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Contents
Errata Language Index The IPA chart Part I: Intoductory concepts 1. Articulatory Phonetics 2. Phonology and Phonetic Transcription Part II: English phonetics 3. The Consonants of English 4. English Vowels 5. English Words and Sentences Part III: General phonetics 6. Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation Types 7. Place and Manner of Articulation

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8. Acoustic Phonetics 9. Vowels and Vowel-like Articulations 10. Syllables and Suprasegmental Features 11. Linguistic Phonetics

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Errata

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Errata
Unfortunately there were some errors in the first printing of the 4th. edition of A Course in Phonetics. On the IPA chart on the inside of the cover page, in the consonant chart, the symbol for a retroflex plosive is wrong, and should be as shown below:

The vowel chart also had a number of errors as shown below: The red circle items were wrong or omitted, the blue circle items were badly shaped.

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Errata

In Chapter 5, Table 5.5 has been printed with 5 columns instead of four. It should be as follows: Table 5.5. (1) Optional pre-nuclear pitch accents on stressed syllables (2)Nuclear pitch accents (3)Phrase accents (4)Boundary tones. 1 2 3 4 H* H* L* L*
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Errata

L + H* L* + H H + !H* (!H*)

L + H* L- H% L* + H H + !H* H- L% (!H*)

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Language Index
!X Clicks Chapter 6

British American Chapter 2 unstressed vowels Burmese Ewe Chapter 11 Gujarati French vowels Chapter 6 Chapter 9 Chapter 11 French uvulars Chapter 7 Chapter 11 Chapter 7

German vowels Greek Hausa Hindi Italian Lakhota Malayalam Nama Navajo Polish Quechua

Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 6 Chapter 11 Chapter 7 Chapter 7

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Sindhi Swedish Thai V'enen Taut Vietnamese Xhosa

Chapter 6 Chapter 11 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 11 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 11

Zulu clicks

Zulu laterals

Chapter 7 Chapter 11

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!X click places ofarticulation

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Table 2.2
General American and British English Vowels
Click on a word to hear it pronounced in a General American accent.

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Click on a word to hear it pronounced in a British English accent.

British English Vowels

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Performance Exercises 11 C Burmese

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Ewe

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Performance Exercises 11 E Ewe

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Table 6.5 Gujarati

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Performance Exercises 11 G French

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French

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Performance Exercises 11 H German

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Performance Exercises 11 D Greek

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Hausa implosives, ejectivesand laryngealized consonants

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Table 6.7 Hindi

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Italian

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Table 6.1 Lakhota ejectives

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Table 7.1 Malayalam

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Nama Clicks

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Performance Exercises 11 A Navajo

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Polish

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Table 7.2 Quechua

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Performance Exercises 11 I Swedish

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Table 6.6 Thai

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V'enen Taut

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Performance Exercises 11 J Vietnamese

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Table 6.3 Xhosa

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Zulu clicks

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Performance Exercises 11 B Zulu clicks

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Zulu

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Performance Exercises 11 F Zulu laterals

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ipachart

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Chapter 1
To hear the whole row of the Consonants, click on the name of the manner of articulation.

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consonants1

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This is half the consonant chart.To hear the sounds before a vowel press on the left side of thesymbol; to hear the sounds between two vowels press on the right.

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consonant2

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This is half theconsonant chart. To hear the sounds before a vowel press on theleft side of the symbol; to hear the sounds between two vowelspress on the right.

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vowels

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This is the vowel chart. To hear the sounds click on a symbol.

Primary Cardinal Vowels ............................Secondary Cardinal Vowels

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clicks

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This is the 'clicks' chart. Click on symbol to hear the sound.

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others

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This is the 'other symbols' chart. To hear the sounds click on the symbol.

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1 Articulatory Phonetics The Vocal Organs Voicing Places of Articulation The Oro-Nasal Process Manners of Articulation The Articulation of Vowel Sounds Suprasegmentals Stress variations and pitch variations Exercises

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Vocal Organs
Click on the [ffffvvvvvfffffvvvvv]to hear the voicing contrasts and then say it yourself

ffffvvvvvfffffvvvvv

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Sress Variation
Click on a word to hear it. Click on an arrow to hear the row or column.

Pitch Variation
"That'sa cat" "That's a cat?"

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2 Phonology and Phonetic Transcription The Transcription of Consonants Table 2.1 The Transcription of Vowels Table 2.2 Unstressed vowels Exercises Consonant and Vowel Charts Phonology Exercises Performance Exercises

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Table 2.1
Click on a word in red to hear it pronounced in a General American accent.

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Unstressed Vowels

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Performance Exercises A Chapter 2 Click on the symbols to hear them pronounced.

Performance Exercises B Chapter 2

Performance Exercises C Chapter 2

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Performance Exercises D Chapter 2

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3 The Consonants of English


Stop Consonants Table 3.1 Stop allophones Stops following'S' London Cockney Glottal stops Nasals and lateral plosion Fricatives Affricates Approximants Rules for English Consonant Allophones Diacritics Exercises Performance Exercises

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Table3.1
Words illustrating allophones of English stop consonants. Click on a word or arrow to hear the sounds.

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Stops following [s]


Click on either the words or arrows to hear the words or rows prounounced.

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London Cockney
Click on the transcription tohear the word pronounced

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Glottal Stops
Click on the symbols or arrows to hear thewords pronounced

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Nasal and Lateral Plosion


Click on the symbols to hear the words pronounced

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Performance Exercises for Chapter 3


Click on the symbols to hear the words pronounced C

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4 English Vowels
American and British vowels (Chapter 2) English Phonetic Dictionaries Vowel Quality Unstressed Syllables Tense and Lax Vowels Rules for English Vowel Allophones Exercises Performance Exercises

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Performance Exercises Chapter 4 A

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5 English Wordsand Sentences Strong and Weak Forms Table 5.11 Stress Degrees of Stress Sentence Stress Intonation Examples 17-19,20-24 Target Tones Exercises PerformanceExercises

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Table 5.1
Strong and weak forms of some common English words. Click on a phrase to hear it pronounced.

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Examples 17-19

Examples 20-24

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Performance Exercise A Chapter 5.


British English

American English

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6 Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation Types


Airstream Mechanisms Hausa ejective and laryngealized sounds Table 6.1 -Lakhota Table 6.2 - Sindhi Table 6.3 - Xhosa Zulu clicks Nama Clicks !X Clicks States of the Glottis Table 6.5- Gujarati Table 6.6 Thai Voice onset time Table 6.7 Hindi Exercises PerformanceExercises

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Table 6.2 Sindhi stops

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Chapter 6 Performance exercises


A and B C D F and G H and I J,K and L M N P Q S and T U V

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7 Place and Manner of Articulation Ewe V'enen Taut Malayalam Quechua Italian Polish French Uvulars Zulu Performance Exercises

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Performance Exercises Chapter7 A, B, C D &E F &G H&I J, K & L M N&O P Q S&T U W

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Figure 8

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Diagrams for Chapter8

Figure 8.1 The waveform duringa short period (a little over two vocal fold vibrations) in mypronunciation of [A], as in "caught."

Figure 8.2 Acoustic recordsof the phrase "Jane, Pat and John" The upper part ofthe figure shows the fundamental frequency (pitch). The waveform,with a narrow phonetic transcription, is below it. At the bottomthere is a time scale.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.3 The waveformof the phrase "We saw three dogs" and underneath ita record of the intensity in dB.

Figure 8.4 Waveforms of "Saypat now; say pad now; say bad now; say spat now." Only thefirst of these phrases has been segmented. You should try to segmentthe other three phrases yourself.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.5 Waveform and pitchrecords of "Bonny told Peter she'd plans to leave,"said in two different ways.

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Figure 8

Figure8.7 A spectrogram of the words "heed, hid,head, had, hod, hawed, hood, who'd" as spoken by a male speakerof American English. The locations of the first three formantsare shown be arrows.

Figure 8.8 A spectrogram ofthe words "heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, whod"as spoken in a British accent. The locations of the first threeformants are shown be arrows.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.9 A formant chartshowing the frequency of the first formant on the ordinate (thevertical axis) plotted against second formant on the abscissa(the horizontal axis) for eight American English vowels. The scalesare marked in Hz, arranged at Bark scale intervals.

Figure 8.10 A blank formantchart for showing the relation between vowels. Using the informationin Figures 8.7 and 8.8, plot the frequency of the first formanton the ordinate (the vertical axis) and the second formant onthe abscissa (the horizontal axis).

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Figure 8

Figure 8.11 A spectrogramof the words "a bab, a dad, a gag".

Figure 8.12 A spectrogramof "a Pam, a tan, a kang". The arrows indicate the oralclosures forming the nasal consonants.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.13 A spectrogramof "fie, thigh, sigh, shy". The frequency scale goesup to 8,000 Hz in this figure. The arrows mark the onsets of thesecond formant transitions. Only the first word is shown in full.The second part of the diphthong has been deleted for the otherwords.

Figure 8.14 A spectrogramof "ever, weather, fizzer, pleasure".

Figure 8.15 A spectrogramof "led, red, wed, yell".

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Figure 8

Figure 8.16 A spectrogramof "She came back and started again".

Figure 8.17 A spectrogramof "I should have thought spectrograms were unreadable."Spoken in a normal, but rapid, conversational style (British English).

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Figure 8

Figure 8.18 A spectrogramof "He left here three days ago".

Figure 8.19 A spectrogramof an ordinary English sentence containing no names (British accent).

Figure 8.20 Wide-band (upper partof the figure) and narrow-band (lower part) spectrogram of thequestion "Is Pat sad, or mad?" The 5tth, 10tth and 15thharmonics have been marked by white squares in two of the vowels.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.21 A spectrogramof the words "heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, who'd"as spoken by a female speaker of American English. The locationsof the first three formants are shown be arrows.

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Figure 8

Figure 8.22 A formant chartshowing some of the vowels of two speakers of Californian English.The frequency of the first formant is plotted on the ordinate(the vertical axis), and the difference between the frequenciesof the second and first formants is plotted on the abscissa (thehorizontal axis).

Exercise A

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Figure 8

8. Exercise B

8. Exercise C

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Chapter 9
Cardinal Vowels Secondary Cardinal Vowels Vowels in Other Languages Spanish Japanese Danish Russian palatization Advanced Tongue Root (ATR) Akan Rhotacized Vowels American English Nasalization FrenchVowels Summary of Vowel Quality Semivowels French Approximants Secondary Articulation Exercises Performance Exercises

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Cardinal Vowels
Sets of cardinal vowels produced by Daniel Jones in1956

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3

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Secondary Cardinal Vowels

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SpanishVowels

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JapaneseVowels

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Danish Vowels

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Russian palatization

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Akan Vowels

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Performance Exercises 11 G French semivowels

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Performance Exercises Chapter 9 A&B B C E F G H I J L N O

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Chapter 10
Syllables Stress Length Danish Vowels Pitch Thai Tones, Chinese(standard) tones Stress, Tone and Pitch Accent Languages Japanese Exercises Performance Exercises

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Thai tones

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Chinese(Standard) tones

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Japanese

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Performance Exercises Chapter 10

A B C E F G

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11 LinguisticPhonetics Controlling articulatory movements The Balance between Phonetic Forces The International PhoneticAlphabet Feature Hierarchy Performance Exercises Chapter 11

A Navajo B Zulu clicks C Burmese D Greek E Ewe F Zulu laterals G French


French semivowels

H German
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I Swedish J Vietnamese

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