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You are on page 1of 32

MODULE – 1

OBJECTIVES:

1. Introduction to AI

2. Problems in AI

KEYPOINTS:

1. Introduction to AI

1.1 AI definitions.

1.2 AI history.

1.3 AI techniques.

1.4 Comparison of AI programs and conventional software.

2. Problems in AI

2.1 Different methods of representing a problem.

2.2 Characteristics of AI problems.

1. INTRODUCTION TO AI

1.1 AI DEFINITIONS

- It’s a branch of computer science that deals with the automation of intelligent

behavior. It includes the data structures used in the knowledge representation,

the algorithms needed to apply that knowledge and the languages and

programming techniques used in their implementation.

intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using

computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine

itself to methods that are biologically observable.

people do better.

act.

i.e. the main goal of AI is to build intelligent systems that are capable

of performing tasks in an efficient and effective way.

APPLICATION AREAS:

AI includes area such as robotics, commonsense reasoning, learning

models etc.

1.2 AI HISTORY

AI began to emerge as a new field in the early 1940s and 1950s.AI

emerged as a new science from the following fields.

MATHEMATIC PHILOSOPH

PSYCHOLOG AI LINGUISTICS

COMPUTER

If a computer program is to behave intelligently in the real world, it must be provided

with some kind of framework into which to fit particular facts it is told or discovers.

This amounts to at least a fragment of some kind of philosophy,

Early work in AI include

YEAR WORKS

5th Aristotle invented the first formal deductive reasoning system

century

17th Descartes proposed that bodies of animals are nothing more than

century complex machines.

17th Pascal created the first mechanical digital calculating machine

century

19th George Boole developed a binary algebra representing some laws of

century thought.

19th Charles Babbage worked on programmable mechanical calculating

century machines.

1943 McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain

1950 A.M .Turing performed the Turing test as a way of operationalizing a test

of intelligent behavior.

1950 Emerged systems for automatic theorem proving and natural language

processing.

1957 Newell and Simon demonstrated the general problem solver architecture.

1961-65 A.L.Samuel developed a system to play checkers game.

1965 First expert system DENDRAL emerged

1968 Developed MACSYMA, a large interactive program which solves

numerous types of mathematical problems.

1969 Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for

natural language understanding

1970 Bill Woods described ATN's as a representation for natural language

understanding.

1972 Alain Colmerauer developed PROLOG

1980 AI becomes an industry

1986 Neural networks return to popularity

1987 AI becomes a science

1995 The emergence of intelligent agents

1.3 AI TECHNIQUE

this knowledge possess some less desirable qualities like

- It is very vast

- It is hard to characterize accurately

- It is constantly changing

defined as a body of facts and principles. There are basically 3 types of knowledge

about the world. Eg : Biodata

some tasks. Eg : steps used to solve an algebraic equation

separately each and every individual situation, instead situations that share

common properties are grouped together. Otherwise large amounts of memory

will be lost.

- It can be easily modified to correct errors and reflect changes in the real world.

- It is used in a great many situation even if it is not totally accurate or complete.

SOFTWARE

Processing type is numeric Processing type is symbolic

Use algorithms to solve the problem Technique used is heuristic search

Solution steps must be explicit and precise Solution steps are not explicit

Solution obtained will be optimal Solution obtained may not be optimal

Control and data part intermingle Control and data part are separate

Knowledge used is precise Knowledge used is imprecise

Modification of program is rare Modification of program is frequent

Large amount of database is used Large amount of knowledge is used

Processes are repetitive in nature Inferential process

2. PROBLEMS IN AI

solve a particular problem we need 4 basic things.

1. Define the problem precisely; this definition must include the precise

specifications of what the initial situations are as well as what final situation

constitutes acceptable solutions.

2. Analyze the problem.

3. Isolate and represent the task knowledge that is necessary to solve the problem.

4. Choose the best problem solving technique and apply it to that particular

problem.

- State space representation

- Problem reduction method.

State space representation – in this method we will be listing out all the possible solutions and search

the entire space until we reach the goal.

Eg: eight way puzzle

5 7 3 INITIAL

8 1 STATE

2 6 4

5 7 3 5 7 3 5 7 3

8 6 1 8 1 8 1

2 4 2 6 4 2 6 4

………………..

…………………………………………………..

1 2 3

8 4 GOAL

7 6 5 STATE

Problem reduction method – various possibilities are represented in the form of

AND-OR graphs. The arcs between the links shows the AND operation.

Buy a TV

Money

2. To cope with the competorial explosion of solutions AI programs uses heuristics

to proon the search tree.

3. AI programs manipulate symbolic informations to a large extend in contrast to

conventional programs which deals with numeric processing.

4. AI programs have the ability to learn.

5. AI deals with real life problems (ie to recognize pattern, understand a language,

understand speech etc).

6. In order to classify a system as an AI program the fundamental criteria is that, it

must have vast quantities of knowledge and the knowledge must be represented in

such a way that the system working on it can easily manipulate the knowledge.

………………………………………………………………………………………..

DAY : 2

OBJECTIVES:

3. Basics of LISP

4. Understand the various list manipulation functions

KEY POINTS:

3. Basics of LISP

3.1 Features of LISP

3.2 Building blocks of LISP: Atom

List

String

4. List manipulation functions: car,cdr,cons,list,append,last,member,reverse.

3.BASICS OF LISP

• LISP stands for LISt Processing

• It is one of the oldest computer programming languages suited for AI

programs.

• It is one of the simplest languages with simple syntax, with little or no data

typing and dynamic memory management.

• Different versions of LISP are available FRANZ LISP ,QLISP,COMMON

LISP,INTER LISP,MAC LISP etc.

• LISP uses prefix notations.

• Atoms, lists and strings are the only valid objects in LISP.

• LISP programs can either run on an interpreter or as compiled code(In case of

interpreter code the LISP uses a repeated read -evaluate-print loop).

The basic building blocks of LISP are atoms, lists and string. They are called

symbolic expressions or S-expressions.

Atom A number or string of contiguous characters, abc,100,a123,*abc*

including numbers and special characters.

List A sequence of atoms and/or other lists enclosed (abc), (a(bc)), ( ) ,(this is

within parentheses. a list)

quotation marks. string”,”ab*#$”

Lisp uses prefix notations. For example(+(*(/ 9 5)50)32) will return 122.Each

function call is performed in the order in which it occurs within the parentheses.

Variables in LISP are symbolic non numeric atoms. They may be assigned

values with the function setq or setf.

setq or set takes two arguments the first of which must be a variable. It is never

evaluated and should not be in quotation marks. The second argument is evaluated

unless in quotation marks and the result is bound to the first argument. The variable

returns this value until a new assignment is made. When variables are evaluated they

return the last value assigned to them. If we want to take atoms or lists literally and

not to have them evaluated just precede the atom or the list with a single quotation

mark. The other list manipulation functions are car, cdr , cons, list, append, last,

member, reverse .

value

setq/set Takes two arguments, the second argument is ( setq x 10 ) 10

f evaluated and the result is assigned to the first

argument.

car Takes one argument, a list and returns the first ( car ‘(a b c )) a

element

cdr Takes one argument, a list and returns a list with the ( cdr ‘(a b c )) (bc)

first element removed.

cons Takes two arguments, an element and a list and ( cons ’a ‘( b c )) (a b c)

returns a list with the element inserted at the

beginning.

list Takes any number of arguments and returns a list with ( list ’a ‘( b c )) (a(b c))

the arguments as elements.

append Merges two or more lists into a single list. (append ‘(a )’( b c )) (a b c)

last Returns a list containing the last element. (last ‘( a b c d )) (d)

membe Returns remainder of the second argument list starting (member ’b ‘ (a b d )) (b d)

r with element matching first argument.

reverse Returns the list with the top elements in reverse order. (reverse’ (a (b c )d )) (d (b

c)a)

We can also write cadadr to abbreviate the sequence car cdr car cdr.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

DAY:3

OBJECTIVES:

5. Defining a function.

6. Getting familiarized with the various predicate functions.

KEY POINTS:

5. Defining a function.

5.1 Basic structure of function: Function name

Parameters of the function

Function body

5.2 Example problems based on functions

6. Getting familiarized with the various predicate functions:

atom,equal,oddp,venp,lessp,greaterp,numberp etc

5. DEFINING A FUNCTION

The function named defun is used to create user defined functions. It requires three

arguments

• The new function name.

• The parameters for the function.

• The function body which performs the desired function.

Basic syntax

(defun name (param1 param2…)

body)

Eg:

( defun avg3 (a b c)

( / (+ a b c)3))

The above defined function will find the average of three numbers .defun is

the standard keyword,avg3 is the function name ,a,b and c are the three numbers

whose average is to be find out.As LISP evaluates only prefix notations ((a+b+c)/3)

will be written like (/(+ a b c)3).

6. GETTING FAMILIARIZED WITH THE VARIOUS PREDICATE

FUNCTIONS:

Predicates are functions that test their arguments for some specific condition.

Predicates return either a true (t) or a false(nil) value depending on the arguments. The

most common predicates are listed below.

E N

VALUE

atom Takes one argument and checks (atom ‘abc) T

whether it is an atom or not, if it is it

will return true otherwise nil.

equal Takes two arguments and returns true (equal ‘a(car T

if they evaluates to the same value ‘(a b c))

otherwise nil.

evenp Takes one argument and returns true if (evenp 3) Nil

it is an even number otherwise nil.

oddp Takes one argument and returns true if (oddp 3) T

it is an odd number otherwise nil.

numberp Takes one argument and returns true if (numberp 23) T

it is a number otherwise nil.

zerop Takes one argument and returns true if (zerop 00) T

it is zero otherwise nil.

greaterp Takes one or more arguments and (greaterp 2 3 T

returns true if the arguments from the 4)

left to right are larger(ascending

order)otherwise nil.

lessp Takes one or more arguments and (lessp 1 3 2 ) Nil

returns true if the arguments from the

left to right are smaller(descending

order)otherwise nil.

>= Similar to greaterp except that it (>=2 2 2 ) T

returns true if successive elements are

also equal otherwise nil.

<= Similar to lessp except that it returns (<= 1 1 1 ) T

true if successive elements are also

equal otherwise nil.

listp Takes one argument and returns true if (listp ‘(a)) T

it is a list otherwise nil.

null Takes one argument and returns true if (null nil) T

it’s argument evaluates to nil otherwise

nil.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

DAY: 4

OBJECTIVES:

7. Understand the functioning of conditional statements.

KEYPOINTS:

7. Understand the functioning of conditional statements.

7.1 Use of predicates to perform branching

7.1.1 Basic structure of the conditional cond

7.1.2 Basic structure of the conditional if…then…else

7.1.3 Examples based on the branching statements.

Predicates are used to make tests in programs and take different actions based on the

outcome of the test. There are different methods to perform branching,one is by using

the conditional cond or by using if …then ….else conditional.

• The symbol cond is followed by clauses. Each clause contains a test and

zero or more forms called actions.

• cond moves through the clauses, evaluating the test forms, until a test form

evaluates to non-NIL. This clause is "triggered" and its action forms are

evaluated.

• The value returned by cond is the value of the last action form in the triggered

clause.

• If all test forms are NIL, the value returned by cond is also NIL.

• The last clause is called a T-triggered clause.

• With a T-triggered clause, the final clause is used when none of the others are

triggered.

……………………………………..

7.1.2 BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE CONDITIONAL if…then…else

<then form> when <test> evaluates to T or anything other than NIL; otherwise, if

returns the value of its <else form>. If there's no <else-form> and if <test> evaluates

to NIL, NIL will be returned.

(if < test > < then form > < else form >)

(defun max2 (a b)

( cond ( ( > a b) a )

( t b) ) )

Here defun is the standard keyword to define a function,max2 is the name of the

function and a and b are the arguments of the function max2.We have to find the

maximum of two numbers so we have to check whether a is greater than b ,if it is

greater then return a otherwise return b. The letter t forces the last clause to be

evaluated when the first clause is not.

(defun max3 ( a b c)

( ( > b c) b ) ( t c) ) )

………………………………………………………………………………………

DAY: 5

OBJECTIVES:

8. List out the logical functions in LISP

9. Getting familiarized with the various I/O functions in LISP

KEYPOINTS:

AND

OR

PRINL

PRINC

TERPRI

8.1 NOT

• It takes only one argument and turns non-NIL to NIL and NIL to T

Example:

setf pets '(dog cat))

DOG CAT)

not (member 'dog pets))

NIL

not (member 'tiger pets))

T

8.2 AND

• The arguments are evaluated from left-to-right, if any evaluates to NIL, none

of the remaining is evaluated, and the value returned is NIL.

• If all arguments evaluate to non-NIL values, the value returned by the AND

from is the value of the last argument.

• It takes any number of arguments.

Example :

(setf pets '(dog cat))

(and ( member ‘dog pets ) ( member ‘ tiger pets ))

NIL

(and (member 'dog pets) (member 'cat pets))

(CAT)

8.3 OR

• OR returns NIL if all of its arguments evaluates to NIL.

• The arguments are evaluated from left to right, if any evaluates to non-NIL, none

of the remaining is evaluated, and the value returned is that non-NIL value.

• If all arguments evaluates to NIL, the value returned by OR is NIL.

• It takes any number of arguments.

Example:

(setf pets '(dog cat))

(or (member 'dingo pets) (member 'tiger pets))

NIL

(or (member 'dog pets) (member 'cat pets))

(DOG CAT)

LISP -READ ,PRINT, PRINL, PRINC, TERPRI.

9.1 READ

• It takes no arguments

• When it appers in aprocedure the processing halts until an s-expression is

entered from the keyboard.

• The s-expression is returned as the value of the read.

Example:

( + 5 ( read ))

6

11

9.2 PRINT

• I t takes one argument.

• It prints the argument as it is received and then returns the argument.

Example:

(print ‘(a b c))

(A B C )

(A B C )

9.3 PRINL

• It is the same as PRINT except that the new line characters and the space are

not provided.

Example:

((prinl ‘(hello))(prinl ‘(hello)))

(HELLO)(HELLO)

9.4 PRINC

• It is same as the PRINL except that it does not print the unwanted quotation

marks.

• It will eliminate the quotes but the echo still remains.(ie it will return the

argument)

Example:

(princ “hello”)

HELLO “HELLO”

9.5 TERPRI

• It takes no arguments.

• It introduces a new line.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

DAY: 6

OBJECTIVES:

10. List out the iteration constructs in LISP

11. Recursion in LISP

KEYPOINTS:

10. List out the iteration constructs in LISP

10.1 Repeating by Iteration - DO

10.2 Repeating by Iteration – LOOP

11.Recursion in LISP

1. A list of parameter specifications, each of which creates, sets, and resets one of

the DO form's parameters:

<body form>)

2. A body that consists of DO's subforms, which are evaluated over and over

until the DO is stopped:

(<parameter 2> <initial value 2> <update form 2>)

...

(<parameter n> <initial value n> <update form n>))

(<test form> <result form>)

<body form>)

Example:

( defun factorial (n)

( do (( count n( - count 1))

( product n (* product (- count 1 ))

(( equal 0 count ) product )))

• On entering the DO, the list of parameters are all bound to its corresponding

value (again, a virtual fence exists to isolate these parameters from the

variables outside DO).

The parameter specifications can include update forms. The parameters are

updated accordingly in each pass.

• The 2nd part of DO is the termination test and the result form. The test is

attempted before each pass, including the 1st one. The <result form> is

evaluated as the return value of DO only when the test succeeds.

There may be zero or more <result forms> after the <test form>. They are all

evaluated when the test succeeds. However, only the last one gives the return

value of the DO. If there is none, the return value is NIL.

immediately. <expresion> is evaluated as the return value of the terminated

DO.

• All initializations and updates are done in parallel, i.e. all initial forms are

evaluated before bindings and all update forms are evaluted before

assignments.

(loop <body>)

The body is evaluated over and over until a (RETURN <expression>) is encountered.

Again the <expression> is evaluated as the return value of the terminated LOOP.

Many LISP procedures work by repeating a particular action over and over until a

certain condition is met. A recursive function is one which calls itself successively to

reduce a problem to a sequence of simpler steps. Recursion requires stopping

condition and recursive steps .

Example:

(defun factorial (n)

(cond (( zerop n)1)

(t ( * n (factorial (- n 1))))))

……………………………………………………………………………………….

DAY: 7

OBJECTIVES:

12. Introducing the concept of property lists in LISP

13. Using arrays in LISP

KEYPOINTS:

12.1 Assigning properties

12.2 Retrieving properties

12.3 Removing properties

12.4 Replacing properties

It is one of the unique concepts in LISP .We can assign properties to atoms using

the property lists. Property list functions permits one to assign properties to atoms and

to retrieve, replace and remove them as required.The property value may be an atom

or a list.

We can assign properties to an atom using the function putprop. It takes three

arguments an object name(an atom), attribute name,and a property or attribute value.

(putprop object value attribute)

Example:

(putprop ‘car ‘ ford ‘ make)

FORD

(putprop ‘car ‘ red ‘ color)

RED

(putprop ‘danny ‘ pets ‘(fluffy tim penny))

(FLUFFY TIM PENNY)

We can retrieve a property value by using the function get. It takes two arguments

object and attribute.

(get object attribute)

Example:

(get ‘car ‘ make)

FORD

(get ‘car ‘ color)

RED

We can remove the assigned properties using the remprop function.It takes two

arguments the object and the attribute.

(remprop object attribute)

Example:

(remprop ‘car ‘ make)

FORD

(remprop ‘car ‘ color)

RED

We can replace the assigned properties using the same putprop function.The object

will retain the last property which is assigned to it.

Example:

(putprop ‘car ‘ red ‘ color)

RED

(putprop ‘car ‘ blue ‘ color)

BLUE

(get ‘car ‘ color)

BLUE

Single and multi dimensional arrays are possible in LISP using the make-array

function. The items stored in the array may be any LISP objects.

Example:

(setf myarray (make-array ‘(10)))

#A(NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL)

This will create an array with name myarray and the size of the array will be

10.Initially the array contents will be nil. The function make-array will return a # sign

followed by A.

To store items into the array we use the function setf and to access the contents

of the cells we use the function aref which takes two arguments the name of the array

and the index value.

Example:

(aref myarray 9)

NIL

(setf (aref myarray 9) 25)

(aref myarray 9)

25

MODULE – 2

DAY: 1

Objectives:

1. Introduction to Symbolic Logic

- Propositional Logic.

- Properties of statements.

knowledge in a computer tractable form; such that it can be used to help agents

perform well .A knowledge representation language is defined by two aspects:

1. The syntax of a language describes the possible configurations that can constitute

sentences. We usually describe syntax in terms of how sentences are represented on

the printed page.

2. The semantics describe the facts in the world to which the sentences refer. Without

semantics the sentence is just an arrangement or collection of marks on a page. In

logic, the meaning of a sentence is what it states about the world.

Propositional Logic

In propositional logic, symbols represent whole propositions

(facts).Propositions are elementary atomic sentences. It can be either true of false but

may take on no other value.

Example: D: The bird is dead.

This may or may not be a true proposition. The propositions can be

combined using the Boolean connectives to generate sentences with more complex

meanings.

The syntax of a propositional logic is simple.

The symbols of propositional logic are

- Logical constants True or False.

- Proposition symbols such as P and Q

- Logical connectives (→, ך, , , ↔,( ) )

A sentence can be formed by combining simpler sentences with one of the five

logical connectives. Eg: ( P Q R ) .

propositional symbols and constants, and specifying the meaning of the logical

connectives. The semantics or meaning of the sentence is just the value True or

False.ie it is an assignment of a truth value to the sentence.

P Q ~P (~P V Q ) ( P→Q ) ( Q→ P) ( P→Q ) & ( Q→ P)

True True False True True True True

True False False False False True False

False True True True True False False

False False True True True True True

Properties of statements

Satisfiable:

A statement is satisfiable if there is some interpretation for which it is true.Eg: P

Contradiction:

A statement is contradictory (unsatisfiable) if there is no interpretation for which it is

true.

Eg: (P & ~ P)

Valid:

A sentence is valid if it is true for every interpretation. Valid sentences are also called

tautologies.Eg :( P V~P)

Equivalence:

Two sentences are equivalent if they have the same truth value under every

interpretation.

Eg: P and ~ (~P)

Logical consequences:

A sentence is a logical consequence of another if it is satisfied by all interpretations

which satisfy the first.Eg: P is a logical consequence of (P & Q)

Note: A valid statement is satisfiable and a contradictory statement is invalid, but the

converse is not necessarily true.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

DAY: 2

Objectives:

- First order predicate logic

- Syntax and Semantics of FOPL.

FOPL was developed by logicians to extend the expressiveness of PL.

It is a generalisation of PL that permits reasoning about world objects as relational

entities as well as classes or subclasses of objects. The syntax for FOPL, like PL, is

determined by allowable symbols and rules of combination. The semantics of FOPL

are determined by interpretations assigned to predicates, rather than propositions. This

means that an interpretation must also assign values to other terms including

constants, variables and functions, since predicates may have arguments consisting of

any of these terms.

Syntax of FOPL

The symbols and rules of combination permitted in FOPL are defined as follows:

Connectives:

There are five connective symbols: ~ (not or negation),& (and or conjunction), V (or

or inclusive disjunction),→(implication),↔(equivalence or if and only if).

Quantifiers:

The two quantifier symbols are existential quantification and universal

quantification.

Universal quantification - means for all

Existential quantification - for some x or there is an x.

Constants:

They are fixed value terms that belong to a given domain of discourse. They are

denoted by numbers, words and small letters near the beginning of the alphabet such

as a,b,c,5.3,-21,flight 102 and john.

Variables:

Variables are terms that can assume different values over a given domain. They are

denoted by words and small letters near the end of the alphabet, such as aircraft –type,

individuals, x, y

and z.

Functions:

Function symbols denote relations defined on a domain D. They map n elements

(n≥0) to a single element of the domain. Symbols f, g ,h and words such as father-of

,or age-of represent functions. An n-ary function is written as f (t1,t2,t3,………,

tn)where ti are terms defined over some domain.

Predicates:

Predicate symbols denote relations or functional mapping from the elements of a

domain D to the values true or false. Capital letters and capitalized words such as P,

Q, R, EQUAL and MARRIED are used to represent predicates. Like functions

predicates can have n terms for arguments.

symbolic logic

E1: All employees earning $1400 or more per year pay taxes.

E2: Some employees are sick today.

E3: No employee earns more than the President.

To represent these statements in FOPL first we have to define the predicate and

functions

E(x): for x is an employee.

P(x): for x is President.

i(x): for income of x.

GE (u,v): for u is greater than or equal to v.

S(x): for x is sick today.

T(x): for x pay taxes.

Using these abbreviations, we can represent E1, E2 and E3 as

E1’ : x (( E(x) &GE (i(x), 1400)) →T(x))

E2’: y (E(y) →S(y))

E3’: x y ((E(x) &P(y)) → ~GE (i(x),i(y)))

The expressions E1’, E2’, E3’ are known as well formed formulas or wffs.

DAY: 3

Objectives:

- Sample problems in FOPL

- Clausal conversion procedure

Sample problems:

Problem:1

Convert the following natural language statements to FOPL statements.

1. Marcus was a man.

2. Marcus was a Pompeian.

3. All Pompeians were Romans.

4. Caesar was a ruler.

5. All Romans were either loyal to Caesar or hated him.

6. People only tried to assassinate rulers they are not loyal to.

7. Everyone is loyal to someone.

8. Marcus tried to assassinate Caesar.

1. Man (Marcus).

2. Pompeian (Marcus)

3. x Pompeian(x)→Roman(x)

4. Ruler Caesar)

5. x Roman(x)→loyalto x ,Caesar) V hated(x ,Caesar)

6. x y People(x) Ruler(y) tryassassinate(x,y)→ ┐loyalto(x,y)

7. x y loyalto(x,y)

8. tryassassinate(Marcus,Ceasar)

Problem:2

The following are a set of natural language statements .Convert them into FOPL

statements.

1. If x is on top of y, y supports x.

2. If x is above y and then they are touching each other, x is on top of y.

3. A cup is above a book.

4. A cup is touching a book.

In order to do the inferencing process (resolution) it requires that all statements be

converted into normalised clausal form. We define clause as a disjunction of a number

of literals. A ground clause is one which has no variable in the expression.

1. Eliminate all equivalency and implication connectives (Use ךP V Q in place of

P→Q and ))ךP V Q) )ךQ V P)) in place of P ↔Q )

~( x ךF(x)) we use x F(x).

3. Rename variables if necessary so that all quantifiers have different variable

assignments. That is rename variables so that variables bound by one quantifier are

not the same as the variable bound by a different quantifier.

a. If the first (leftmost) quantifier in an expression is an existential quantifier,

replace all occurrences of the variable it quantifies with an arbitrary constant not

appearing elsewhere in the expression and delete the quantifier. This same procedure

should be followed for all other existential quantifiers not proceeded by a universal

quantifier, in each case, using different constant symbols in the substitution.

quantifiers, replace all occurrences of the existentially quantified by a function

symbol not appearing else where in the expression. The arguments assigned to

function should match all the variables appearing in each universal quantifier which

precedes the existential quantifier. This existential quantifier should then be deleted.

The same process should be repeated for each remaining existential quantifier using a

different function symbol and choosing function arguments that correspond to all

universally quantified variables that precede the existentially quantified variable being

replaced.

5. Move all universal quantifiers to the left of the expression and put the expression

on the right into CNF.

6. Eliminate all universal quantifiers and conjunctions since they are retained

implicitly. The resulting expressions and the set of such expression is said to be in

clausal form.

1. x [Roman(x) know(x,Marcus)]→[hate(x,Ceasar)V( y z

hate(y,z)→thinkcrazy(x,y))]

2. x y( z P (f (x),y,z)→( u Q(x,u) & vR(y,v)))

…………………………………………………………………………………………

DAY:4

Objectives:

-Resolution principle

-Resolution procedure

Resolution principle

The resolution procedure is a simple iterative process, at each step two

clauses called parent clauses are compared (resolved) yielding a new clause that has

been inferred from them.

This process is similar to the process of obtaining a proof by contradiction.

Let C1,C2,C3……….Cn)be the set of given clauses and D be the clause to be proved.

To prove that D is a logical consequence of the statements C1&C2&………Cn first

we negate the D and ~ D to the set of clauses. Then, using resolution along with

factorizing we can prove that the set is unsatisfiable by deducing a contradiction. Such

a proof is called a proof by refutation.

Resolution procedure

2. Negate P and convert the result to clause form. Add it to the set of clauses

obtained in step 1.

3. Repeat until a contradiction is found, no progress can be made, or a

predetermined amount of effort has been expended.

a) Select two clauses, call these the parent clauses.

b) Resolve them together. The resolvent will be the disjunction of all the

literals of both parent clauses with appropriate substitutions performed and

with the following exceptions.

1. Only resolve pairs of clauses that contain complementary literals, since

only such literals produce new clauses.

2. Two kinds of clauses should be eliminated: tautologies and clauses that

are subsumed by other clauses

3. Whenever possible resolve either with one of the clauses that is part of

the statement that we are trying to resolve or with a clause generated by a

resolution with such a clause. This is called the set of support strategy and

corresponds to the intuition that the contradiction we are looking for must

involve the statement we are trying to prove.

4. Whenever possible resolve with clauses that have a single literal. Such

resolutions generate new clauses with fewer literals than their parent clauses

and they are probably closer to the goal of a resolvent with zero terms. This

method is called the unit preference strategy.

Sample problem

Consider the statements

1. P

2. ( P Q)→ R

3. (S V T) →Q

4. T

Prove using resolution that the statement R holds.

First convert the statements into clausal form

1. P

2. ךP V ךQ V R

3. ךS V Q

4. ךT V Q

5. T

Negate R and add it to the set of clauses

6. ךR

ךPVךQVR ךR

ךPV ךQ P

ךT VQ ךQ

ךT T

NIL

Since our assumption ends up in a contradiction its inverse is true. So R

holds.

a) If x is on top of y, y supports x.

b) If x is above y and they are touching each other,x is on top of y.

c) A cup is above a book.

d) A cup is touching a book.

Translate the statements into clausal form .Show that the predicate supports

(book,cup) is true using resolution.

1) Marcus was a man.

2) Marcus was a Pompeian.

3) All Pompeians were Romans.

4) Caesar was a ruler.

5) All Romans were either loyal to Caesar or hated him.

6) People only tried to assassinate people they are not loyal to.

7) Everyone is loyal to someone.

8) Marcus tried to assassinate Caesar.

Prove using resolution Marcus hated Caesar

DAY: 5

Objectives:

-Unification algorithm

- Unification problem

Unification algorithm

Any substitution that makes two or more expressions equal is called a unifier for the

expressions. Applying a substitution to an expression E produces an instance E’ of E

where E’=Eβ.Given two expressions C1 and C2 that are unifiable,let β be the unifier

with C2=C1β.We say that β is the most general unifier(mgu).Unification can be

applied to literals within the same single clause. When an mgu exists such that two or

more literals within a clause are unified, the clause remaining after deletion of all but

one of the unified literals is called a factor of the original clause.

Algorithm:

Let S be the set of expressions.

1. Set k =0 and σk = e (the empty set).

2. If the set Sσk is a singleton then stop; σk is an mgu of S.Otherwise find the

disagreement set Dk of Sσk.

3. If there is a variable v and term t in Dk such that v does not occur in t, put

σk+1= σk{t/v},set k = k+1 ,and return to step 2 .Otherwise stop .S is not

unifiable.

Example:

1. Unify the literals P(x, x) and P (y, z)

can substitute y for x .We will write that substitution as y/x. After finding the first

substitution we have to make that substitution throughout the literals. Then it will

be

P(y, y)

P(y, z)

Next we have to unify the arguments y and z, so substitute z in place of y

(z/y).The entire unification process has now succeeded with a substitution that is a

composition of the two substitutions we found

i.e. β = { y/x , z/y}

Problems:

1. Unify the literals f(x ,x) and f(g(x),g(x)).

2. Unify the literals f (Marcus) and f(Ceasar).

3. Unify the literals f (Marcus,g(x,y)) and f(x, g(Ceasar,Marcus)).

DAY: 6

Objectives :

• Introduction to nonmonotonic systems

• Architecture of a general problem solver with TMS

Key points :

o Limitations of Monotonic reasoning

Architecture of a general problem solver with TMS

o General working

o Support Lists and Conceptual Dependencies

representations of the world. The conclusions derived from such logics are valid

deductions and they remain as such and hence the knowledge base increase

monotonically.

Limitations of Monotonic reasoning

• It is not possible to describe real world concepts ,ie it has limited expressive

power.

• There is no way to express uncertain, imprecise or vague knowledge.

• Available inference methods are insufficient.

• There is no way to produce new knowledge about the world. It is only

possible to add what is derivable from the given axioms.

INFERENCE

ENGINE TMS

KNOWLEDGE

BASE

TMS

The main job of TMS is to maintain the consistency of the

knowledge base being used by the problem solver. It will not perform any inferencing

process. TMS also gives the inference component the latitude to perform

nonmonotonic inferences. When new discoveries are made the more recent

information is can displace previous knowledge which are no longer valid. So the set

of knowledge available to the user always remains consistent.

Inference Engine

Inference Engine solves domain problems based on the current

belief set while the TMS maintains the currently active belief set. The updating

process is incremental. After each inference information is exchanged between the

inference engine and the TMS. The IE tells the TMS what inferences it has made and

the TMS in turn asks questions about the current beliefs and the reasons for failure. It

maintains a consistent set of beliefs for the IE to work with.

Let us consider one example to explain the working of the general

problem solver. Fig 1 shows the content of the KB at time T1.From this the IE would

conclude Q and add it to the KB by applying Modus Ponens rule. Later after some

time (T2) it was learned that instead of P,~P was appropriate. So we will add ~P to

the KB .Now the TMS checks for the consistency of the new KB(Fig 2) and reports a

contradiction(P and ~P).So it is necessary to remove P to eliminate the inconsistency,

but with P now removed Q is no longer a justified belief. So it too should be removed.

This type of belief revision is the job of TMS. But the TMS does not discard the

beliefs permanently as they may again become valid at a later time T3,so they are

temporarily moved to a dependency record .

P P

P→ Q P→ Q

MODUS PONENS MODUS PONENS

~P

additions so that the IE will always know the current belief set. The records are

maintained in the form of a dependency network. The nodes in the network represent

KB entries such as premises ,conclusions, inference rules and the like. Attached to the

nodes are justifications which represent the inference steps from which the nodes are

derived. Nodes in the belief set have valid justifications. A Premise is a fundamental

belief which is always true and which needs no justification. The nodes have two

types of justification records.

•Conceptual Dependencies (CP)

Support Lists are the most common type. They provide the

supporting justifications for nodes. The data structures used for the SL contains two

lists of other dependent nodes names, an in-list and an out -list. It has the form

(SL<in-list> <out-list>)

In order for a node to be active the SL must have atleast one valid node in its in-

list and all nodes in the out-list must be marked out of the belief set. To represent a

belief network we must know the following symbol conventions.

1) Premises - are true propositions which require no justification.

2) Assumption - is a current belief that could change.

3) Datum -is either a currently assumed or IE derived belief.

4) Justification - are belief supports consisting of antecedent node links and

consequent node links.

justify a node as a type of valid hypothetical argument. The internal form of CP

justification is as follows:

(CP<consequent><in-hypotheses><out-hypotheses>)

A CP is valid if the consequent node is IN whenever each node among the in-

hypotheses is IN and each node among the out-hypotheses is OUT.CP's corresponds

to conditional proofs typically found in deduction systems. The procedures for

manipulating CP's are quite complicated so they are usually converted into SL's.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

DAY : 7

Objectives :

• Nonmonotonic reasoning methods

Keypoints :

Nonmonotonic reasoning methods

o Default reasoning

o Closed World Assumption

o Predicate Completion

o Circumscription

1. Default Reasoning

need to explicitly store all facts regarding a situation. A default is expressed as

a(x) : Mb1(x),............Mbk(x)

c(x)

where a(x) is a pre condition wff for the conclusion wff c(x),M is the consistency

operator and b1(x),b2(x),.......... are conditions, each of which must be separately

consistent with the KB for the conclusion c(x) to hold.

Example:

ADULT(X) : MDRIVE(X)

DRIVE(X)

Default theories consists of a set of axioms and a set of default inference rules .The

theorems derivable from a default system are those that follow from first order logic

and the assumptions assumed from default rules. Default rules are especially useful in

hierarchical KB's since default rules are transitive property inheritance becomes

possible.

It is another form of nonmonotonic reasoning. It is based on the

assumption that the KB is complete. This type of assumption is useful in applications

where most of the facts are known and it reasonable to assume that if a proposition

cannot be proven then it is false. This is also known as CWA with failure as negation.

ie failure to prove a fact F results in assuming its negation ~F.

A KB is said to be complete if and only if every ground atom or its negation is in

the system. So by augmenting a KB with the negation of all ground atoms which are

not derivable we can make it complete.

Limiting default assumptions to only parts of the KB can be achieved

through the completion and circumscription formulas.

Completion formulas

Completion formulas are axioms which are added to the KB to

restrict the applicability of specific predicates.If it is known that only certain objects

should satisfy the given predicates , formulas which make the KB explicit are added

to the KB .This technique also needs the addition of Unique Names

Assumptions(UNA) ie formulas which state that distinguished named entries in the

KB are unique.Once completion formulas are added to the KB ordinary first order

proof methods can be used to prove the statements.Predicate completion formulas

perform the same function as that of the CWA but with respect to the completed

predicates only.It is possible to default both positive and negative statements.

Example :

OWNS(joe , ford)

STUDENT(joe)

STUDENT(jill)

OWNS(sam , bike)

PROGRAMMER(sam)

STUDENT (mary)

If it is known that Joe is the only person who owns a ford we can make the fact

explicit by adding the completion formula.

x OWNS(x,ford)→EQUAL(x,joe)

Once we add this completion formula we have to add the inequality formula

~EQUAL(a,joe) which means that it is true for all constants a which are

different from joe.

Circumscription

It is another form of default reasoning introduced by John Mc Carthy.It

is similar to predicate completion in that all objects that can be shown to have some

property P are in fact the only objects that satisfy P.

DAY : 8

Objectives :

• Modal and temporal logics

• Fuzzy logic

Keypoints :

• Modal and temporal logics

• Fuzzy logic

o Introduction to fuzzy logic

o Fuzzy sets

o Fuzzy set theory

FUZZY LOGIC

Fuzzy Logic (FL) is a multivalued logic, that allows intermediate

values to be defined between conventional evaluations like true/false,

yes/no, high/low, etc. Notions like rather tall or very fast can be formulated

mathematically and processed by computers, in order to apply a more

human-like way of thinking in the programming of computers.Additional benefits of

fuzzy logic include its simplicity and its flexibility. Fuzzy logic can handle problems

with imprecise and incomplete data, and it can model nonlinear functions of arbitrary

complexity.Fuzzy logic models, called fuzzy inference systems, consist of a number

of conditional "if-then" rules.

statement is a matter of degree. (How cold is it? How high should we set the heat?)

We are familiar with inference rules of the form p -> q (p implies q). With fuzzy logic,

it's possible to say (.5* p ) -> (.5 * q). For example, for the rule if (weather is cold)

then (heat is on), both variables, cold and on, map to ranges of values. Fuzzy

inference systems rely on membership functions to explain to the computer how to

calculate the correct value between 0 and 1. The degree to which any fuzzy statement

is true is denoted by a value between 0 and 1. Not only do the rule-based approach

and flexible membership function scheme make fuzzy systems straightforward to

create, but they also simplify the design of systems and ensure that you can easily

update and maintain the system over time.

FUZZY SET

A Fuzzy Set is any set that allows its members to have different grades of

membership (membership function) in the interval [0,1].

The following rules which are common in classical set theory also apply to

Fuzzy set theory.

De Morgans law

Associativity

Commutativity

Distributivity

University Questions:

a) x [Roman(x) know(x,Marcus)]→[hate(x,Ceasar)V( y z

hate(y,z)→thinkcrazy(x,y))]

e) If x is on top of y, y supports x.

f) If x is above y and they are touching each other,x is on top of y.

g) A cup is above a book.

h) A cup is touching a book.

Translate the statements into clausal form .Show that the predicate supports

(book,cup) is true using resolution.

1. TMS 2. Nonmonotonic logic

3. Default logic 4. Closed World Assumption (4*5)

7. Explain the principle of Fuzzy logic and explain the use of Fuzzy sets(10)

8.Why precicate caculus is said to be undecidable(5)

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