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AS Biology Unit 2 Module 3 Biodiversity and Evolution

Foreword This booklet covers pages 192-229 of Edexcels AS biology textbook. Youll find each single page of this document is a representation of the information on a double page spread of the textbook. When you have finished with this booklet print it off and highlight important things you need to revise more on. Good Luck

Contents Biodiversity Sampling Plants Sampling Animals Measuring Biodiversity Classification and Taxonomy The five Kingdoms Classifying living things Naming Living Things Modern Classification Variation Adaptation Natural Selection The evidence for evolution Evolution Today Conservation of species The effect of Global Climate Change Conservation in situ Conservation ex situ International cooperation

Biodiversity
Biodiversity includes all animals, globally, the genes that are contained and the ecosystems that are formed.

Sampling Plants

Sampling Animals

Measuring Biodiversity
Species Richness is the number of species present in a habitat Species Evenness is the numbers of each species in a habitat and how even the habitat is varied C1 = number of animals captured at first (then marked) C2 = number of animals captured second C3 = number of marked animals in second capture Total population = (C1xC2)/C3 Simpsons diversity Index is a measure of diversity of the habitat

Classification and Taxonomy


Classification = qualitative observations of organisms in order to observe and arrange them Taxonomy = reasons behind classification decisions. Natural Classification = the species, having varied within itself and evolved. Phylogeny = uses a family tree to see how closely different species are related/linked over time through evolution. Monophyletic = means two species that have come from a common ancestor (man and Gorilla)

The Five Kingdoms


Prokaryotes loop of naked DNA, no membrane bound organelles, smaller ribosomes, may be free living or parasitic. Protoctists eukaryotic, mostly single cell, wide variety of forms, various plant/animal like features Fungi Why did the mushroom go the party? Cos he was a fungus. Oh wait Eukaryotic, mycelium, walls made of chitin, cytoplasm thats multinucleate, free living but saprophytic (decays dead organic matter) Plants trees and such Animals Penguins and such

Classifying Living Things


Daring Kings Play Chess On Fine Glass Surfaces Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Naming Living Things


The Binomial system takes the Genus and the Species name e.g. Homosapien or Gorilla Gorilla. Dichotomous key the really boring experiment we did on the biology day where you answer questions and then go to the indicated question depending on which answer you gave in relation to the specimen youre holding.

Modern Classification
Cytochrome C is present in all organisms that respire (everyone, bar chemosynthetic prokaryotes) by observing the amino acid order of the cytochrome in each species it is identifiable how closely related the species are

Variation
Continuous variation = normal distribution Discontinuous variation = classification among species (e.g. gender, blood type, Bacteria w/w.o flagella) Variation can be inherited/genetically which can lead to new variation with mutations, or environmentally, which will can be appearance, or genetic affecting (which would then be passed on)

Adaptation
Behavioural Adaptations reactions to environment Physiological/Biochemical adaptations ensuring the correct functioning of cell processes Anatomical adaptations flagella etc. Xerophytes are well adapted. *RECALL XEROPHYTES*

The evidence for evolution