequentlythinks that it is sinningwhen in fact it is not. It hasbeensaidthat a personwith this conscience thinksthat God is a tyrant. 9. Lax conscience A conscience that is insensitive the good that ought to be done to

andthe evil that oughtto be shunned. 10. Informed conscience- One that has sought to inform and educateitself about a particular moral issue.For Catholics informing one's conscience will always involve a prayerful reflection on what scriptureand the official teachingof the church hasto say on a particular issue

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