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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)

SUBMITTED BY:

ANUBHAV GOEL TY-A, ROLL NO. 3009 PRN. 09020621045

HOW IT BEGAN? The quality movement can trace its roots back to medieval Europe, where craftsmen began organizing into unions called guilds in the late 13th century. This model was followed until the early 19 th century when factories came to be and there was more emphasis on product inspection. In the early 20th century manufacturers began to include quality processes in quality practices. In 1946, delegates from 25 countries met in London and decided create a new international organization, of which the object would be "to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". The new organization, ISO, officially began operations on 23 February 1947. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 156 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) ISO is the world's largest developer of standards. Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have different abbreviations in different languages, it was decided at the outset to use a word derived from the Greek ISOS, meaning "equal". Therefore, whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO. It is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. It is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.

IMPORTANCE OF ISO Bridging the Public and Private Sectors The ISO structure, with one member institute per country, bridges the gap between the public and private sectors and facilitates exchange of information between regulators and businesses. In many countries, the member institute is a governmental entity, whereas in other countries, the member institute is a private entity. This part public-part private structure in different parts of the world enables ISO to develop standards and solutions that benefit both the business sector and society as a whole, making sure that one entity's interests are not prioritized over another. Role of Standards The ISO official site contends that "Standards make an enormous and positive contribution to most aspects of our lives." In an environment without standards, people would very likely voice concerns about 2

poor quality and unsafe products. Whether a business manufactures goods or provides services, when it meets standards relevant to its industry, it ensures that positive characteristics such as quality, durability, efficiency, safety and environmental friendliness are reinforced. Benefits for Business ISO standards benefit businesses because they can focus their resources on producing goods and services that are internationally standardized. ISO standards improve production by making each activity within the overall process, such as developing, manufacturing and supplying, more efficient. Standards also play a vital role in the development of high-tech goods Benefits for Governments For governments, standards provide tools to assess and evaluate conformity, and provide a legitimate base for health and safety legislation. Having standards, facilitates fairer trade between regions by ensuring that both the importer side and exporter side of foreign trade transactions know about the relevant set of standards. For governments in developing countries, ISO standards give information about expected attributes of products and services for export markets which helps them to allocate resources accordingly, and produce goods and services that will be accepted in different regions. Importance in Society ISO standards benefit end consumers by safeguarding their interests and by ensuring that the products and services they purchase are safe and reliable. In addition, ISO synchronizes and aligns businesses to cleaner and safer production methods by laying down operational guidelines for different industries. BENEFITS OF ISO When you have an ISO 9001 certified quality management system: Your business functions in a disciplined way and systematic way, almost no matter what happens There is a common, understood system of consistent and repeatable processes You experience fewer failures in quality of service or product Your people are clear about what to do, and how; they don't spend time 'making things up' or 'finding things out' or reinventing wheels You have more or better business because you can sell to new markets or having the endorsement distinguishes you in the marketplace You know more quickly if things are going wrong, and where You stop spending money or time on the same problems - many problems have been resolved permanently. If another should occur, you have the resources and skills to identify & resolve it faster. Better management control and reporting - you know how your business is doing and what to look at You don't scratch your head wondering how to respond to tenders or other questions asking about your quality system, because you know! (And that 'ISO 9001' phrase works wonders.)

Clients consistently report many benefits from gaining ISO 9001. These include: greater management control greater clarity about what they do and how improvements in customer satisfaction having a 'much better handle' on what they are doing increased employee satisfaction reduced rework and frustration reduce maintenance effort.

ISO 9001:2008 Two of the most important objectives in the revision of the ISO 9000 series of standards have been

to develop a simplified set of standards that will be equally applicable to small as well as medium and large organizations, and for the amount and detail of documentation required to be more relevant to the desired results of the organizations process activities.

ISO 9001:2008 has achieved these objectives, and the purpose of this additional guidance is to explain the intent of the new standard with specific regard to documentation. ISO 9001:2008 allows organization flexibility in the way it chooses to document its quality management system (QMS). This enables each individual organization to develop the minimum amount of documentation needed in order to demonstrate the effective planning, operation and control of its processes and the implementation and continual improvement of the effectiveness of its QMS. It is stressed that ISO 9001 requires (and always has required) a Documented quality management system, and not a system of documents. It is based on the following eight Quality Management Principles, which are incorporated within the requirements of the standard, and can be applied to improve organizational performance:

Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

PROCEDURE TO GET ISO 9001 CERTIFICATION You must go through a formal application and audit process with an accredited certifier or auditing body (often called 'registrar' in the USA and UK). But the real process to get ISO 9001 begins much earlier. 1. Decide to get ISO 9001 Make the decision to 'get ISO'. This needs commitment from 'top management' - the person or people in charge. Don't overlook or skip the importance of this step - the commitment needs to be there, and it needs to be backed up with action as well as words. 2. Appoint an internal project manager Appoint someone as project manager. 'Getting ISO' is a project, so someone must have the responsibility - and the authority! - to manage it internally. Allocate resources. You'll need to decide whether to use a consultant, or do it yourself. 3. Allocate resources Decide whether to use a consultant, or do it yourself. 4. Establish your baseline status Do a 'gap analysis' to establish where you are now, against where you need to be, and identify the tasks to be done. You'll probably have some bits of your quality system in place already, but other requirements of the Standard may be only partially done or not done at all. Use the gap analysis results to plan what to do, who will do it and when. 5. Develop the system Now start work on the plan. Improve and develop your system: fill the gaps from the Gap Analysis, revising, adding or improving where you need to. This includes identifying your processes, documenting your system, and making all the improvements necessary to meet the requirements of the Standard. You'll use the 'PDCA' or continuous improvement cycle to do this. It's this stage that takes the most time & effort. Get people involved throughout, so that people help build it, and so they understand and use the system and have opportunities to participate and contribute. A system developed by one person and imposed on others is rarely a good one. 6. Audit the system Review and audit your own system internally. You will find some problems -- if you don't, you aren't auditing properly. Resolve the issues you find, using your formal correction procedure/s (part of the requirements) to do it. 7. Choose an auditor Select an accredited certifier/registrar, and schedule the external audit. 8. Have and external audit Undergo the external audit. During this, the certifier (external auditor) audits your quality system

against all of the specific requirements of ISO 9001. 9. Get the certificate and celebrate! Assuming you are successful, of course, you can now get that coveted certificate from your certifier. ISO 9001 Consultants and Auditors The roles of ISO 9001 consultants and auditors are quite different. Consultants help and advice. Good consultants are similar to trainers and coaches. They prepare and coach you. Help you get your system ready. Advise you where you have gaps (a gap analysis) plus explain and show you how to fix the gaps, or even do it for you. They advise, teach, guide and help you throughout the process. Prepare you and show you how to meet the various requirements. They also do the internal audits (a requirement before your external audit). Quality Auditor is someone with the skills and experience to audit a quality management system. Where a consultant is like a coach, the auditor is the examiner. Auditors work for certifiers; the companies who award the certificates. Certifiers are private organizations (not government bodies) who are accredited to award certificates and are service providers. Only properly accredited certifiers can award certificates to an ISO Standard. They decide if the system meets all the requirements (complies with) of the relevant Standard. If so, recommend that a certificate be awarded. Issue the certificate. Return and re-audit the system at intervals to make sure it remains compliant. Bureau of Indian Standards BIS is the National Standards Body of India and is a founder member of ISO. BIS represents India, in ISO. The Technical Committee (TC) number 176 (ISO/TC 176), and its Sub-committees of ISO are responsible for the development of ISO 9001 standards. Quality and industry experts from India including BIS officers nominated by BIS participate in the meetings of the Technical Committee ISO/TC 176 and its Sub-committees. BIS is the certification body that issues licenses/certificates in India. They train auditors and consultants about the ISO standards.