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Amanda Folsom

Abstract

In this article we obtain class invariants and cyclotomic unit groups by con-

sidering specializations of modular units. We construct these modular units from

functional solutions to higher order q-recurrence equations given by Selberg in his

work generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. As a corollary, we provide a

new proof of a result of Zagier and Gupta, orginally considered by Gauss, regard-

ing the Gauss periods. These results comprise part of the author’s 2006 Ph.D.

thesis [6] in which the structure of these modular unit groups and their associated

cuspidal divisor class groups are also characterized, and a cuspidal divisor class

number formula is given in terms of products of L-functions and compared to the

classical relative class number formula within the cyclotomic fields.

Let F` , ` ∈ N, be the modular function field with respect to the principal congruence

subgroup Γ(`) = {γ ∈ SL2 (Z) | γ ≡ 1 mod `} defined over Q(ζ` ), where ζ` = e2πi/` .

The modular functions that comprise invertible elements in the integral closure of the

ring Q[j] ⊂ F` form a group, the modular unit group of level `, where j = j(τ ) =

q −1 + 744 + 196884q + · · · is the classical modular invariant.

In this paper we define modular units r`,j (τ ), 1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2 for ` = 2k + 1 ≥ 5,

and the groups they generate

using functional solutions to higher order q-difference equations found in the work of

Selberg [23], where in (1) and what follows, hxi denotes the group generated by x.

We will explicitly define the groups U`C and their generators r`,j , 1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2

in §3. To obtain class invariants we consider special values of the modular units r`,j ,

1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2, at points of complex multiplication, and show that only a single value

of one such modular unit is needed to generate class fields of prime moduli, to which

we compare the classical theory of complex multiplication, We then generalize these

results to class fields of more arbitrary moduli, motivated by the work of Ramachandra,

combining the theory of Kubert and Lang with that of Shimura.

With respect to the cyclotomic theory, we portray these modular units as modular

function field analogues to cyclotomic units, and show that when specialized to 0 these

modular units yield cyclotomic units that may be used to generate cyclotomic unit

groups. Dually, within the modular function fields we show how these modular units

1

may be used as generators. As a corollary, we provide a new proof of a result of Zagier

and Gupta, originally considered by Gauss. Let

Theorem 1.

i. For an odd integer ` = 2k + 1 > 5, the functions r`,j (τ ),

1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2 defined in (31), (32) and (34) are

modular units of level `.

ii. Further, the modular units r`,1 and r`,2 generate the field of

modular functions CF` . That is,

Theorem 2. For ` = 2k + 1 ≥ 5, the set of modular units S`C of level ` are such that

their limiting values in the cusp 0 are cyclotomic units in Q(ζ` )+ . That is,

n o

lim S`C := lim r`,j (τ ) | 1 ≤ j ≤ k − 1 ⊆ EC Q(ζ` )+ . (3)

τ →0 τ →0

D E

C C

EQ(ζ` )+ = lim S` .

τ →0

OK = Z[τ ], τ ∈ H an algebraic integer. Then for any prime ` ≥ 5 and any integer m

such that 1 ≤ m ≤ (` − 3)/2, the ray class field K` of modulus ` over K is given by

K` = K(r`,m (τ )).

We generalize the results of Theorem 3 to class fields of more arbitrary moduli f, with

generalized invariants Θf that reduce in a special case to powers of the (specializations

of the) modular units r`,j (τ ). In what follows, N(τ ) and T(τ ) respectively refer to the

norm and trace of τ ∈ H, and the normalized Klein form ϕ is given by

³ ¯ ´

¯ ∗ /2

ϕ z¯ ω1

ω2 = 2πie−zz σ(z|L)η(ω1 /ω2 )2 ω2−1

and η1 , η2 are the quasi-periods of the elliptic Weierstrass ζ function of the lattice L

belonging to ω1 , ω2 .

2

Theorem 4. Let K be an imaginary quadratic field with ring of integers

OK = [τ, 1], τ ∈ H, and let f ⊆ OK be any ideal of the form f = s2 [τ + mτ , s1 ] where

s1 , s2 , mτ are integers such that (s1 , s2 ) = 1, s1 | N(τ ), s1 | mτ + T(τ ), s1 s2 - 6 = `, and

s1 , s2 prime. Then for any integers niP , 1 ≤ i ≤ m, m ∈ Z+ , and idealsQ bi ⊆ OK defined

m

by bi = [τ, bi ], with bi ∈ Z satisfying ( i=1 bi ni , `) = 1, (bi , `) = 1, bi | N(τ ), and for

any ξ ∈ K ∗ of the form ξ = sr11 τ + sr22 ∈ K ∗ with (r1 , s1 ) = (r2 , s2 ) = 1, the product

m

Y ¯

Θf := ϕ(ξ ¯fb−1

i )

12`ni

(4)

i=1

K(Θf ) = Kf . (5)

Q

Further, if we do not require bi | N(τ ), we have the product Θf ∈ Kf .

A result in [21] asserts that under various conditions on the decomposition of a

modulus f = Zτ + Z, τ ∈ H, into prime ideals, and under certain hypotheses1 placed

on an ideal class b in the ray class group, where fb−1 = Zτ b−1 + Z, b ∈ Z, a simple

¡ ¯ ¢12`

quotient of the normalized Klein forms together with the specialization ϕ 1¯f

may be used to generate Kf over K:

¡¡ ¡ ¯ ¢ ¡ ¯ ¢¢12` ¡ ¯ ¢12` ¢

Kf = K ϕ 1¯fb−1 /ϕ 1¯f , ϕ 1¯f . (6)

The authors conjecture that the result (6) holds for arbitrary conductor f and every ideal

b prime to f whose ideal class in the ray class group is non trivial.

In [3], the authors form a more general product of normalized Klein forms and provide

hypotheses under which a product of such forms multiplied by an explicitly given root

of unity ζ lies in the ray class field:

Ym ³ ¯ −1 ´ni

¯

ζ ϕ ξλi ¯ τ b1i ∈ Kf . (7)

i=1

We note that an appropriate power of this product reduces in a special case (with

corrected hypotheses as pointed out in [3]) to (6) above. The authors conjecture that

with an additional set of hypotheses, the product (7) in fact generates Kf over K. We

prove in part these conjectures of [3] and [21] by a more general result here.

Theorem 5. As conjectured in [3], under the conditions of Theorem 4 and those given

in Theorem 1 of [3], ζ an explicitly given root of unity in [3], the product

m

Y ¯

Θ=ζ ϕ(ξ ¯fb−1

i )

ni

i=1

1

We refer the reader to [21] for the complete theorem and hypotheses.

3

Finally, to further develop the analogy between the modular units defining the groups

U`C and the cyclotomic units, as a corollary of the following Theorem 6, we provide a new

proof of a problem considered by Zagier and Gupta, and previously by Gauss, regarding

the Gauss periods.

(31) satisfies the functional equation

where

(q 2 ; q)j−1 Ck,k (q j )

Ck−j = (−1)b 2 c sk,j−1 (1)q j(k−1)(k+1−`)/2`

j+1

, (8)

(1 − q)j−1 Ck,k (q)

0 ≤ j ≤ k,

X∞

n2 +n (xq; q)n

Ck,k (z) = (−1)n xkn q (2k+1) 2 −kn (1 − xk q (2n+1)k ) . (9)

n=0

(q; q)n

Further, the limiting value of this functional equation in the cusp 0 gives an integral

polynomial

τ →0

µ ¶

dj/2e b(k + j)/2c

ck−j = (−1) ,

b(k − j)/2c

0 ≤ j ≤ k. The roots of mk (x) are the Galois conjugates of the cyclotomic units

limτ →0 rd,1 (τ ), where d ranges over the divisors of `, d > 1.

Corollary 1. The minimal polynomial for the Gauss periods of degree 2 for odd ` ≥ 3

has coefficients of xj , 0 ≤ j ≤ k, given by

( k+1

(−1)b 2 c−j−1 ck−j j odd

dk−j = k

(−1)b 2 c−j ck−j j even

The structure of these modular unit groups and their associated cuspidal divisor class

groups are further characterized in [6], where in particular we provide a cuspidal divisor

class number formula given in terms of products of L-functions.

4

2. Rogers-Ramanujan

q 1/5

r(τ ) = (10)

q

1 +

q2

1 +

q3

1 +

1 + .

..

convergent for τ in the upper half complex plane H has been an object of extensive study

due to a wealth of associated analytic properties, q-series identities, and combinatorial

interpretations (see [2], for example). Here instead, we present r(τ ) as an example of a

modular unit, and define the modular units r`,j , 1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2 in § 3 as higher level

analouges to the Rogers-Ramanujan function r(τ ).

Many of the fundamental properties associated to r(τ ) rely upon the fact that one

may regard r(τ ) as arising from the q-recurrence

X 2

R(z) = z n q n (q; q)−1

n . (13)

n≥0

1 k =0

(1 − a)(1 − aq) · · · (1 − aq k−1 ) k = 1, 2, . . .

(a; q)k = −1

[(1 − aq −1 )(1 − aq −2 ) · · · (1 − aq −k )] k = −1, −2, . . .

(1 − a)(1 − aq)(1 − aq 2 )(1 − aq 3 ) · · · k = ∞.

Y

R(1)−1 = (1 − q 5n−1 )(1 − q 5n−4 ) (14)

n≥1

Y

−1

R(q) = (1 − q 5n−2 )(1 − q 5n−3 ), (15)

n≥1

5

which give an infinite product representation for the series (13) evaluated at z = 1 and

z = q. Various proofs have emerged in the literature for the identities (14) and (15),

originally due to Rogers and (independently) Ramanujan, whose proofs rely upon the

use of Theta functions [20].2 The identities may also be interpreted combinatorially (see

for example [1]) in terms of number partitions. For example (14) may be read as saying

“the number of ways to partition a number into parts congruent to 1 and 4 mod 5 is

equal the number of partitions into parts of minimal difference 2.”

By (12), (13), (14) and (15), one obtains a q-product expansion for r(τ ). With this,

one may show that r(τ ) is in fact a modular function on Γ(5), and also a modular unit.

We also observe a parallel role played by a specialization of r(τ ) within the number

fields. By definition, the specialization of r(τ ) in the cusp 0 is easily observed:

1 1 1 √

lim r(τ ) = = (−1 + 5)/2. (16)

τ →0 1 + 1 + 1 + ···

Rewriting the special value (16) another way, we find

√

(−1 + 5)/2 = (ζ52 −ζ5−2 )(ζ5 −ζ5−1 )−1 , (17)

which we recognize as a cyclotomic unit. This special value is real, and in fact generates

the group of cyclotomic units in Q(ζ5 )+ , where we let K + denote the maximal real

subfield of a given field K. We also note this specialization may be used to generate

the field Q(ζ5 )+ , that is, Q(ζ5 )+ = Q(limτ →0 r(τ )). Rephrasing, we have a modular

unit arising from a q-recurrence that generates a modular function field, and whose

specialization in the cusp 0 generates a real cyclotomic field, as well as its cyclotomic

unit group. In what follows we consider the fields F` , ` ≥ 5, as well as specializations

at other τ in H, and provide more general proofs of these facts.

To define higher order modular unit groups analogous to U5C = hr(τ )i generated by the

Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction r(τ ), we seek other appropriate modular functions

on the curves X(N ). Due to the fact that r(τ ) has a continued fraction expansion

and may be viewed as originating from a certain q-recurrence, one might hope that if

analogous functions exist, that they exhibit similar traits. We indeed form such families

for curves X(N ) of higher genus g > 0 in what follows, yet will see that these functions

do not possess a continued fraction expansion but rather an expression that may be

viewed as a generalization of a continued fraction expansion. To describe this, we begin

with the observation of Sylvester that a continued fraction may be expressed as the

2

See section 4.

6

limiting value of ratios of nth order determinants. That is,

¯ ¯¯ ¯−1

¯ a0 b1 0 0 ···

¯¯ 1 0 0 0 ···

¯

b1 ¯ −1 a1 b2 0 ···

¯¯ 0 a1 b2 0 ···

¯

= ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯

0 −1 a2 b3 ··· 0 −1 a2 b3 ···

a0 + 0 0 −1 a3 ···

¯¯ 0 0 −1 a3 ···

¯

b2 ¯ . . . . ¯¯ . . . . ¯

a1 + . . . . . . . .

b3 . . . . . . . .

a2 +

a3 + .

.

.

where the successive ratios of order n determinants are the partial convergents of the

continued fraction. One finds that the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction may be

expressed as

¯ ¯¯ ¯−1

¯ 1 0 0 0 ···

¯¯ 1 q 0 0 ···

¯

¯

1/5 ¯

0 1 q2 0 ···

¯¯ −1 1 q2 0 ···

¯

r(τ ) = q ¯ 0 −1 1 q3 ··· ¯¯ 0 −1 1 q3 ··· ¯ (18)

0 0 −1 1 ··· ¯¯ 0 0 −1 1 ··· ¯

¯ .

.

.

.

.

.

.

. ¯¯ .

.

.

.

.

.

.

. ¯

. . . . . . . . .

We generalize this definition, and let A(n) be the order n determinant with entries ai,j ,

1 ≤ i, j ≤ n, with B (n) defined similarly. Provided the limit exists, we define the ratio

of two infinite determinants by

¯ ¯¯ ¯−1

¯ a1,1 a1,2 a1,3 a1,4 ···

¯¯ b1,1 b1,2 b1,3 b1,4 ···

¯

¯ a2,1 a2,2 a2,3 a2,4 ···

¯¯ b2,1 b2,2 b2,3 b2,4 ···

¯

lim A(n) /B (n) := ¯ a3,1 a3,2 a3,3 a3,4 ···

¯¯ b3,1 b3,2 b3,3 b3,4 ···

¯ (19)

n→∞ ¯ a4,1 a4,2 a4,3 a4,4 ···

¯¯ b4,1 b4,2 b4,3 b4,4 ···

¯

¯ .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

¯¯ .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

¯

.

With hopes of constructing analogous modular functions to (18) of higher level, we form

the infinite determinant Sk (z) of width k + 1

¯ sk,0 (z) sk,1 (z) sk,2 (z) ¯

¯ −1 sk,0 (zq) sk,1 (zq) sk,2· ·(zq) · sk,k−1 (z) 0 0 0 ···

¯

¯ 0 ··· sk,k−1 (zq) 0 0 ···

¯

Sk (z) := ¯ −1 sk,0 (zq 2

) sk,1 (zq 2

) sk,2 (zq 2

) · · · sk,k−1 (zq 2

) 0 · · ·

¯ (20)

¯ . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. ¯

. . . . . . . . .

One may deduce from (20) the higher order q-recurrences satisfied by the functions

Sk (z)

k

X

sk,m−1 (z)Sk (zq m ) = 0 (21)

m=0

where we let sk,−1 (z) = −1. We must define the functions sk,j (z) appropriately so that

(21) yields an analytic solution Sk (z).

7

We let

sk,2n (z) :=(−1)n z nk q δ(k,n) (q; q)−2

n

b k+1

2 c

X

−n−1

(22)

z j q j(n+1) (q j+1 ; q)n (q b 2 c−(j+n) ; q)n

k+1

×

j=0

k 0 n −1

n−1 (1 − q )

bX

2c

k

−n

(23)

z j q jn (q j+1 ; q)n (q b 2 c−(j+n)+1 ; q)n−1

k

×

j=0

¹ º

n2 + n k+1

δ(k, n) = (2k + 1) −n

2 2

2−n

¹ º

0 n k + 1 3

δ (k, n) = (2k + 1) +n ,

2 2

and

bαc = max{n ≤ α}

n∈Z

dαe = min{n ≥ α}.

n∈Z

As given in (22) and (23), the functions sk,m (z) first appear in the work of Selberg

[23], and in the case k = 2, the q-recurrence (21) reduces to (11), with S2 (z) = R(z).

With this choice of sk,j , an analytic solution to the q-recurrence (21) exists, and is given

in [23] by

∞

X n2 +n (xq; q)n Y

Sk (z) = (−1)n xkn q (2k+1) 2

−kn

(1 − xk q (2n+1)k ) (1 − zq n )−1 . (24)

(q; q)n

n=0 n≥1

Selberg uses these functions to give certain identities analogous to the Rogers-Ramanujan

identities (14) and (15), and also to give various q-continued fraction identities. In con-

trast to their use in [23], we use the functions sk,j (z) and Sk (z) to define groups of

modular units UNC . To define the modular units r`,j , we first recall the Galois action on

the modular function fields FN .

3

We note that the exponent given in [23] corresponding to δ 0(k, n) mistakenly reads

2 ¥ ¦

(2k + 1) n 2+n + n k+1

2 .

8

The natural action of the group Γ(1) ⊂ M2 (Z) on the fields FN given by

γ · f (τ ) = f (γτ ), (25)

where f = f (τ ) ∈ FN , may be extended to the group GL2 (Z/N Z) as follows. Given

³ ´

1 0

d ∈ (Z/N Z)∗ , let γd = 0 d act on Q(ζN ) by

γd · ζN = ζNd .

∞

X

If f ∈ FN has q-series expansion given by f (τ ) = an q n/N , the action of γd extends

n=m

to FN by

∞

X

γd · f (τ ) = (γd · an )q n/N . (26)

n=m

The matrices γd , d ∈ (Z/N Z)∗ , together with SL2 (Z/N Z), generate GL2 (Z/N Z), and

the group actions given by (25) and (26) define a Galois action on the modular function

fields, described by the following exact sequence

1 −→ GN · {±1} −→ G −→ Gal(FN /F1 ) −→ 1 (27)

where

Y

G = GL2 (Zp ) · G+

∞ (28)

p

GN = {(x) ∈ G/G+

∞ | xp ≡ 1 mod N · M2 (Zp )}. (29)

The product defining G is taken over primes p, and Zp denotes the ring of integers in

the completion Qp of the field Q at p. From (27), one finds the isomorphism

π

Gal(FN /F1 ) ∼

= GL2(Z/N Z)/{±1}. (30)

Definition. For ` = 2k + 1, let

−k(k−1) Sk (1)

r`,1 (τ ) = q 2` (31)

Sk (q)

r`,2 (τ ) = q 2` . (32)

Sk (q)

9

For m ∈ (Z/N Z)∗ , we let

¡m 0

¢ ¡ ¢

σm := 0 1 ∈ π Gal(FN /F1 ) (33)

(3`−4)(`−3) η(τ )

Ψ`,q := −q 24` Sk (q).

η(`τ )

We define for 1 ≤ j ≤ (` − 3)/2 the functions

¡ ¢

r`,j (τ ) := σk+1−j Ψ`,q · Ψ−1

`,q (34)

where the Dedekind η-function η(τ ) = ∆1/24 (τ ) is the 24th root of the Discriminant

function, and is given by

Y

η(τ ) = q 1/24 (1 − q n ). (35)

n≥1

4. Theta constants

To prove Theorems 1 and 2 we will make use of the theory of the theta constants. A theta

£ ¤

characteristic is a vector χ = ²²0 ∈ R2 . Two characteristics are said to be equivalent

if their difference is in Z2 , and the space of characteristic classes is defined as

R2 modulo this equivalence relation. Given a matrix γ = (ac db) ∈ Γ(1)/{±1}, a right

group action on the space of characteristic classes is defined by

£ −ac ¤

χγ = γ t χ + bd (36)

£²¤

The theta constant with characteristic χ = ²0 ∈ R2 is defined by

£²¤ X ³1 ³ ²

´2 ³ ´ ´

² ²0

θ ²0 (τ ) = e 2 n+ 2 τ + n+ 2 2 .

n∈Z

³ 1 1 ´

0 2 02 0

κχ,γ = e − (a² + c² )bd − (ab² + cd² + 2bc²² ) κγ

4 8

10

where κγ is an eighth root of unity depending only on the matrix γ. As a special case

of (37), one finds for r, s ∈ Z,

£ +2r¤ ³ ´ £ ¤

²s

θ ±² 0

±² +2s (τ ) = e ± 2

θ ²²0 (τ ). (38)

£ ¤ ¡ ²²0 ¢ 2 Y ¡ ²0 ¢ 1+² ¡ −²0 ¢ 1−²

θ ²²0 (τ ) = e 4 q ² /8 (1 − q n )(1 + e 2 q n− 2 )(1 + e 2 q n− 2 ), (39)

n≥1

which can be derived from the Jacobi triple product identity [5]

∞

X ∞

Y

2

q n z 2n = (1 − q 2n )(1 + q 2n−1 z 2 )(1 + q 2n−1 z −2 ). (40)

n=−∞ n=1

formula (40) and find

Sk (1) = (41)

n≥1

(1 − q n )

Y (1 − q `n−1 )(1 − q `n−(`−1) )(1 − q `n )

Sk (q) = (42)

n≥1

(1 − q n )

Y (1 − q `n−(k−1) )(1 − q `n−(k+2) )(1 − q `n )

Sk (1) − q k−1 Sk (q 2 ) = (43)

n≥1

(1 − q n )

so that

Y (1 − q `n−k )(1 − q `n−(k+1) )

r`,1 = q −k(k−1)/2` (44)

n≥1

(1 − q `n−1 )(1 − q `n−(`−1) )

Y (1 − q `n−(k−1) )(1 − q `n−(k+2) )

r`,2 = q −(k+1)(k−2)/2` . (45)

n≥1

(1 − q `n−1 )(1 − q `n−(`−1) )

Using (34), (44) and (45) we apply (39) and (37) and find for 1 ≤ m ≤ (` − 1)/2,

· 2m−1 ¸

θ ` (`τ )

1

r`,m (τ ) = e( 2` ) · `−2 ¸

k−m

(46)

θ ` (`τ )

1

11

£²¤

Lemma 1. For any odd `², ²0 and `, and any γ ∈ Γ(`), the theta constant θ ²0 (`τ )

satisfies the transformation

£²¤ £²¤

θ ²0 (`·γτ ) = νχ,γ (cz + d)1/2 θ ²0 (`τ )

where

¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢

νχ,γ = e −²d(a − 1)(b` + ²0 )/4 e −²2 (b`(a − 1))/8 e −²0 d(2bc + c²0/`)/8 .

£²¤ £²¤

θ ²0 (`·γτ ) = θ ²0 (γ̃ ◦ `τ )

³ ´

a b`

where γ̃ = c/` d ∈ SL2 (Z), and find

h i

t −ac/`

χγ̃ = γ̃ χ + bd`

h 0

i

= a²b`²+ +c²d²/`0 − ac/`

+ bd`

.

For ease of notation, let γ(²) = a² + c²0 /` − ac/` and γ(²0 ) = b`² + d²0 + bd`.

³ ´ ³ ´

a b 1 + A` B`

If c d = C` 1 + D` , we find

γ(²0 ) = ²0 + D`²0 + B`2 ² + B`2 (1 + D`)

If A is odd, then C must be odd, as det(γ) = 1. In this case, γ(²) ≡ ² mod 2. This

also holds if A is even, regardless of the parity of C. Similarly, if D is odd, then B is

odd, so that γ(²0 ) ≡ ²0 mod 2. Again we find that this also holds if D is even. By (37)

and (38) we have

c

θ[χ](γ̃ ◦`τ ) = κχ,γ̃ ( ` ·`τ + d)1/2 θ[χγ̃](`τ )

²

= κχ,γ̃ e( 4 (b`² + (d − 1)²0 + bd`))(cτ + d)1/2 θ[χ](`τ ).

Combining the constants gives the expression for νχ,γ and completes the proof.

12

Proof. (Theorem 1 i.)

To show that the functions r`,j are modular units of level `, we see by (44), (45) and

(34) that the r`,j are holomorphic on H. Thus it suffices to show the functions transform

correctly under Γ(`), and that they in fact lie in U` . To show transformation, by Lemma

1 and (46) it suffices to show that νχ1 ,γ = νχ2 ,γ , where

· ¸ · ¸

²1 2m−1

χ1 = 0

= `

² 1

· ¸ · ¸

²2 `−2

χ2 = = ` .

²0 1

We have

νχ1 ,γ ³ ´

d(a−1) 2 2

= e( 4 (²2 − ²1 )(1 + b`))e b`(a−1) (² 2 − ²1 )

νχ2 ,γ 8

³ ´ ³ ´

d(a−1)

= e 2` (k − m)(1 + b`) e b(a−1)2`

(k − m)(k + m + 1)

³ ´ ³ ´

dA

= e 2 (k − m)(1 + b`) e B(a−1)

2

(k − m)(k + m + 1)

³ ´

dA

= e 2 (k − m)(1 + b`) . (47)

The last equality follows from the fact that (k − m) and (k + m + 1) have opposite

parity. Finally, if b is odd, then the expression in (47) simplifies to 1. If b is even,

then ad = (1 + `A)d is odd, so that A is even, and again the expression (47) is equal

to 1. By examining (45), (45) and (34), one finds that the functions r`,j have divisors

supported on the cusps of Γ(`), a fact we prove more rigorously in Section 2.4. This

proves Theorem 1 i.

³ ´

Proof. (Theorem 2). For the involution γ = 01 −10 , we have by (37)

£²¤ £ ²0 ¤

θ ²0 (−1/τ ) = κτ 1/2 θ −² (τ )

so that

lim r`,m (τ ) = lim r`,m (−1/τ )

τ →0 τ →∞

· 2m−1 ¸

θ ` (−1/`τ )

1

= lim e( 2` ) · `−2 ¸

k−m

τ →∞

θ ` (−1/`τ )

1

· ¸

1

θ 2m−1 (`τ )

= lim e( 2` ) · ` ¸

k−m

.

τ →∞ 1

θ 2−` (`τ )

`

13

We use the fact that

£1¤ X

θ ²0 (τ ) = q 1/8 e(²0 /4) e((n2 + n)τ /2 + n²0 /2)

n∈Z

1/8

= q (e(² /4) + e(−²0 /4) + O(|q|))

0

(48)

as τ → ∞, to conclude

2m−1 1−2m

ζ` 4

+ ζ` 4

τ →0

ζ` 4 + ζ` 4

k+1−m

− k+1−m

ζ` 2

− ζ` 2

= 1

−1

ζ`2 − ζ` 2

m−k ζ k+1−m − 1

= ζ` 2 `

ζ` − 1

1−v ζ v − 1

= ζ` 2 ` (49)

ζ` − 1

where v = k + 1 − m. To conclude the proof, we state two well known results regarding

the description of the cyclotomic unit groups [26].

Lemma 2. For N = pj , p prime, j ≥ 1,

C C

EQ(ζ N)

= h{ζN , EQ(ζN)

+ }i.

Dn − ζNm oE

C (1−m)/2 1

EQ(ζN)

+ = − 1, ζN | 1 < m < N/2, (m, p) = 1 .

1 − ζN

2

− 1}, we note that v ranges over integers

`−1

{2, 3, . . . , 2 }. With v in this range, by Lemma 3 we see that the set of specializations

+

limτ →0 S`C may be used to generate the group EQ(ζ C

`)

+ of cyclotomic units in Q(ζ` ). When

` is not a prime power, there may be multiplicative dependence between the elements in

limτ →0 S`C , although these primitive cyclotomic units in Q(ζ` )+ may be used to define

a set of multiplicatively independent units as given by Ramachandra [18]. This proves

Theorem 2..

To prove statement ii. of Theorem 1, we turn to a discussion of the Siegel functions.

14

5. Siegel functions

The Klein forms ta (τ ), defined for a vector a = (a1 , a2 ) ∈ R2 , and τ ∈ H, are given

by

where σa and ηa are the classical Weierstrass functions. Using known properties

of the Weierstrass σa and ηa functions, one can verify for a lattice L that the

Klein forms satisfy the following properties

ta (γL) = taγ (L) (52)

ta+b (L) = ²(a, b)ta (L). (53)

In (51) λ ∈ C∗ , in (52) γ ∈ Γ(1), and in (53) b = (b1 , b2 ) ∈ Z2 , and the constant ²(a, b)

is given by

²(a, b) = (−1)b1 b2 +b1 +b2 e((b2 a1 − b1 a2 )/2).

The Klein forms are used to define the Siegel functions, given by

ga (τ ) = ta (τ )∆(τ )1/12 .

A major result of Kubert and Lang in their development of the theory of the modular

units is the following explicit characterization of the modular units of prime power level

`.

Theorem 7. (Kubert, Lang) Let ` = pn , where p is prime, p 6= 2, 3, n ∈ N. Then the

modular units of level ` (modulo constants) consist of products

Y

gam(a)

a

/ Z2 , and the exponents m(a) ∈ Z satisfy the quadratic

relations

X X X

m(a)a21 ≡ m(a)a22 ≡ m(a)a1 a2 ≡ 0 mod `

a a a

Using the product expansion for the classical ∆ and σ functions, one has the following

product formula for the Siegel functions:

³ a1 ¡

´Y

∞ ³ ´³ ´

1 a1

a ¢ a1 ¡

a ¢ a1 ¡

a ¢

ga (τ )= −q 2 B2 ( `

)

e(a2 (a1 − 1)/2) 1−q ` e `2 1−q n+ ` e `2 1−q n− ` e − `2

n=1

(54)

15

where B2 (z) is the second Bernoulli polynomial defined by

1

B2 (z) = z 2 − z + .

6

One may verify by the Galois action described in Section 1.1, the product formula (54),

and the action (52), that the Galois group Gal(F` /F1 ) acts transitively on the Siegel

functions by multiplication on the indices. That is, for β ∈ Gal(F` /F1 ),

β · ga = ga·β . (55)

From (44), (45) and (54) we find the following expression for the modular units r`,1 (τ ), r`,2 (τ ):

`−1

Y

r`,1 (τ ) = g(k/`,s/`) /g(1/`,s/`) (56)

s=0

`−1

Y

r`,2 (τ ) = g(k−1/`,s/`) /g(1/`,s/`) . (57)

s=0

We let F` := CF` be the function field of the curve X(`) over C. The field F`

is Galois over C(j) with Galois group Gal(F` /C(j)) ∼

= Γ(1)/Γ(`) · {±1}. When

` > 5, the curve has positive genus, so is generated by two elements over C.

q−product expansions

Y (1 − q `n−2 )(1 − q `n−(`−2) )

X2 = q −(k−1)/` (58)

n≥1

(1 − q `n−1 )(1 − q `n−(`−1) )

Y (1 − q `n−3 )(1 − q `n−(`−3) )

X3 = q −(2k−3)/` . (59)

n≥1

(1 − q `n−1 )(1 − q `n−(`−1) )

By (58), (59), the expressions (56), (57), the product representation (54), and the

Galois action (55), we have

Proposition 1. X2 = σk−1 (r`,1

−1

), X3 = σk−1 (r`,1

−1

r`,2 ).

Proof. (Theorem 1 ii.) We have

F` ∼

= σk (F` ) = σk (C(X2 , X3 )

= C(σk (X2 ), σk (X3 ))

−1 −1

= C(r`,1 , r`,1 r`,2 )

= C(r`,1 , r`,2 ). (60)

16

However, the functions r`,j are modular units by Theorem 2 i., so that C(r`,1 , r`,2 ) ⊆

F` . By the isomorphism in (60), we must have

C(r`,1 , r`,2 ) = F` .

6. Gauss periods

6.1 Gauss periods

K of Q(ζ` ) with [Q(ζ` ) : K] = f . If we let {mn }, 1 ≤ n ≤ k be a set of representatives

¡ ¢k

for the cosets of (Z/`Z)× / (Z/`Z)× , the Gauss periods of degree f are defined for each

n by

and have a common minimal polynomial Fk (x) of degree k. In the case f = 2 we note

the unique subfield of degree 2 is Q(ζ` )+ , and we may choose mn = n. In this case

Gauss explicitly described the coefficients dk−j of xj , 0 ≤ j ≤ k, of the degree k minimal

polynomial Fk (x) by

Ã k+j !

b 2 c

dk−j = (−1)b 2 c

k−j

(62)

b k−j

2 c .

Later Sylvester indicated how one may obtain the coefficients for composite ` and f = 2

recursively, and gave a list of the polynomials for 1 ≤ ` ≤ 36. The results of Gauss and

Sylvester may be found in [?] and [25]. The period polynomials for various `, f and k

have since been investigated. In [7], Gupta and Zagier consider the case f = 2, and

extend the definition (61) to odd `. In [7] the authors prove the reciprocal

polynomial

with roots {1/TrQ(ζ` )/K (ζ`n ) | 1 ≤ n ≤ k} has coefficients dk−j of xk−j in agreement

with those given by Gauss in (62). Here, we recover this original result of Gauss, and the

more general result of Gupta and Zagier by different means. In particular, we observe

this result after considering the limiting value of a functional equation satisfied by the

modular unit r`,1 . To prove Theorem 6, we will use the following lemmas. The first

follows from the fact that

1 − qa

lim = a.

τ →0 1 − q

17

Lemma 4. For integers r, j ≥ 0 and k ≥ 1,

m1X

−r−1

lim sk,2r (q j ) = (−1)r (n+r

n )(m1 −(n+r+1))

m1 −(n+1)

τ →0

n=0

m

X2 −r

(n+r

n )(m2 −(n+r))

m2 −(n+1)

τ →0

n=0

where m1 = b k+1

2

c and m2 = b k2 c.

Lemma 5. For integers m, n ≥ 0 and j ≥ 1,

(j) (j)

lim Sk (q n ) − Sk (q m ) = 0

τ →0

Lemma 6. For integers m, r ≥ 0 such that the following expressions are defined, we

have

X µr+n¶µ m−r−n−1 ¶ µ m ¶

m−2r−1

= (64)

n=0

n m−2r−n− 1 2r+1

X µr+n¶µm−r−n−1¶

m−2r µ ¶

m

= (65)

n=0

n m−2r−n 2r

For r ≥ 0 we have

∞ µ

X ¶

−r−1 r+n

(1 − x) = xn (66)

n=0

n

¡r+n¢ ¡ m−r−n−1 ¢

so that xn has coefficient n and xm−2r−n−1 has coefficient m−2r−n−1 , where 0 ≤ n ≤

m − 2r − 1. We find that xm−2r−1 in the ¡product¢ (1 − x −2r−2

¡ m ¢ ) has coefficient given by

m

the left hand side of (64), but also m−2r−1 = 2r+1 by (66). This gives (64), and

we argue similarly to establish (65).

Proof. (Lemma 5.)

For j = 1 we have for any r ≥ 0

b k+1

X2

c−1 ¹ º

(1) r r i(r+1) k+1

lim Sk (q ) = lim sk,0 (q ) = lim q = .

τ →0 τ →0 τ →0

i=0

2

By induction, the result follows for j > 1 from Lemma 4 and the fact that

k−1

X

(j) (j−(i+1))

Sk (q n ) = sk,i (q n )Sk (q n+i+1 ).

i=0

18

Proof. (Theorem 6.)

That the modular function r`,1 (τ ) satisfies the equation Mk (X) defined in Theorem 6

follows from (21), (24) and (31). If limτ →0 Mk (X) = mk (x) has coefficients ck−j of xk−j ,

by (8) and the Lemmas, we have for j even

X µ j + n¶µb k c − (n + 1)¶

b k2 c− 2j

j/2 2 2

ck−j = (−1)

n=0

n b k2 c − 2j − n

X µ j + n¶µb k−j c + j − n − 1¶

b k2 c− 2j

j/2 2 2 2

= (−1) k j

n=0

n b 2

c − 2

−n

µ ¶

k − b k−j+1 c

= (−1)j/2 2

j

µ ¶

j/2

k − b k−j+1

2

c

= (−1)

b k−j

2

c

µ k+j ¶

b 2 c

= (−1)j/2 k−j (67)

b 2 c

2 X2

+n b k+1 c − (n + 1)

(j+1)/2 2 2

ck−j = (−1) j−1

n=0

n b k+1

2

c− 2

−n−1

b k+1 c− j−1

X −1 µ j−1 ¶µ k−j j−1 ¶

(j+1)/2

2 2

2

+n b 2 c+ 2

−n− 1

= (−1) j−1

n=0

n b k2 c − 2 −n

µ ¥ ¦¶

(j+1)/2 k − k−j+1

2

= (−1)

j

µ ¥ k−j+1 ¦¶

2

k−

= (−1)(j+1)/2 k−j

b 2 c

µ k+j ¶

b 2 c

= (−1)(j+1)/2 k−j (68)

b 2 c·

¡ m

¢ ¡m¢

We use the identity m−r

= r

, the fact that k − b k−j+1

2

c − b k−j

2

c = j, and that

¹ º ½

k−j b k2 c − 2j j even

= j−1

2 b k+12

c− 2

− 1 j odd.

19

and conclude that the limiting value limτ →0 r`,1 (τ ) satisfies the polynomial mk (x), with

coefficients given by (67) and (68), and that this polynomial is integral.

Proof. (Corollary 1) In [7], the authors prove via polynomial recurrences that for the

polynomial fk (x) as defined by (63), the coefficients dk−j of xk−j are given by (62).

Comparing (67) and (68), we find

½

(−1)j+1 ck−j k ≡ 0, 3 mod 4

dk−j = j

(−1) ck−j k ≡ 1, 2 mod 4

and conclude

d+1

mk (x) = (−1)b 2

c

fk ((−1)k x). (69)

By (49) we deduce

1

lim r`,1 (τ ) = ³ k+1 ´ (70)

τ →0 b c

TrF/F + ζ` 2

which is equal to the union over the divisors d > 1 of ` of the Galois conjugates of the

cyclotomic units limτ →0 rd,1 (τ ), proving Corollary 1.

We next examine results within class field theory related to the modular units r`,j . We

note that Theorem 3 requires only one specialization of one modular function to generate

the field K` and compare the following classical result.

Theorem R. For K = Q(z) an imaginary quadratic field, and any positive integer N ,

the ray class field of conductor N over K is given by the field K · FN |z , where

That is KN = K · FN |z .

20

Example. To illustrate Theorem 3, with τ = i, the ray class field of conductor 5 over

K = Q(i) is given by

Q(i)5 = Q(i, r(i))

where

q 1/5 q q 2 q 3 q 4

r(τ ) =

1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 + · · ·

is the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction. The special value r(i), also determined by

Ramanujan, is given by s √ √

5+ 5 1+ 5

r(i) = − .

2 2

As another example we may take z = ρ, and find

where p √ √

30 + 6 5 − 3 − 5

r(ρ) = e(−1/10) ,

4

also given by Ramanujan.

To prove Theorems 3 and 4, we will use in part the language of varieties as in [24]. Let

V and W be rational varieties defined over a common field k. A subvariety T ⊆ V × W

is called a rational map if (v, w) ∈ T ⇒ k(v, w) = k(v). A rational map is called a

rational function if W = A1 one dimensional affine space. The rational functions on V

form a field, which we denote by k(V ).

Let

G∞ = GL2 (R)

Y

GA = {(x) ∈ Gp · G∞ | xp ∈ GL2 (Zp ) for almost all p.}

p

G0 = {(x) ∈ GA | x∞ = 1}

G+A = G0 G+

∞

Z = {S ⊆ G+ ∗ + ∗ +

A | S open, Q G∞ ⊆ S, S/Q G∞ compact.}

21

be open. Let S ⊆ GA+ be an open subset of GA+ such that Q∗ G∞+ ⊆ S and S/Q∗ G∞+

is compact, and let kS ⊂ Qab be the Abelian extension of Q fixed by Q∗ det(S). Then

there is a natural variety VS corresponding to S defined over kS as follows. Given any

Fuchsian group Γ of the first kind, Γ\H∗ is a compact Riemann surface, so there exists

a nonsingular algebraic curve V defined over a subfield of C so that Γ\H∗ is biregularly

isomorphic to V . We say (V, φ) is a model of Γ\H∗ if φ is a Γ-invariant holomorphic

map, φ : H∗ −→ V , that yields such an isomorphism. If we let

FS = {h ∈ F | hσ(s) = h ∀ s ∈ S} (72)

ΓS = S ∩ GQ+ (73)

then there exists a model (VS , φS ) of ΓS \H∗ such that

VS is defined over kS (74)

FS = {f ◦ φS | f ∈ kS (VS )}. (75)

We summarize some known results in the following proposition.

Proposition 2. Each set S ∈ Z defines a corresponding subfield kS ⊆ Qab of finite

index.

Proof. (Proposition 2.) The composition

det [ (−)−1 , Q ]

GA −−−−−→ Q∗A −−−−−−−−−→ Gal(Qab /Q)

defines a homomorphism ϕ : GA → Gal(Qab /Q). We note

Q∗ · det(S) ⊆ Q∗A ,

and take the field kS so that

Gal(Qab /kS ) = ϕ(S).

Eτ : K ,→ M2 (Q)

such that

Eτ (K ∗ ) = {γ ∈ GL2 (Q)+ | γ(τ ) = τ },

and for k ∈ K ∗ ,

h i h i

τ τ

Eτ (k) 1 =k 1 (76)

We will use the following proposition, with the correspondence given in the sense of

Proposition 2.

22

Proposition S. (Shimura [24]) Let S ∈ Z, τ ∈ C − R imaginary quadratic, and let

K ∗ W ⊆ KA∗ .

Then ΓSN = Q∗ Γ(N ), so that (VSN , φSN ) is a model of Γ(N )\H∗ over Q. We will use

the following known result.

Y

Q∗ \W = WN = (1 + N Op )∗ ⊂ KA∗ . (77)

p

In what follows, we let τ be the variable on the upper half plane H. We let φN be

the biregular homomorphism associated to ΓSN \H∗ , and let VN be the locus of

1 2

where {ai }i = N

Z /Z2 − {0}, and for the lattice L = L(τ, 1), the Fricke functions fai are

defined by

g2 (L)g3 (L) ³ h τ i ´

fa1 (τ, L) = ℘ a 1 ;L

∆(L)

g2 (L)2 ³ h τ i ´2

fa (τ, L) =

2

℘ a 1 ;L

∆(L)

g3 (L) ³ h τ i ´3

fa3 (τ, L) = ℘ a 1 ;L .

∆(L)

where ℘ is the Weierstrass ℘−function, and g2 , g3 invariants of the lattice (see [17]).

Two curves are birational if and only if their function fields are isomorphic, and there

exists a birational map X : VSN −→ VN such that X ◦ φSN = φN . Thus the map X gives

an isomorphism

X

kSN (VSN ) −→ kN (VN )

hence

K · kSN (φSN (z)) ∼

= K · kN (φN (z)).

23

It is known that the field of modular functions of level N is generated by the modular

invariant j and the first Fricke functions fa1 , where a ∈ N1 Z2 , a ∈

/ Z2 . Thus, the field

ab ∗

K · FN |z ⊆ K corresponds to K W . Combining the above results, we arrive at the

following known result.

Y

Gal(K ab /KN ) ∼

= (1 + N Op )∗ . (78)

p

n ¡ ¢ o

Gal(F/F1 (r`, `+1 −m )) ∼

= σ = (σp ) ∈ G | σp ≡ 10 nss mod ` · M2 (Z) ∼= (Z/`Z),∗

2

where ns , s ∈ Z satisfy

n ¡ ¢ o

Sr := σ = (σp ) ∈ G | σp ≡ 10 nss mod ` · M2 (Z)

suppose u ∈ W . For any m, 1 < m ≤ (` − 1)/2, up ≡ s mod `Zp . By the property given

in (76)

Q defining the∗ embedding Eτ , we find s ≡ 1 mod `Zp , so that up ∈ 1 + `Op , hence

u ∈ p (1 + `OKp ) . To prove the converse, u ∈ 1 + `OK implies Eτ (u) ≡ 1 mod `, so

that Eτ (u) ∈ S, hence u ∈ W . Theorem 3 follows from the following proposition.

Proposition 4. For S and τ as in Proposition S, and FS as in (72), if there exists

some h ∈ FS such that h is non-singular at τ , and FS = F1 (h), then

such that h = f ◦ φS , so that h(τ ) = f ◦ φS (τ ), which is non-singular by hypothesis.

f ∈ kS (VS ) implies kS (φS (τ ), f (φS (τ )) = kS (φS (τ )) so that h(τ ) ∈ K · kS (φS (τ )). If we

assume K · kS (h(τ )) ( K · kS (φS (τ )) then there exists s ∈ KA∗ , s ∈ / K ∗ W, such that

h(τ )[s,K] = h(τ ), where [−, K] denotes the Artin map. Shimura reciprocity implies

−1

h(τ )[s,K] = hEτ (s) (τ ),

24

Proof. (Proposition 3.) By Theorem 7, each modular unit of level ` may be written as

a product of Siegel functions, which we have given previously for the functions r`,1 and

r`,2 in (56) and (57). Using (55), (34) and (42), we find

µY

`−1 ¶γ

g(m/`, s/`)

r`,γ `+1 −m =

2 g

s=0 (1/`, s/`)

`−1

Y g(m/`, s/`)γ

=

s=0

g(1/`, s/`)γ

`−1

Y g((am+cs)/`, (bm+ds)/`)

= . (80)

s=0

g((a+cs)/`, (b+ds)/`)

Let us assume γ ∈ Gal(F/F1 (r`, `+1 −m ). We first show that c ≡ 0 mod `. If we suppose

2

c 6≡ 0 mod `, then both of the sets {am + cs | 0 ≤ s ≤ ` − 1} and {a + cs | 0 ≤ s ≤ ` − 1}

contain a complete set of representatives for Z/`Z. We choose ts ≡ am + cs mod `,

rs ≡ a + cs mod `, where 0 ≤ ts , rs ≤ ` − 1, and find by (53)

g((am+cs)/`,∗) = κsm g(ts ,∗)

g((a+cs)/`,∗) = κs1 g(rs ,∗)

κsm , κs1 ∈ C. Thus, using (54), we find

`−1

`X

ord∞ r`,γ `+1 −m = B2 (ts ) − B2 (rs ) = 0.

2 2 s=0

However we have

1

ord∞ r`, `+1 −m = ((m2 − 1) − `(m − 1))

2 2

1

= (m − 1)(m − ` + 1) 6= 0

2

as 1 < m ≤ `−12

, and thus c ≡ 0 mod `.

We now argue that a ≡ ±1 mod `. We may write (am+cs)/` = am/`+bs , (a+cs) =

a/` + bs , where bs ∈ Z. Thus,

`−1

Y g(am/`,∗)

r`,γ `+1 −m =κ (81)

2

s=0

g(a/`,∗)

`−1

X ` 1

ord∞ r`,γ `+1 −m = (B2 (am/`) − B2 (a/`)) = (a2 (m2 − 1) − `a(m − 1)).

2

s=0

2 2

25

Then ord∞ r`, `+1 −m ≡ ord∞ r`,γ `+1 −m mod ` ⇔ a2 (m2 − 1) ≡ (m2 − 1) mod ` ⇔ a ≡

2 2

±1 mod `, where we use the fact that ` is prime, m 6≡ ±1 mod `. As γ is identified

with −γ under the Galois action, we have a ≡ 1 mod `.

Now d 6≡ 0 mod `, for otherwise, det(γ) ≡ 0 mod `. Thus, we find that both of the

sets {bm + ds | 0 ≤ s ≤ ` − 1} and {b + ds | 0 ≤ s ≤ ` − 1} may be used as a complete set

of representatives for Z/`Z, so for each s, there exist unique integers ts and rs using

notation as before such that 0 ≤ ts , rs ≤ ` − 1 and ts ≡ bm + ds mod `, rs ≡ b + ds

mod `. We write

1 1

`

(am + cs, bm + ds) = `

(m, ts ) + βms

1 1

`

(a + cs, b + ds) = `

(1, rs ) + β1s

where

1

βms = `

(m(a − 1) − cs, bm + ds − ts )

1

β1s = `

(a − 1 − cs, b + ds − rs ),

`−1

Y g(m/`, ts /`)

r`,γ `+1 −m ν

= (−1) e(µ) = (−1)ν e(µ)r`, `+1 −m

2

s=0

g(1/`, rs /`) 2

where

`−1

X

ν= (m(a−1)−cs)(bm+ds−ts )/`2 +(m(a−1)−cs)/`+(bm+ds−ts )/`

s=0

`−1

X

− (a − 1 − cs)(b + ds − rs )/`2 + (a − 1 − cs)/` + (b + ds − rs )/`

s=0

`−1

X

= (m2 − 1)(a − 1)b/`2 + (m − 1)(a − 1)ds/`2 − (a − 1)(mts − rs )/`2

s=0

− cbs(m−1)/`2 +cs(ts −rs )/`2 +(a−1)(m−1)/` + b(m−1)/` − (ts −rs )/`

= (m−1)((a−1)((m+1)b+(d−1)(`−1)/2 − bc(`−1)/2)/` + (a−1+b))+Z,

26

`−1

1X

µ = (bm + ds − ts )m/`2 − (m(a − 1) − cs)ts /`2

2 s=0

`−1

1X

− (b + ds − rs )/`2 − (a − 1 − cs)rs /`2

2 s=0

`−1

1X

= (b(m2 −1)−(mts −rs )+ds(m−1)−(m−1)(a−1)+cs(ts −rs ))`2

2 s=0

1

= ((m − 1)((m + 1)b + (d − 1)(` − 1)/2 − (a − 1))/` + Z),

2

and

`−1

X

Z = cs(ts − rs )/`2 .

s=0

Now ts − rs = b(m − 1) + n` for some n ∈ Z, so that

Z = c(b(m − 1) + n`)(` − 1)/2`,

and c ≡ 0 mod ` implies Z ∈ Z. Thus,

(−1)ν e(µ) = (−1)Z e(Z/2)(−1)ν−Z e(µ − Z/2)

= (−1)ν−Z e(µ − Z/2)

0

= (−1)ν (m−1) e(µ0 (m − 1)/2)

where

µ0 = ((m + 1)b + (d − 1)(` − 1)/2 − (a − 1))/`.

We may

Q assume m is odd, Q`−1for otherwise, we replace m by0 ` − m which is odd, and note

that `−1 g

s=0 (m/`, s/`) = s=0 g((`−m)/`, s/`) . The quantity µ (m − 1) ∈ Z ⇔ (m + 1)b ≡

(1 − d)(` − 1)/2 mod `, as a ≡ 1 mod `. Proposition 3 now follows.

Proof. (Theorem 4.) To prove Theorem 4, for fixed ` ∈ Z+ , and any m ∈ Z+ , any

bi , ni ∈ Z, we define the product

m

Y µ ¶12`ni

σbi L

h(L) = gxi (82)

i=1

N(σbi )

27

³ ´

where N(σ) = det(σ), σbi = 10 b0i , and where xi ∈ 1` Z2 \ Z2 . We now show that h(L)

is modular with respect to a particular subgroup of Γ = SL2 (Z). Homogeneity and

the existence of a q-expansion follow from known properties of the Klein forms ta (51),

(52), (53) and by definition (50). In what follows, to ease notation we may write

Qm Q ³ ´ Q

αβ

i=1 = . If we take γ = γ δ ∈ Γ(` bi ), we have

Y µ

¶12`ni Y µ σb L ¶12`ni

σbi γL

h(γL) = gxi = gxi γi i

N(σbi ) N(σbi )

Y µ ¶ 12`n Y µ ¶12`ni

σbi L i

σbi L

= gxi γi = (²(xi , γi )gxi

N(σbi ) N(σbi )

Y

12`ni

= ²xi (γi ) · h(L),

³ α −1 ´

βb

where γi = γbi δi ∈ Γ(`), and ²xi (γi ) is a 2`-th root of unity (see [16], Chapter 2).

Q

We Q find that the product ²xi (γi )12`ni = 1, so that h is invariant under the action of

Γ(` bi ). By examining the q-expansion of h(L), we verifyQthat the coefficients in fact

lie in Q(ζ` ), so that h(L) is modular with respect

Q to Γ(` bi ). We now describe the

Galois action on h(L), and let G = GL2 (Z/` bi Z)/±1.

Proposition 5. Let σ ∈ G. Then the Galois action of G on h is given by

Ym µ 0 ¶

σ

σbi L 12`ni

h(L) = gxi γi0 σδ (83)

i=1

N(σb0 i )

³ ´ Q ³ ´ Q

a b 1 0 ∗

where σ = γσδ , γ = c d ∈ SL2 (Z/` i bi Z), σδ =

, δ ∈ (Z/` 0 δ i bi Z) , and

Q ³ ´

γi ∈ SL2 (Z/` i bi Z), σbi are defined by σbi = γi σbi γ = ∗0 ∗∗ .

0 0 0 0−1

Proof. (Proposition 5.) As discussed in Section 1.1, GL2 (Z/N Z) is generated by SL2 (Z/N Z)

³ ´

and the matrices γd = 10 d0 , d ∈ (Z/N Z)∗ . We now show that a decomposition

³ ´

∗ ∗

γi0−1 σbi γ = σb0 i = 0 ∗ (84)

Q Q

exists. If γ ∈ SL2 (Z/`Q bi Z), then a and c are relatively prime mod ` bi . We let

gi = g.c.d.(a, bi ) mod ` bi , and decompose a = ai gi , bi = b0i gi . Then there exist Xi and

28

Yi = yi s1 such that

Y

Yi ai + Xi b0i ≡ 1 mod ` bi (85)

where we use the fact that (bi , `) = 1. If we let Mi = gi d − Yi bc, and Ni = −Xi b, then

the matrix ³ ´

Mi Ni

Y

γi0−1 = −cb 0 a

i i

∈ SL 2 (Z/` bi Z)

gives

³ ´

gi Yi b

σb0 i = 0 b0i .

Proposition 5 follows by applying (84), the action of G on the Siegel functions (55), and

noting that N(σbi ) = N(σb0 i ).

We note that replacing x by x + a for some a ∈ Z2 changes gx by a root of unity,

12`

so that gx+a = gx12` . Thus, we may choose x = (x1 , x2 ) with 0 ≤ `xi < `. Next, we

determine Gal(F/F1 (h)).

Proposition 6. The Galois group Gal(F/F1 (h)) is given by

½ Y Y ³a ´ ¯ Q ¾

bp ¯ 1

ap ≡1 mod s1 , bp ≡0 mod gcd(a

s i b

Gal(F/F1 (h)) = σ = σp = p

cp dp ∈G¯ p ,bi ) (86)

cp ≡0 mod s2 , dp ≡1 mod s2

p p .

n Y Y ³a ´ ¯ s

Q

b

o

∈G¯

bp 1

ap ≡1 mod s1 , bp ≡0 mod gcd(a i

Sh := σ = σp = cp

p

dp cp ≡0 mod s2 , dp ≡1 mod s2

p ,bi )

p p

denote the set given in (86). Using the notation as in Proposition S, let S = Sh , and

suppose u ∈ W . Then Eτ (u) ∈ Sh implies

hτ i h i

Eτ (up ) 1 = acppττ+bp

+dp

.

The action given in (76) also implies dp = ap − cp T(τ ), bp = −cp N(τ ), where N and T

denote the norm and trace respectively. Then

up = cp (τ − T(τ )) + ap

= cp (τ + mτ ) − cp (T(τ ) + mτ ) + ap

mod s1 , we have ap ≡ 1 mod `. We use this, and also the fact that s1 | T(τ ) + mτ to

conclude up ∈ 1 + fOp , hence u ∈ 1 + fOK .

29

Conversely, let u ∈ 1+fOK . If u = 1+s2 (τ +mτ )M +`N , then c ≡ 0 mod s2 and d =

1+s2 mτ +`N ≡ 1 mod s2 . Since a = cT(τ )+d, we find a = 1+s2 M (τ +T(τ ))+`N ≡ 1

mod s1 again using the fact that s1 | T(τ )+mτ . Finally, with hypotheses stated on N(τ )

and the fact that b = −cN(τ ), we conclude q(u) ∈ Sh . This shows that W = 1 + fOK .

We now determine kS . For any s ∈ S, one finds a determinant of the form det(s) =

1 + s1 M1 + s2 M2 + `M3 . Since (s1 , s2 ) = 1, this determinant may be made arbitrary, so

that kS = Q. We now apply Proposition 4, to conclude Kf = K(h(τ )).

Proof. (Proposition 6.) We will establish necessary and sufficient conditions

for the equality of h and hσ by comparing their divisors. We set xi =

(r1 s2 bi /`, r2 s1 /`), T xi = xi γi0 σδ , where s1 s2 = `, r1 , r2 ∈ Z, and first examine

ord∞ h − ord∞ hσ

Y ³X ´

≡ 12`2 bi ni (B2 (xi1 )/2bi − gi2 B2 (T xi1 )/2bi )

X Y ³

2

≡ 6ni ` bj (1 − gi2 )/6 + x2i1 (1 − a2 ) − xi1 (1 − gi a) + xi2 gi bi c

j6=i

´

− (xi2 bi c)2 − 2xi1 xi2 abi c

X Y ³ ´

2 2 2 2

≡ ni bj 6bi (r1 s2 ) (1 − a )−6(r2 s1 bi c) −12acbi r1 r2 s1 s2

j6=i

where the congruence is taken mod `. If we assume first that s2 6= 1, then this difference

congruent to 0 implies Y X

s2 | 6(r2 s1 )2 bj c2 bi ni

hence s2 | c2 . Since ` is square free, we must have s2 | c. We observe similarly s1 | a2 − 1.

We next compare the first Fourier coefficients in the q-expansions of h and hσ , denoted

by a(h) and a(hσ ) respectively. We find

Y 12`ni

a(h)/a(hσ ) = (e(xi2 (xi1 −1)/2)/e((Yi bB2 (T xi1 )/b0i + T xi2 (T xi1 −1))/2))

³ X³ ´ ´

= e 6` xi2 (xi1 − 1)−Yi bB2 (T xi1 )/b0i −T xi2 (T xi1 −1) ni .

X

6` (Yi b((a0i xi1 )2 +(b0i cxi2 )2 +1/6)/b0i +a0i δbXi x2i1 +b0i cδ(gi d−Yi bc)x2i2 )ni ∈ Z,

which holds if and only if

X Y Y

(Yi b bj (6aa0i b2i (r1 s2 )2 + 6bi b0i c2 (r2 s1 )2 + gi `2 )ni + 6 bj (a0i δbXi (r1 s2 )2 b2i

j6=i j

Y

+ b0i cδ(gi d 2

− Yi bc)(r2 s1 ) )ni ≡ 0 mod ` bj .

j

30

This implies Y X

s1 | bj ab(r1 s2 )2 (Yi a0i + Xi b0i δ)ni bi .

j

X

d1 | δ ni bi

where we return to the relation given in (85), and use the fact that s1 | Yi . Thus, s1 | b.

We note also that we must have

Y X Y

bj | Yi b bj ni gi `2

j j6=i

Q

a condition that forces bi | b.

Finally,

Q we determine conditions under which orda h = orda hσ for all cusps a of

Γ(` bi ). For each cusp a, there exists some

³ ´ Y

â b̂

γ̂a = ĉ dˆ ∈ SL2 (Z/` bi Z)

such that γa−1 ∞ = a. We first assume a 6= 0, and as above decompose â = âi gˆi , bi = bˆi gˆi ,

with gˆi = g.c.d.(â, bi ). There exists Ŷi , X̂i such that

Y

Ŷi âi + X̂i bˆi ≡ 1 mod ` bi

³ aˆ ´

i X̂i b̂

γ̂i = ĉbˆi gˆi d−

ˆ Yˆi b̂ĉ

satisfies ³ ´

∗ ∗

γ̂i −1 σbi γˆa = σˆbi = 0 ∗ .

Similarly, we decompose gi â + Yi bĉ = Âi gˆi 0 , ĉbi = Ĉi gˆi 0 so that there exists a matrix

³ ´ Y

0 Âi ∗

γ̂i = Ĉi ∗ ∈ SL2 (Z/` bi Z)

satisfying

0 −1

³ ´

0 ∗ ∗

γ̂i σ γˆa = σˆbi =

b0i 0 ∗ .

31

We let

T̂ xi = xi γ̂i = (âi xi1 + ĉbˆi xi2 , ∗)

T̂ x0i = T xi γ̂i 0 = (Âi T xi1 + Ĉi T xi2 , ∗)

so that

Y

hγˆa = gT̂ xi (σˆbi (L)/N(σ̂bi ))

Y

(hσ )γˆa = gT̂ x0 (σ̂b0 i (L)/N(σ̂b0 i )).

i

Thus, we find

orda h − orda hσ

γa

= ord∞ hγa − ord∞ hσ

Y ³ X ĝ 2 gˆi 0 2 ´

i

= 12`2 bi B2 (T̂ xi1 )ni − B2 (T̂ x0i1 )ni

2bi 2bi

X Y Y

≡ 6ni bj ((r1 s2 bi â)2 + (r2 s1 bi ĉ)2 ) − 6ni bj `2 gˆi 0 2 B2 (ÂT xi1 + ĈT xi1 )

i j6=i j6=i

X Y

≡ 6ni bj ((r1 s2 bi â)2 + (r2 s1 bi ĉ)2 )

i j6=i

Y

− 6ni bj ((Âgˆi 0 `T xi1 )2 + (Ĉ gˆi 0 `T xi2 )2

j6=i

Y

+ 2ÂĈ gˆi 0 2 T xi1 T xi2 − gˆi 0 2 ÂT xi1 − gˆi 0 2 ĈT xi2 ) + bj ni `2 gˆi 0 2

j6=i

X Y

≡ 6ni bj (((r1 s2 bi â)2 + (r2 s1 bi ĉ)2 ) − ((Âgˆi 0 )2 ((r1 s2 ai bi )2 + (r2 s1 cb0i )2 )

i j6=i

+ 2ÂĈ gˆi 0 2 ((r1 bi s2 )2 ai Xi bδ + (r2 s1 )2 b0i cδ(gi d − Yi bc)))

X Y

≡ 6ni bj ((r1 s2 bi â)2 + (r2 s1 bi ĉ)2 ) − ((gi â + Yi bĉ)2 (r1 s2 ab0i )2

i j6=i

X Y

≡ 6ni bi ((âbi r1 s2 )2 + (ĉbi s1 r2 )2 ) − ((âbi r1 s2 )2 + (ĉbi s1 r2 dδ)2 )

i j6=i

X Y

≡ 6ni bi ((âbi r1 s2 )2 (1 − (dδ)2 ))

i j6=i

Y X

≡6 bj (r2 s1 ĉ)2 (1 − (dδ)2 ) ni bi

j i

(87)

32

where the congruence is taken mod `. Now for a = 0, we let

³ ´ ³ ´

0 1 0 1

γ0 = −1 0 γ̂i = −1 0

³ ´ ³ ´

bi 0 −b0i 0

σˆbi = 0 1 σˆbi 0 = 0 −gi .

Following the above argument in this case with ĝi = 1, Ĉi = 1, bˆi = bi , âi 0 = 0, and

ĉ = −1, we find

Y X

ord0 h − ord0 hσ ≡ 6 bj (r2 s1 )2 (1 − (dδ)2 ) ni bi . (88)

j i

we must have s2 | (dδ)2 − 1. Thus we may conclude that Gal(F/F1 (h)) ⊆ Sh . By (87),

we find Sh ⊆ Gal(F/F1 (h)), which proves Proposition 6.

References

Amer. J. Math. 88 (1966), 844-846.

Monthly 86 (1979), no. 2, 89-108.

[3] S. Bettner and R. Schertz, “Lower powers of elliptic units,” J. Théor. Nombres

Bordeaux 13 (2001) no. 2, 339-351.

[4] W. Duke, “Continued Fractions and Modular Functions,” Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.

(N.S.) 42 (2005), no. 2, 137-162.

[5] H. M. Farkas and I. Kra, Theta constants, Riemann surfaces and the modular group.

Graduate Studies in Mathematics, 37. American Mathematical Society, Providence,

RI, (2001).

[7] S. Gupta and D. Zagier, “On the coefficients of the minimal polynomials of Gaussian

periods,” Math. Comp., 60 (1993), no. 201, 385-398.

[8] N. Ishida, “Generators and equations for modular function fields of principal con-

gruence subgroups,” Acta Arith. 85 (1998), no. 3, 197-207.

[9] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Units in the modular function field. I,” Math. Ann. 218

(1975), no. 1, 67-96.

33

[10] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Units in the modular function field. II. A full set of

units,” Math. Ann. 218 (1975), no. 2, 175-189

[11] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Units in the modular function field. III. Distribution

relations,” Math. Ann. 218 (1975), no. 3, 273-285.

[12] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Units in the modular function field,” Modular functions

of one variable V. (Proc. Second Internat. Conf., Univ. Bonn, Bonn, 1976), Lecture

Notes in Math., Vol. 601, Springer, Berlin, (1977), 247-275.

[13] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Distributions on toroidal groups,” Math. Z. 148 (1976),

no. 1, 33-51.

[14] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “Units in the modular function field. IV. The Siegel

functions are generators,” Math. Ann. 227 (1977), no. 3, 223-242.

[15] D. S. Kubert and S. Lang, “The p-primary component of the cuspidal divisor class

group on the modular curve X(p),” Math. Ann. 234 (1978), no. 1, 25-44.

Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Science], 244. Springer-

Verlag, New York-Berlin, (1981).

[17] S. Lang, Elliptic Functions. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, (1973).

(2) 80, (1964) 104-148.

[19] L.J. Rogers, “Second Memoir on the Expansion of Certain Infinite Products,” Proc.

London Math. Soc. 25 (1894), 318-343.

[20] L.J. Rogers and S. Ramanujan, “Proof of certain identities in combinatory analysis,”

Cambr. Phil. Soc. Proc. 19 (1919), 211-216.

[21] R. Schertz, “Construction of Ray Class Fields by Elliptic Units,” J. Théor. Nombres

Bordeaux 9 (1997), no. 2, 383-394.

[22] I. Schur, “Ein Beitrag zur additiven Zahlentheorie und zur Theorie der Ket-

tenbrüche,” Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys.-Math. Klasse (1917) 302-321.

Akad. Oslo, I 1936, Nr. 8, 23 S.(1936); reprinted in Collected Papers, Vol. I,

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1989).

34

[24] G. Shimura, Introduction to the Aritheoremetic Theory of Automorphic Functions.

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and Princeton University Press, (1971).

[25] J.J. Sylvester, “On certain ternary cubic equations” Amer. J. Math., v. 2 (1879),

357-381; reprinted in Collected Papers, Vol. 3, Cambridge, (1909), 325-339.

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35

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