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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION: Mangga (mango) Scientific Name: Mangifera indica Linn. . Farmers are urged to plant more mangoes to boost the countrys production and increase its competitiveness in the international markets. A. Background of the study Banana is an important source of food in the rural areas. The cooking bananas are used to extend supplement or substitute for common staples such as rice and corn. At present times, many farmers are sacrificing in securing and protecting the mango by putting newspapers on it, there are also papers that came from the other country but it is very expensive, that are why farmers cannot afford it. So the researcher, conducted study that aim to help the farmers in securing and protecting mangoes and to defray their expenses by using paper banana peel.

B. Significance of the study It is, therefore very important to search for an environment-friendly material means of securing and guarding mango. Using paper banana peel as a securing and guarding material can be a good strategy to secure and guard the mango by not harming the environment and the consumer as well as the pocket of famers.

C. Statement of a problem This research study was conducted to examine to potential of paper banana peel in securing and guarding material of mango. Specifically this study will sought to answer the following question.

1. What is the difference between applying a wax on a commercial paper and paper banana peel that place in the water? 2. What is the difference between applying Malaysian oil on a commercial paper and paper banana peel that place in the water? 3. What is the difference between the amounts of water absorb by the commercial paper with wax and paper banana peel with wax with a constant time?

4. What is the difference between the amount of water absorb by the commercial paper with oil and paper banana peel with oil with a constant time?

D. Scope and Limitations This study was conducted from June to August in the yea 2011 at the Ayala national High school. This study focus only about the difference between the amount of water absorbed by the commercial paper with wax and with oil compared to a paper banana peel with wax and with oil. With a constant time.

Chapter III

Methodology

Collection and preparation: The fibres were obtained from the banana ( Musa balbasiana) peel. To facilitate the separation of the fibres from the peel were soaked in water for an hour. Afterwards , the soaked peel were put into cauldron to boil it , then put it into the blender to liquify. This step was important to be able to mix the fibres with the other components for making a paper like chlorine , starch , alumtawas , talcum , kamanyan , and insenso. Afterwards put the slurry onto the basin and pour the chlorine with water , after that cooked the tawas , talcom , kamanyan , and insenso and pour it into the basin with the mixture. Take the mixture ladle it slurry onto the alternative silkscreen the mosquito net spreading the slurry lightly and consistently against the screen , the more consistent the banana paper was when dry. When the paper was already dry we apply the following.:

Paper

Oil

Wax

1.

0mL.

mL.

2.

mL.

0mL.

Test for water Absorbency Sample papers were weighed before and after soaked in water for 3 hours. Enough water used to keep the paper immersed. The increase in weight of the paper divided by the volume of the paper per unit time indicated water absorbency.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature Recently, our country are experiencing global warming and last September October 2001 our country was been hit by a natural disaster. The typhoon called Ondoy, one of the reason this is about cutting trees or deforestation that will lead to flash flood. One of the reason of cutting trees are paper making process. The reduction in forest land that provides the resources for paper making is also accelerates global warming and destroys plants and animals habitat and bio-diversity. And the process used to brighten paper releases chlorine, a toxic that poisons the environment. According to certain studies, manufacturing paper emits 80% more green house gasses. And, consider that making paper uses trees that tested could be absorbing carbon dioxide. Banana peels contain total dietary fiber; protein; polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially as linoleic and alinoleic acids; and amino acids in the form of leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine. The most significant mineral is potassium. The more mature the banana, the more the peel will contain soluble sugar and the less it will have of starch. Study showed the peel can be a good source of carbohydrates and fiber. The study of anti-nutrients showed generally low values except for saponins. Study suggests, properly processed and exploited,... Carboxylic acids usually exist as dimeric pairs in nonpolar media due to their tendency to selfassociate. Smaller carboxylic acids (1 to 5 carbons) are soluble with water, whereas higher carboxylic

acids are less soluble due to the increasing hydrophobic nature of the alkyl chain. These longer chain acids tend to be rather soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers and alcohols. Whereas in the distant past alum might conceivably have been added during the preparatory stages of papermaking, or to the paper itself, for some special purpose,[11] its principal application has been associated with the sizing process. The latter can be divided, broadly, into papers sized with gelatine mixed with alum; and, more recently, those sized with rosin, acting as a water-repellent coating and precipitated with alum directly onto the cellulose fibre.[12] With hindsight, we can now assign the first method to what may be termed Class I papers, papers with a high degree of permanence; and the latter to other classes of paper, where permanence was not of prime importance.

HYPOTHESIS Null hypothesisThere is no significant difference between the effect of paper banana peel with oil and with wax compared to the commercial one with oil and wax as a securing and guarding material for mango

Alternative hypothesisThere is a significant difference between the effect of paper banana peel with oil and with wax compared to the commercial one with oil and wax as a securing and guarding material for mango

Paper Banana Peel as a Securing and Guarding Material for Mango


Sharmini M. Abdurahman. Nico Acierto Jenifer R. Magallanes Berlie B. Gongob Xie Yan A. Lizama Submitted in Partial fulfilment of the requirements in research II Ayala National High School Ayala Zamboanga City

June, 2011 Mrs. Genevieve G. Kulong

Research Adviser