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BUBASTIS
(1887-1889.)
Br

EDOUAUD NAVILLE.

EIGHTH MEMOIR OE

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

miiti)

dFtfti!=fout

yutrs.

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE COMMITTEE.

LONDON:
Messrs.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &


1891.

CO., 57

&

59,

LUDGATE

HILL.

LONDON
GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED,
ST.

John's house, clekkenwell road,

e.g.

PEEFAC E
The
present volume contains
tlie

descrij^tion of all that has

been discovered
it

in the excavations at Bubastis, Avith

one exception.

did not include in

the

numerous

inscriptions referring to the great festival of O.sorkon II., -which will

be the subject of a supplementary volume.


it

By

the great

number

of plates

which

will require, the description of this festival


Avith the rest of the
Avhicli

would have been quite out of

keeping
this

book

and

it

Avould differ also in character Irom

memoir,

bears chiefly on the historical results of the excavations.

When
Tell Basta,

I settled in 1887,

with Mr.

Griffith,

on the well-known mounds of been working


for years

where the dealers

in antiquities have

the
so

extent of which has been

much reduced by

the fellaheen digging for " sebakh,"

or by the construction of the railway,


little

and which Marictte had pronounced

encouraging for

scientific exj^lorers

was

far

from expecting such a large Egyptian history, during a

crop of

monuments belonging

to various epochs of

period of 4000 years.

In 1887, a month's work brought to light the second


the " Festival Hall," where
II.

hall of the temple,

we

found,

among numerous

inscriptions of

Rameses

and Osorkon

II.,

remains of the twelfth dynasty, and cartouches of Pepi,


as far

showing that the city went


In 1888 the Rev.

back

as the sixth dynasty.

W. MacGregor

and Count d'Hulst joined the work.


Its riches

This campaign has been the most productive.

may be

appreciated by

what

is

seen in Ghizeh, in the British

Museum,

at Boston,

and in several other


Avinter the

museums of Europe, America, and even


Hyksos remains

Australia.

During that

Averc found, as Avell as the statue of lau-lla, both shoAving that

Bubastis had been an important Hyksos settlement.

Therefore

it

Avas

not a

purely Egyptian city of high antiquity, reconstructed by Rameses and Osorkon,


as

might have been concluded from the


A 2

first

excavations.

iv

PREFACE.
in

chvolt

the

city,

and

had

left

in

its

temple important

traces of

their

dominion.

In 18S9 Mr. Griffith was prevented from going to Egypt by his appointment
at the British

Museum.

Dr. Goddard, from America, took his place.

We excawhere

vated the cemetery of cats.


in the preceding year,

In the temple, the limits of which had been reached


chiefly to roll the blocks of the first hall,

we had

appeared the names of Cheops and Chefren of the fourth dynasty.

These names
Thus, each

proved that the antiquity of the temple was higher than we thought.

year modified in certain respects the ideas which I had formed on the age and the

nature of the

edifice,

and therefore

it Avas

preferable to wait for the publication


It enabled

of the results until the excavations were completed.

me
is

to give a

general view of the history of the edifice, which, though smaller,


a

like

Karnak,

summary
I

of the history of the country.

have to express

my

gratitude to the Director of the Antiquities of Egypt,

M. Grebaut,
he lent

for authorizing

me

to excavate at Tell Basta,

and

for the

kind

hel^^

me
a

in

my

work.

The

plates of this

volume are of two kinds, jihototypes and linear

plates.

We

made

much

greater use of photography than in former excavations; and

in this respect I have to


liberality in letting

thank

my

friend, the

llev.

W. MacGregor,

for his

me make

use of his negatives, several of which have been re-

produced

in this volume.

few photographs are the work of the skilled hand


F.

of Brugsch-Bcy.

The phototypes have been made by the firm of


satisfactory.

Thcvoz

and Co., in Geneva, and are on the whole very

In ajipreciating

them

it

must be remembered that both the Rev.


;

W. MacGregor

and

are

amateur photographers

neither of us have

made

a special study of this delicate

and

difficult art.

For

this reason several of the negatives

were not very good


is

besides,

whenever some natives are included

in the picture, it

hardly possible

to persuade
I

them

to

remain motionless.

am

indebted to

my countryman, M.

E. Cramer,

who

lives at Cairo, for the

architectural drawing of the lotus-bud column,

and

to

Count d'Hulst for one of the

photographs and for the plan. As for the linear plates, they have been drawn from
paper-casts by
I
sity of

Mme.
who

Naville,

and printed by the same firm

as

the phototypes.

must not forget


Geneva,

to

thank particularly Prof. Robert Harvey, of the Univer-

kindly fulfilled the ungrateful task of revising the style of

the memoir for the press.

And now
may have

can only express the wish that the future excavations which I

to undertake for the

Egypt Exploration Fund,


five winters,

in the service of which


as successful

Society I had the honour to


as those

work during

may prove

made

at Bubastis.

EDOUARD NAVILLE.
Malagny, near Geneva,
Beptemher^ 1890.

CONTENTS.
Tell Basta

Thk Old

EjirrRE

The Twelfth

DrNASTir

The TmuTEENTn Dynasty

The Hyksos
The Eighteenth Dy'nasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty


The Twentieth Dynasty The Twenty-Second Dynasty

EEEATA.
Notwithstanding careful revisions a few errors have remained in the linear plates.
PI. xsxvii. F, read
^^zz:^

instead of
{

^:z::7.

PI.

li.

0,

1.

3,

the two signs

shonld be turned the other way.


|.

1.

5,

under

"'''

read ^ instead of

BUBASTIS.
TELL BASTA.
TiiK most ancient mention of Biibastis A^bicU

Strabo speaks of the

nomo

or province of

Bubastis as being near the head of the Delta in


the immediate vicinity of the

we meet

with, apart from the Egyptian texts,

nome

of Heliopolis.

exists in the prophet Ezekiel, in the

prophesy
of

Bubastis
tioned by

is

against Egypt. ^

" The young


shall fall

men

Aven
;

cities menPomponius Mela among the twenty

one of the eight famous

and of Pi-Boseth '


these
cities

by the sword
captivity."

and

shall

go

into

The
tlie

thousand said to have existed under Amasis, and of which many were still inhabited in his
time.

Septuagint,^ translating the passage, give

Ptoman coins

of the time of

Hadrianus
It

Greek names of
polis,

tlie

two

cities

Aven
;

is

Helio-

bear the

name

of the

nome

of Bubastis.

and Pi-Beseth, Bubastis


by
the

and they are


the

occurs in Ptolemaeus and Stephanus Byzautinus.


Hierocles quotes Bubastis

followed
version.'
It is to
tlie

Vulgate

and

Coptic

among
it

the cities of

the second Augustamnica, and

was oHe

of

Herodotus that we are indebted


complete description
of

for

the bishoprics of Egypt.

Byzantine clirono-

most

Bubastis.

grapher, John, Bishop ofNikiou,^ quotes the


city of

The Greek
first in

writer speaks twice of the city;*^

Basta in connection witli a rebellion


speaks of

reference to the great festival wiiich

which took place under the Emperor Phocas,


and the Arab geographer Macrizy
repeatedly.
'

was celebrated there annually, and afterwards when lie gives a detailed description of the temple, to which we shall have to revert further.

it

Among
hamlets.

the

provinces of Egypt

was the

district of Bastah,

whicb contained

He

also states that near Bubastis


th.e

was the place

thirty-nine

Bastah

was given
it

as

where the canal to

from the

Nile.

Bubastis was a

Red Sea branched off From his account we learn that large city of Lower Egypt, and
by the narrative of the
is

allotment to the Arab tribes


part in the conquest.

who had taken


belonged

Afterwards

to the province of Kalioub.

his statement is borne out

We
place,

do not

know when
first

it

was abandoned.

capture of the town by the generals of Artaxerxes, Mentor,

Travellers did not direct their attention to the

and Bagoas, which

found
the

in

and the
to

to

have noticed the ruins

Diodorus."

At Bubastis occurred

for

first

seems

be the Frenchman Mains, who took

time what was to be the cause of the


several
internal
cities,

fall

of

part in the Egyptian campaign at the end of


last century.

and especially of the capital, warfare between the foreign .merparty

He

gives the following descrip-

tion of the place

cenaries and the Egyptian troops, each,

" The ruins of Tell Bastah are seen from a


great distance.

betraying the other to the Persian general.


'

They

are seven leagues distant

Ezek. XXX. 17.


I'eaftCTKOi 'HXioDTToXcox; koi

'

"0?^"?
eV fjiaxaipa -rrctruvi'Tai.

from the Nile, and half a league from the canal (the Muizz), on its right side. We saw there
Clu-on. de

'

Bov^dcrrov

Jean Je Nikiou, ed. Zotenberg,

p.

rtejui
'

cI>oYR^s,cej
GO, 137.

evegei ^nrr tchcji.


"

Quatroiiicre,

Mem.

sur I'Egypte, p. 100.


i.

ii.

xvi. 49.

Mcmoires sur I'Egypte,

p.

215.

BUBASTIS.
several remains of

monuments

wliicli

may be

practised

in

the
in the

whole temple,

it

has been

useful for

tlie

history of Egyptian arcliitecturc.

most active
the

western part, judging from

We

noticed in particular part of a cornice of a


;

very vigorous style


preserved.
feet long

the sculpture of

it is

fairly

This block, which


six high,
is

may be

eight

and
the

of a very

hard red
it

immense number of chips of red limestone from Gebel Ahmar, the best material for millProbably more towards the east the stones. temple was covered, for Mains would certainly
have mentioned the large columns which would

granite

work

is

most elaborate,

is

covered with hieroglyphs, of which wo

made

have struck him more than the cornice, had he


seen them.

drawing. " We saw on other masses of granite,


the hieroglyphs, characters which
noticed anywhere else.
is

among

we had not
an obelisk
a length

A more complete description has been given by Sir Gardner AVilkinson. It appeared first
in

The

face of

the transactions of an Egyptian


it

society,^

completely covered with stars, and represents

whence

passed into

Murray's hand-book.

the sky.
of

The

stars

have

five rays of

Wilkinson seems to have been at Bubastis

two centimetres, and are joined to each Enormous masses other in an irregular order.
of granite, nearly all mutilated, are
in the

Probably some digging had been done by the fellaheen, cither for " sebakh " or
before 1840.
for quarrying, for he

heaped up
difficult to

saw a good deal more

most wonderful way.

It is

than Mains.
of a palm-tree

He

speaks of lotus-bud columns,

conceive what power could break and pile them up in that manner. Several have been cut for making millstones some of them are completely hewn, but have been left on the spot, probably for want of means of transport.
;
.
. .

column which must have been


it is still

twenty-two feet high, and which was lying near


the canal, where

now

to be seen

and
II.,

he read on the stones the names of Eameses

This

city, like all others,

masses of raw bricks.


in
all

directions

is

was raised on great The extent of Bubastis from twelve to fourteen


is

Osorkon I., and of a king wrongly Amyrtaeos, and who


Nekhthorheb.

whom
is

he

calls
I.,

Nectanebo

Since Wilkinson saw the place more stones

hundred metres.
depression, in the

In the interior

great

have been carried away, and the Nile


visible in his time.

mud

middle of which are the


noticed."
interesting

has covered parts of the temple which were


I visited the place for the

monuments which we
This description

is

because

it

first

time in 1SS2.

In the great rectangular

shows that in the time of Mains the part of the tem]Dle which was visible was the western hall, the hall of Nekhthorheb, the most extensive, and where at present still exists the
greatest

depression which marks the site of the temple,

a few weather-beaten granite blocks were to be

heap

of

blocks.

The monuments

no column or statue, only two pits which were Mariette's attempts at excavations, very soon given up, as they were without
seen, but
results.

which struck him have been published in the great work of the French expedition ; ^ they are the upper cornice, adorned with large asps,
of

exactly the

The appearance of the place was same in 1887 when I settled there
Griffith,

with Mr.

and we resolved to excavate

which

Ave discovered several

fragments, and

the famous sanctuai-y of Bubastis, described

part of the ceiling, which he mistook for the


side of

an obelisk, and which


Altliough

is,

in fact,

adorned
been

Herodotus as follows " Among the many

by

cities

which thus attained

with

stars.

quarrying

has

Doscr. de I'Egj'pte, Antiquitcs, v.

pi.

29, 9.

'

Miscellanea Aegyptiaca, p. ii. 137, cd. Ravvlinson.

2.

TELL BASTA.
to a great elcvatiou,

uonc

(I

think) was raised

hall,

intended to be the largest, but which never

so

much
is

as the

town

called

Babastis, where

there

a temple of the goddess Bubastis, which

was finished. As I said before, the

site of

the temple

is

well deserves to be described.

Other tcmjjles
cost

rectangular depression, about nine hundred to


a thousand feet long, in the middle of

may be

grander, and
is

may have

more

in the

which

building, but thei'e

none so pleasant

to the

stood the edifice, i-unning nearly from east to


west.

eye as this of Bubastis.

The Babastis

of the

At present

it

is

still

easy to recognize

Egyptians
Greeks.

is

the same as the Artemis of the

the correctness of the statement of Herodotus,

when he
is

says that the whole building

was an
sides of

" The following


fice
:

a description of this edi-

island, for the

beds of the canals which surstill

Excepting
island.

the

entrance,
artificial

the

whole

rounded

it

are

traceable.

The

forms an
the Nile,

Two

channels from

the rectangle consist of lofty mounds, which


are nothing but layers of decayed brick-houses,

one on either side of the temple,

encompass the building, leaving only a uai'row


passage

by which

it

is

approached.

These
is

which were always rebuilt on the same spot, so that after centuries the ground was considei'It is clear that from them one must have looked down on the stone buildings which had remained at the same level. Here

channels are each a hundred feet wide, and are


thickly

ably raised.

shaded with

trees.

The gateway

sixty feet in height,


figures cut
Avell

and

is

ornamented with

upon the

stone, six cubits high,

and
in
all

again the statement of Herodotus


eye-witpess.

is

that of an

worthy of notice.

The temple stands


is
;

"When we had unearthed the whole

the middle of the city, and


sides as one Avalks

visible

on

area of the temple, the view extended over a

round

it

for as the city

space about five hundred feet long, covered

has been raised by embankment, while the temple has been


condition,
left

with enormous blocks of granite.


to

It

was easy

untouched in

its

original

recognize from the intervals between the

you

arc.

you look down upon it wheresoever low wall runs round the enclosure,
it,

various heaps of stones that there had been

four different halls varying in their proportions.

having figures engraved upon


thei'e is

and

inside

But the whole was

so

much ruined;

besides, so
it

a grove of beautiful

tall

trees

growing

many

stones have been carried away, that


to

round the shrine, which contains the image of


the

was impossible

make an approximate reconwhat the temple


entrance hall

goddess.

The enclosure
same

is

a furlong in

struction or even a plan of

length, and the


to
it is

in breadth.

The entrance
dis-

by a road paved with stones for a


through
the

must have been. Beginning from the

east, 'the

tance of about three furlongs, which


straight

passes
in

market-place
is

an

easterly direction, and


feet in width.

about four hundred

Trees of an extraordinaiy height


side of the road,

grow on each
from
the

which conducts
to

was about eighty feet long and one hundred and sixty wide (pi. liv.). The sculptures were chiefly of Rameses II. and Osorkon I., but there were found the two most ancient kings, Cheops and Chefren. The gateway was adorned
with two large columns, with palm-leaf capitals,

temple

of

Bubastis

that

of

Mercury."

and outside of
statues.

it

stood the two great Hyksos

The

description of Herodotus does not ex-

Following the axis of the building,

actly correspond to

what must have been the

temple, the ruins of which

we

excavated, for

since the Greek traveller saw it, the King Nekhthorheb of the XXXth dynasty added a

and going towards the west, the next hall was It eighty feet long by one hundred and thirty. had no columns, but a considerable number of
statues of different epochs,

and was the richest

E 2

in inscriptions of various

tiir.cs.

It

underwent
II.,

invaders

from Syria, whether they took the


whether they journeyed more south It was an imporwar.
are

several changes, especially under

Osorkon

northern road through Pelusium, Daphnte and


San, or

and

will

king gave

be designated by the name wliicli the " The Festival Hall." It conit,

through Pithom-Heroopolis.

tained a shrine, of which there are a few frag-

tant position to hold, and consequently very

ments

was around it that Herodotus saw the beautiful trees which


left,

and I should think

it

much exposed to all the accidents of As the temples of Lower Egypt


heaps of blocks, whoever
wishes

mere
the

he mentions.

to

explore

Next came the colonnade, with two


columns and square
to
pillars.

styles of

them thoroughly

is

obliged to roll

down

It is not possible
it

stones and to turn

them

in order to see

what

know

its

width,

but
feet

was about one

may be hidden

undei^neath.

This part of the

hundred and ninety


ended
with
the

long.

The temple
one

hall

of Nekhthorheb, square.

work, which was done by gangs of strong men, called the " shayaleen," took a considerable
time, and

hundred

and sixty

feet

Probably

was often most laborious


In

but

it

there was. around the temple an enclosure wall


of black basalt, but traces of
it

yielded
first

very important results.

the two

are visible only

halls every single block has

been turned,

near the two western

halls.

Nearly

all

the

so as to
It

stones left are red granite, no white limestone

show whether it had any inscription. has changed considerably the appearance of
Instead of forming lofty
piles,

has remained.

In the hall of Nekhthorheb a

the place.

the

great part of the building must have been


of red limestone
is

made
it

stones arc strewn over a large space near each


other.

from Gebel Ahmar, but as


it

The

place

is

less picturesque
is

the ap-

the best stone for mills and presses

has

pearance of the ruins

far less imposing than

disappeared.

The immense number

of chips

when we

first

unearthed those huge masses


hcnps, but
science has

show that

this part of the

temple has been a

clustered in

colossal

regular quarry.

gained considerably.
is

The destruction
Behbeit
el

as complete as at Sun, at
all

great
at

number

of

Thus we discovered a kings, whose passage and work

Hagar, or generally speaking, in

Bubastis would otherwise have remained

the temples of the Delta.

We

have no clue

ignored.

whatever to inform us who was the author of


it,

or

what was the purpose

of such
*

wanton

ravage.

I have dwelt elsewhere

on the idea

THE OLD EMPIRE.


We
learn from

that the style of construction of the temples

Manetho that under the King


first

made them very apt


and that
this

to

be used as fortresses,

Boethos,

the

of the

second dynasty, a

circumstance

may have been

the

chasm opened
day,

itself at

Bubastis, which caused

cause of their being destroyed in times of war.

This explanation would apply particularly well


to Bubastis, of

which we know that


that

it
it

besieged by the Persians, and

was was
of

many lives. Up to the present we have not found in any part of Egypt monuments as old as the second dynasty.
the loss of a great
Historical

monuments, properly speaking, begin


;

conquered in the wars of the time of Phocas.


Besides,

only with the fourth

however, the passage of

Bubastis,

like

the present
its

city

Manetho shows
antiquity.

that in the tradition of his time

Zagazig, which has taken

place,

was the
of all the

the foundation of Bubastis went back to a high

key of the Delta

it

was on the road

The fourth dynasty


Goslicn, p. 4,

is

represented

in

our

excavations

by the constructors of the two

THE OLD EMPIRE.


great pyramids, Cheops and
Chefren.

Their

Dames have been discovered in the first hall, not far from the entrance, on blocks whicli have
evidently been re-used later on
;

occupied, for he was the first in making warHke expeditions to the Sinaitic Peninsula, and
in order to reach
it,

he was obliged to follow have been a

the inscriptions
tlie

the

Wady Tumilat.

His expeditions were con-

have escaped because they were hidden in


wall.

tinued by Cheops,

who appears

to

Of Cheops we have only what


^

is

called

powerful king.

Apart from the construction


tradition attributed
of the temple of

the standard
find
it

(pi. viii., xxxii. a.),

exactly as

we

of the gi'eat pyramid, the to

It

is

on an alabaster vase of the same King." likely that under or near the standard was

him the foundation


the

Den-

derah, for

plan

according to which tho

the cartouche, as in the tablet of


harah.^

Wadi Magis

This

interesting

inscription

enthe

edifice was reconstructed under Thothmes III., had been found " in ancient writings of the

graved

on

an

enormous
It

block

which

time of Cheops."
Chefren has
to Sinai.

"^

direction of the veins of the

stone rendered
in the British

left

no record

of

any expedition
the
first

very

difficult to split.

is

now

It is to

him

that

we owe

Museum. The name


like that of

royal statues, and the beauty of the hieroglyphs


of Chefren (pi. xxxii. e)
is

written

with which his


is

name

is

written

at Bubastis

Ncferkara of

a standard containing

Wadi Magharah,* it is both name and title, and


The names

another proof of the high degree of developart

ment which Egyptian


time.

had reached

in his

which was surmounted by Horns.

After the fourth dynasty, there seems to

of both kings are of large dimensions, the hiero-

have been a period of weakness in the monarchy,


w^hich revives again with the first king of the
sixth dynasty, Pepi
I.

glyphs in Cheops' standard being eight inches


high, and of Chefren eleven inches.
of the engraving
is

The

style

beautiful,

and considering
Old

This

king

has

also

been

discovered

at

the archaic appearance of the sculpture, and


its

Bubastis.

He was

already

known

in the Delta

similarity to several inscriptions of the

by the famous stone of San, found by Burton,

Empire,^

we have no

reason to doubt that

and

containing his

name and

titles.'

This

those names have been inscribed on the walls


of the temple

stone has for a long time attracted the attention of Egyptologists.

under the reigns

of the kings.

Mr. Flinders Petrie, who


at

where a mention of those kings has been found on a contemporaneous


It is the first instance
edifice

republished

it,

and who discovered


till

San a
sug-

second, fragment

now unknown, has


of

which

is

not a tomb, and situate north

gested that the stone might have been brought

of Memphis.

This implies a real sovei'eignty

by Eameses

II.

from a building

Upper
its

over that part of Lower Egypt, which must

Egypt, and that it could not be inferred from

have been wielded already by the predecessor


of Cheops, Snefru.

presence at San that Pepi had really made some


construction so far north.
in this respect

Wo

have not discovered


but he must have

But every doubt

Snefru's
left

name

at Bubastis,

seems to be removed since Pepi's


at Bubastis, in

some traces

in the Delta,

which he certainly

name has been found

company
Pepi has

with other kings of the Old Empire.


'

certainly built at Tanis as well as at Bubastis.


I employ here
least

tho

Messrs.

so-called standard
^

is

tlic usual name, without projudging in Maspero and Petrie's opinion that the the name of the Ka.

The cartouche of Pepi occurs


^
'

twice

at

Leps. Denkm.
Leps.
1. 1.

ii.

pi.

d.

Mariette, Denderah, p. 55, vol.

iii. pi.

78

k.

pi.

2 b.

Rouge, Etudes sur


id.
i.

les
pi.

mon. des
ixxv.

six premieres dyn., p.

*
'

Leps.
Leps.

1.
1.

L
1.

pi, 11 G.
pi. 26, pi.

116;
39 d,
c, pi.

Inscr.

Hier.

Flinders Petrie, Tanis,

116,

etc.

i.

pi.

2.

BUBASTIS.
Bubastis.
vertical

lu one case

it

was

at tlie

end

of a
it is

harah.'''

The

chief attraction of the

Egyptians

column

(pi. xxxii, c), in

the other

towards that region were the mines of a mineral,

above the standard


cartouche
nately

wliicli

surmounted the

first

on the

trvie

nature of which there has been

much

(pi. xxxii. d).

The name

is

unfortu-

discussion, but which, according to the latest

damaged

in the
It is

upper part, but can be


not identical to that of
himself simply the son

researches

of

Lepsius,' seems
It

to

have been

easily restored.

emerald or malachite.
mafl-at

was called mafeh or


^"^^ froi
it

Tanis.

There Pepi

calls

^U ^"^U^.
it

Here he comes forwai'd as the son of Turn, the god of Heliopolis, and of Hathor, the goddess of DenIt is a way of indicating that his sovederah. For reignty extends over both parts of Egypt.
of Hathor, the goddess of Dendei-ah.
the names of Heliopolis and Denderah

the whole region where

was found, and


its

of

which Hathor was the goddess, derived


of Mafkaf,^

name
^'
'''

k^y^' k^^the

quite possible that as a token of gratitude for

must not

successful campaigns in Sinai, Cheops and Pepi

be taken in a

literal

way

as referring to those

founded or enlarged
goddess at Denderah.
fact

sanctuary of
it

the the

two

cities

they are the emblems of the two


the

proof of

lies in

divisions
situated.

of

realm

in

which they were

that

among

the

sacred

objects

which

Thotlimes III. executed according to the prescrijitions of the

Pliny informs us that Pepi raised an obelisk


at Heliopohs.

documents, appears an emblem

Thus he was
to

a worshipper of

Tum.

But he seems

have been a more

under the form of a sistrum of mafkat, four palms high.''


of the goddess
I

fervent adorer of Hathor.


the temple of

The same crypt


in

of

do not believe, however, that the mines of

Denderah

which occurs the

mafeh were the only inducement which attracted


the Pharaohs towards the Sinaitic Peninsula.

name

of

following text

Cheops, mentions also Pepi in the " The great foundation in


:

Undoubtedly, mafekwas a precious stone which

Denderah was found on decayed


It

rolls of skins

was valuable either


uses, or as a

as an ornament, or for sacred at a time

of kids of the time of the followers

of Horns.
side,

means of exchange
coin,

when

was found

in a brick wall

on the south

there

was no

but the kings must have had

in the reign of the king,

beloved of the Sun,

other pui'poses in view.

They had

to

defend

son of the Sun, Lord of diadems, Pepi, living


established

themselves against the invasions of the nomads


of the east, such as are described in the campaign
of the general

and well, like the Sun for ever." Thus a temple, which in its present form is one of the most modern of Egypt, has succeeded to much more ancient buildings which the tradi**

Una

against the
it

Amu
me

and the

Heruscha

besides,

seems to

likely that

one of the objects of their conquests was the


possession of quarries

tion attributed to
It

Cheops and Pepi.


if

which have not been

would not be extraordinary

the
in

con-

found again, but which must exist somewhere


in the peninsula.

struction of

Denderah was connected


Peninsula.

some

way
the

with the expeditions of those two kings to


Sinaitic

This brings

Like Cheops, Pepi

received a satisfactory answer.

me to a question which has not yet Where did the


all

made war with


same place

the tribes of Sinai, and the

Egyptians get

the stones of which they


?

made
some

records of his campaigns are engraved in the


as those of Cheops, in the

such a considerable use


Denkm.

The quarries
pi. 11 G.
if.

of

Wadi Mag"

Leps.

ii.

'

Lops. Metalle,
Leps.

p. 79,
ii.

'

Cf.

Bunsen, Egypt,
iii.

V.

p.

723,

Mnrictte,

Denderah,

"

Denkm.

137.
i.

p. 55, vol.

pi. 78.

Mariette, Denderah,

pi.

55.

THE OLD EMPIRE.


of
tlie

stones are known.

The red granite came

attached to a place lasts through ages; generally,


it

from Syene, from the very banks of the Nile, and could be transported by water on the river
or on the canals with a relative facility.

even outlives a complete change of religion


it is

but

not so with the sanctuary.

In the long

But

succession of dynasties, in proportion as art

where did the black granite come from, the


material out of which so

and

taste

changed, as religious

many
who

statues have
is

modiiied, as the empire

been carved
prevalent
it
is

The opinion which

still

now

and

riches,

were power the primitive building underwent


ideas
in

was growing

that of Lepsius,*

believes that

such complete alterations, that nothing

re-

was dug out of the rocks of Hamamat, between Keneh and Kosseir, in the desert. In
which have been found there

mained

of its original state except

names as

at

Tanis and Bubastis, or mere traditions as at

fact, the quarries

Denderah.
reasons
of Pepi

It is likely also that find so


is

one of the

were already worked under the sixth dynasty, and by Pepi himself. This opinion seems very
plausible in the case of kings

why we

few traces of the temples


that they were without

and Cheops,

who

ruled over

any ornamentation or sculpture.


lithic pillars as in the
it is

the whole of Egypt, but

is

very different with

built of blocks of polished stone, with

They were mono-

those

who

reigned only over the Delta.

Where-

temple of the Sphinx, but


tlie

from did the Hyksos draw the stones of their statues ? Undoubtedly not from Hamamat.
This question has grown in interest lately by
the remark that the old Chalda^an

very doubtful whether

walls bore any-

thing else than the

name

of

the king.

The
;

cartouches of Pepi were along the door-posts

monuments

we do not know where


Chefreii were engraved.

those of Cheops and

discovered at

Telloh by M.

de Sai'zec were

Among

the numerous

made
of

of a stone quite similar to several statues

blocks which are heaped up at Bubastis, there

Egypt.*^

tions the

M. Oppert read in the inscripname of Magrjan, which applies to the


and which, according to the Assyriologist, would be the place

may

be some which go up to such a high anti-

quity, but which, having

no sculptures or ornaaltera-

Sinaitic peninsula,
illustrious

ments
tions

of

any kind, are not discernible, especially

as they

where the stone of those statues was obtained." Others, on the contrary, maintain that the
material was close at hand, and that

were re-used in the numerous which the building went through.


is,

There

however, a sculpture which undoubt-

from the shores of the Persian Gulf.


explorations

came Thorough
it

edly goes back to the Old Empire, and which

struck us from the


ter (pi. xxii. d).
first hall

first

by

its

unusual charac-

made by

geologists are required to

On

the top of the blocks of the

solve the question

whether or not there are


form even an approximate
at that

there was a false door, such as occurs


all

quarries in the Sinaitic peninsula.


It is impossible to

nearly in

the tombs of the Old Empire, and

which consists of two posts bound together by a


cylindrical
is

idea of what a temple of the Old Empire was like.

drum,where the name of the deceased


I

That there were temples


is

remote epoch

frequently engraved.

cannot account for a

beyond any doubt, but

until

now we have

monument of tliis

kind, which has nearly always

only discovered one, the temple of the Sphinx.

a funereal character, being in a temple which

And
have

it is

easily comprehensible.

No

buildings

never seems to have been used as a tomb.

No-

been

so

much

altered, reconstructed,

thing remains of the inscriptions which might

transformed as temples.
*

The sacred character

have solved the

difficulty.

Everywhere they have

Leps. Brief e,

p.

319.
p. 588.

' ^

Eev. Arch. 42, pp. 2G4-272. Taylor, in Porrot, Hist, de I'Art, Assyrie,

been carefully erased, as well on a rectangular tablet above the door, as on the posts, each of

which had a royal name

for

on the

left, in

spite

of the erasure,

it is

easy to discern the upper

engraved either by Rameses


II. are

II. or

by Osorkon

curve of a cartouche, and a disk, probably Ra. Thus the inscriptions of Cheops, Chefren,
Pepi, and the false door are
all

usurpations occupying the place of older

dedications which have not always been carefully

we can with
and
to

expunged.
of great importance seems to have
last king,

certainty attribute to the Old Empire,

No work

the original building which was at Bubastis in It is natural to believe those remote ages.
that
it

been made in the temple before the


Usertesen III.
of the twelfth

The

first of

the powerful kings


is

occupied part of the area of the two

dynasty we meet with,


a).

Ame-

first halls

where we found
of
it

its

remains.

As

for
;

nenha

I.

(pi. xxxiii.

His name, or rather

its

form we can speak

only hypothetically

his standard, occurs

on a block which has been


Nekhthorheb,

nothing can guide us except the analogy with


the tombs

displaced, for

it is

in the hall of

tomb was the eternal abode of the deceased, so the temple was consi;

for as the

who must have taken it in one of the neighbouring halls. The inscription,which is fragmentary,
has two lines
;

dered as the abode of the divinity


therefore
built

we may

in the second the king says that


sfaf^ie
a,

suppose that originally they were


principle. I slioukl think

"

/iP

erecfcd

Jiis

to

his
in
.

mother Bast: he
.
.

on a similar

made a door or
so there
I, in

room

."

In other

that the old temple

was a

single stone

chamber

words, he dedicated his statues to the goddess,

without ornamental sculptui'e, containing somewhere, probably opposite the entrance, the false

must have been statues


;

of

Amenemha
still

the temple

they possibly are

extant

door on which stood the naiue of the king and


the dedication.

now, but with another name.


His son and successor, Usertesen
his
I.,

Perhaps the single chamber


pil-

has

left

was preceded by a vestibule with square


lars,

name

in

a small inscription accompanying


(pi.

such as in the temple of the Sphinx or in


All

a procession of Nile-gods carrying offerings


xxxiv. D, k). It
is

the tombs.

we know

of the Old

Empire

under the twelfth dynasty that

shows us that the architecture of the temples was marked by a great simplicity the desire for ornamentation and embellishment came
;

we meet
nearly
all

for the first time with the


is

androgyne

figure of the river, which

found afterwards at

epochs.

only with the Middle EmjDire.

It is probable

the kings whose

It was of common use under work we are now describing,

that this

first

temple lasted through the reign

especially on their statues.

In order to indi-

of the dynasties, the history of

which

is

un-

cate that they ruled over both parts of

Egypt

known
it

to us,

and that the

first

great changes

they did not, like Chefren, engrave on the side of


their thrones

went through took place under the twelfth

merely the sign 'T sam, the sign


plants of

dynasty.

of union binding together the

the

North and the South

they had the two Nile

gods engraved with one foot on the base of the

THE TWELFTH DYNASTY.


With the twelfth dynasty we enter on a period when the temple of Bubastis went through
great alterations.

sign

and holding each

of

them

in

their

hand the plant which is the special emblem of the North or of the South. Representations of
this

kind are found on the statues of


Usertesen
I.,'

AmenemUsertesen

They
is

are easily traceable

by

ha

I.,'

Amenemha

11.,^

a careful study of the sculptured blocks, which

shows that the temple


sest,

nothing but a palim-

F. Petrie, Tanis
id. pi.
i.

i.

pi.

i.

3 b.
'

and that nearly

all

the larger inscriptions

4 b.

id. pi. siii. 4.

THE TWELFTH DYNASTY.


III.'

On

tlie

statue of Mermasliu"^ the Nile

traves bearing hieroglyphical inscriptions with


signs
of

gods are kneeling.


of which

We have a good example on


(pi.

the statue of black granite


is

xxv.

c),

the head
all

at

Sydney, and which has

the

more than two feet high, and having all them the name of Rameses II. Looking at them carefully, we notice that the signs are
well preserved

characteristics of a statue of the twelfth dynasty.


It occurs also

engraved in a concavity, that the polish which


is

on the two Ilyksos statues, where


has

on the edges of the stone has

the
(pi.

representation
xxiv. d).
It

been usurped

twice

seems that the Amenemhas

been destroyed near the inscription, that here and there an old sign comes out quite distinctly

and the Usertesens were fervent Avorshippers of the god Nile, for images of the god are met
with on other monuments than statues,
cially
esj^e-

below the new ones

there

is

no doubt

that Rameses II. ei-ased an older

name and an

older dedication in order to inscribe his own.

on the temples of Semneh and Kummeh, which, having been built by Usertesen III,, were
completed and repaired by Thothmes III.

In other places there are stones with deeply


cut
istics

hieroglyphs

bearing

all

the

character-

The

of the twelfth dynasty,

picture of the Nile gods with one foot on the "T


is

place of

the cartouche
traces

is

and where the rough and uneven,


been
xxiv.

not so

common on the monuments

of the first

and

keeps

of

having
(pi.

worked
a),

dynasties of the

New

Empire, at least of those


is

over again several times

Tlie

the
curs

date

of

which

certain,
first

but

usurpations
it

oc-

frequently

under the
It is

Ethiopians,

especially Tahraka."

impossible not to

recognize

in the sculptures

and

in the royal

Rameses II. appear on every stone with hardly an exception the question is whose name he expunged in order to replace it by his cartouche and titles. This interesting
of
:

standards of the Ethiopians a striking likeness,

problem received an unexpected and


tory solution.

satisfac-

with the twelfth dynasty, probably because they

On

one of the architraves which temple must have been in

had before

their eyes constructions raised by


all

in the reconstructed

those kings, and above

by the conqueror
I.

the angle so that the end of the stone


of

was

Nubia, Usertesen

hidden, the
III.

hammering out could not be done


II,

The
his

inscription of Usertesen

indicates that

on the whole length, and close to the cartouche


of

the king did not wish to do more than engrave

Rameses

appears the beginning of the


(pi,

name on

the wall of the temple.

We may
was

first

cartouche of Usertesen III.

xxvi,

c,

conclude from this fact that in his time the


venerable building of Cheops and Chefren
still

xxxiii. e).

The same cartouche appears on a


it is

block where

extant in

its

primitive simplicity

and with
III., the

name

its

small proportions.

But Usertesen

greatest king of the dynasty, evidently desired


to

complete, and followed by the god Sokaris (pi, xxxiii. f), also in a procession of nome-gods carrying offerings besides, it stood on two door(pi, xxxiv. c)
of the
;

adorn Bubastis with a temple which might compete with his constructions in other parts of

posts,

where

it

has been partially erased


that the

(pi.

xxxiii. B, D, c.)

The circumstance

name
must

Egypt.
all

Among

the heaps of blocks which are

of Usertesen is found

on architraves of such

that remains of the temple, there are a great

large dimensions, proves that this king

many

fragments, varying in length, of archi-

have enlarged the building considerably.


Usertesen
III,, as well as the

other sovereigns
against the

of the twelfth dynasty,


'

made war

P. Petrie, Tanis
Tanisi.pl.
Leps.
Leps.
iii.

ii.

KcLeslieh,

pi. ix.

Ethiopians

and the negroes of Nubia.

Two

^ '

17 b.
iii.

Denkm.
1.

47, G7.

well-known inscriptions relate the expeditions

1.

V. 13.

which he made in their country, and the reguc

10

lations wliicli

lie

enforced for
river.

tlio

Nubian boats
eight

1.

9.

going down

tlie

His two great camyears

soldiers

His Majesty ordered to pass 123 going out towards the fountain which
. .

paigns took place in the


sixteen of his reign.
is

and
it
1.

should think that


is

10.

sailing

up

in

order to see the

one of these campaigns which

alluded

height of Hun, and in order to


of navigating
1.

know

the

way

to in an inscription very incomplete,


style

but the

....
taken
alive,
;

and sculpture of which leave no doubt


its

11.

they found there 203

as to
(pi.

being a Avork of the twelfth dynasty


a).

cows and 11 she asses


1.12. the
. .

in the

month

of

...

xxxiv.

It

is

a block of red granite

(rejoicings) very great in leaving


;

three feet square, of which this fragment only

height of Ilua

the departure from this

has been preserved, the others have been destroyed in the reconstruction of the temple, or

height was in peace


to the
1.

....

This

is

an allusion

happy
. .

issue of the campaign.


.

they have disappeared

more

recently,

when
is

13.

nehek.

South of the mount of from the middle of


of

the temple w^as used as a quarry.


royal

There

no

Ilua
It

....
is

name

in the text, but both the

form and
to User-

only a fragment

left

the context induce


tesen III.

me

to attribute

it

a text entirely destroyed, the loss

which,
to

judging from what


it

remains,

is

much

bo

In the thirteen lines of which


occur several geographical names.
frequent
is

consists

regretted.

flw hcif/Jit or
"

llir

The most mounfain nf Una,


localities

The great architraves hammered numerous usurped stones the style

out, of

the

which

^^ ^^
quoted

i >^^

IIii'T' is

one of the

clearly belongs to the twelfth dynasty, are evi-

among

the

southern

countries

dences showing that the constructions raised by


conthese kings
at

quered by Eameses

III.,

together with Punt.^


or Khasl-Jief of the
is

Bubastis

were

considerable.

Another region
West
IM
"^

is

Khasi'f

"

Ivhaskhet

frequently

met

Undoubtedly they transformed the old building raised by Cheops and Chefren, traces of which were found in the two first halls. But they
were not
satisfied

with in the inscriptions of the twelfth dynasty."

with

it

and I believe that

Brugsch' translates
It
is difficult

it

countrij, forciijn countri/.


site

we must

attribute to Usertesen III. the foun-

to determine the

referred to
it

dation of what

was the

finest part of the temple,

from such a fragmentary


is

inscription, however,

the hypostyle hall.

natural to consider
list

it

as a southern locality
III. engi'aved

West

of the second hall, on a length of sixty

according to the

of

Thothmes

yards and a breadth of twenty-five, are scattered


the ruins of this beautiful construction, shafts

on the walls of Karnak.

The king seems


what you are doing
1.

to

be speaking.

1.

4>

and

capitals of columns,

colossal architraves,
It is

of beaten negroes, in order that

may

be

known

Hathor heads

(pi. v., vi., vii.)

by

far the

....
them himself with
of

part of the temple which has suffered most.

It

5.

the king struck

may be

that

it

remained exposed when the other

his
1.

mass

....
veteran
soldiers

parts were already buried under Nile

mud

be-

8 mentions
;
. . .

former
palace.

sides, the shafts

of

columns have always been


they are easy to saw for
has escaped
is

times

they are brought to

the

much sought
making

after, as

His Majesty provided


" "
'

....
iii.

mill-stones.

What

only

Leps.

Donkm.

a small part of the materials


209.
jS'cljc^heh, pi.

which composed

Petrie, Tunis

ii.

the edifice
:

the

Diet. Guog. p. G29.

carried aw^ay

number of stones destroyed or must have been considerable, and

THE TWELPTn DYNASTY.


thus a reconstruction of the hall
sible
is liardly

pos-

Close to these four columns stood four others,

except by conjecture.
in

Judging from the


excavations,
the

not quite so high, also of red granite and monolithic,

remains discovered

the

but with more slender


of

.shafts

ending in
of

structure contained the following elements.

capital

palm-leaves.

The top
o.bacus,

the

In the middle of the hall were four huge


monolithic
capitals

leaves, with the

surmounting
has a

forms a

columus

in

red

granite
{]A.

-with
vii.).

separate piece which could not be part of the

in the

form of a lotns-lnid

monolith,

as

it

much

larger diameter

This type,

which figures a bundle of lotus-

than the rest of the column.

Otherwise

it

plants, appears for the first time in a

tomb
;

at

would have been necessary for making the

Beni Hassan, in a more simple form


are only four plants.
identical to that of Bubastis,

there

column
thin
it

to

have a much thicker stone, and to


on
its

The more complex form,

considerably
is

whole length.

may

be seen in
is

curious fact
capital are

that the leaves which

form the
"While the

the Labyrinth of Howara,^ which


of the twelfth dynasty.
It
is

the

work

not of the same width.

MM.
Art
ribs

described thus by Perrot and Chipiez in their " History of

large columns have hardly any writing, except

on the lower part, these have inscriptions from


the top to the bottom.

in

Ancient Egypt."

The

oldest belong to

" Their shafts are

composed

of eight vertical

Rameses
or less

II.,

but they have been usurped more


II.

which are triangular or

plain, like stalks of

completely by Osorkon

On
to

the the

papyrus.

The lower part


It springs
it rises.

of the shaft has a

specimen

which

has
all

been

brought

bold swell.

from a corona of leaves

British ]\Iuseum

the degrees of usurpation

and tapers as

The

stalks arc tied at

may
of

the top with from three to five bands, the ends

be followed. Although it bears the name Rameses IL, the older date of the column is
cut across an ornament of the capital,
if

hanging down between the


with leaves at their base."

ribs. The buds which form the capital are also surrounded

proved by the fact that the inscription of the


king
is

a circumstance which would not occur


in

the

Of the four columns which stood


served, on

the

column had been raised by


time.

his order

and

in his

centre of the hall, the bases have been pre-

which the monolithic shafts

Avere

As

there were four columns of two ditlcrcut

fixed so strongly that

when one

of the

columns

species, the proportions

and type of which were

was thrown down, its fall raised the base on its side. None of the columns are intact they are all four broken in several pieces. One capital only is complete; it has been carried away
;

not the same, there occur also two groups of


four Hathor capitals, the dimensions of which
differ in the

with the piece fitting immediately underneath,

same ratio as the columns. The two groups have one point of similarity. The goddess is represented only on two opposite
sides of the capital,

and stands now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Apart from the beauty and the vigour of the workmanship, it is remarkable by
its fine polish,

and not on

all four, as

may
them

be seen in later epochs.


are a
little

The

great Hathors

above seven

feet high.

One
it

of

which has remained undamaged


centuries,

had one

side quite perfect because


it

rested on

through

many

and which

is

a charac-

the ground;

is

now

in the
less

Boston Museum.

teristicfeatureof theworkofthe twelfth dynasty.''

The other
Berlin.

three,

more or
(pi.

damaged, are at

the Louvre, in the British


'

Museum, and
xxhi. a,
:

at

Leps.
Plate

Dcnkm.
liii.

i.

47.
ii.

The head

ix.,

xxiv. b)

English ed. vol.

p. 99.

gives the exact drawing

and the dimensions

of

has the usual type of the goddess


face,

a broad

that heautiful

monument.

with ears of a heifer, the thick hair,

BUBASTIS.
instead of falling vertically, curls up outwards.
capitals of Bubastis
is

admirable; but in order

Here and
traces of

there, in tlie eyeballs

colour were still even quite vivid, but faded away after a few

and on the lips, visible, and were

that

it

may be

rightly appreciated the capitals


at of

Looking must be seen some way off. them close by, they seem flat, and destitute
expression
;

hours of exposure in the


the
little

air.
is

shrine

which

Above the head, commonly seen in


is

whereas at a distance, the features

that kind of capital, and which


noticeable
in

particularly
is

come out with a striking liveliness. In fact, they were meant to be placed at a height
equal to
that
of the

the

temple

of

Denderah,

neighbouring columns.

reduced to a cornice adorned with asps bearing a solar disk. On the other sides are the

We
in

are in a complete uncertainty as to the

exact distribution of the hall and to the

manner

emblems
Egypt,

either

of

Northern

or

Southern

viz.,

the jilant -which belongs to each


lb stands

were disposed. But I cannot help thinking that the Hathors were on

which the

capitals

of these regions.

between two asps,


head-dress

the top of square pillars, standing alternately

wearing

the

corresponding

and

with the columns, so that the arrangement was


quite analogous to the small temple in Deir el

placed in such a

way

that their heads are tucked

along the hair of the goddess.

There were

Medineh."

two

capitals with

Xorthern emblems, and two

As

to the inequality in

height of the two

with Southern emblems.

one of the
II.

The one in Boston is Below this repreNorth capitals.

groups of columns, we often see in Egyptian


temples
height,

contiguous

colonnades each

differing

in in
its

sentation was a blank space on which Osorkon

and following

other either

engraved his cartouche.


pillar,

On

the
I.

surface

the length of the edifice as at Luxor, or in

which rested on the


dedication engraved.

Osorkon

had a

width as at Karnak,

in the great hall.

Judging
I believe

from the bases of the large columns,


of four Hatlior capitals
(pi.
is

The other group


cornice which
is

that close to each of them, on the outside, stood


a square pillar bearing a Hathor capital, on the

smaller and more simple

xxiii.

r.).

The

above the hair has no asps;

top

of

which lay the architrave.


the eight huge
f ulcrums

Eight and

the sides had no representations of North and

left of

probably stood

South

they were a blank,


his

and Osorkon

II.

two columns with palm-leaf


tion being the highest,

capitals,

and two

engraved on them
specimen
has

cartouche.

The

best

smaller Hathors, so that the central construc-

been sent to the


raised
it,

Museum

of

had two .lower wings,

Sydney.

When we

the lips were

still

as

may be

seen at

Karnak.'

Or the lower

covered with a vivid red paint.

construction was put as a prolongation to the


capitals are at

These two

varieties of

Hathor
capital

higher, to

present unique in their


larger ones.
said to have

kind, especially the

entrance,

which it might serve as a western and the whole had an appearance

The only
some
Sedeinga.^
of

which may be
found in Upper
a

similar to that of the

Ramesseum

or that of the
of the

similarity, is
It

temple of Luxor.^

must add that north

Nubia
nade.
is

at

crowns
an

column
colon-

temple, and quite outside, at a distance of about


fifty

the single remnant

extensive

yards,

we met with

the two same styles of

As

at Bubastis the

head of the goddess

columns, lotus-bud and palm-leaf, but on a


smaller scale.

much

only on two sides, and there seems to be an attempt to figure the plant of the North on
the

They seem
i.

to

have belonged to

other faces.
Leps. Lricfe,

The workmanship
p.

Leps.

of

the

Denkm.
1.

88.
c'gypt. vigu. 70.

Maspero, L'arclicol. Maspero,


1.

vigii.

77.

Pcrrot et Cliipiez, Egypte, vign.

Denkm.

i.

114, 115.

TUE TWELFTH DYNASTY.


a cloorway giving access to a I'oad Avhicli led to
tlie

the others.
of

In reference to the
absolutely

first,

the column
that

western entrance of the temple."


will

the Labyrinth,

similar to

The reader
induce

ask for the grounds which

of Bubastis, seems to

me

convincing evidence.

me

to

attribute these
to
is

columns and
dynasty.
I

The Labyrinth belongs

to the twelfth dynasty.

Hathor

capitals

the twelfth

admit that there

not absolute certainty, and

Both columns must be contemporaneous; in both of them there is the same simplicity and
elegance of workmanship
;

that this attribution


larly as regards the

may be questioned,
bo

particu-

besides, the

column
of

Hathors and the palm-leaf


not the work of
that
of

of Bubastis has preserved the beautiful polish

columns.
the

But

if

these

which
erased

appears

also

on

the

architraves

twelfth

dynasty,

they are

the

Usertesen III., wherever they have not been

eighteenth.

It is certain that the

two

styles of

by Rameses

TI.

TJic architraves be-

columns
types

above described were the favourite

longing to Usertesen III. must have had something


to rest

of the kings of the eighteenth dynasty.


;

upon;

I believe

therefore

that

Thothmes III. used the lotus-bud at Karnak a large column of the same style lying on the ground at the entrance of the temple of Phthah in Memphis belongs also to him. Amenophis III. seems to have had a special liking for it, as

there can be no doubt as


larger columns.

to the age of the

If these only are the

work

of

the twelfth dynasty, they must have formed the

entrance to the two halls whicli existed before.

But

I see also a great difficulty in attributing

we may

see at

Thebes, at Elephantine, and


of

the palm-leaf capitals and the Hathors to the

especially in

the temple

Soleb in Nubia.

eighteenth dynasty, as one might be tempted to

For him were made the palm-leaf columns which


were considered as the
oldest, at least,
if

do at

first

sight.

There

is

absolutely no in-

we

scription of those kings mentioning constructions


of that kind, there are

can trust the inscriptions engraved upon them.

no traces of the great

They

are also in Soleb, where both styles are

architraves which should have been on these


pillars,

found together as at Bubastis.


faces of the goddess

Besides,

it

can-

and on which undoubtedly Amenophis

not be denied that the Hathor capital with two


is

met with
el

in temples of the

eighteenth dynasty, at Deir

Bahari, where

it

would have recorded his high and pious His inscriptions would less likely have deeds. been usurped by Eameses II. than those of the
III.

dates probably from Hashepsu or Thothmes III.,


at

twelfth or thirteenth dynasty, which, nevertheless,

El Kab
another

aiid

Sedeinga, where

it

dates from

have been preserved.

All the

monuments
Bubas-

Amenophis
is

III.

In the last two instances there

bearing the
tis

name

of

Amenophis

III. at

similarity

with the Hathors

of

are statues of priests and priestesses, the

Bubastis, the two sides Avhich have not

the

inscriptions of whicli do not speak of constructions,

face of the goddess bear the emblematic plants


of
it

and which are no integrant part

of the

North and South.

Under such circumstances

building.
to

may

well be asked whether the colonnade of


is

These are the reasons why I attribute the twelfth dynasty the Hathor heads and the

Bubastis

not the work of the eighteenth

palm-leaf columns which, as we saw before, are

dynasty, and of Amenophis III., Avhose


is

name

preserved on several statues discovered in

the excavations.

Rameses II. The more excavations are made in Egypt, the better we shall kuow the twelfth dynasty
older than

In answering

this question, a difference

must

one of the most powerful which occupied the


throne.

bemade between the


One

great lotus-bud columns and

Usurpation has been practised in the

New Empire
of the lotus-bud

on a much larger

scale than

was

columns

is

now

in the

Louvr

supposed.

Every temple

is like

a roll of vellum

It

"^""
w-liicli

ou

several successive texts have been


tljc

There was thereon a smaller

figure,

probably

Avrittcn,

one over

other.

In

the

Delta,

a woman, standing on the throne, and holding


the headdress of the king with her hands.

where the distance from the quarries was considerable, the temptation must havo been very
groat.

The

two

inscriptions,

which are generally engraved


legs, are

As

the temples of

tlic

twelfth dynasty

on the edges of the throne, along the


destroyed.
If of the twelfth dynasty,

had

inscriptions only on

the architraves and

they were the name of a king

the doorposts, but not on the walls or the columns, it was easy for Amenophis or Rameses
to use these flat

Rameses
to

II.

preserved them.

It

is

possible also that

may have we

and well polished surfaces

for

must assign the same date


colossi, the
liere

two standing

own glory, and thus attributing to himself the work of former generations. The statues have not fared better. They
celebrating his

fragments of which are scattered

and

there.

headdress,

and

They both wear the southern one of them had the eyes
of
this

have not been spared more than the temples. the is evident that we sliall have to change names of a great many statues exhibited in our
It

hollowed out like the Hyksos statues.

No monuments
name
Bast
is

epoch give us the

of the localit3^

However, the goddess

the last

museums where they havo been labelled from name inscribed upon them. The his-

mentioned

in the inscription of

Amen-

emha
tesen

(pi. xxxiii. a).


is

With the name

of User-

into a great confusion.

tory of Egyptian sculpture lias been thrown It is at present a field


cleared.
If

quoted the god Sokaris, a divinity of


of the forms of

Memphis, and one


xxxiii. r).

Phthah

(pi.

which has hardly been


tlie

most

of

It is

to be noticed that at Tanis,^

royal statues, or at least their casts, coidd

where the statues of the kings of the twelfth


dynasty
arc

once be put together, and a careful study be

numerous,
call

the

gods
ai'e

whose
the gods

made
of

of them,

it

would be astonishing to see

worshippers they
of

themselves,

bow many

statues engraved with the cartouche

Memphis, and they frequently mention the


of

Rameses II. were never made for him, and are older works of which he took possession.
lie

sanctuary

that

city,

-|^ \

anJch

toui.

The small number

of inscriptions preserved at

In so doing,

followed the example which


III.

Tliothmcs
him, as

III.

and Amenophis
If

had given

we may

ascertain in collections like

Bubastis does not allow us to ascertain to what god the sanctuary was dedicated whether it was to the local divinity. Bast, or to the great
;

that of Turin.
chiefly set aside

now

it

be asked

who was
I

gods of Egypt as in the time of Rameses


I should think
it

II.

by such usurpations,
the thirteenth

have no
dynasty,

was

to the last,

and that the

doubt that this comparative study will show


that
it

worship of Bast became prevalent only


later.

much

was

chiefly

One
c).

of the sculptures of Usertesen III.

especially in all cases

when Rameses did not


his

represented a procession of
xxxiv.
sign
is

leave any
I have

name except

own.

monuments

no hesitation in putting among the of the twelfth dynasty the statue


is

noma gods (pi. Only one emblem remains, and the


it

not very distinct,

looks like a different

reading of the

nome

the head of which

in the
left

museum

of Heliopolis, to which

of Sydney,

Bubastis then belonged, as under Seti

while the base has been


too
XXV.

on the spot, being

even

much

later, it

much damaged
c).

to

be carried

away
flat

I., and was not yet a separate nome.

(pi.

The Ptolemaic name


occur anywhere in
covered.
Petric, Tanis

of the province does not


all

The head, which has the


like

type of

the inscriptions

dis-

the Middle Empire, wears the white diadem of

Upper Egypt,
I.

Amenemha

I.

and Usertesen
i.

at Tanis.

pi. 1, 3 a, 3 c, 3 d,

iii.

IG

a,

IG b, 17 b.

THE TnirvTKEX'rn nrNAsxr.


the characters and of the architrave ou Avhich

THE THIRTEENTH DYNASTY.


"VVirn the thirteentli

they are engraved, indicates that


oftlio

it

must have

dynasty we enter one


liistory.

rested on pillars of large dimensions, another

most obscure periods of Egyptian

The
and

proof that the great columns already existed


at that

monuments become more and more

scarce,

remote

epoch.

This
as

cartouche

has
to

the obscurity hists as far as the beginning of the

generally

been
I.,

considered

belonging

New

Empire.,

We

do not know the transition

Sebekhotep
inscriptions

king known to us thi-ough the


left

from the thirteenth to the fourteenth dynasty, nor can we fix exactly the epoch when the
invasion of the
less, it

which ho

on

the

rocks

of

Semneh
Until

in

Nubia, and which record the height

Hyksos took

pkice.

Neverthe-

of the Nile in the three first years of his reign.

remains a well established fact that in the

now

his

name had never been discovered


from

thirteenth dynasty, the Sebekhoteps and Nefer-

on a temple, nor even on a monument of large


size.

hoteps ruled over the whole of Egypt, not only


of

Judging

what

was

found

at

Egypt proper, north

of the first cataract,

Bubastis, he
It

must have been a

builder.

but

much

farther south, as far as

Upper Nubia.
list

seems that the kings of the thirteenth


far

Professor AViedemann has given a

of one

dynasty,

from being Hyksos as Lepsius


first

hundred and thirty-six kings quoted by the Turin papyrus between the twelfth dynasty and It agrees nearly with the number the Hyksos.
given by Manetho for the thirteenth and the
fourteenth put together.
assigns

believed, at

endeavoured to follow the


gave
a great value to
the

traditions of their glorious predecessors of the


twelfth.

They

possession of Nubia,
military expeditions

and probably they made


into

The Sebennyte
place

that country, since

priest

Thebes as the native


writer

for

the

thirteenth dynasty, and Xois for the fourteenth,

while the anonymous


Scaligeri calls
It is

called Barbaras

monuments of one of them have been found not far from Mount Barkal, in the island of Argo.^ They belong to Sebekhotep III., who seems to
have been the most powerful, and of
are
several statues.
;

them Bubastites and Tanltes.

whom there

not impossible that both

may

be right in so

far as both dynasties

came out

of the Delta,

and

Louvre

it is

them is at the nearly certain that it comes from


of

One

that

wo have
as

to interpret the

name

of Dios-

Tanis, where

its

duplicate

still exists,^

and one
struck

polites,

given by Manetho to
signifying

the thirteenth

was discovered by Lepsius

in the island of Argo.


is

dynasty,

natives

not

from
Delta

Looking

at those

monuments, one

Thebes, but from one of the


dedicated
to

cities of the
it

at first sight

by their great resemblance with the


This likeness

Amou, whether

bo the city

works of the twelfth dynasty.

called later Diospolis

Parva or another.

appears in the whole attitude, in the manner in

In the list of the papyrus of Turin wc find as the sixteenth the cartouche given on pi. xxxiii.
1,0.

which the hands are stretched quite


legs,

flat

on the

and

chiefly in the style in

which the lower


all

In other texts
it it

it

accompanies the prenomeu


the other, twoI

part of the body, and especially the knees, have

of Sebekhotep.

It occurs twice at Bubastis, in

been worked.
but the legs

The sculptor has applied


which was
to

one case
thirds of

is

complete, in

his skill to the head,


.are
it

be a portrait
a kind of

have been erased.

coarse,

made with

found

also

other fragments of the architrave, which gave


part of the
scription
titles of

clumsiness, as
the knee-pan
"

were, by a second-rate artist;

is

rudely indicated, the ankle


120-151.
liouge, Notice des

is

the king

Q"^^.

The

inLc.ps.

must have been hidden

Denkm.

ii.

in the wall in

monu-

iiients,
^

pp. 15 et IG.
Iiiscr. pi.

the reconstruction of the temple, but the size of

Kougc,

76.

Petric, Tanis

i.

pi.

iii.

p. 8.

Id

JSUI5.

thick and rouglily marked. These characteristics remind us not only of works of the twelfth dynasty, but also of statues several of which

which has the greatest likeness to the Rameses


of
it

Geneva

it is

at the Britisb

Museum, where
it

has been labelled Amenopkis III., though

have

been preserved, bearing the name of Eameses II. I shall mention only two. One
at Boston,
;

bears no hieroglyphical name.


If the

kings of the thirteenth dynasty have


if

is

Nebesheh
is

and was discovered by Mr. Petrie at the other comes from Bubastls, and

been so powerful, and


ing that they

they have carried their


it is

conquests so far as Upper Nubia,


left so

astonish-

now

in the

museum of Geneva (pi.


is is

xiv.).'

It

few monuments, and that

is

evident that this last one

the type of the face

quite different

notRamescs II. from the


other erasures,

their cartouches occur much,

those of the twelfth.


to

more seldom than The reason of it seems


malevolence

Ramessides, and

in addition to

me

that the thirteenth dynasty has been the


of a

the sides of the throne have l^een diminished


in

object

peculiar

from

the

order to engrave the

name

of the king.

kings of the nineteenth.

For a cause which


I.

of the Louvre.
state

The head-dress is the same as on the Sebekhotep The statue is in a remarkable


of preservation,

we do not know,

neither Seti

nor his son

there
is

is

only a slight
It

piece of the nose which

wanting.
waist.

was
base

Rameses considered the Sebekhoteps as legitimate kings, and they did not admit them in the royal lists which were engraved at Abydos and
Sakkarah,
eighteenth
III.,

broken
1887

in

two

at
in

the

The

no more than the Hyksos.


dynasty, and especially
share the

appeared already
;

my

first

excavations in
in

The Thothmes
he

but

it

was sunk deep


of the

water, and I

did not

same
of

feeling, as

left it until I

should have discovered the upper


following sum-

mentions them in his


thirteenth dynasty

list

Karnak.

The
tlie

part.

The inundation
it

hatred of Rameses and his family against

mer
head

carried off the earth which covered the


;

may

explain

why

its

monu-

had

fallen

forward close to the base,


soil.

ments are

so scarce.

From

the

destruction
possess only

with the face in the

"When

it

was raised

practised by the Ramessides,

we

and turned, the colours Avere seen quite fresh. The stripes of the diadem A^ere painted alternately blue and yellow, and there were traces of The colours soon vanished red on the face. after they had been exposed to the air two or
three days
of the use
;

what has been saved either because the island of Argo was very far off, or because the inscription was hidden in a wall as in Bubastis, or because the old name had been thoroughly expunged.

We

must attribute

to

fortunate

but we had here a good example


of poly-

neglect the good preservation of the statues of

which the Egyptians made

the Louvre and of Tanis.


the
thirteenth dynasty,

The

result

is

that

chromy.

They

painted

their

statues

even

which

lias

played an
is

when they were made of black granite. Thus I should attribute the Rameses

important part in the history of Egypt,


of

among

Geneva to a king of the thirteenth dynasty. The statue has a curious peculiarity. Seen from the side, in profile, the head seems disproportionate, and mucli too large for the torso,
while the
singularity
*

But we can hope to derive more information about it from careful researches among the materials with which the
the least

known.

later temples

were

built, especially those of

the

nineteenth dynasty.

chest

is
l^o

somewhat hollow.
seen
also

This
statue

may

in
is

THE HYKSOS.
Another monument of the same kind
the liamcses of
p.
tlie

Louvre, vid. liouge, Notice des monuments,

19 and

JosEPHUS, quoting Manetho, gives the following


version of the invasion of the Shepherds and of

20.

'L'HE

IIYKSOS.

their conquest of I'j'gypt

" The so-called

Tl-

sacred

language,
is

king,

and

Nci.s,

in

the

maos became king.


I

Egypt during

his reign lay,

demotic,

She/iJicrd

and

ShepJiprdf<.

Some

know not why, under

the divine displeasure,

say they were Arabs."

and on a sudden, men from the east countr}^ of an ignoble race, audaciously invaded the land.

This
adds
the
:

"

is all

that

It is

Manetho states, but Josephus mentioned in another work that


does not signify kings,
Jfijk

They

easily got possession of

it,

and estabhshcd

Avord

Hi/k

but

themselves without a struggle, making the rulers


thereof tributary to them, burning their
cities,

shepherd prisoners.
Egyptian,
likely,
jirisuiK'rs,

or

//(;/,,

signifies in

and

this

seems tome more


Avith

and demolishing the temples of their gods.


the natives they treated in
the

All

and more
'

in

conformity

ancient

most brutal

history."

manner

some they put

to death, others they re-

It is useless to

repeat here

all

the opinions

duced to slavery with their wives and children. " Subsequently, also, they chose a king out of
their

which have been expressed on this important and much controverted passage. Few texts
have been the object of so much discussion.
shall only state I

own body,

Salatis

lished himself at

by name. He estaljMemphis, took tribute from


placed

what seems

the

Upper and Lower country, and


in

in the conflict of

most plausible diverging views to which this


to be

garrisons
fortified

the

most suitable places.

He

part of the history of

Egypt has given

rise.
;

more

especially

the eastern frontier,

We
it is

do not

know when
still

the inroad took place

foreseeing, as he did, that the Assyrians,

whose

certain, however, that

under the thirteenth

power was then


that quarter.

at its height,

would make an

dynasty, Egypt was

her

own master

if

the

attempt to force their way into the Empire from

strangers had already entered the land,

it

ivas

He

found

in the Sethroite

uome
of the

a city particularly well adapted for that purpose,


lying to the east of the Bubastite
Nile, called
fable.

not as invaders nor as conquerors. In the obscure period of the fourteenth dynasty, when,

arm

A carls,
he

after an old mythological

according to the papyrus of Turin and Manetho, the kings succeeded each other at short
intervals, after reigns

This

repaired

and
it

fortified

with
of

strong walls, and placed in

a garrison

duration of one year, these "

which had not even the men from the east

240,000 heavy-armed soldiers.


visited
it

In summer he

country,

of an

ignoble race, audaciously in-

in person, for-the

purpose of recruiting

vaded the land."


tion applied

The contemptuous

qualifica-

them with a

fresh supply of provisions, paying

their salaries,

and practising military exercises,

by which to strike terror into the foreigners.


" He died after a reign of nineteen years, and was succeeded by another king, Beon by name, who reigned forty-fom' years. After him

shows were not a distinct nation, whose name and original settlement were well known. They were more or less barbarous hordes driven
that

by Manetho

to the strangers,

they

from

their

native country, and over-runnino-

Egypt

as the barbarians over-ran the

Roman

AiKxchias reigned thirty-six years and seven

Empire.

Their

name has not been


it,

preserved

months; then

Ajjophis, sixty-one

years; then
;

neither the Egyptian inscriptions nor the Greek


writers

lanias, fifty years and one


Assis, forty-nine years

month
first

and

lastly

mention

although the

Egyptian

and two months.


rulers.

" These six were their

They

were continually at war, with a view of utterly


exhausting the strength of Egypt.

The general
which means
in

most minute when they describe the adversaries of Rameses II. mustering at Kadesh, or the invaders who threatened the empire under Merenphthah or Rameses III.
texts are

name
'

of their people
;
'

was
for

Tlyhsus,
Tfyl-

Shepherd Kings

signifies,

the

Bunscn, Egypt's Place,

vol.

ii.

BUBASTIS.

Whenever

the

Hyksos arc

spoken of

it

is

not yet l^ecn solved


that Chaldaea
is

but the fact

is

undisputed

not by their name, they are described in vague words or even abusive epithets. They are the
'f=A

one of the countries where the different races have been fused together at the
earliest epoch.

Asiatic shepherds, ov\


the Ea^t,

\^\
'^'^
|

There

is

a remarkable coincidence between

the

Aamn,

the

nomads of

"%\"^ i^ the shej^herds, or

'^^'^^^ even fj^"^^

the events

which took place

in

Mesopotamia
In the year

and the invasion of the Hyksos.


2280,
the

plague or

the festilence.

If therefore

they had

King

of

the

Elamites,

Khudur

been a distinct nation or a confederacy such as

Rameses II. had to fight, it would be strange that no specific name should be applied to them, and that nothing should connect them with a
definite

Nakhunta, over-ran Chalda;a, which he conquered and pillaged. As a trophy of his


victory, he carried to his capital the statue of

Nana, the goddess


for the

of the city of

Urukh.

To

country

known

to the Egyptians.

We
an
of
did

this act of sacrilegious robbery

we

are indebted

are compelled to

admit

that

they were

knowledge

of the

campaign of Khudur

uncivilized multitude, under the


chiefs, called in

command
They

Nakhunta.

For, 1635 years later, Assurbanipal

conquered Susa, and restored the statue to the


temple from whicli
it

Egyptian |z]

////.

had been taken.

It

must

not belong to the Semitic or to the Turanian stock alone ; to class them exclusively in one of
these two races seems to

have been one of the high deeds of the campaign


in

which Assurbanipal took pride, for

in the in-

me

an error; they

scription whicli relates the defeat of Elam, he

in

must be considered as a crowd of mixed origin, which the two elements may be recognized. Their inroad into Egypt was probably not
spontaneous, they were driven to the valley of
the Nile

twicerefers to the sacrilege of Khudur Nakhunta,

"

who

did not worship the great gods,

and who
"

in his

wickedness trusted to his own strength."

We see here, whatwe shall notice alsoinreference


to the Hyksos, that the chief cause of hatred

by great events which took place

in

and

eastern Asia and led to the conquest of Egypt.


It
is

antipathy between the two nations was diversity


of religion.

in eastern

Asia that we must look for the

cause of the invasion of the Hyksos, and on this

gods

obscure point an unexpected light has been

thrown by Assyriology. The Assyriologists agree

They did not worship the same was enough to make them enemies, and more than 1000 years afterwards, the people of Accad had not lost the tradition of the mis;

it

in stating that,

from

deeds of the Elamites against their gods.


If

a remote epoch, Ohaldcea received in succession

and retained on her productive soil ethnical elements of various origins," which in the end
were mingled together.
Kossscans
quarrelled

B.C.

Mesopotamia was twenty-two centuries the scene of great wars and bloody
it
is

invasions,

not

unreasonable to suppose
felt as far as

Semites, Kuschites or
in this
;

that the effect

was

the banks of

have
for

met

region

they
turn

the Nile.

the

dominion
;

each in
last

reigned over the other

and at

they formed
It is a

the storm which came from Elam overflooded Egypt. In Mesopotamia there have always been nomads
as well as a settled population.

The

waves raised by

a population of a mixed charactei-.

From
in

there a

matter of discussion which of the races has

multitude, not

much advanced

civilization,

been the oldest, and which has brought the


civilization

and of mixed

to

the

other.

The question has

origin, thus justifying to a certain degree the predicate of " ignoble " given them by

Perrnt et Chipiez, Assyrie,

p.

17.

'

Lcnormant, Hist.

aiic. iv.

92.

was driven out by the niouutaiiiccr.s of it pushed on us far as Eg-yi)t. It is evident that liere we launch out into conManetlio,

employed as an
actual prisoners.

e})ithet,

but always applies to


it

Eiam, and
jecture

Once, for instance when


of the Shasu,

prccodes the

name

we

see

on the

but
in

this

hypothesis seems to

rae

to

sculpture the captives tied

by the elbows and

account

the best

way

which we can argue. "Phoenicians" or "Arabs


are the geographical

for the few facts on "


to

brought to Egypt.

I believe, with the majority

of Egyptologists, that the other interpretation


is

names assigned
;

the

the best, and that the

first

syllable of the

Hyksos by Manetho and Josephns


cians "

" Phoeniinvaders

word

Hyksos

must

be

deinved
cJbivf.

from

the
is

meaning,

in

my

opinion,

Egyptian

coming through Palestine, which was the natural


it may be way as for the synonymous with that of" nomads." One fact remains, the absence in the Egyptian inscrip;

M^
is

a iirince or a
in
tlif

There
that
ilie

term " Arabs,"

nothing extraordinary

the

fact

the

whole nation

called

chiefs of

Shasu.
in

We

have an expression quite parallel


settled
in

tions of a specific

name connecting

papyrus of the twelfth dynasty."


Saneha, after having

The wanderer
the
chiefs

the Hyksos

land of
of the

with a definite country, while they are always

Tennu,

is

obliged

to

repel
1

Ihe

mentioned by vague and general epithets


eastern
xJwjjhcrds,
flie

tlte

iiomach,

and the

like.

mouittuiiis,

\/}'v\(S.^\^

hiku setu.

There

Such

qualifications

may very

well apply to a

the

word f/(/(y"evidently refers to the whole tribe


Let us replace the word
I
i

wandering crowd without fixed residence, which,


after having perhaps
stations,
it

of hiohlanders.
setu,

made

several intermediate

by

JtTr(

came down upon Egypt and conquered


difficulty.

"^l y M
it

Shasu, and we have


for

the

expression Hyksos.

As

the

second

without great

The name Hyksos, given them by Manetho,


is

part of the word,

clearly
'

comes from the


translation of

of recent formation,

and certainly
I.

later than
II.

word
which

Iilil'%^^1-'^
is

*^^i'3

^"^st

the campaigns of Seti


Syria.

and Rameses

in

vomad

or slwpherd,

It does not occur in this


;

form in the
it is

the Coptic tycxjc,

and which became The Shasu were a shepherd.

Egyptian inscriptions

but

it is

certain that

formed

in a regular

way, and

it

reminds one of
Egyptologists

other words of the same kind.


the name.

vagrants, the Bedouins of the present day, wandering over the eastern portion of Egypt, iu the desert, the crossing of which they en-

are divided with respect to the interpretation


to

dangered.

If the

word

MjI'^^^cLi
Semitic
>^?^,

^^
j

"^

be given to

Some,

like

Prof.

very ancient in Egypt, as Prof. Krall observes,


it

Krall,' adopt the translation of Josephus,

and

is

because of

its

origin.
to

It

is

derive

it

from the word 'w"'^^^_^


It

^'f-^^'j

meaning

connected with the word


it

iuIUkjc,

and

Ain-'iaoner.

would thus be a term of contempt,

was introduced into Egypt under the N"ew


abundance.

such as

we

often

meet with.

W^'%M=^

'^

Empire, when the Semitic words were adopted


iu

Thus
prisoners, or bound ivith cliains, ai^/AaXcurot
/LieVesj

in the

23rd century B.C. nomad tribes

ttol-

coming from Mesopotamia, and ruled by [-^^^


e

would be

like the vile Kheta,

and other
It

expressions

of the

same nature.

may
is

be
not

^
"

\chiefs,

overran Egypt, and took possession

objected that the word


'

.UJ
Do

hah

of the Delta.

The conquest was

facilitated, if

not by anarchy, at least by the instabihty and the


I'ap.

Acg. Studien, 212 et seq.

ii.

p.

G9 ct seq.

Cara, Gli Hyksos,

de Berlin,

i.

1.

98.

Leps. Kocnigsb.

They advanced of tlie royal power. probably as far as Merapliis. Undoubtedly the invasion was marked by the acts of savagery
weakness

appointment.

In the same way we see that

the Assyrian kings,

who conquered Egypt, gave


Hyksos
cannot

native princes as governors to the great cities.


It

and the
the

depredations with

which

Manetho

was not

different at the time of the

reproaches the Hyksos.

It has always been

invasion.

After a time of warfare and disthe the

case in eastern wars, especially

uncivilized nation fell

when an upon a land Uke Egypt,


of

turbance,
appreciate,

length of

which
settled

Ave

country

down
to

the wealth and

fertility

which contrasted
still

resumed an appearance very similar


it

and what

with the neighbouring countries, and with the desert.


civihzcd

more

But the

superiority of the

different.

had been before. The worship alone was Thus the continuity was preserved
Egyptian
civilization.

race

ing
their

prevalent.

was not long before becomThe Egyptians compelled


to

in the progress of
is

There

only a slight difference between the

New

conquerors
customs.
of

submit
invaders
subjects

to

their habits

and

The
their

adopted
all

the

civilization
religion.

in

but the

"We may even suppose that when they settled in the land, the Hyksos maintained
the

Empire and the Middle, for the Hyksos had not put an end to the former state of things. Under their rule there was a weakening in the life of the nation, a kind of temporary paiise in
its artistic

and

intellectual

growth

but as the
off, it

Egyptian

administi^ation.

The

officials,

root of the tree

had not been cut

very

who were always very numerous who

in Egypt, and

soon shot forth new branches.


time,
as

At the same
the
it

in their inscriptions take as first title

jU

the

cliief

discrepancy between

scribe

or

irrtfer,

must necessarily have been

Hyksos and

their subjects

lay in rehgion,

natives, as they alone

knew
of

the language, the


the

explains the persisting hatred of the Egyptians

writing,

and the customs

country.
;

against the invaders,


It

who were always

con-

officials
^

was so at the time of the Arab conquest the remained the same as before, they were But we have a more striking example, Copts.
it

sidered

as impure

and barbarians, because


by Josephus, informs us

they were hostile to the gods of the land.

Manetho, quoted
that the

which proves that


conquerors to do

was usual with Oriental

so.

newly discovered at Tell


reports directed to the

The cuneiform tablets el Amarna, contain King of Egypt by the


Syria and Palestine,

Hyksos reigned over Egypt 511 years, and that their kings formed the fifteenth and
sixteenth
their

dynasties.

Africanus^

assigns

to

dominion a duration of 518 years.

It is

governors of the

hardly possible to reconcile the dates supplied

cities of

which had been subdued by the kings of the eighteenth dynasty, and which were thus under
Egyptian dominion.
in

by the various chronographers at this obscure period. The two sources from which we derive
the most extensive information are Josephus

These reports are written

Babylonian, a language then current in

and Africanus, who establish

in the following

Eastern Asia, and which the King of Egypt

way

the

list

of the kings.

understood but imperfectly, as he was obliged


to

Josephus.

have recourse to a dragoman who

inter-

preted the letters of the kings of Mesopotamia.


It is clear that the

governors who wrote the

reports were not Egyptians, they were natives


to

whom Thothmes

or

Amenophis had

left their

I'utrie,

Tanis

THE IIYKSOS
In both authors these kings are indicated
as being the first
;

in his

excavations at San (Tanis) in 1860.

On

they are called by Africanus

the arms of

two

colossi representing a king of

the

fifteenth dynasty, to
is

which another, the


But, not to
authors, like

the thirteenth or fourteenth dynasty, he found

sixteenth,

said to have followed.


fact

speak

of

the

that

other

engraved the cartouches of Apepi, which he at first deciphered incorrectly, but which must be
read as follows
:

Eusebius or the Old Chronicle, do not mention this subsequent dynasty, the statement of the

two chronographers
Egyptian texts
;

is

contradicted

by the
king

1JC^;S] (Mlil
god,

^'-^-^

for

we

shall see that the


is

Uaahenen,

the sou. of lla, Apepi.

called here Jjwjihis or Ajyhohls


last,

one of the

This inscription alone


that in his time the
fierce

perhaps even the very last Hyksos king,


to fight

who had

the native princes

of the

is sufiicient to show Hyksos were no more the conquerors described by Manetho. They

seventeenth dynasty.

"We are thus compelled to

did not destroy the temples, since they wrote


their

admit that there


of the

is

an inversion in the statement

names on the

statues

made

for their native

chronographers, and

we

consider the

predecessors, and dedicated to the native gods.


Besides, though they were worshippers of Set

kings of
dynasty.
It
is

whom
in a

they give a

list

as the sixteenth

or Sutekh, they considered themselves as sons

papyrus of the British Museum,


I.,

of Ra, the solar god.

called Sallier

that the mention of a Ilyksos

At
of

the

king has

first

been discovered.

This document,

discovered other

same time as the cartouches, Mariette monuments to which the name


has
since

which was translated by Brugsch, E. de Rouge,

Hyksos

been

applied.

Goodwin, Chabas, has been the object of much


discussion.

consist of four sphinxes, originally placed

They on

Quite recentl}^

it

has been transto

both sides of the avenue leading to the centre


of the temple.

lated

anew by Maspero, who denies


it

the

These sphinxes have a human


face

narrative considers

contains, a historical character,


as a tale or a legend, the
lost.

and
of

head surrounded by a very thick and tufted

it

end

mane.

As

for the

it

has a type quite

which has unfortunately been


related the beginning of the

It probably

different

from the Egyptian.


the

The nose

is

wide

war between

the

and

aquiline,

cheek-bones are high and

Hyksos king and


Thebes.

his native rival, the prince of


its

strongly marked, the

mouth

projecting, with

In spite of

legendai'y appearance

stout lips and fleshy corners.


is

At

first sight it

we gather from
information.
called

the
see

document
that the

important
^^^^

impossible not to be struck by the fact that


the image of a foreign race, and
is

We

strangers are

we have here
an art which
doubt the

by the

offensive epithet of u
;

"v^

^^
"^

not purely Egyptian.

No

the im-jmre, or the flarjue

they are governed by


in Avaris,
\\

artist

who
;

sculptured
all

them was
the characfaces,

Egyptian, the workmanship has


teristics of native art

the king, Apcpi,

who

resides

but on the

which

%
>$:_J

i^
is

and who adopted for his god l"^"^


all

are portraits,
to

we

see that the originals belonged

another race, and they clearly betray a

Sutekh, exclusive of

others.
"^

His adforeign element.

versary

King 8ckenen-Ba, 1

(op^^l^j|
of the
south,

Mariette from the


the

first

attributed

them

to

who

resides in

-^^T
in

'^'-'^

c'7//

Hyksos, and

he was

confirmed in

his

Thebes.

opinion by the fact that on the right shoulder


step
the

further

knowledge of the

of each sphinx

is

an inscription hammei'ed out,

Hyksos was made by the

discoveries of Mariette

but where he could decipher the sign of 'J^

the god Set, and

tlie

words 11,

the r/ood god.

impossible, since they differ only by the last

The whole was so like the inscriptions of Apepi that he did not hesitate in reading his name on the sphinxes, and even in attributing
their execution to his reign.

word
I

instead of
the

^.^.^ j

n,

power instead of

stn-nr/tJi,

sense

of both

words

is

nearl}^

identical.

Since then these


called Hyksos.

In order to complete the


kings,

list

of

Hyksos

monuments have always been


Several
others
of

known

or supposed to be so, before the

the same style have been


;

excavation of Bubastis, I have to mention the

added to the sphinxes

viz. at

two

standing

figures

with

San a group of long hair, and


;

"
the

CSiSI

'^

CS^B] '*"*'''""*
;

holding offerings of fishes and lotus-flowers


the bust of a king discovered in the

famous tablet of the year 400

and the name


lion

Fayoom,
in

which Dev^ria read on the Bagdad


the British

now

at

and

another which

Lenormant found

Museum, Co

^Vj f^^^i^

Rn Set

nouh.

collection at

Rome. The opinion of Mariette which was admitted


Tt
is

The

first is

probably not a historical king, but


;

at first with great favour, has not remained

only the god Set

as for the second

name,

it is

uncontradicted.
these

beyond
at
least

dispute
as

that

a false reading, and


this sovereign

we

shall

see further that


list

monuments

are

old as the

must be struck out of the

Hyksos, in spite of the numerous usurpations which they have undergone, even as late as
the twenty-fii'st
still

of the Egyptian rulers.


Until
called

dynasty, and

of

which they

now the city which was pre-eminently Hyksos, was Tanis. There the name of
been discovered as well as
the

bear traces.
is
it

But are they


very

really

The question
shall revert to

much

debated, and

Hyksos? we
first

Apepi had

presently.

It is nearly certain

that Apepi was not the author, but the

we know that Eameses II. dedicated monuments to Set or Sutekh, the god of the foreign invaders. Thus we could
sphinxes, there also
justly consider Tanis as their capital.

usurper
dedicated

of

the

the

engraved his
scription

who monuments would not have name on the shoulder the insphinxes.

The

king

B. de

would not be in lightly cut characters at a place where it more or less defaces the statue. However, the usurpation may have
been made on the work of another Hyksos.

Rouge even suggested that Tanis was another name for Avaris, the fortified city mentioned by Manetho in his narrative. We did not expect
that the result of our excavations would be to reveal the greatest likeness between Tanis

and

Bubastis.

This

last

city

has

also

been an

The
it

fact

that

it

was not

for

Apepi that the

important settlement of the stranger kings


they raised thei^e constructions at least as large
as in the northern city
j

sphinxes were sculptured does not imply that

was not for another king


Ii,a

of the

same

race.

there also Rameses II.

aa Kenen

is

not the only Hyksos ruler


of Apepi.

who

preserved the worship of the alien divinity.

had the prenomen

There
is

is

another
P

On

the

way from

the second hall to the


first

Apepi whose coronation name

Co ^[^ j

hypostyle, close to the place of the

columns,

Ba

I discovered a fragment of a doorpost in red


granite, on
in

aa user, and

who

is

known through the

mathematical papyrus of the British Museum.^

which two columns.

originally stood
PI. xxii.

an inscription

A gives an idea of the


is

"We are compelled to admit that there are two


Apepis, unless this last coronation
only a variant of the
3

size of the inscription,

which

in quite different It has been

name be

proportions from that of Tanis.

first,

which would not be

Eisenlohr. Proc. Bibl. Arch. 1881, p. 97.

hammered out Close by was


;

nevertheless,

it is

quite legible.

second

fragment,

which

THE HYKSOS.
evidently was the

coronation
that

name, but the


there
is

erasure

is

so

complete,
left

only

a part of the line


cartouche.

which surrounded the

Thothmes ITT., which undoubtedly are usurped. The feet rest on the nine bows. In spite of the most active and persevering researches

On one

side of the inscription

we

we could not
If
it

find the

upper part of the statue.


it

read

(pi.

xxxv.

c), the

son of Ba, Ajjcpi, and on

has not been destroyed


collection.

may be

in

some

the other, he raised f'dlars^ in great itumhers; and


bronze doors to this god.
is

European

Fortunately both sides

meant by
it is

this

god

We do not know who we cannot even assert

of the throne, along the legs, are nearly intact,

and have preserved the name of a king at


present

that

Set.

On

another stone w.alled in the


the beginning of the titles

unknown

(pL xxxv. a).

This king,

who

first hall

we found
(pi.

styles himself the

Horus crowned with


title

the schent,

of

Apepi

xxxv.

b),

such as they are indicated


of Ghizeh.*^

on an altar

in the

museum

We

does not take the

of

^\^ King of Upper and


of

made constructions in his reign. It is not a mere usurpation as we found on the monument of it is a document inscribed with his Tanis name and recording that he increased the temple of Bubastis. The size of the inscription which relates it shows that his work must have been of importance. Once more we
learn from these two texts that Apepi
;

Lower Egypt,
dynasty.

like
is

the kings
tlie

the

twelfth

He

simply 11

good god, and


is
(]

"^
he

tlie

son of Ba.

The standard

"J ()

j^,

who embraces territories. the two cartouches.


Ba.

It is followed

by

/^"^ (^'^

The first must be read User en The sign, which is usually


\

written

has here a peculiar form.


it

recognize the entirely Egyptian form of the

Its i^eading is assured, because

work made by the foreign


quite

rulers.

They have

V^^ k

J.

occurs as

a
II.''

variant

in

the

first

assumed the garb of the native Pharaohs.


are called sons of
life

cartouche of Rameses

They
giving

Ba ;

the epithet of ^

-f-

The second must

in

my

opinion be

read

or everlasting iolloyrs their cartouches,

Ba-ian or rather lan-Ba.

Mr. Petrie^ has

and the

titles of

Apepi are similar

to those of

proposed the reading Khian, taking the upper


disk as a and not as a solar disk,
stress

the twelfth dynasty.


Close to the doorpost, and nearly touching
it,

and laying
it is

upon the

fact that in this cartouche the

stood, a little

lower, the base of a statue in

disk

is

entirely hollowed out,

which

not in

blackgranite, of natural size(pl.xii.).

The statue,
;

the other, and in the expression '^,.

It

may

which is sitting, is broken at the waist the two hands are stretched on the knees as in the statues of the twelfth and thirteenth dynasties;
a narrow band
style is vigorous
falls
;

be answered that on the same


the

side, just

above

second cartouche, the solar disk which


is

between the

legs.

The

accompanies the hawk

also

hollowed out,

the muscles of the knee are

and made exactly


Moreover, there

like that of the cartouche.

strongly marked, but worked with care; the

is

a manifest intention

of

workmanship reminds us either of the great statues of which we shall speak further, or of the statues of Turin bearing the name of
Erugsch, Diet,
10G8, gives

making the
'
'

solar disk conspicuous at the top


Laps. Koenigsb.
is

Wilkinson, Mat. Hier.

ii. pi.

2.

pi.

33.

Mr.Pctrie quotes two cylinders, one of which

in Athens,

the other belongs to Prof. Lanzone.


of the cj'linder of Athens,
*
.

The paper impressions


Griffith kindly sent to

which Mr.

liier.

p.

tlic

word || ,"^,

which he

translates masfs.

I give here to the

word |||
Pano-

me, show a flattened disk, or even an<:ri>, hut not a . As for the cylinder of Prof. Lanzone, I have seen it and examined
it

a wider sense
polis
^

pillars.

There was

in the temples of

carefully with the owner.

It bears a totally different name,

and Memphis a

hall called
pi. 38.

j^]^j^

mnch

longer, in

which

occui'S

an <:!> besides several indis-

Mar. Men. divers,

tinct siqns.

of the cartouche, as

is

always the case, so that

there

may
is

be a perfect symmetry l:)etween both

king An, f^^~^ of the fifth dynasty," who seems have had special titles to the reverto
j

cartouches as in the
sign
ijO

name

of Apries.

The
was

ence

of

posterity, since,

many

centuries
I.

clearly too

short, the

sculptor
It

after his

VZ^

reign, the

king Usertesen

of

obliged

to

put

it

in

as he could.

seems

the twelftli dynasty dedicated to

him a statue

that the artist began to engrave the cartouche


in the lower part, with the eagle, to

now.in the British Museum.

In both cases the

which he

graphic variant of the cartouche of Bubastis


does not exist, and Ave cannot identify our king

allowed too large a space, so that there was not


sufficient

with any of those two, especially not with the

room

left for the signs

[1

[|

in regular

king of the

fifth

dynasty.

proportions.

If he

had not been

l:)Ound to

put

As it has been pointed out, first by Mr. Griffith,


it is

at the top of the cartouche, isolated as

must

impossible not to recognize the cartouche

be done for the name of Ea in other words, if the disk had been a Ich, instead of lla o
nothing prevented him from writing the on
the side of the
l|l|,

of Bubastis in the insci'iption engraved on the

chest of the small lion from Bagdad,


the

now

at

British

Museum.'

It has

been slightly
the
quite legible,

and beginning the cartouche


always
the case

hainmered out, but since


cartouche to
the identity of both

we can compare
is

with

|](|

as

is

with

the

another which
is

cartouche of Xerxes.

striking.

The

p is

easily

Another
the

curious peculiarity to
of

l)e

noticed

recognizable, as well
is

as

the head,

and

the

dedication
it

the

statue.

lan-Ra

has

lower part of the


the sign
is

equally.

As

the form of
it

dedicated
image.

to himself, to his donhle or to his


is

unusual, one could suppose

was

He
is

himself his

own worshipper.
?
?

Where

the place of king lan-Ra

In which
Is

the god Set 7^, though the head is not that of the god. The below has been widened

dynasty are

we

to

classify

him

he

a
?

Hyksos, or does he belong to a native family

by the erasure, and was interpreted as f%s^ nnh. The result is that the king B.a Set nnb, whom
Deveria believed he had discovered on
lion, rests

The
one,

first
if

cartouche

is

very like a well-known


into consideration
1

the

we do not take
detail.

only on an erroneous reading, and as I

graphic

The

letter

x,

which we
"^

said

should take as a complement of the sign


written before, as
if

is

must be struck out of the lists of the kings. The cartouche of the Bagdad lion is not
spMnxes
place

we had

engi'aved on the shoulder as with the

here an intensitive

of

Tanis,

but

on the

chest,

in

the

verb, and that the

We
the

migkt take
other

it

word shonld be read snser. as a mere caprice of the


this cartouche is

where according
for

to all probabilities the king

whom
his

artist, if

the same peculiarity did not occur on

written,

monument where I the Bagdad lion.

had
safely
reign,

the monument was made would have name written. "We may therefore

believe, therefore,

that we cannot identify it with the cartouche '^'7^ User en Ea, which belonged to two kings of
J,

conclude that it was under lan-Ra's and for him that the lion was sculptured.
is

This lion
because

particularly

interesting

to

us,

it is

monument

of the

very different epochs.


list

It

is

found in the

Hyksos

style.

'

of Karnak, the exact order of which

V___y is difficult to establish,

among kings
name

The head is not human, it is that of the animal, but the mane is exactly similar to the sphinxes
'

exLepsins, Answahl, pi. ix.

tending from the eleventh, to the eighteenth

dynasty

It is

also

the coronation
it

of

'

Abraham,
Lepsins classified
in
tlie

Vid. Dcv('ria, Rev. Arch. 1861, ii. p. 25G. Tomkins Maspero, Introd. aux iiion. divers de p. IGO.

clevpnth.

]\raviette, p. 21.

THE HYKSOS.
of Tanis.

Thus we have

at last

Hyksos

divinity.

Clearly there

was a great

difference

inonument, the author and dedicator of which


is

as to

religion

between the Hyksos and the


considered the strangers as

lan-Ra had monuments which has been considered as the work of the Hyksos.
well
established.

Egyptians,

who

made

for

him

in the foreign style

impious and as enemies of their


foreign dynasty,

own

gods.

Since Set or Sutekh was the divinity of the


it

This very important fact induces us to


step
farther.

make a

is

extraordinary that

his

Is

lan-Ea not the author of

the sphinxes of Tanis, Avhich Mariette contended


to have belonged to Apepi, but which existed

name does not appear on the statue of lau-Ra, who seems to have had no other god than himself.

This circumstance corroborates the idea

before this king

Apepi inscribed

his

name on
monu-

recently put forward

by the Rev. Father De


instituted

the shoulder, in a place indicating that the

ment had on the chest another name wliich he did not wish to erase, and whicli we do not
see now, because a later king, of the twentyfirst

The learned worship of Set was


Cara.

Jesuit suggests that the

by Apepi, and

that from this important

event of his reign

dates the era mentioned on the famous tablet

dynasty, Psusennes, destroyed


it

it

altogether

and replaced

by

his

own.

It is natural to

suppose that' the name which Apepi respected

by Rameses II. It would explain why the name of Set is absent from the statue of lan-Ra while it exists in
of the year 400, dedicated

was lan-Ra, since we have another monument of the same style as the sphinxes bearing it at
the regular place.

the

insci'iptions

of the

sphinxes

of

Tanis.

Pcrliaps Apepi had not yet achieved his great


religious reform

when he

erected at Bubastis

Another curious feature of


inscription is the dedication.

this

important

the great constructions, the mention of which

known name of the god in honour of whom the monument is made, is found at the end, after the name of the
It is well

has

been
"1

preserved.

They were

made

in

that on statues or obelisks the

honour of
for

^^ this god, we do not know which,

dedicator,
loves,

and followed by the word


worshijjs.

\l\l\

who

it would be rash to draw any conclusion from the spot where the stones have been unearthed. In a temple which has been over-

who

It

is

useless

to

quote

here instances of which there are hundreds.

thrown so often and so completely as Bubastis, no conclusive evidence may be derived from
the
vicinit}'-

But here

occurs the
is

extraordinary circum-

of

two

stones. of

stance that lan-Ra

worshipper of his own


/;,c

post with the

name

Because the doorApepi and dedicated to

person: JU-k.=^
double,
is

[1[^,

loves,

he worshi'ps his

1 ,v^

''"'^'

i/^^

'^^^ close to the statue of lan-

Ms

oion image.

It

reminds us of what

related in several texts, of the ungodliness of

the Hyksos.

The

inscription of Stabl

Antar
"""'
in

Ra, the worshipper of himself, we cannot infer that the divinity which Apepi had in mind was the same lan-Ra, whom he might have worshipped as his ancestor or as a deified preThis hypothesis, without being decessor.
impossible,
in
is

-y^

('

s)-

li^Prnk^^sf?.
Ba,
Ra,

reigned,
hostility

ignoring
against
in

meaning
altliough

hereby
the

not very probable.


dedication
of

Nevertheless,

god

this strange
is

the

statue

of
is

appeared
Sallier

their
is

papyrus

names and titles. still more explicit in its

The
state-

lan-Ra, there

a characteristic feature which

ment.

It relates that with the

exception of

not in conformity with what we usually see in the truly Egyptian statues ; and in my opinion
it is

Sutekh, none of the gods of Egypt received


the worship which was due to them, while the

believe

another proof that lan-Ra was a Hyksos. even that lan-Ra is one of the

king Apepi was a fervent adorer of the foreign

kings

mentioned

by

Josephus

as

'lai^ias

BUBASTIS.
or
'Avi>a^,

which

must

perhaps

bo

read

on

its side (pi.

xxvi. l).

It

was

clear that there

'lavpaq.

To
fmesfc

the epoch of the

Hjksos belong the two monuments discovered at Bubastis one

were two twin statues, and as we had the head of one, we could reasonably hope to find the other.

of

which

is

at the

otlier at the

museum of Britisli Museum

Ghizeh, and the


I

mean

the two

happened two days afterwards. The second head was discovered in a much better state of preservation than the first ; it is now in tho
It

colossal sitting statues in black granite

which
hall,

British

Museum (pl.i. and x.) Thus the

entrance

were placed near each other on the east side of


the temple at the entrance of the
first

of the temple of Bubastis

colossal statues of

was adorned with two the same size exactly, which

and both on the same side of the great columns which adorned the doorway. Unfortunately
they are in pieces.
find even one of
It has been impossible to

them complete. The first fragment which appeared was the top of a headthe forehead was dress, wearing the royal asp
;

had been most wantonly destroyed, so that it was not possible to reconstitute one of them, in spite of the most careful researches. PI. xxvi. b exhibits the manner in which the fragments
were
light.

'

j^laced

when they were

first

exposed to

It

shows two fi-agments of the statue

attached to the diadem, and the head had been

of the Britisli

Museum,

the lower part of the

broken horizontally, at the height of the eyes, which were hollowed out. A few strokes on the
eyelids look like lashes,

torso and the knees, which are one block, the extremity of the legs,
first.

and

which had been seen


close to the

and they may have profor


it

The head was a little deeper,


still

duced the
is

illusion

when seen from below,

knees, and deeper

the toes

but the statuo

inlaid with other material.

not certain that the hollow of the eyes Avas A few days after-

could not be completed, the upper part of the


torso

wards the lower part of the head was unearthed (pi. xi.), and we recognized directly the same the type of the sphinxes of Tan is

appeai-ed.
side.

from tho waist to the neck has disThe other base was lying on its

"When

it

was dragged out of the mud,


it

wc found

that

had been

split
is

in

two from
left.

high and strongly marked cheek-bone, while the cheeks are rather hollow, the projecting

top to bottom, so that there

only one leg

The fragment has been


of Ghizeh, with the
all

carried to the
first

museum
;

mouth with

stout lips

and the

fleshy protuber-

head

discovered

it is

ances at the corners.

The
its

nose,

which has
is

that remains of that statue.


it

PL

xxiv. d

shows

been preserved nearly in


wide, strong at
its origin,

whole length,

the base after

time
it

it

and aquiline. This was not a sphinx which had been found,
as

greatest likeness in the


this

had been raised. There is tho workmanship between


statiic

base and the

of lan-Ra.

Unfor-

was a royal head, dressed


of

we

often see
tliirtcenth

tunately on neither of the two colossi have

we

the kings
dynast}^.

the

twelfth or the

been able to discover the name of tho king

whom

they represent.

At afewfect distance wecnmo across the lower


part of the legs of a colossal statue in black

notices that the type

which evidently was part of the same monument (pi. iv. and xxv. d). But when, the infiltration water having receded, we were able to excavate, we quite unexpectedly came upon
granite,

two heads together one is tho same the foreign characteristics which belong to the Hyksos face are marked as much in one as in the other ;
Looking at the
;

but there
faces.

is

not identity between the


of the British

tw^o
is

The head

Museum

the lower part of the torso and the knees which

the image of a younger man.


as that of Ghizeh
;

It is not so full
it

belonged to this base, besides another base of the

on the whole
It

has a more

same

size

and of the same workmanship, lying

juvenile appearance.

may

be that they aro

TKE HYKSOS.
the portraits of two different men, for instance
I

am

brought back by

my

excavations to the
I

a father and a son


it is

hut
at

it is

possible also that

opinion of Mariette, and

believe

that the

two epochs of his life, one young, perhaps, when he had but shor tly
the same

man

monuments which ho assigned to the Hyksos are really the work of the foreign kings. It
seems well established that they are later than
the twelfth dynasty, with which they have no
likeness in the type.
of

ascended the throne, the other

when he was

more

advanced

in

years.

Notwithstandhij^

minute examinations of the two statues, wo could not find out the name of the king or the
kings whose likenesses they are.

The same may be

said

the thirteenth

neither the

Sebekhoteps,

The photoof the

nor Neferhotcp, nor one of the least known

graph of the base


erasures
Nilcs
is

of

Ghizeh shows two successive

Mermashu
There

of Tanis have the strange features of

(pi.

xxiv. d).

The group

two

the sphinxes or of the two statues of Bubastis.

of the style of the twelfth or thirteenth

remains the
is

fourteenth

dynasty,

the

dynasty, and such as

we

recognized before on

history of which

nearly unknown, and the


is

monuments of that time. had engraved his name.


extant;
it

Above

it

Rameses

II.

Hyksos.

But

if

the fourteenth

a dynasty

His standard

is still

of native princes, as

we hear from Mauetho,

was adopted

part which was

later by Osorkon II. The hammered out most deeply was

why

should they have given to their statues

the place of the cartouches, which were trans-

formed or engraved with the name of Osorkon II. This king usurped both statues. His na me and his titles may be seen on the base of the one
at the British Museum. of

and sphinxes a decidedly strange character ? Is it not more natural to suppose that the Asiatic type was introduced into Egypt by the Asiatics
themselves
?

Is

the

coincidence

not

suffi-

ciently striking that

we may conclude
origin ?

that

it

The place where the name the king who erected the statues must have
is

proceeded from a
limits of the

common

Now

the

stood,

the edge of the throne, along the legs


sides.

narrowed.

We

problem have been very much have the choice only between

on both

There the base of the British


a very deep erasure, where
=!
t

the fourteenth dynasty and the Hyksos.

Museum shows
can
still

we

distinguish at the top

and "^^
the signs
are nearly

"We do not know when the fourteenth dynasty began, nor can wo tell when the thirteenth ended but the scanty information which we possess
does not point between the two to an abrupt

between the cartouches.


of the coronation
all discei-nible,

At Ghizeh
Rameses
it

name

of

II.

and sudden change, such as would have been


produced by a foreign invasion.
even withManethothat the
first

but so deep that

cannot liave

Admitting
Diospolite,

been the original inscription.


It is only conjecturally that

was

we can

assign a

and the second Xoite,

this cii'cumstance does not

and what seems most natural is to give them the same as to the It may be either Apepi or sphinxes of Tanis. lan-Ra. Apepi, Ave know through his inscripto these statues
;

name

account for such a deep alteration in the type,

nor for such an obviously foreign character in


the features of the face.
clusion to which Mariette

Therefore the con-

tion,

made such

large constructions at Bubastis

that he
portrait

may

well have desired to leave his


temple.

had arrived seems to me by far the most satisfactory, and I consider that the group of monuments to which he gave
the

in the

As

for

lan-Ra we

name

of

Hyksos

really belongs to them.

have no proof that he built much, but we know


that

he had monuments of

the

same kind

However, the share which they have contributed in works such as the great statues, is
merely the type, the character of the face.
All
that renfards the execution, the technical side.

sculptured for him.

Thus

after

having much hesitated myself,

is essentially

Egyptian, even

tlie attitude.

The
for

heads were Turanians, but I should not be able


to say which."
in

Shepherd kings

employed native

artists

Prof. Flower expresses himself

They had submitted to the Egyptian civilization. They had yielded


making
their portraits.

a more

positive

way on
is

the Mongoloid
is

affinities of

the Hyksos.

There

nothing in
in

to the ascendency

which a superior race


;

"will

these

statements

which

not

perfect

always exert on less civilized invaders


vfG

but
their

harmony with the

historical facts

which are
of

may understand

their

desire

that

mentioned above, as having been the cause of


the invasion of the Hyksos.

foreign origin should be recorded somewhere,

The presence

and nothing could show


portrait.
It
is

it

as well as a

good
en-

a Turanian race in Mesopotamia at a remote

obvious

that

the

artist

epoch

is

deavoured to give an exact likeness of the king ; it is shown by the great difference which
exists

logists.

no more questioned by most AssyrioIt does not mean that the whole bulk
entire

of the invaders, the


settled in Egypt,

population which
origin.
It

between the head and the lower part of


the hand
of

was of Turanian

the body, where


sculptor
is

a less

clever

easily traceable.

Certainly under

would be contrary to well-established historical facts. It is certain that all that remained in Egypt
of the
in

Hyksos Egyptian art had not degenerated. The two heads of Bubastis are among the most beautiful monuments which, have been prethe
served.
It is impossible not

the

Hyksos, in the language, in the worship, name of Aamu, by which they were
a decidedly Semitic
well not

called, everything points to

to

admire the

influence.

But the kings may very

vigour of the work as well as the perfection

with which the features are modelled.


is

There

have been Semites. How often do we see in eastern monarchies and even in European
states

something harder, even perhaps more brutal


in the typo of the

difference

of

origin
tlio

between
royal

the

than

Eamessides, whose

ruling

class,

to

which

family

features are

more

refined

and gracious

but

it

belongs, and the

mass of the

people.

We
we

need
find

comes

fi'om the difference in the originals,

which

not leave Western Asia and Egypt;

did not belong to the same race.

there Turks ruling over nations to the race of

After along circuit we thus return to our start-

ing point, and


native
of

we

inquire again, where

was the

which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the

country the

Hyksos

consulting

instead of historical documents, the ethnological characters

whicb may appear on the monu-

Turks of Bagdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed
oi'igin

ments.

On

this point

we

find a nearly complete

where the Semitic element was prevalent.


consider the mixing up of races which
ages,

agreement between two of the most eminent


ethnologists of the present day
in

If

we

Prof. Flower
the spot, a

took place in Mesopotamia in remote

England, and Prof. Yirchow in Germany.


illustrious

the invasions which the country had to suffer,

The

German saw the head now

the repeated conflicts


theatre,

of

which

it

was the

belonging to the British

Museum on

there

is

nothing

extraordinary that

few days after

it

had been discovered, and he


it

populations coming

out of this land should

published a drawing of
Berlin Academy.
first

in a paper read at the

Prof. Yirchow

was struck

at

have presented a variety of races and origins. Therefore I believe that though we cannot
derive a direct evidence from ethnological considerations, they do

sight by the foreign character of the fea-

tures,

but he added that

it

was very

diSicult to

not

oppose the opinion


point of

give their precise ethnological definition.

" It

stated above that the

starting

the

may

be," says he, " that the models of these

invasion of the

Hyksos must bo looked

for in

TUE EIGUTEENTn DYNASTY.


Mesopotamia, and that the conquest of Egypt by the SheiDherds was the consequence of the
inroads of the Elamites into the valley of the
Tigris and the Euphrates.

belonging to the fourth or the fifth; but nothing whatever of the seventeenth or of the eighteenth.

Except the serpent

of

museum
tis

of

Ghizeh,

Beuha, now in the and which dates from

Amenophis

III., before

our discoveries atBubas-

no monument of the Delta could be attributed


It

THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY.


It is undoubtedly to the kings of the eighteenth

with certainty to those priuces.


cavation has been made, at

would be

extraordinary, however, that. wherever an ex-

dynasty that

we must

give the credit of having

begun the war against the Hyksos, and having embarked in a struggle which ended in the deliverance of the country from the yoke of the foreign dynasty. However, notwithstanding their great and persevering efforts, Ahmes and Sekenen-Ra did not succeed in achieving this arduous task. The invaders were finally driven out by the kings who followed, and who were
not their immediate successors.

Tanis, Pithom, Nebesheh, Tell Mokdam, Khataanah, Tell el Yahoodieh, Saft el Henneh, especially in the
localities

where

ancient

monuments

have

been discovered, precisely those of the seventeenth and eighteenth dynasties should have
disappeared.
bastis

But we have discovered at BuAmenoiMs II., and two of his successors


;

and at the same time the fellaheen unearthed


at

who have
to

discussed this subject

The seem

writers
to

of Amenophis IV.

me

Samanood a large tablet bearing the names and Horemheb. The explanation of these facts seems to me
In an inscription at Stabl Antar,

have attached too much importance to the

quite natural.

campaign related
Alimes.

famous inscription of The general tells us that under King


in the

which describes her high deeds, the queeu


Eashci^su,
the
sister

and

guardian
III.,

of

the

Ahmes

I.

the city of Avaris was besieged and

younger brother, Thothmes

speaks in this

conquered, and that the expedition was pushed


as far as Sharohan, on the frontier of Palestine.

way
uj)
flte

I restored

ivhat

was in

ruins,

and I
of

built

again lohat had remained {uncompleted) lohen

This narrative, engraved in his tomb, has often been considered as describing the final deliverance of Egypt, which, however, does not seem to

Aamu

were in the midst of


city of

Efjijpt

the
the

North, and in the

Hauar, and when

Shcphcrds^^^
noring
until

have been realized as early as the seventeenth


dynasty.
It is probable that
if

^^^
on. the

^f^m

"'"^"'/ '^"'"^ ^'"^^

destroyed the {ancient)

^corJcs.

They reigned

ig-

the Delta had

Ii'a,

been occupied in a stable and permanent manner

and disobeying

his divine

commands,

I sat dua-n

by the kings
the
first

of the seventeenth dynasty,

and by

throne of It a.

Making
is

allowance for the exaggeration which


in

usual

sovereign of the eighteenth,

some
in
it is

an Egyptian inscription, the passage seems to

traces of their dominion

would have remained

establish that order

was

far

from being restored


the subjects of

the country, whereas, on the contrary,

in the Delta when the

queeu ascended the throne;

remarkable fact that, before the excavations at


Bubastis, no

monument

the edifices ruined by the

Aamu,

of their time

had been

Apepi, had not yet been rebuilt, and probably

In every place where excavations have been made, either by our


discovered in the Delta.

predecessors or by

ourselves,

if

not statues or

larger monuments, at least

names have been


dynasty,
of

an administrative organization could hardly bo said to exist. However, before her reign, Ahmes, Amenophis I., Thothmes I., had carried
'

discovered of

the

twelfth

the
3G

Golenischeff, Eecueil de Travaux, vol.


et suiv.

iii.

p. 2, vol, vi.

1.

thirteenth, or even of

much more

ancient kings

De

Cara, Hyksos, p. 271.

war into Syria and even as far as Mesopotamia, and could not liavc done it without marcliing tlirough the Delta. Wo must admit that their wars had not been sufficient to overthrow and
finally

destroy the
in

Asiatics, Avho

may have

But it was different with tlie conquests of Thothmes III., which had a lasting result, since we know from the tablets of Tell clAmarna,that under his successors Amcnophis III. and Amenophis IV., Syria and part of
had a party
Egypt.

word Misphi'agmuthosls consists in two different names fused in one Mlsaphris or Mesphres and Thouthmosis. Misaphris or Mesphres is a Greek transcription, easily explained, of Menhheperra, the coronation name of Thothmes III. The name quoted by Josephus and Eusebius is only the two cartouches of Thothmes III. combined in one -word.

The stone of Amenophis


slab in red granite with

II.

(pl.xxxv. d)

is

Mesopotamia were still tributary to Egypt. The first campaign of Thothmes III. was
directed

against

the hereditary foes

of
;

his
in

two panels. It was at the entrance of the liall of Nekhthorheb, the most western in the temple. It was brought from another part of the edifice for though we rolled
;

empire, the Syrians and Asiatic

nomads
its

and

many of

the neighbouring blocks

we

did not find

order to assert his

final

triumph over his formid-

anj'thing else of that epoch. the slab itself

In turning over

able enemies, and to perpetuate

remem-

we saw
It

the reason

why

it

has

brance, he built in the land oi Bcnienen a fort or


castle,

been preserved.

was put

in later times as

which he called MenhJieperra (Thothmes)


the

a threshold, or rather as an upper lintel to a


door,

suMucs
This

nomads (ora^J
is

% ^:^ ^^^
it

and the

slot-holes

ai-e

still

visible,

in

"^ ^^^^"

name

very significant when

which the hinges


is

w^erc inserted (pi. xxvi. a).

con-

nected with

tlie

information derived from the in-

On

the slab are two

sculptured panels in

scription of Ilashepsu.
after

Moreover, immediately
tlie

opposite directions to each other.

In both of

Thotlimes III.

monuments appear
is

them, the king Amenophis

II. is

seen standing

again in the Delta, and the most ancient


stone discovered at Bubastis.
facts have led

the

These

different
it

and making offerings to the god Amon, who sits on his throne. The king promises him as a
reward, health,
strength, happiness, courage,
It
is

me to

conclude with Lepsius that


finally delivered

was Thothmes III. who


against their invasions

Egypt

according to the usual formulas.


that

strange
at that

from the Ilyksos, and who secured the coimtry


;

we

find

no mention

of Bast,

who

for

it is

certain tliat a

time seems not to have been the chief local


divinity
;

part of the people remained in the land and

whereas the god wdiose worship Avas


After his

accepted the dominion of the Pharaohs.

prevalent was Amon-Iia, the ling of the gods,


the great king, the lord of the
shij.

This opinion on the work of Thothmes III.

seems to

me

confirmed by the very corrupt


It

name, comes the mention


is

of the j^lace
is

where he
J^ast,

passage in which Manetho, quoted by Josephus,


relates the expulsion of the ITyksos.
is

worshipped, and where he

considered as

said,

residing.

We

should expect to find here


is

that under a king whose

name must be read

the usual
case,

Misphragmuthosis, the Shepherds -were driven


out of Egypt, and took refuge in the city of
Avaris.''

name of Bubastis. But that and we come across a totally

not the

different

name, he who dwells in Perunefer.


discovered

This name

have suggested elsewhere

that the

has only been met with once, by Brugsch,^


it

who

Brug.sch, Rcc. pi. xliii. Acg3'pt. p. 32S.


Etti Be
/?acrtXc(os
^Tjcri
Trdo-Tjs

uvo/xa
vtt

euat

'Mio-i^pay/xou'^oxTts
fxiv
eis ttJs

on a tablet of the museum of Ghizeh, which speaks of a controller of the workWe must infer shops, in the city of rerunefer.
^

ijTTdifj.tvov'i

Tous TTOt/xeVas
iKTrecriiv
ii.

avTov Ik
S'

aA.Aij9
. .

AiyWTOV
Avopiv.

KaTnK\iiar67jvai.
p.

tottov

Mnllor, Fragiii.

5G7.

Zeitsclir.

1883,

p. 9.

Diet. Geog. p. 221.

THE EIGHTEEXTII DYNASTY.


from the inscription of AmouopLis
Perunefer
is

II., tliat

generals acting in

a similar
in

the

oldest

name
to

of

Bubastis.

Middle Ages or even

way during the modern times. Seti I.


frontiers of his

Though wo found a dedication as Araenemha I., it is clear

Bast as early

had

to fight the

Shasu on the
to

that under the

empire.

In passing through Bubastis he pro-

eighteenth dynasty, the worship of the goddess

mised to
perhaps
heretical

Amon
suffered

repair

the
II.,

constructions

was not the most important in the city, the sanctuary of which was the abode of the Theban god Amon. We do not know in what consisted the constructions of Amenophis II., but they must have
had a certain importance, since a following king thought it necessai'y to renew them. Between the two panels is a vertical inscription in two
columns, Avhich contains the following text
:

erected there by

Amenophis
duricg

and which had


reign
;

the

of

the
is

King Amenophis IV.

nothing

more
all

in accordance

with the religious ideas of

times.

Amenophis
king,

IE.

was followed by an obscure

Thothmrs

IV., after

whom

one of

the

most powerful sovereigns of Egypt, Amenophis

The

Icing

of Upper and
tJie

Lower Egypt made


. . .

ilie

He is the only one whose monuments were known in the Delta


HI., ascended the throne.
before our excavations
;

renovation of

huildings of

The son of
prosper the
Seti I. re-

these

monuments were

Ba,

Seti meri en

Phthah caused

to

scarabs which the fellaheen discovered in the

Jioiise

of his father like lla.

Thus

mounds
local

of

Tell Basta,

and a stone serpent


Ghizeh, which
is

newed, the construction which had. been raised

deposited in the

museum of

the

by

bis predecessor.

The same

fact occurs at

form of Horus, worshipped

in the city of

Thebes,''

on the south pylon of the temple of


There, a large sculpture represents
II.

Athribis
of

now
time

called
of

Benha.

The monuments
IH.

Karnak.

the

Anwaopliis

which

avc

Amenophis

striking a

group of enemies,
hair,

discovered, are four in number, and are of the

whom

he holds bound together by their

following description

before the

God Amon.
god
is

The god makes

the

Two

headless statues representing the same


official also

usual promise of victory over his enemies, and


before
tlie

men, a higher
These statues

called

Amenophis.

an inscription nearly identical

(pi. xiii.),

both of black granite,

to that of Bubastis,

It

"^^;^M (3^1
monuments was made
everlasting.

are very unequal as

to Avorkmanship.
is in

That

the renovation of the

which

is

on the left of the plate


is

the

museum
skilled

of Ghizeh, the other

in the British

Museum.

by the King

Bamenma,

The
works of
II.

first
:

was sculptured by a

clever

and

may be asked what


up again or
of

i*eason induced Seti I.

artist

it is

a fine piece of work, remarkable in

to build

to restore the

his

particular for the elaborate modelling of the

predecessor.

I believe that

when he renewed
he was

body, which

is

covered by a garment of very

the

monuments

Amenophis
at the

thin material, a long

actuated by a religious motive, by the desire to


propitiate

two braces.
in a position

gown tied at the neck by The man is sitting cross-legged,


is

Amon, perhaps

moment when

which

frequent with Orientals

he entered on his Asiatic campaigns, for which


Bubastis must have been the starting point.
It

the legs, folded under the garment, are

not

detached.

He

holds in the

left

hand a papyrus
;

was an
It

offering

which he made to the god in

order to court his favour, or as fulfilment for a

which he unrolls with the right on his lap from the left hand hangs also a kind of purse
or bag, the use of which I cannot
tell.

vow.

would be easy to quote kings or

On

the

papyrus

is

an inscription to which we

shall

have

Leps.

Dcnkm.

iii,

Gl.

to revert.

The date

of

the

monument was

furnished

XXV.

b).

by a part of the garment (pi. The two braces by -which it is held


back by a kind
is

(loreriior of the city,

tJic

general Amcno2')his the

heloved.

This inscription must be compared


e).

are tied together on the

of

with that of the other statue: (PI. xxxv.

broach or
scription

slide,

on which

the following in-

(jT^^^lT|'
of

'^"^

Oood god, Nch

Ma

Fid, heloved

of

Ma, which is -the first cartouche Amenophis III. The same ornament and
found on the second statue,
of this statue,

& Si
T^

'

T^"^

^^^ ^^ ""'^'^ ^^-

scure than the


refers to the

first,

though

it is

clear that

it

inscription are

which in addition has on the chest the cartouche


of the king.

The other peculiarity


manner
in

which

to
is

my
the

knowledge has not been met with

before,

which

same man. But as the titles are different, we must admit that he had the two statues sculptui-ed at two different epochs of his life. As the other one is of better workmanship, and as it contains titles which on the whole
indicate a higher position than the second,

his title of scribe


p||

we

or

official is indicated.
left

The

sign

is

placed

may

conclude that he began with the statue of

on the

shoulder in such a

way

that the

the British

reed and the inkstand are on the back, while


the purse
is

than the other.

Museum, which was dedicated earlier As far as we can make them


merely
first

on the

chest.

It is to
;

be regretted

out, the titles of the second statue are

that the head has disappeared

it

been slightly bent forward as


the text of the papyrus.

if it

must have were reading


it is is

sacerdotal, while the


civil

shows
takes

political

and
the

emjDloyments, besides, here they are not so


:

numerous
;

the

frince

wlio
tin'

care

of

The second

statue

is

not quite so large,

domains cf

the temjiles,

chief of Nelihcn icho

below natural proportions


nearly the same, but there
titles

tbe workmanship the position

inferior to that of the other;


is

is
to 1)0 read utelni,

and means cultivated land,


an inscription of Rameses
"W

no papyrus, and the


of the body.

domains.
II.
(pi.

It is

met with

also in

of the

man

are inscribed on a vertical

xxxvii. c) in the expression

column running along the middle

y37

ttie

The

following text
(pi.

is

inscribed on the first

statue :-'

xsxT.p)

'^^iJl^^P^;

domains of the lonians (Brugsch, Diet, suppl. p. 171 et7G5). 1 do not know of any other instance where it follows tho word .<2^ which 1 translate here, 7oho faJces care of, who
loolis after.

aTol I cannot interpret

this word,

the great hall, other-

wise than the temple of Buhastis.


see the reason

~=^

^ '-^
^^

lit.

the chief

of NeJcJmi (Brugsch, Diet. Geog. p. 355).

why

tho city of Eilithyiaspolis, or even


here.

One does not Upper


-^'^ ^

'^feTlS^
cstahlislihicj

TO.

7,;,,, ./(.,,,;,

Egypt, should

be mentioned

Brugsch quotes tho

nf

Ma,

the giving ordinances fa fhe

same

title

from an inscription of Esneh, an employment in the great


There,
it

^^.

friends, hy the ^mnce, the first friend,


lord, the

who

loves his

It refers to

festivals of

Horus

head of

all the

worls of his hing, and of


tJt.e

and Hathor at Edfoo.


a great

is

natural that tho chief of

the iirovinces ofpasture marshes, the chancellor,

the festival.

neighbouring city should play an important part in But at Bubastis, in Lower Egypt, it would be

extraordinary.
'

In

my

opinion,

considered as a mere
P legislative

title,

^^

^^^-

eefaMish

the tnith

or jmtirc, indicates

literal sense,

which may be

historically true, but


is

tho expression must bo and we must leave aside the which has
so

work.
Vi

This expression, and the more frequent one

lost its original

meaning, as

often
titles.

the

case

at the

of

o^

which occurs

in the

titles of

several

present day with sacerdotal or royal


<:==>
lit.

kings,

must be

translated legidator.
T'^*^

U'ho calms, 7i'ho quiets his going,

meaning of
or

-^

^H m LM "T" "T" 'T^ ^I consider to be

reading of

-f^ -^
translates

course,

tclio

stops,

who remains, another


what we

priestly right
['

^ '^^, which Goodwin


490)
level

privilege analogous to
to

find elsewhere

_P

[I

^^

2^a?^ure,

and Brugsch

(Diet. Sappl. p.

plain.

go

iji

and

out.

THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY.


slops his

33

march in
is

the holy place, the gorcrnor of

Bubastis.

It is also close to this city that


site of the

we

the city, the general

Amenophis who

lices again.
tlie

have determined the original


Goshen.^

land of

Nehhen

properly the

name

of

city
is

of

The expression

"

nomes

of

marshes,"

Eilithyiaspolis, now called

El Kab, whicli
;

often

or " of pasture land," seems to point to a fact

taken as an emblem for Upper Egypt


lieve that here -we

but I be-

which

is

confirmed by several other inscriptions,

must entirely put aside the geographical sense, and take the expression chief of Nclchen as meaning a certain employment in the great religious festivals, as we know
from an inscription
of Esuch, and as
of late

that several of the

nomes
as

of

Lower Egypt were


under the names given them

not yet organized

they were

Ptolemies, and had not yet the


at a later epoch.
list

epoch
infer

in the

temple
title

of Seti

I.,

where we

we may

from the

of water districts.

They do not appear on the find in their stead names Under Amenophis III. the
it

which follows.
This
priest

administrative organization of the country could

had important administrative

not be so complete as
later, considering that it

Avas

many

centuries

and

civil duties."

He had

to

make laws and


rank

ordinances which applied to the friends (^tXot,


i)

was not long since the land had been wn-ested from the hands of the
foreign invaders.

of the kings, as
officials

he was the

first in

among

those

who occur

already in very

Another monument of the


have been very elegant.

time

of

Ame-

early inscriptions.

Wc have to notice the absence


;

nophis III. was a double group, which must


It represented a

of precise geographical indications

there

man

is

no name we expect
only this:

of

city

or of

a nome.

Wiicre

and
tion

his wife.

The head

of the

woman
g).

alone

to find Bubastis

mentioned we find
'^'^

has been preserved, with a fragment of inscrip-

am
Jj^^

IiM

T" 7" 7" f,


TtTtT

engraved on the back

(pi.

xxxv.

It is
all

pro-

the priest
It
is

who speaks and who describes

the

vinces of the pasture marshes of the North.

honours with which he has been overwhelmed.

spoken elsewhere
of Buhastis.

of,

~^~^

^,^ the

marsh

He

says that he was raised to the dignity of

land in

So there must have been pasture the vicinity of Bubastis, and this re-

chief

-=^|^,
all

and

that

the

king

put

him

above

his retinue.

He

adds that he reached


of

minds us of what is said in the great inscription of Merenphthah, of the country around the city of Bailos- (Belbeis), which was only at a short
distance,
'

old age, having continually enjoyed the favour

of the king.

The cartouche

Amenophis

III.,

engraved on the chest, gave us the date of


this beautiful fragment.

and belonged

to the
tliu

same nome
of
Gliizeli

as
lias

Siuce this was written

luusciim
of

We
of
Avell

purchased a statue, the workuiansliip


greatest likeness with the
of
first

which has the


It is

which the

must not omit the base of a small statue, feet alone have been preserved, as

statue of ]3ubastis.
attitude
is

made

painted sandstone.
as
tlie

The

as the inscriptions engraved on both sides.

nearly the same^ as

well

characteristic

ornament

jiQ],

and the

It Avas
statue,
is

made
'

for an ofiicial of the palace called

The broocli is not visible, because it is covered by the long and thick liair. The statue conies from Gurnah, one of the villages situate on the site of Thebes. I believe it is the same man who had not yet been promoted to the hi"h dignities which lie attained at Lubastis. His name
complete.

^'>^f]

AViCj/'t (pi.

XXXV. h,h').

The Berlin

ax^

title

are:

ft

^^1 f)^ ^Ig


i-

museum * contains a kneeling statue of the same man, with the name of Amenophis III., which has furnished the date for the monument of
Bubastis.

^'-

m-iter of the
'

lioolis

of

ItoUj icortls

of Anion, Amenopld.

Brugsch, Diet. Geog. p. 207. Vid. Navillo, Goshen, Appendi.\.


p. 22.

of several officers of

Thus our excavations have yielded monuments Amenophis III. The state
Goshen,
p.

The Mound of

the

Jew,

U and

If.

Catalogue, p. Gl.

of destruction in

which they have been found

III.,

and after he had by

his

successful wars

shows that the temple may have contained more Bubastis of them, which have disappeared. was a good starting point for a sovereign like Amenophis III., who made both miUtary and
hunting expeditions into Mesopotamia, and who had contracted family ties with the kings of

struck
bours.

down and subjugated

his Asiatic neigh-

Before his reign, the consequences of

the struggle against the

Hyksos were

still

felt.

Perhaps the foreigners had not yet been completely driven out, in spite of the victories of

Ahmes and the

capture of Avaris

perhaps, also,

we learn from the tablets of Tell The same documents show that el Amarna. imder Amenophis IV. the kings of Mesopotamia who had been tributary to the father were also
NaJtarain, as
vassals to the son.

the Pharaohs did not feel sufficiently strong to

occupy the whole land, and to restore over

its

whole area the administration and the worship

which would have entailed upon them the


construction of considerable edifices.

re-

He must
In
fact, his

therefore have

Taking
this

been attracted

to Bubastis for the

same purposes
presence there
slab of red

Hashepsu's word,
difficult task.

it

was she Avho began


itself, I

as Amenopliis III.

has also been recognized.


granite,

A thick

Concerning the temple


here what
I

must

recall

which probably was the base of a statue or of an altar, bears on its edge the

said before as to the date of the

hj^postyle hall, consisting of

two

sorts of columns

name of the particular god Avorshipped by Amenophis IV. (pi. xxxv. i) after ho had made his religious reform, and adopted himself The name of the god the name of Khuenaten. has been preserved, as in many other instances,
because the stone w^as inserted in a wall
the king, has been
;

and two

sorts of Hathor-capitals.

I believe

it

must be attributed
stand

to the twelfth dynasty,


It
is difiScult

and

not to the eighteenth.

to under-

how no

traces of the eighteenth should

for,

have remained on the architraves where we discovered traces of the twelfth. Surely the columns

the other side, where stood the cartouche of

must be of the same age


had
to support.

as the architraves they

hammered

out.

Tlic surfixcc

Future excavations alone will

on which lay the statue or the altar dedicated by Amenophis IV. bears two large cartouches The stone is now in the of Rameses II.

solve the question of the origin of this style of

architecture.

It is

much

to be regretted that

museum
The

of Ghizeh,

two of the most important temples bearing the names of Amenophis III., Soleb and Sedeinga in
Nubia, are

historical result derived

from the

inscrip-

now

inaccessible,

owing

to the dis-

tions of Bubastis,

has been to show that the eighteenth dynasty had left important traces in
;

turbed state of the country.


those localities would

Researches in
really

show whether it was


raised

the Delta

and

this result

has been confirmed

Amenophis

III.

who

those

important

by the discovery made


tablet with the

at

Samanood

of a great
_

buildings, whether

cartouches of Amenophis IV

it was he who introduced in Egyptian architecture the palm-leaf column and

and Horemheb.
not find
it

The eighteenth dynasty has


;

the Hathor-capital, or whether, as I


to believe, he

am

inclined

reigned over the Delta


earlier

but at present
III.,

we do
and

gave Rameses

II.

the example of

than Thothmes

the great

attributing to himself the

conqueror

who subdued

Syria, Palestine,

has, the Usertesens,

work of the Araenemand the Sebekhoteps.


I

part of Mesopotamia.

The conclusion which we

I also attribute to the eighteenth dynasty a

are to-day compelled to draw, but which

may

strange

monument
(pi. xxi.
v,

of which
is

be upset to-morrow by further explorations, is that the dominion of the Pharaohs over the
Delta Avas re-established only after Thothmes

specimen, and which

now

in the

know no other museum of

Ghizeh
disk

and

c).

It consists of a large

against Avhich two figures are leaning.

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.

35

One

of tliem

is

Hoi'us as a
left,

cliikl, tlic

otlicr

It is not at all extraordinary to find

on the disk
a

Anion.

Eight and

and

in

the

interval
f it

two
disk

figures.

Egyptian art did


large

not like ex;

between the figures


liik,

is

sculptured the sign


is

tensive level surfaces without any ornament


of

a frince.

Behind the disk

its
;

prop
it

such

dimensions and destitute

is

not a pillar as in the statues

grows

of anything ornamental,

would havo'produccd a
filled

thinner from the lower part to the top, so that


it

bad

effect,

therefore

they

up the blank

presents an oblique surface, and has no thickat

space with the figures of Ilorus and


divinities

Amon, two

ness

the

top

its

vertical

section

is

triangle.

circular j^cdestal bearing

glyphs
the

and the disk are on a ornaments like hierozigzags which are the letter n -w^, and
Tlie figures

worshipped in the temple, besides the three signs Avhich were part of the name of
[

the god.

We
also

shall find again the


I.

god Ra on
xxxix.
u)
;

the sculptures of Osorkon


there
is

(pi.

F=^ sh. They are still visible in front, but on the sides they have been cut off, and the
surface has been levelled in order to engrave on
it

a large architrave of early date

bearing the
ihe

words

^|q^^(],

'^'f'

adorer of

spiri/s

the cartouche of
?V?

Rameses
of the

II.,

followed

by the

of

On

{Ifcliojwlu^),

which implies

the worship of Ra.


It is probable that the statue

words \
surface

Ba

jmnccs.
fit

The lower
exactly on a
fixed.

had a hawk's

is

concave so as to

head

there

is

no fragment which we

may

with
it,

convex end, and to be strongly


can be no doubt that
II.,
it is

There

certainty recognize as having belonged to

older than

Rameses

except perhaps a shoulder

(pi. xxiii. c),

which

since this king destroyed part of the inscrip-

tions engraved
of the

under the
is

figures.
;

The nature
is

monument
of

obvious
statue

it

the head-

would have the right proportions. We have here a veiy rare example of a statue made of several pieces, in which the headdress was not
part of the monolith out of which the rest had

dress

a gigantic

of

the god

Ra.

Supposing the headdress to be one-fourth of


the whole
to

been carved.

It

is

an exception to what has

heignt, the
It

statue

was

from

22

been found

till

now.

27

feet high.
;

Egypt suflace it the Ramesseum at Thebes, or the


in

was not one of the largest to mention the colossus of


other, traces

similar instance in the

But wo have another same temple the four


;

architectural statues with the


II.

name

of

Rameses

where the top

of the skull has been flattened

of which Mr. Petrie discovered at San,^ and which was 92 feet in height. The statue "which had this curious ornament was a statue
of Ra, as

in

order to support the headdress.

One
is

of

those diadems has been preserved, and


at the Berlin

now
disk,

Museum.

In the case of the

we

learn

from the

inscription,
is

Ba

of

the weight being considerable,

and the statue


smaller

the princes.

The prop which

behind the disk,


pillar

very high,
it

it

would not have been safe to put


surface of

corresponded to the top of the square

merely on a flattened

which
statue
as

is

always found behind standing statues.


of

diameter; therefore the lower surface of the

The usual headdress


it

Ra

is

a solar disk

on a

headdress has been slightly hollowed out so as


to
fit

could not simply bo placed on the head


the god
is

exactly on the curve of the skull, while

when
is

sculptured on a wall

it

was

the base of the prop crowned the top of the

fixed to the skull by

means

of the circular base

square pillar behind the statue.

which

under the disk, and which has the same

pilrpose as the crown of asps which

we

see in a
xv.).

statue of

Rameses
"

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.


Seti
I.

II.

wearing the f^/(pl.


i.

restored the

constructions of

Ameno-

Petrie, Tunis

p. '22,

phis II., but he does not seem to have built

anything

fifc

Bubastis.
II., as lie

On

the

contraiy,

liis

in the building

we

recognize the fact from the

son Eameses

nsnally did, covered the

stones which have been displaced, like the block

whole temple with his name. At first sight it looks as if he alone and the Bubastites had
to

bearing part of the cartouche of Usertesen III.,

which was
temple.
of

in

a corner.

He may

even have

be

credited

with

the foundation

of the

been obliged to build up anew a part of the

beautiful sanctuary,

which was the

ol)jcct of the
is

We have shown that


;

there were traces

admiration of Herodotus.
reverse
;

But

it

just the

Khuenaten

it is

quite possible that either he

a careful study of each inscribed stone

or the other heretical kings

has revealed

that

all

the

great

architraves
;

which

l)car his

name had been usurped

and

had more or less damaged it out of hatred towards the god Amon who was worshipped there. Perhaps, also, the
temple had been ruined from an
eai"lier

that nearly

everywhere his inscriptions Avere

date.
,

engraved on older texts. Sometimes part of the original name has been preserved (pi. xxvi.
c),

We

must imagine that


different

in those

remote ages

the character of the country and of the people

sometimes the old name has disappeared,


all

was not vciy

from what

it

is

now.
in

but

that

surrounded
(pi.

the

cartouche has
a)
;

How many
Cairo

half-ruined

mosques are seen


still

remained untouched
nothing
is left

xxiv.

sometimes

or elsewhere, which are

used for

except indistinct traces of older

worship, and which will go on decaying, until

signs which are distinguished only


.

by

a very

they crumble
takes

to

pieces,

or

until

pasha

close observation, so that seen

the inscription
II.
Ilis
first

seems

to

from a distance belong to Eameses


in

a fancy to rebuild them.

I believe it

name

is

found profnsely
the

the three the

was much the same three or four thousand A Pharaoh ascending the throne, years ago. and finding in his empire a number of temples
more or
less ruined in

halls

of

temple,

the

part of
;

consequence of wars or
himself at

edifice

walls,

which existed before his time on the and on separate monuments, such as

religious quarrels, did not betake

once to reconstruct them


occupations, especially
if,

all

he had other

tablets or statues.

On
are

the walls, unlike the


sculptures

like

the princes of the

architraves,

tliere

which un-

eighteenth dynasty, he had to defend himself


against numerous and formidable enemies.

doubtedly were made for him, and must be He had every facility attributed to his reign.
for engraving all he desired, for the

In

order to undertake this costly task,

it

required

custom of
is

a time of peace and tranquillity, and a prosper-

the Pharaohs to cover the walls of the temples

ous state.
that
in

Therefore

it

necessarily happened

with sculptured figures and inscriptions,


relatively late epoch.

of

many

localities

the

sacred buildings

I believe that

in

this

remained

in the condition in

which war or the


it

respect

the

kings of

the

twelfth

and the

fury of fanatics had left them.

thirteenth dynasties
of simplicity of

had preserved the tradition They had the Old Empire.


figures
also

however, was not given up,

The worship, was perhaps


;

restricted to a small part of the temple

and

it

inscriptions,

and even sculptui"ed


lintels,

on the on the

went on

door-posts and

perhaps

same way until an Amenophis, a Rameses, or an Osorkon raised up again the


in the
edifice,

basements

but

wo do not

find

any great

crumbling walls, enlarged the


his munificence

adorned

it

sculptures of those kings on the plain surfaces


of the walls, as
is

with the works of his best artists, and recorded

the case after the eighteenth


to believe

towards the gods in high-flowThis

dynasty, and

we have every reason made some

ing inscriptions.
II. did for the

may

be what Rameses

that there were none.

temple of Bubastis, taking care

Rameses

II. certainly

alterations

to

avail

himself as

much

as possible of

what

THE KINETEENTH DYNASTY.


had been
work.

done

by

liis

predecessors,

and
of of

employed by Osorkon
of the Festival Hall.

II. in

the reconstruction

cudoavouring to give himself the credit of their

Sometimes, before they

He

erected a considerable

nnmber

were used as ordinary building stones, the


projecting parts of the statue were
obliterated.

statues with his name, the

most important

more or
were

less

which were the following. Beginning with those he nsurped, I mentioned already one, the head of which is at

Sometimes
walled
in

also,

the

fragments
;

have

been

as

they

the

number

of these

was so

large, that

when we

Sydney (pL xxv.

c), Avhilo

the base remained

turned the blocks of the Festival Hall, especially


those with which the southern wall had been
built,

on the spot, being too much damaged to be Near the king was another carried away.
figure, the foot of

behind most of the fragments of the


of Osorkon, representing his great

which

is still visible,

and one

sculpture
festival,

of

the hands

holding

the

headdress.

The
this

cartouches of Rameses are on the back, and on the sides of the Nile gods.
statue to the twelfth dynasty. I believe the statue at Geneva (pi. xiv.) to
I attribute

we discovered something which had been part of a statue of Rameses II. Frequently it was a group of two or three figures, where the king was sitting between divinities.
Several heads discovered in that
carried to

way have been

be

later,

and

I classified

it

in

the thirteenth

dynasty.

careful examination of the

ment shows many

traces of the chisel

monuby which
sides

older inscriptions were destroyed.

The

of the throne are not so wide as they ought to be

there

is

an erasure on the back below the words on


the
slab

European museums. There were a great number of groups where Rameses was associated to one or two gods some of them were standing, others sitting though several of them are of natural size, they, generally speaking, are on larger proportions.
;

4^^
also

find

under the

feet.

On
lines.

the sides are the cartouches of Rameses, and

Rameses was very fond of putting himself among divinities, and of worshipping his own
image, to which he presented offerings at the

on the back
left

in

the

two

middle

Right and

are the usual formulas,


'""^"'^^

^^ 1?=^
^^'V'

[j^g^^
(|

^"^''>'

f^"^-

monuments are firm. King Bamcses, :^j


v\ poo

^Ml

Phthah or Amon, near whom Such groups abound in the temples of Lower Egypt; for instance, there were two at Tell el Maskhutah, and a great number in Tanis, where they are more or less
same time
as to

he was enthroned.

y^

luhile lasts the earth, tJnj

ruined.

Sitting groups are often placed out-

momiments are prosperous, King Rameses. An older date must be assigned also to two
colossal
statues,

side the temples near the entrance, or

on the

way leading

to

it.

In

localities like

Pithom,

which were erected on the


hall.

western side of the festival

They

are

both of red granite, wearing the headdress of Upper Egypt ; one of them has eyes hollowed
out
like

where the enclosure of the temple was made of bricks and had no stone-wall or pylon where inscriptions might be engraved, such groups
are

invariably

placed

as

substitutes

for

the

Hyksos.

They

wei-e

usurped

representation which never fails in the large


stone temples like Karnak, Edfoo, or Denderah,

The same may after Rameses by Osorkon II. be said of the great Hyksos statues which were
described above.

and Avhich

is

called the introduction of the Icing

into the temple.

The

texts

which are engraved

Among
to

the statues which

may be
are

attributed
to

on the backs of the groups are quite similar


to those of the temples.

him, a

great

number
they

difficult

recognize,

because

wei'e

broken,

and

There was a group outside of the temple on

the

east

side

near the road leading to the

fitting exactly to the head,

and adorned with

entrance.

It

was

threefold,

and consisted of
It
is

asps wearing the solar disk.


as a whole
is

The composition
of
it

Phthah,

the

king,

and

Ea.

much

is

elegant,

and the conception

damaged, and the texts are nearly destroyed.


I could only read a few bits of sentences, such

well appropriated to the material out of which

the statue was

carved.

Moreover, in order

as: <2=-^_5
froviicrs
vJtere

^^3:?'^^^
tJioii

^^

that on both sides the plain surface produced by


7(7/,o

ivits all tin/

the thickness of the headdress should not redcsirest,

^
like,

creator of thy

leauties,

and the

with the

cartouche of Eameses often repeated.

On

the

main void, thus producing a bad effect when the monument was seen in profile, he sculptured on both lateral faces of the headdress a hawk
opening his wings, wdiich has a pleasing decorative effect.
is

north side of the temple stood several standing


colossal groups, one of tliem, representing the

The

features have a type

which
to

king with the god Phthah, was near the lateral


entrance of the
first hall
(pi. xix.),

quite conventional, without any likeness

the others
of

the characteristic face of

Eameses

II.

near the colonnade.


the southern walk

Sitting

groups

the
in

The same may be


the heads of which

said of four great statues,

king and Ea have been broken and inserted

The
granite

statues of the
;

king alone are of red

discovered, and which must have adorned the entrance of the Festival They were all four Hall (pi. xxi. A, xxiv. c).
absolutely similar, of equal size, of a height of

we

they are ornamental statues, having a

decorative purpose, and

made

for the embellish-

seven to eight

feet,

ment head

of the structure.
(pi.

I shall first

mention a

in the left hand.

and holding a standard Three of those four heads

xv.),

belonging to a body which has


is

disappeared, a head which


at Ghizeh.

now

in the

museum

have been carried away. One is in the British Museum, another in Boston, another in Berlin.

The statue was standing, and held The king wears the headdress called in Egyptian atef, and which consists of two plumes supported by a ram's horns. Kings are often seen in religious
a standard with the left hand.

II.

They are The

all

bases,

marked with the name of Eameses which are generally much

weathered, have been left on the spot.

On

the

back of one of those statues, I read these two fragments of a sentence, celebrating the high
deeds of the king
:

ceremonies
stance,

wearing

that headdress, for in-

Eameses
'iiiiif

Eameses

II. himself, in

the sculptures of
is

the

first hall (pi.

xxxvi. a).

It

.interesting to

d^
who

<==;:

QUI

vlio

compare the way the artist worked in both cases. In a statue he was obliged to avoid all thin and
fragile projections.

makes jyrisoner

the

land of Nubia by his strength,

despoils the land of the Shasu, the lord of

Having

to use such

hard

diadems,

Barneses.
the

"^^
|

t^^^

^^^ ?f|

loho

material as red granite, he could not


the details of the headdress

detach

he

annihilates

followed in

land of the Thehennu. These heads are of a kind wliich is not rare in Upper

this respect tlie traditions of Egyptian sculpture

Egypt.
Tell
el

They remind us
Eamleh

of the

colossus

of

in the

working of hard stone.

Therefore he

Yahoodieh," and of other monuments


or San.
hair,

shortened the horns so that they might not

discovered at

They
is

are retied

exceed the

width of the plumes.

Besides,

instead of connecting the skull with the headdress through a kind of stem, out of which the

by a band on the forehead and on the sides, and the details of which arc worked with great
markable for their thick
'

which

horns seem to grow, as we see on the sculptures,

he made below the horns a rco-ular crown.

The Mound of

tlie

Jew,

frontispiece.

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.


care.

The top

of the head

is

quite
it.

flat,

as

if

and
it.

in particular

Merenpthah, have preserved

sometliing had been placed over

We might
of the

He

liked statues wearing a

more or

less

think that they supported some piece

architecture, but the regular Caryatid, as


find it in
is

we
It

complicated headdress, and holding a standard. Several such specimens have been found at San

Greek
iu

art, is

unknown
it

in

Egypt.

and elsewhere.
Tlie

probable that this flattening of the head


order to lay over
the headdress,

conclusion to
is

be derived
the

was made

review

that

among
is

from this numerous statues


Avith the

the schent, which did not form one body with


the statue, but was a separate piece. the headdresses has been found
;

found at Bubastis, inscribed

name

of

One

of

Rameses
as

II.,

there

it

had been

the colossi
statue
of

none having his type such of Mitraheuny and Luxor, or


Turin,

used as building stone.

It

is

now

in the Berlin

the
his

which may be called


if

museum. These statues must have produced an effect similar to the four sitting colossi placed before the temple of Aboo Simbel. "Wo must not look for portraits in these
statues.

image.

Nev^crtheless,

we

consider

all

the broken statues, of which fragments alone

The

faces arc

flat,

broad and short,

without any pretensions to picturing the type


of

we can boldly assert that the temple was one of those containing the greatest number of statues bearing his name. The religious and historical inscriptions of
remain,
of Bubastis
this

Rameses.

There

is

nothing characteristic

king are but few in number, and are in a


state of preservation.

in the features, they

have neither individuality

bad
is

nor expression.
said to exist';

The modelling can hardly be


in that respect they are the

no complete
tablet
is

tablet of

Rameses
of

In particular there II., or of any


it

and

other sovereign.

The reason

is

obvious.

Hyksos statues, where it is admirable. The workmanship is far from being perfect, and, especially when they are seen close
opposite of the
by, those heads cannot be called masterpieces
it

A
is

a slab which, generally speaking,

not very heavy, aud


uses.

may be employed

for

many
dered,

In a building Avhich was so long

a quarry, and which was so unmercifully plun-

is

second-rate art.

In

truth,

rightly

to in

the tablets could not be spared, and


all

appreciate

them, they should be replaced

must have soon disappeared with


limestone.
PI. xxxvi. E

the white

conditions analogous to those for which they

were

intended.

Let us

suppose
heads

that
are

the
at

reproduces what remains of a

statues are

intact, that the

great tablet of red granite, discovered near tho


eastern entrance of the Festival Hall
;

height of nine or ten


entrance, and

feet, seen from below and at a distance, as when they adorned the

it

was an
is

eulogy of the king, celebrating his high deeds


in his

struck the eyes of the people


;

wars against his neighbours.

1.

1., it

approaching the temple

and we

shall under-

said that he smote the chiefs of the


his

Bdcnnn
are

with

stand that those four colossi produced an im-

valiant

sivord.

The

Retennu
1.

the

posing

effect, of

such a nature as suited Egyp-v^as

nations of Northern Syria.


are mentioned
:

3., the

Thehennu

tian taste.

In this case, architecture


;

their

the

remembrance of

his victories

chief purpose

and we are

likely to misappreartist,

remains among the remote nations, when he trod

hend the conception


near a standpoint.
style, in

of the

when we

under his feet all countries, by his valiance and


courage.
living to
1. 1.

scrutinize those statues individually or


I consider this

from too ornamental

4.

speaks of
1.

prisoners

brought

Egypt.
is

5.,

of negroes and Khetas.

which sculpture was an integrant part

9.,

he

celebrated as the valorous bull loho

of the structure, as being special to the nine-

knocks doivn millions of countries.

The

nearly

teenth dynasty.

The

successors of Rameses

II.,

complete loss of this tablet

is

not much to be

regretted;

it

was a bombastic praise


in

of the

the region of

Add, which extends south

of the

king written

stereotyped
wliicli
lie

sentences,

and
not

Gulf of Tajurra.

mentioning victories
gained, and nations
certain that he ever

may never have


wliora
it

Concerning these two nations, as well as the


TJieJionin,'

against

is

quoted by the tablet, we have no

inII.

had

to fight.
is

formation about the wars in which Rameses


the

An
list

interesting text, as regards history,

may have subdued them


any campaign
lie

we do not know
in

of

of prisoners, representing of

conquered nations,
left,
e,

made

Libya, or on tho

two fragments
sculpture
is

which have been

on blocks
d).

of red granite (pi. xvii.

and sxxvi.

The
is

Upper Nile against the negroes. ever, if he had made them, and
relate

if

And, howthey had

not very distinct, as the stone

been successful, he would not have failed to

much
faces

weathered, but

we can recognize

that the

them repeatedly and


against
the

in boastful .words

have

all

a Semitic

type with pointed

on the walls of
expedition

his temples, as he did for his

beards;

there are

no negroes among them,


tlie

Khetas.

Such docu-'

names engraved in the Most of the names ovals below refer to Africa. are well known, and mean countries of a conalthough some of
siderable extent.
Jl'^t^Mi llw

ments warn us
ordered to
be

to be cautious in dealing with

certain official inscriptions which the Pharaohs

engraved,

and

which

some-

times arc our only lueans for reconstructing

and

m m

^^t^:^ Keli andNaJiannv,


w
__

their history.

When

these

inscriptions

can-

are

often

quoted

together."

They arc

not be controlled by documents from neighfre-

quently met with in the narratives of the cam-

bouring nations, or by other texts of a


ferent nature,
Ijy

dif-

paigns of the Pharaohs in Asia.

According

to

we run

tlie

risk of being misled

M. Maspero,* Rough Cilicia,

Keti

is

Flat

Cilicia,

and also

those

official

panegyrics.

Few

kings have
the eyes

a province of which was still designated under the Romans by the name of Naharaiu is the country between the KrJTi^.

dazzled so strongly as Rameses


of

II.

the

first

Egyptologists, the pioneers

who

first

entered a field which had remained closed


;

Orontcs and the Balikh,

soutli

and west

of the

for centuries

there are few also, whose prestige


after their

Khetas, on each bank of the Orontcs.

and glory have vanished so rapidly,


life

n^.,,

and character

had

been

studied

more
on the
hall,

,Sf./,-/;t'v.

Whether
it

or

not
in

it

be
closely.

the Shinar of Genesis,

was certainly
t^i^i]

potamia, as well as .^y^


is

."^y^

KcshliCsh,

Mesowhich
IT. in

Near the entrance

of the

temple,

northern side of the doorway of the

first

mentioned in another text

of

Rameses

conjunction with names of Asia Minor.

nbv

J'**"'!

-f]

J''l"<I

the

Mash nash,

are an African

and not far also from the Hyksos statues, was found a fragment of a tablet in black granite, which has l)cen carried to the museum of
Ghizeh.
It

population, the Mafues of Herodotus,

who

oc-

may have

served as back-part to a
it is

cupied what

is

now

a part of Tunisia.

group of
are

figures, for

very thick, and there

l\\^
is

Afar, written

elsewhere,

two

lines of vertical hieroglyphs

on the
horitlie

Odl)!''^

edge.
zontal.

The
It

text of tho tablet itself

was

an African population mentioned after Kusch.''

must have been erected on

Mariette had

compared it to the old Adulls. Rev. H. G. Tomkins recojrnizcs in the name


'

occasion of the dedication of a statue to the

goddess Bast, who addresses herself to the king


in the

second part.
Lep.s.

It

is

to be noticed that

Chabas, Voyage,
Leps.

p.
1

109.
i5.

Rccufil, X. p. 210.
Rccuoi!, X. p. 97.

Donkm.

iii.

Dcnlcm.

14.-.,

17G.

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.


every time the
it is

name

of the king

is

mentioned,
J_^

All around

the

first

hall

ran a basement
a
list

followed

by the predicate

^-i

he

bearing

geographical

inscriptions,

of

who

2^ossesses EijijpL

This qualification seems


it

to be

an integrant part of the name, eince


^-f'jii-huj
life,

nomes, of which very little is left. It consists of standing figures bringing an offering of two
vases,

always precedes the usual


everlasthig (pi. xxxviii. n).

or

between which
are

is

the sign

before each

Vertical lines.
everlasting.

Rameses, possessor of Egypt,

two columns of texts containing The emblems of promises made to the king.
figure

Thou art on the throne of Ra festivals are made to thee as to hiin. Rameses, etc. Thou art like Ncfertum,
thou art beloved like Phthah.
1.

the nomes have disappeared, except

s^, the
in

nomc
lists

of

Libya,
lists,

which ranks third


in the

the
older

Ptolemaic
of
of

and eleventh

much
I.^

Abydos
long

of the time of Seti

The
the

1.

Rameses,
to

possessor

of

Egypt,

nomc name

Libya was one of the most anciently


before the

everlasting.
1.

organized,

Bubastite,

2.

...
. .

be the lord of the foreigners,

of Avhich

does not occur anywhere in

priest of Bast,
1.

born of Sekhct.
suckled by
Sati,

the inscriptions of that epoch.

The sentences

3.

possessor of Egypt, everlasting,

which accompany the figures are hackneyed


promises made to the king
(pi. xxxvii.).

nursed by Uoti,
over
1.

thou hast
is

chosen the city of Bast, their protection


it,

"...
...
... ... ...

send thee
I

all

kinds of victories, for

thy sword,

overthrow for thee the strangers.


sea,

4.

...
the

of

Egypt,

like

Nefertum.
Ra,
sends
;

His
life,

I give thee the lands of the

thou

mother,
stability,

daughter

of

art established as lord oE the land, like Ra.

and purity, into his nostrils


joining his limbs, the

the

I bring

them

to thy house.

inhabitants,
1.

I gi\'e thee the festivals of thirty years of in all kinds of goods.


territories

5.

King Ramein front of


all

Toncn; the land abounds


all

ses,
1.

possessor of Egypt, everlasting.


G.
.

royalty,

the

of

the

well

made monuments
is

lonians.

her; she appears, and

well pleased in

...
enemies.
.

give

thee

all

the

lauds

of

thy

her festivals, magnifying what he has done, for


ever.

my

prisoners

overthrow for thee the

1.

7.

Rameses,

etc.

I take the thnbrel,


forth, for

strangers."

and

I rejoice at thy

coming

thou hast

On

the basement was also a sculpture, which


list

multiplied
1.

my
.

sacred things millions of times.

8.

in order to enrich

my

has some likeness with the


xxxvii.
j).

of

altar every
all

day,

my
9.
. .

We

see there a Nile

nomes (pi. god holding a


is

terrace abounds daily with

the

kind of table of offerings, over which

the sign
is

sweet flowers placed before me.


1.
.

eternally like Ra.

am on

T which means
thy

fo

join.

Behind the god

the

head,

King Rameses, possessor


residing in

of Egypt, ever-

lasting.

L 10.

its interior,

with her

and opposite, there must have been another Nile god, a hand of whom only is seen. No cartouche indicates to what
goddess of the
east,

son

the gods

who

are accompanying her are in

date the sculpture must be assigned.


inclined to think that
it is

am

a remnant of the

great joy.

This tablet

is

important in several respects,

twelfth dynasty.

It is

not unlike a table of

and

especially because of the information


it

we
Ducm. Goog.
InsL-hr.
i.

derive from

about the gods of Bast.

pi. 01,

1.

11.

offerings discovered

by M. Petric at
tliat

Nebeslieli,''

was a fervent adorer

of Set, remained faithful to


;

and whicli belongs to

dynasty.

the tradition of his father


styled Set of MerenpMliah.^
is

in his time Set is

There are other representations in which

Phthah of Barneses
This divinity had a

Eameses
sentations

II.

is

shown

making
that

offerings

to

met with
he

at Bubastis.

various divinities.

In reference to those repre-

large share in the worship celebrated in the

we must observe

Eameses

is

temple

is

often represented, and there were


(pi. xix.).

never found worshipping Bast, nor does the

statues of him''
it

It is quite possible that

name

of the goddess appear


it

on the architraves

where usually

is

said to
It It

whom
is

the temple

had been dedicated.


Bubastis as with Tanis.

the

same

with

was dedicated to the Those who occur most great gods of Egypt. frequently are Amon, Phthah, and the Hyksos
god, Set.

was on certain personifications only of the divinity, that Eameses II. claimed a kind of right of property or possession, for the same god may be quoted in the same inscription with his general and his particular form. For
instance, at the beginning of the treaty with

The

last

one seems to have been

the Kheta,
city

it is

said that the king

was

in the
his

the object of a special reverence from Eameses,

of

Eameses, making
to

offerings ." io
to

who gave him


tations are

the most honourable place in the


It
is

father yimon-B.a,
lord of the

Ilarmahhis,
to

Tarn, the
to

temples of the Delta.

he whose represen-

two

On,

jhnoii of Barneses,
to

most numerous.

Ho

is

found on the on on
he

Phthah of Barneses, and


the son of Nut.'"

Set the very brave,

columns with palm-leaf


large architraves

capitals, especially

We

have not found


it is

Amon

of

the specimen of the British

Museum

is

Eameses
his

at Bubastis, but
also.

probable that
as

(pi. xxii. c),

and on scenes

of worship (pi. xx.).

"We

shall see farther that

before,

name stood there was the god

Amon,
;

we saw
II.

to

whom Amenophis

when

the Bubastites changed the dedication of

the temple, they erased in

many

places
it,

the

had dedicated his constructions large blocks coming from ai'chitraves bear after the name
of

name

of Set, or they transformed


it

without

Eameses the words Oc^f^V'OO

''f/'O

^oorshil^s

destroying

completely.

peculiarity Avhich occurs at Bubastis, as

well as in other edifices of

Eameses

II., is

the

habit which he had contracted of attributing


to himself a special claim to the protection of

Amon-Ba. It is the same for Merenphthah, and even Osorkon I. Another god whose mention is frequent under Eameses II. and afterwards, is Shu, the
son of Ea.

Oa

a doorpost of the second hall

the gods, in

coupling his

name with

theirs.

Set becomes Set or Sutehh of Eameses, and the

we read: B.ameses
^vorships

^^i\^^^^\^\\\
son

^oho

same with Amon and Phthah (pi. xxxvi. c, g). Set of Eameses is found on a vertical inscription, where the head of the god has been slightly

Shu,

the

of Ba, the great god,


in these

the lord of the slcy.

Merenphthah, who

respects

seems to have followed entirely the

hammered out

(pi.

xx., xxxvi.

i).

line of his father,

was

also a worshipper of

Shu

On
we
II.

the column of the British


;

Museum

also

(pi.

xxxvi. k).
of

see Sutelch of Barneses

there the lower part

of the cartouche has been usurped by Osorkon

Three of the sons names at Bubastis.


still

Eameses have

left their

It is probable there

were

The same

habit

may be

observed in the
of Eameses,

more, for fragments of statues of "royalsons


(pi.

temple of Tanis.^

The son

who

of
^

Kush"
Petrie,

xxxvi. n) must have belonged to


ii.

1.1.

pi.

5a.

'

Potrie, Tanis

ii.,

IS'cIh

A,

pi. ix.

"

See

pi. xxxviii. F.,

the inscription of a broken statue cf

Ibid. Tanis

i.,

pi. iv.

Phthah.

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.


members
of
liis

family.

The

first is

the cele-

the first cavalnj

office)-

of his father,

who

looks

brated KJiaemuas,

who

inscribed his

name on

after (he horses of the king,

meaning

also the

the side of a colossal statue in red granite of his


father; the signs

war

chariots, for the

word used here

for horses

which followed
ii).

his

name have
is

applies generally to horses drawing the chariots.

disappeared

(pi.

sxxvi.

This prince

famous

Menthuhershepshef

for the religious offices

which were conferred

Rameses

II.

was the fifth Another whom we see


(pi.

son

of

in several
l), is

upon him,
tion of

for the great festivals in the celebra-

sculptured representations
Mcreivphthah,
TI.

xxxvi. K,
after

which he took part, for the high sacerdotal dignities with which he was invested. His name, like that of a saint, became legendary,
since

who became king


offerings to

Rameses
Shu.

He

wears also the lock of the royal princes,

and he makes
His
titles,
:

Amon and

we

find it in the

romance

of Sctna.
if

It

which are found also on a statue at


the
]:)ri)icc

would

have

been

extraordinary,

iu

his

San,^ are
'

the protector of Erjiipt,

frequent journeys through the country in order


to inspect the temples, he
tis.

<^Q,

'

the royal
///e
^

officer, the

lord of the seal,

had forgotten Bubas-

He
is

is

called

here
the

^|^1|||
field.

the

1ho^
%&=t "^^^

first
'.

general,

Merenphthah, j^Ti

friest lierseslda in

liolij

This last

It is curious to find after his


justified,
it

word

the usual

name

of the country

around
separate

name

the qualification of

which
is

is

Bubastis, until the Ptolemies

made a
title,

usually applied to the deceased, but


also after the

seen

noma

of

it.

The

sacerdotal

which prois

name

of

Rameses
I. is

in the royal list

bably was that of the high-priest, was given


also to the goddess herself,

of

Abydos, where Seti

followed by his son.


these princes with

who
I.

stjded in
later,

Comparing the
the

titles of

the inscriptions of Osorkon


herseshta of Turn (pi.
xli. e.).

and

the

inscriptions concerning
before,

them which were

known
the
at

The two others are military officers. One of them is known, thanks to a crouching statue now
for
It has been usurped, an inscription for which that of the prince has been substituted, and on the side is another which has simply been scraped
in the
it

sons of

and especially with the lists of Rameses II. at the Raraesseum

Thebes or at Sebua, we can elucidate a


the
inscription
in

museum of Boston.
in front

few facts concerning the history of the family.

had

When

the

Ramesseum

off

without

anything

else

being

engraved

was engraved, it was long before the monuments of Bubastis were dedicated. At that time the family was complete, the eldest
sons of Rameses were
still living.

instead.

The head has been diminished on one


tlie distinctive

The

first-

side in order to sculpture the lock of hair which


is
'

born

and

heir

pi-esumptive

was

Amonhereasily

one of

marks

of the princes of

shepshef,

Amon

loields his

sword, a

name

royal blood.

to be accounted for after the successes

which

The cartouche

of Earaeses II. on his shoulder


;

leaves no doubt as to his father

otherwise

we

might have taken him for the son of Kameses III., who had the same name, and who died

Rameses had obtained in his wars against the Kheta, the credit of which he desired to give This name was a favourite with to the god.

when he was

heir presumptive.*
(pi.

He
c',

is

called

Menthxiherskepshef

xxxviii. o,

c"),

which
are

means, Menthu wields Ms sword.

His

titles

was given in succession to Rameses III., who became Rameses V. and Rameses VI. The heir presumptive was plume-hearer at the right hand of
the Ramessides
;

it

two

of the sons of

Zeitsclir.

1885, pp. 55 and 125.

Petrio, Tanis

i.

pi. i. 4a.

Bnigscli, Dicb. suppl. p. 829.

the triuj,

which was a common


special

title

the distincd of

titles of

the heir presumptive; he general of


tlie

is

prince,
is

tions

which were
^^Ti"^?*

to

him were
fird
of

and

first

infantry, but he

not
is

p-ince,

or

'S!r=fQc=o

general

because he

is

not the

first

born, he

the infantry.

The second son


infa.ntri/,

Rameses was
n
.

also ^^J^ protector of the land, a very high

title,

only general of
third,

but not

The
on

^"^f

^^

since

it is

given to Anion,* and

Phraherunemef
l.^\l

Ba

q^

lord,

of the

seal, lord chancellor.

These two

last titles

might

his riglit, -was Jird

Kenvn,

of the

indicate that he

infantry.

thing like

The Kennu must have been somea colonel, a rank which was eviat

throne,^ which

is

had been associated with the the more probable, since

having reigned nearly sixty years, Rameses must

dently lower than his brother's, though


the

have

been much weakened and incapable of


statue of Menthuhershepshef is dedicated

same time he was


first

chief of the

cJiariofs

going to war.

and

cavalry

o{)icer

of His Majesty.
father
in

As
ex-

The

such he accompanied his


pedition

his

to Bast, called also I

00^

Uoti, the

goddess of

against

Ivadesli.

After him

came

Bubastis.

The geographical name r?^ Bast


at this time, but
it

Khaemuas, who begins the series of the sons who have no special title, then Menthuhershepshef.

was used
only to

may have
it is

applied

Merenphthah

is

only the thirteenth.

the

part of the

sanctuary specially
certain that

Let us now go over to Bubastis, and we


shall find that great

dedicated to the goddess, for

changes have taken place


son, has

though Bast was worshipped


chief divinity of the place

in the

temple as

in the family.

Khaemuas, the fourth

early as the twelfth dynasty, she

was not the

become a
celebrity.

priest,

and performs the religious and

under the eighteenth

sacerdotal functions which have given

him

dynasty, nor under the Ramessides,


his

The third son, rhrakerunemefis dead


in battle,

adorers of

the

great gods of Egypt,

perhaps he was killed

and he has

Phthah, and Set.


I

Here

also

we

find

who were Amon, the name

been replaced in his rank and


priest, but

liis

command,

MJl

'^''^

''^^^ field, for

the territory of Bu-

not by the fourth son, Khaemuas,

who

is

bastis,

and also a

city

-^^

which undoubtedly

by

Ment1tuJiershe2)shef, the fifth,

whose
of

must be read
This

the present city of Belbeis."

statue

we discovered

at Bubastis,

The next
tablets

city, as well as

Bubastis and

its territory,

changes
Silsilis.^

may be

traced

in

the

belonged at that time to the nome of Heliopolis.


Later, I think under the Ptolemies,

Amonhersheiishef, the heir presumpdead, as well


;

when

the

tive, is

as the

new

chief of the
is still

Bubastite

nome was
it
>

organized, Belbeis
the

was

cavalry

but the second son of Rameses

annexed to
Sekhet

one of

forms of Bast,

alive as well as

between his
younger,
11

Khaemuas, who is seen standing elder brother Barneses and the


is

had a temple there under the

^^=_

S)

Merenphthah.

The
in

thirtieth dynasty.'

I attribute also to

Rameses

11.

the statue of

family of Rameses

already

much thinned
Silsilis

Phthah, mentioned above

(pi. xxxviii. f),


;

which

number, and the inscription of


evidently quite at the end,

must be
Later
to the

gives us the usual titles of the god

besides two

assigned to a late epoch of his reign.


still,

broken statues of royal sons of Kush, in the


* ' "

we come

inscriptions of Bubastis.

Merenphthah has the

Leps.

Denkm.

iii.

G.

Wiedemann, Aeg. Gesch.

p. 410.

Leps. Denlnn.

iii.

174.

'

Brugscb, Diet. Gcog. pp. 2G4 and 54G. JSTaville, The Mound of the Jew, p. 22.

THE TWENTIETH DYNASTY.


traditional costume,
tlie

45

loug dress rcacLing


of these statues, in a

military

command.

He

appeai'ed also as king,

down

to the feet.

One
tlie

on a sitting statue in red limestone, of which


fragments only remain.

fair state of preservation, lias

been carried to
titles
:

They were discovered


the entrance to the
little of

America
(pi.

it

has on

back tbe following

on the north

side, close to

xxxvi. n) the royal son [of Kuah, llie chief of the southern countries, Ike governor (the
.

hall of Nekhthoi'heb.

Very

the

monu-

ment has been


been broken
purposes as

left,

because red limestone has

proper name has disappeared).

The

other,

and carried away for building

which

is

only a fragment, contains a dedication

much

as the wliite.

The

statue

to Bast, the lady of Bast {Bubastis), the queen

has on the side


Heliopolis

tlio

name

of Turn, the

god of

Both statues were in black granite. monuments of some importance, or of the inscriptions of Kameses II., to which must be added a considerable number
of the gods.

(pi. xxxviii. d).

I should think that

They

close the list of the

Set was in the inscription on the back.

On

the throne

we

find

also the

name

of

tlie

prince, the royal officer, Seti Ilerenphihali.

This

of cartouches left in spite of the usui^pations of

prince,

who

is

called elsewhere 1

royal aon, and

Osorkon

II.

Not

far

from Bubastis Avas settled a foreign

1^,^ ra

firsl-horn,^

ascended the throne,


to

nation, the Israelites,

who from

a small tribe

where he does not seem

have remained long.

had grown

to be a large multitude,

and who

He

is

the king usually called Seti II.

had never amalgamated with the Egyptians.

As

I stated in another

memoir, the laud of


miles
distant
;

Goshen was

only a few

the
It

THE TWENTIETH DYNASTY.


is in

restricted limits of the original laud

broken through, and the Israelites spread in the south towards Heliopolis, and

had been must have


in

the hypostylo hall, near the entrance of

the hall of Nekhthorheb, that the

we meet with
It

all

monuments

of this dynasty.

seems that

the east in the "Wadi Tumilat, the road through

these kings raised there a chapel or a sanctuary


for themselves.

which foreign

invaders would

enter Egypt.

Nothing remains

of the kings

One may

well conceive that Rameses,

spite of his great display,

who in must have felt how

who followed Seti II., and whose legitimacy is The state of anarchy into which the doubtful.
country had
fallen,

kingdom was weakened, grew anxious number of strangers occupying the very gate of Egypt, and that he

much

his

and which

is

described by

at the presence of a great

Rameses

III. in the great Plarris papyrus,

was

not favourable to raising large constructions,

desired to turn their presence to a benefit for

Egypt.

Therefore he employed them to build

and must have rather contributed to destroy what existed before. The first king we meet
with
is

fortresses,

Raamses and Pithom, destined

to

Rameses
they

III.,

on the base of a small


elaborately

protect the land against invaders.

As we may
resort
of

statue of which the feet alone have been pre-

conclude fi'om the discoveries at Bubastis that


this

served

arc

most

worked,

large

city

was

favourite

Rameses and
the

his family, it is

quite possible

they have sandals with the end turned upwards according to the fashion of the nineteenth
dynasty.

that at the time

when

the events

preceding

The monument must have been


left

of

Exodus took Bubastis, and not


admitted.

place,

the

king

was

at

very good workmanship.


tion
is

Part of the inscrip-

at Tanis, as

was generally

on the back and

on the

base
Lo

We

and heir

have found jNIerenphthah as prince royal presumptive, holding an important

Leps. KoeiiigsLucli, No. 470.

Erutrsoli et Buuriant,

livre des Kois,

No. 499.

(pi. xxxviii.

g)

it

sliows that the

monument

A
tions

short time before beginning the excavaat Bvibastis,

was dedicated to Bast of the city of Bast. Eameses III. raised many monuments in the Delta, whicli was the theatre of his great wars
;

from a

fellah, a slab

bearing also
there are

had procured at Benha, coming from a tomb, and Thus the name of Eameses VI.
I
in the

we had not yet discovered north of Memphis one of his successors who was also his son, and who seems to have been the most
but

two places

Delta where we

found

this kino:.

powerful of the series of the Eamessides, after Eameses III., his father. No. VI. has been
given him in the
list

THE TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY.


The
twenty-first

of

the

Eameses

dynasty, which

has

his

been

prenomen was, like his elder brother, Amonliersheiislicf.

the object of so
trace at Bubastis.

much

We
base

found
of

three statues of this king.


sitting

no In particular, I did not find


discussion, has left

1.

the

statue,

in

black
is

name

of the

frequent at Tanis, and

granite, of natural size, broken at the w^aist

King Si Amen, whose cartouche who was discovered


Therefore

the upper part

is

lost

(pi.

xxv. a).

It

wears

at

Khataanah.^

we

pass without
to the twentyis

a long dress, and on the sides, as well as on the


slab

transition

from the twentieth

under the
(pi.

feet,
1

are

the names

second, which, according to Mauetho,

pre-

of

Eameses VI.
is

xxxviii.

1').

As

the engraving

eminently the dynasty of the Bubastites.


Dr. Stern has proved that the Bubastites are
of

not deep,

it

may be
statue,

usurpation.

The monu-

ment has been


2.

left at Tell

Basta.
smaller, in red lime-

Libyan origin, and not Asiatics, as

it

has

Another
the

much

been admitted for a long time.


hereditary
of

They were the

stone, of

which

also the base

alone remains,
(pi.

commanders
Shesho7i]i, the

of a foreign guard, one

has

names
It
is

of

Eameses VI.

xxxviii.

whom,

Shishah of the Bible,

n-n").
3.

now

in the

museum

of Ghizeli.^
is

succeeded in taking possession of the throne, and


legitimated afterwards his usurpation

The

largest

and most important


in red granite,
(pi. xvi.).

the
at

by giving
of

upper part of a statue


the

now

the daughter of his predecessor in marriage


to his

museum

of

Ghizeh

It is

above

own

son.
;

Sheshonk was the founder

natural size, standing, and wearing the double

the dynasty

he was a warlike sovereign, and


of Judah, a suc-

crown.

On

the back

is

an inscription, of which
(lie

made against Eehoboam, King


cessful

we have only

the upper half (pi. xxxviii. k),


to

expedition, which he

described in an

good god raised statues

his father

inds him on his throne; the lord Loioer Egypt,

Amon, who of TJffer and


I

inscription of the great temple of Amon at Thebes, in the part called " the portico of the

Ba

hih

Ma ...

am

inclined

Bubastites."
city,

Bubastis being called his native


that he would and embellish its

to think that this statue is really the portrait

we should have expected


felt

Eameses VI. The type is different from Eameses II., the woi-kmanship alone is the same. The head has not the commonplace and
of
indifferent character

have

bound

to adorn
its

temple, and to record on


It
is

walls his victories.

just the reverse

no inscription of Shishak
It is

of the statues

made

for

has been found except a small fragment of


limestone with part of his cartouches.

an architectural purpose.
a likeness.
the end.

It is intended to be

The nose is aquiline, and wide at The eyes are prominent, and the. lips

m m

rather thick.
"

when Sheshonk ascended the throne, he, who was of foreign origin and a native of Lower Egypt, found some resistance at
quite possible that
'

It

is

tho inscribed block whicli

is

seen on the left side

of pi. vi.

Goshen,

p. 21.

THE TWENTY-SECOKD DYNASTY.


Thebes and in
tlic

upper part of

tlio

country,

there
to

is

no positive
twelfth

proof,

we must
to

assign

them
III.,

and

tliat it

was

in order to establish firmly his

the

dynasty,

Usertesen

dominion over Upper Egypt that he raised


there the greater

who enlarged
hall.

the temple and built the hypostyle

With Osorkon
tions

I.

number of his monuments. we return to the sculptures


(pi.

On

the other hand,

we cannot admit

that

Osorkon

I.

displaced the capitals in order to

of lai'ge proportions, to the great representa-

inscribe his

name underneath.
his

We are thus

led

accompanying important constructions

to conclude that in

time the temple was

xxxix.).

It is chiefly in the first hall that they


;

ruined,

met with in great number they adorned the outward walls, and many fragments of them
are

have been preserved.


struck at
first sight

It is impossible not to be

by the beauty

of the

work-

pillars and columns had been was not the hypostyle hall alone which had been so badly treated it was the same with the two first halls for we sec there that a block which, under Rameses II., was

and the

overthrown.

It

manship
in

(pi.

sviii.),

which may be

observed

part of the basement and bore the lower part


of a sculpture,

the

specimens brought to the European

was placed under Osorkon

I. in

museums.
it

The good traditions are not yet lost may even be said that more care has been

the second or third layer of blocks, and

was
hall,
II.,

engraved with the heads of large figures which

taken with those sculptures than with

many

adorned the outward wall.

The second

works of Rameses
negligence.

II.,

made
of

rapidly and with

which was reconstructed later by Osorkon

The reason

it is

that under the


life
;

was
that

in a similar condition, for I cannot admit


it

Bubastites

the centre of political

tends

was

deliberately that the king cut to


of

more and moi'e to go over to the Delta Thebes is abandoned to the high priests of Amon, while the King lives in Lower Egypt, probably because of the wars with which he was constantly threatened by the Asiatics or the Libyans. Judging from what Osorkon I. and Osorkon 11. made at Bubastis, which is not seen in any other edifice of Egypt, I am inclined to think that this city was their capital and their customary residence. The sculptures of Osorkon I, are chiefly in
the
first

pieces

or broke the statues

Rameses IL

which he employed

for building his walls.

We

are in doubt as to the

epoch when those


it

devastations

took place

is

not probable

that they were caused by a natural accident,

such as an earthquake
a

they Avcrc the result of


If

war or an

invasion.

wo adopt

this last

alternative,

they must

be

attributed to

the
III.,

wars which preceded the reign of Rameses

when

a Syrian called Arisu usurped the power

hall

but several of his inscriptions

are engraved underneath the Hathor capitals,

and tyrannized over the country, persecuting gods and men, until, as is related by Rameses III., Setnchht ascended the throne and reestablished

where

where they could not be seen, and was not possible to engrave them unless the monument was lying on the ground and had not yet been raised. It is exactly as with the cartouches of Rameses II., which are under the obelisks, on the surface touching the
in places
it

the

worship

dynasty.

It is certain that

and the legitimate Osorkon I. reconhave been


the

structed the temple, beginning with the eastern


hall,

where most

of his sculptures

found.

With the

rebuilding

coincides

ground.
in

This circumstance leads us to imagine


state the temple of Bubastis

change in the dedication, which was not completed under Osorkon I., but which was definitive after

what

must have
Hathor

Osorkon

II.

Bast,

who had

only a

been

at the time of Osorkon's accession to the

throne.
capitals
;

We cannot attribute to him the


we have

secondary rank under the twelfth dynasty or Rameses II. ; to whom statues or tablets were
dedicated, but

seen before, that, although

who was not

yet

the

great

goddess of Bubastis, takes precedence over the


other divinities of Egypt, and especially over

again the magnificent building, the foundation

and

first

construction of which went up to a

Anion and other Egyptian gods may be seen on the walls of the first hall, but Bast occurs more frequently, and has taken a place like Horus at Edfoo or Hathor at Denderah. The sculptured representations of Osorkon I. have the same appearance as those made under With the figures are the nineteenth dynasty. The gods mensentences always the same.
Set.

very early date.

Another work of Osorkon

I.

temple which will be described further.


inscriptions relating the gifts

was the small The

which he made

to the various temples of Egypt, the quantities


of precious metals with

which he presented the

gods,

show that

in his reign the country

must

have been much more prosperous and rich than

tioned

may belong

to other parts of Egypt, but

they are spoken of as residing in Bubastis thus we have

was generally supposed. Osorkon 11. was the son


obscure king of

of Takelothis

I.,

an

Amonof Tliehcs,

the lord of the shj,


;

whom we know

only the name.


II.,

who resides at BaM (pi. si. d) the same with Mut, Harmakhis, Phthah Anebi-esef, the lord of Ankhtoui (Memphis), Turn, the lord of Heliopolis, Shu, the son of Ra, and Menthu. The promises made by the gods consist in a long and successful reign, long life, strength and health, and other stereotyped sentences.

He

took for his model Rameses


to

and he

seems

have been actuated by a strong desire,

not only to imitate his predecessor as fully as he could, but also to throw into the shade, if
possible, his

memory.

His name

is

found as

often as that of his pattern.

In order that the

imitation should be complete he adopted the

The blocks

of the ceiling mention also Sopt, the

same standard,
to those of

the

mighty

bull, the friend of Ma,

divinity of the

nomo

of Arabia,

which at that

and his two cartouches were as similar as possible


very easy.
II.

time was part of the nome of Heliopolis.


Bast, the great divinity of the city, which
derives
its

Rameses II., making the usurpation If the name and titles of Rameses
Osorkon,

name from

the goddess,

is

accom-

had

to be transformed into those of

panied by the gods of her cycle or her triad.

the

transformation

was

very

simple.
first

The
Ra,

She has
be
the

also the

name

of Sehhet, she is said to

standard was the same.


instead of
the scribe had to write
the elect of Am.en.

In the

cartouche.

Her

son, according to the

queen of the gods, the lady of Bubastis. form he assumes, is

sotep en

Ba,
\

the elect of
soteii

^^ ^^

en Amen,

called either Ilorhikev, or Nrfertum, or Mahes.

Bast herself

is

considered as the herscshta, the

priestess of Turn.

She has the same title as Khaemuas, the son of Rameses II. The intention of Osorkon I. to consecrate
original dedication, is best

and thus to change its shown by the three inscriptions which are engraved underneath the Hathor capitals (pi. xli. a, b, c). There Osorkon comes forward as the Avorshipper of Bast, the
the temple to Bast,

was made in this way. was room for the letter the first of the name of Amen, the disk O was made into a rectangle, over which were added small strokes so as to make the sign i*^^*^ Nowhere can the whole process be men. followed as well as on the column of the British Museum. On the base of the Hyksos statue which is at the museum of Ghizeh, the disk is quite distinct under the sign t^^, even on the
It

Under the
(|

sign

"]

nser, there

lady of Bubastis, who

jyrofects

her father lla

the

pliotograi^h (pi. xxiv. d).

formulas are those usually employed for the


dedication of a statue, an obelisk, or the hall
of a temple. It was to the goddess that he wished to make an offering when he raised up

As
where

for the
it is

second cartouche of Rameses,

written in the usual form, the sign \M

Ba, the

first syllable

being opposite

Amon, and

THE TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY.


tlie

sign -r=T mer, under both gods, the usurpa-

Set

ho ordered

it

to be

hammered out
II.,

but, as

tion

was made as follows


of

all

the signs under-

with the cartouches of Rameses

the

work

neath the ^group just described were erased,

was done only

in a very imperfect

way.

On

and the name


In the sign

Osorkon substituted for them.


Avas

the top of the columns.

Set was represented


-t-

Ba, the head

made

into a

sitting with the sign of life

and a sceptre

m his hands
lion, so as. to give

in

many places

the head has been


;

the figure the appearance of

a sitting Bast, and the disk above widened and

widened so as to become a
also has been modified,

lion

the headdress

made
si,

and the whole figure

oval so as to look like an egg, which reads and means son ; so the sign which was originally Ra became si Bast, the son of Bast,

has been turned into the god Mahes,^ the son


of Bast, who, being a warlike divinity, could

endorse the epithets which originally followed


the

a predicate which

is

part of the cartouche of

name

Osorkon.

This

kind of usurpation

occurs
it

of Set, the eery valorous, the lord of the

skij (pi. xlii. E, F, g).

The

alteration

is

plain on

very often at Bubastis.

All the degrees of

are seen on the column of the British


It is obvious that this

Museum.

several of the columns, especially on oue of

them

scientiously

it

work was not done conis often very imperfect. Some-

which was carried near the canal more than


fifty

years ago, and which has since remained


it is

on the spot where

getting buried more and


also

times the second cartouche only has been trans-

more every day.


is
still

It is visible

on the

in-

formed, or in this second cartouche the lower


part

has been erased without

the

Osorkon being substituted, or the


forgot to change the sign
cartouche, so that the

name name

scription of Set of Rameses, where, however, Set

of

traceable

(pi. xx.).

Sometimes, as on

of

the column of the British

Museum, Set has


Osorkon

Osorkon has been engraved, but the engraver

Ra

been forgotten.

at the top of the

first syllable

of

Rameses

A great number
II. in

of the sculptures of

has been

left,

and the
of

the temple have

come down
find

to us, but

like.

The usurpations
There
his

Osorkon are found in the


hall.

apart from those which adorned the Festival


Hall or the colonnade,

whole temple, but chiefly in the hypostyle

we

them on a build-

name

is

traves,

on capitals ;

met with profusely, on archibut in most cases it is easy

ing situate outside of the temple, on the north,

and which probably was a doorway or portico


(pi. xli. E

to recognize that his is not the original


it

name
II.,

u)

it

was the beginning


is left

of a road

has been substituted for that of Rameses


seen on the column

paved

in basalt
all

which led
that

to the temple.

Four
;

who was not ing, as may be

columns are

of this construction

himself the fouuder of the buildof the British

two of them are palm-columns, and two with


lotus-bud capitals.

One

of these last, which

is

Museum. The most important event

to

be noticed in

in a to

good

state of preservation, has been sent

the history of the temple during Osorkon II. 's reign is the final establishment of the worship
of Bast as the prevailing worship in the locality.

the Louvre.

Thus we

find there the

same

two
It
is

styles as in the colonnade of the temple.

not possible to assign even an approximate

In this respect the Osorkons justify their name of Bubastites, which is given them byManetho.

date to that building, which


imitation
hall.

may have been an


is

made

in later times of the hypostyle

Henceforth the name of the goddess occurs in large characters, not on statues or tablets only,

On

one of the columns Osorkon


is

men-

Tho reading Maliea


naos of Saft-el-llcuneh.

fixed

but on the architraves of the hypostyle

hall.

king evidently desired to expunge the

The name of

by the inscriptions of tlie Nav. Goshen, pi. ii. C, pi. vii. .5.

Brugscb, Diet, suppl. p. 526.

tioncd as a worshipper of Malies.

Besides the

the necessary material for building his walls,

columns, there must have stood there a construction of

he voluntarily cut to pieces groups of two or


three divinities, fragments of which were inserted into the structure.
It is

some importance, for

close

by

lies

a corner-block bearing the top of a sculpture


of natural size

more probable

On

and of very good workmanship. one of the sides is seen Osorkou offering

that hefound'the temple already in a pitiable condition,

the holy eye, the ui'a, to Bast,

who answers that


site

ruined, respecting

and that he made use only of what was what had escaped intact, such

she gives him all lands of which


ike

multiplies

as the four architectural statues of

Rameses

II.,

numher, and

all gallantry as to Ita (pi. xli. e).

though they were of red granite, the material he


employed; or the statues in black granite, such
as that of Sydney or that of Geneva.

The goddess

is

called licre

the priestess her-

seshta of Turn.

On

the other side, the son

of Bast, Horliil-en, is represented giving life to

The reconstruction
as the

of this hall took place

Osorkon (pi. xli. n). "We saw before that, according to all probabilities, when Osorkon I. ascended the throne,
the temple was more or less ruined.

the occasion of an event

on which he considered

He

set to

work rebuilding

it,

but he did not

finish the con-

most important of his reign, a great which was described at great length on Although one half, or the walls of the hall. even one-third only, of the sculptures have been
festival

struction, which was continued and completed by Osorkon II., who raised in particular the

preserved,
whole.
special

it is

sufficient to give

an idea of the
speak of

The

festival will
;

be the object of a

part of the edifice to which he chiefly attached


his

volume

at present

we

shall

it

name, the second

hall, or, as

he called

it,

the

only from a historical point of view, mentioning


the facts which

Festival TTnll.

temple;
Its

It was not a new addition to the had existed long before Osorkon. date goes back to the Old Empire there
it
;

we gather from the inscriptions,

and keeping for another work the religious


part, as well as the publication of the sculptures.

wo found

the cartouches of Pepi and most of


It

small rectangular block with four lines of


xlii. e).

those of the twelfth dynasty.


oldest part of the temple.
TI.

may be

the

text gives us the date of the festival, (pi.

Later on, Eameses


of his

"Year
" which " litter
;

22, on

the

first

day of Choiak, the"


out of the sanctuary," "

had stored there a great number


as

" coming forth of


is in

Amon

statues,

well

those which were

made
it

for

the Festival Hall, resting on his

him

as those he usurped.

I stated above the

reasons which led

me
the I

to

think that

was

during the wars which preceded the reign of

Rameses
pulled

III.

that
for

temple was partially

down,

cannot

believe

that

Osorkon
the

II. intentionally

caused the destrucin

" the beginning of the consecrating of " the two lands by the king, of the consecrat- " " ing of the harem of Amon, and of the conse- " " crating of all the women who are in his city," " and who act as priestesses since the days " " of the fathers."

tion, Avhich is testified


w-alls of

by the manner
have been

which
If he

These
on the

lines are

obscure in the details


is clear.

how-

his hall

built.

ever, the general sense


first

In the year 22,

wished to supersede Rameses, it was quite sufficient to usurp his name, as he had done in

day of the month called Ghoiah,

took place the apparition or the coming forth


of

many

cases.

Wliy should he have broken the

Amon.

The word

to apipear, or to

come
of the

large statues, the plain surfaces of which, such as the base under the feet, were employed for

forth, is usually applied to the great festivals


in

which the sacred emblem was taken out


the

engraving the sculptures of his festival ? Can we imagine that, in order to procure more easily

sanctuary and put in an ark, which was carried

round

temple on the shoulders of the

THE TWKNTY-SECOND DYNASTY'.


priests.
::^.
is

translated

literally

tlie

words
:

Iionour of

Amon, although

the king himself had

i^ ^=^

which has several meanings


to

^^_

established the worship of Bast in the temple,

sometimes

receive, or

to ^S^_

to hegin.

^ ^% may
literally

taken as equivalent

and given the pre-eminence

to the goddess.

She

mean to sanctify,
is

has not been forgotten, since in every one of


the panels into which the sculpture
is

or
in

to

protect the tivo lands.

It

obvious that

divided,

thus translating

each word

by

she

is

seen standing before the king.


is

Besides,

itself,

we

deviate from the true sense

of the

a figure with a lion's head

one of the most

expression, which

l^ ^^
of which

must be taken as a whole. must be some religious act, the nature

frequent forms of the consort of Araon, Mut,


in

whose

temple

at

Thebes there

was
it

we do not

clearly understand,
is

or

if

collection of statues with lions'

heads exactly
is

not the act

itself, it

something connected
It
is

similar to

those of Bast.

Nevertheless,
tlie

with

it,

such as an offering.

the same
to the

Araon, the lord of the throne of


j\^=^
.

two lands,

with the word

h^

Avhich

is

applied

^-7 /A

^=

.^,-2_^

-^yjti^

i^^ig

qualifications

harem

of

Amon, and

to the

women who

are

such as they are met with at Thebes,

who

is

said to be priestesses of the

Gods

since the days

the object of the festival, showing that the tradition connected


it

of tJic fatJiers.

with the great Theban kings.

According
dignified

to

this

inscription,

the

most most

functions in

the

festival

devolved

was

on women.
important

The

king, however, plays a


it,

jDart in

he seems even to be the


first act,

object of a kind of deification, since the

mentioned immediately after the four


the date,
litter.^'

lines of

is

" the

carrying of the king on

The
us

celebration of this great festival


of

Osorkon II. Thebes more and more relinquished, and that Bubastis assumed the rank which had been held before by the city of the Amenophis and The political influence of the the Ramessides. city had been thrown into the background by its religious importance. Thebes was the residence of the high priests of Amon, who
It is possible that under

reminds
Bubastis,^

the

famous
by'

assembly

at

enjoyed a certain independence, but the centre


of gravity of the

described

Herodotus,

which

according to the Greek writer took place every


year.
It
is

Delta.
Asiatics.
is

Osorkon had

Empire was removed to the to make war against the


festival it

possible

that both

coincided
there

In the inscription of the


have
been

however, in the year 22 of Osorkon

said that all countries, the Upper

and Lower
Jus feet.

must have been a special solemnity. Perhaps Osorkon II. wished to imitate Eameses II. and Rameses III., who had both of them celebrated
during their reign a memorable
scription of
festival,

Beteiinv,

thrown under

Without giving too much importance to those we may infer from the official formulas,
special

the de-

which was engraved on temples, and


either

that he

mention of the Reteunu, the Syrians, made a campaign against Syria and
this

which may have recalled


calendar.

some

astro-

Palestine;
of

would confirm

the
II.

opinion

nomical phenomenon or an important date in the

several authors that


called

Osorkon

was the
Zape,*

AVhatever

may have been its purpose,

king

by Scripture Zerah,

^^],

Osorkon followed an old tradition, which went back to the time "of the fathers." A circumstance which indicates
see fi'om the last line that

we

against

whom Asa fought


is

a battle, which ended

in the complete defeat of the invader.


identification

far

But the from being proved; avc


for

that

Osorkon intended
is

to

comply with an old


is

should

not

understand,
called

instance,

why

custom,

that the festival


Her.
ii.

celebrated in

Osorkon would be

Zerah

the Ethiopian.

2 Cliron. xiv. 8.

H 2

Osorkon

II.

has

left

monuments

in

other

worship of

Amon,

in

which the

life

of

Thebes
twenty-

parts of the Delta.

Apart from usurpations of statues and pylons at Tanis, he built at Pithom," where I found cornices with his name painted in red, indicating that the construction had
not been completed, and also the statue of one
of his chief officers, fhe controller, AnJihrenpnefer,

seems to have centred


first

under

the

and the twenty-second dynasty, nor with

the sacerdotal hierarchy which was then the

government of Thebes. That does not mean that at Thebes they did not belong to the
hierarchy of the priests, for Bubastis was far
distant

which
capital

is

now

in the British

Museum.

But

his

was Bubastis.

The two Osorkons may


;

divinity

from the city was Bast.


difficult

of

Amon, and

its

chief

be called pre-eminently the Bubastites


temple, which

they

In the very

reconstruction of

the

both deserve this name, in regard to what they


did
for the

twenty-first dynasty, that of the king-priests,

they both reconto


it

we must not be astonished


bears names,
at first sight
titles,

if

the same

man

structed, one of

them adding
treasury,

the small
cele-

or even cartouches which

temple with

its

and the other

brating there the great festival to

Amon.

as the inscriptions

seem very different. According mentioning them have been

In the inscriptions of the Festival Hall

we

found at Thebes or at Tanis, or at any other


place, the dignities connected with the worship

found some information concerning the family His queen was called Karoama. of the king.

She was

his

legitimate

wife,

and

she

is

totally deficient

frequently seen accompanying

the king in the

ceremonies

of the

festival.
:

Her cartouche

may be may be the indication of a religious office, or it may be a regular coronation name, there may be two
of

Amon may

be stated in
;

full,

or they

the first cartouche

always appears in this form

The
US

] inscriptions of Thebes give /^~~\

cartouches or only one.


^^^^
^_^^^^^^

The great majority


the

of

the

names

of

two other
II.,

the inscriptions concerning


wife

king-priests

having been found at Thebes, we have been led


to give refers

wives of Osoi'kon

one of

Karoama

an exaggerated importance to
to them.
is

all

that

whom was
priest of

the mother of a high

Amon.

This fact cor-

In their time, the Delta, not


fountain-head
of

^P

"'^

""

'

Thebes,

the

Egyptian

roborates Professor Maspero's opinion,

who

sug-

political history.

gests that " the Bubastite kings, like the Saites,

block, which

was part

of the inscriptions

may have had one


tue possession of
rightful

or several

Theban wives,
life,

of the Festival Hall, has preserved the

names

of

spending at Thebes the greater part of their

three of the daughters of Osorkon,

who

are

whom

secured to the king a

seen

marching

in

procession

behind

their

authority over

Thebes,

and

whose
in-

mother

(pi. xlii. c).

The

eldest

was
;

called the

male

lieirs

were destined eventually to be


the
dignity
of

beginner, the first horn, ta 8hal-hej)er

the second
;

vested

with

high priests.""

was named

like

her mother Karoama


that a sign
it

as for the
at the

Karoama was probably Theban, and may have


been buried there
;

third, it is possible

is lost

but in the inscriptions of


title similar to

beginning of the name,

reads

now Armer.

Bubastis she bears no

those of

the quean-priestesses, of whom, however, she

may have been


styled
the

At Bubastis she is merely Her daughters have nothing connecting them with tlio Theban
one.

royal

THi:

wife.

CEMETERY OF CATS.

The Osorkons made Bubastis the sanctuary


of

The Store City of Pithoni, 3nl cd. Maspero, Momies de Deir el Bidiai

p. 15.
i,

Bast,

p. 751.

goddess.

the temple being dedicated to the It is natural to assign to their

THE CEMETERY OF
reign,
if

CATS.

not

tlie

special reverence of wliich cats

pit is seen the furnace in

which the bodies of


its

were the object, which can be traced to a very


early date
;

the animals were burnt

red or blackened
fire,

at least the

custom of giving those

bricks indicate cleai-ly the action of the

animals a sacred burial. I consider therefore the

which
the

is

confirmed by the circumstance that

twenty-second dynasty as havingfirst established


the cemetery of cats.
part of the

bones often form a conglomerate with


This cremation accounts

Standing on the western


of Tell Basta,

ashes and charcoal.


also for the difficulty

mounds

and looking

we had

in finding unl)roken

towards Zagazig, the visitor has before him an


area of several acres, which has been dug out

bones or complete skulls; indeed, when handled,


they nearly always fell to pieces. Here and there

thoroughly.
the place
is

Near the numerous

pits

by which
of

among the bones have been thrown bronze


intact
;

cats

honeycombed, are seen heaps


productive

or statuettes of Nefertum, which are but rarely

white bones of cats.

This spot has been one

the feet

are

generally
;

broken

off.

most fellaheen had


of

the

mines

which
fill

the

Some

of the pits

were very large

we emptied

at their disposal.

There they
the

one containing over 720 cubic feet of bones. This gives an idea of
necessary for
filling
it.

found the numerous bronze cats which

the quantity of cats

shops of the dealers at Cairo, and also the


standing statuettes of a divinity crowned with a
lotus flower, out of

which issue two plumes,

the god Nefertum, the son of Bast.

At Professor Virchow's request we gathered which could stand the transport, and we sent them to the illustrious naturalist in Berlin.
skulls

Although
as
tions
in

the

cemetery

was

considered
at excava-

We
the

had been struck

at first sight

by the

fact
;

exhausted, I

made an attempt
to
in

that several skulls were too large to be cats

order

find bronze cats,

and to

Arab diggers
skulls

called

them rabbit heads.

ascertain the
buried.

manner

which the animals are

According to the researches of Professor Vir-

We

emptied completely several of

chow these

belonged to ichneumons,

the large pits in which they had been deposited.

The work was superintended chiefly by Dr. Goddard, who took part in the excavations during the winter of 1889. The fellaheen, when
they

which Avere buried with the cats because they also were sacred animals. As for the cats themselves, the intei'esting discussions which
have taken place at the Anthropological Society
of Berlin

dug
pits

for
;

bronze cats, began with


to

the

have shown that they belonged to


which probably the Egyptains
the

upper

we had

go much deeper than


older pits,

several species of the cat-tribe, but not to the

they had done, and

we reached

domestic

cat,

which the water of the


bad
state

inundation reaches

had

not.

The majority of

bones

of

every year, so that the bronzes are in a very


of

Bubastis are those of the African type called


Felis maniculata, which,

preservation.

We
a good

discovered

according
stock

to
of

Dr.

a few of them

sitting
is

cats, heads, the


;

inner

Hartmann,
domestic
the

is

the

original

our

part of which

empty

specimen

cat,

representing Bast standing under the form of

Upper

Nile.

and abounds in Ethiopia and on There we are to look for the


to a recent epoch,

woman

with a slender body and a cat's head,


in her

primitive resort of our cat, the domestication of

wearing a long dress and holding


feet four crouching kittens.

hands

which goes back only


later

much

a sistrum and a basket, and having at her

than the pictures of the Egyptian tombs.


probable that the Egyptians had succeeded
cat, as is

It
in

is

up in large subterraneous pits, the walls and bottom of which are made of bricks or hardened clay. Near each
are heaped

The bones

taming the
or

done to-day with the


it it

ichneumon, and that they used


purposes,
otherwise,

for hunting

but

seems well

established tliat tliey bad not gone so far as

Phila;,^ she is furious as Selcliet,

and

site

is

ap-

a regular domestication of the animal.

2>eased as Bast.

In the text of the destruction of

Professor Vircbovvand tbe Berlin naturalists

mankind, which I found

wbo

discussed tbe question, do not admit tbat

tbe bones discovered at Bubastis belonged to

in the tomb of Seti I., Hathor takes the form of Sekhet when she slaughters the men and tramples on their blood.

animals that bad been burnt.


opinion
is

I believe tbat this

Sekhet

is

the BovfidaTt^ dypia of the Greeks.


qualifications of

in consequence of the fact that

we

The most frequent


Bubastis are
:

Bast at
the

sent only bones

which were

in a fair state of

the great goddess of Bubastis, the

preservation, because in the furnace where the

queen of

the

gods,

the

eye,

or perhaps,

animals were heaped up, the burning had not

daughter of Ea, the mighty, the queen of the shy,

been complete, and some of the skeletons

may

and

also,

as

we saw
of

in several instances, the

have escaped the action of the

fire.

I think

priestess

herscshta

Turn,

an obscure

title

that the presence of furnaces in the cemetery,

which was never found before.

The name of

and the contents of a pit, where the bones are mixed up with ashes and charcoal, is a decisive argument in favour of the cremation Besides, there are no traces of the bodies. whatever of embalming once only we found little bits of gold paper which may have been
;

Bast, as is pointed out by Brugsch, is derived from the root J P A which means imimlse, motion, and which according to the cases may be to intro-

duce or
of

to

bring out.

motion

Avith the fructifying

action of heat,

Brugsch connects the idea and fertilizing which would be Bast, while on
as
is

on the cartonuage of the


wrappings

mummy,

or on the

the contrary, when,

often the case in a

which covered the body of an animal, which for some reason or other did not If there has share the same fate as the others. been a mummification of cats at Bubastis, it was
of very rare occurrence, while
it is

climate like Egypt, the heat becomes a nuisance

and an
fertility

evil, it

would be Sekhet.

Brugsch conEgyptian

siders also Bast as a


is

form of the moon, to which

often

attributed in the

the rule in

mythology.

other cemeteries like Beni-Hassan.

Brugsch has observed that the sculptured


representations of the goddess or the statues
are always lion-headed,^ while the bronzes are
cats.

The Egyptian word

is

the same for both

the

Egyptians seem to have considered the


reduced image, which was presented to the
It is the

smaller animal as a diminutive of the other, as


its

The name of Bast is a feminine form of Bes, god of the East, a warlike divinity, whose chief sanctuary was also very near Bubastis, in the neighbouring nome of Arabia, the capital of which was Phacusa.^ There be was called Sojit, and he took several forms and different names one of them is Sopt Shu, a god who is armed like Bes. Comparing the inscriptions of the great
the
shi'ine of

goddess as an offering.
the
also

same with
which are
Bast
is

Saft-el-Henneh with the inscriptions

hippopotamus
designated
of

and the

pig,

by one

word.

we find that the divinity accompanying Bast most frequently, and considered
of Bubastis,

form
of

Mut, the mother-goddess, and also


goddess of Denderah.
TJofl,

as her son,

is

called IlorhiJcen, a

god with a
;

Eathor, the

She

hawk's head,
flower, out of

like all

forms of Borus

or Nefera lotus

assumes the names of

and also of

Selcliet,

tum, a god with a

human head wearing

when

she appears as a warlike divinity and as

which issue two plumes, or Menthu,


lastly JiFahes,

a destructive power.

We

read in a text of

god with a hawk's head, and


at Saft el

who
'

Plenneh

is

rejDresented as a lion

know

of

The Mound

of the

one exception at Celibfit-el-IL\gar. Jew, pi. vi.

Sec

Brugsch, Diet. p. 810.

"

Goshen,

p.

10.

DYNASTIES TWENTY-THIIEE TO TWENTY-NINE.


devouring the Lead of a
triad
^

human

often -wears the emblems of Nefertum.'


of Bubastis consists of

and who The Turn, Bad, and


being,

touches of the king Uahahra, Apries, Hophra, under whose reign the man lived. He was undoubtedly a high dignitary, for his titles are
:

Makes, called also Nefertum or Horhikcn.

As
of

prince of the first order, chancellor, and chief of


the friends of the king.

we know

that the ichneumon


is

was an emblem

His name was Nesthe living

Tum,^ there

nothing extraordinary in the

jnihor,

and

his

surname Ncferabraanlch,

fact that those animals should be mixed in the

Neferahra, the image of Neferabra,

who was king

cemetery with the cats which represented Bast and Mahcs.

Psammetik
Menhor,
Saitic, is

II., under whose reign he was born. His father Avas a prophet, and was called

the

image of Ilorus.
style

Another monument, the


a

of

which

is

DYNASTIES TWENTY-THREE TO TWENTY-NINE.


After the Osorkons it seems that Bubastis soon began to decline, we find no more important monuments, and hardly any traces of the kings who preceded Nekhthorheb. We must remember that the country went through
troubled times which were not favourable to the execution of great works, for which peace

of

much obliterated group, in limestone, a priest and priestess, now in the British
The
inscription engraved

Museum.

on the back
It is divided

contains the remainder of the titles of the two


persons, with the usual formulas.

in two, the right side referring to the priestess,

and the

the priest, whose name has disThere was also some text inscribed on the edge of the monument (pi. xliii. a, a'.)
left to

appeared.

We

see there that the title of

^^
it

herscshta

\7asi

and prosperity are necessary.


first,

Egypt had
to

to

special to

Bubastis

we

sav>r

given to the

undergo several invasions, of the Ethiopians

goddess herself,
sou of Rameses

we saw also
II.,

and afterwards of the Assyrians,

whom
re-

that Khaemuas, the had been invested with the

she was long tributary.

The dynasty which

same dignity as the


I

Saitic priest,

who is

^vT
of

stored to Egypt part of her former splendour,

Ojj]]

herseshta seJchetnuter, priest of the hobj

under whose reign there was a kind of revival


both in art and in
sixth, does not
field,

the

usual

name

of

the

territory

political life,

the twenty-

Bubastis.

It is the first time that

seem

to

have taken much interest


its

we

find the

in Bubastis, but to

have concentrated

works

name

of

the

goddess written

\M

MJl'^Pri
be"

on other

localities, like Sais, its native city, or

Sel-hctnuter,

which

consider

to

the

the north-eastern part of the Delta.

Egyptian name corresponding to


of that
Bovl3daTL<; aypia.*

the Greek

However, two
bearing
of
fine
its

small

monuments
;

dynasty have been preserved


date,

one of them
the forepart

In the same inscription also we come across

and which

is

an unknown geographical name UtT "^


garden or
the field or the

v^

the

crouching statuette in basalt, of very


Avorkmansbip, with

Bast sculptured

in

the middle, and an


(pi.
xliii.

inscription

on each side
are

marsh of Ilorus, as we saw before that there was one of Bast. It must have been a locality in the neighbourhood of the
temple, or at least in the territory of the city, for
the

d).

On

the

arms

the

car-

man says that he

received for his hereditary

'

Goslien, pi.

iii.

3, \i. 6, vii. 5.
ii.

See Goshen,

pi.

G,

the three

members of the

share the house of his father in the garden of


triad

imJer their various forms standing before Sopt, ^ Goshen, pi. vi. G.

The Moimd of

the Jew, p. 23.

Ilorus.

The name

of the priestess,
is

which alone

duced in the work of the French Expedition

has been preserved,

1^^^^^
granite
;

llontfuul.

I assign also to the Saitic of

epoch a fragment
part of
the
of the

we discovered a few more. The hall of Nekhthorheb,


only a heap of blocks
;

like the others, is

the granite alone has

statue in black

inscription of the sides

and

back has

been

left.

great part of the building was

been preserved.
to Bast of

The monument was dedicated The fragments of lines of Bubastis.


inscription

made
of

of red limestone

from Gebel Ahmar, chips


that,

which cover the ground, so

more than

the

lateral
;

are

not destitute of

any other spot in the temple,


appearance of a quarry.

this hall has the

interest

they speak of

the child of Tep, with its

I think the hall never

pleasant face,
(pi. xliii. c).

who

is

in

the

garden of Bast

was

finished

the walls were to be covered with

sculptures,
I

saw

also in the

shop of a dealer at Zagazig

a small fragment of green basalt, of the


date.

same

The

deceased, as

usual, addresses the

priests Avho pass

by going into the temple,

a part of which only has been Nekhthorheb frequently employed in his structure materials taken from the older Thanks to his unscrupulousness, we have halls. preserved the block of Amenemha I., and that of Amenophis II., which was used as a door lintel,

executed.

so that the inscription remained unhurt.


entering the sanctuary of the lady of Bast.

Agreat

many

inscriptions have been completely erased,

Following the chronological order,

we come

to a small statue in limestone, the middle part

and it is impossible to assign a date to them. Nekhthorheb followed the traditions of the
Bubastites
;

of

It

is

which only has been preserved (pi. xliii. rs). a dedication of the king Hakoris, of the
It
is

he dedicated his structure to Bast,

twenty-ninth dynasty, to the goddess Bast of


Bubastis.

the

first

time that a

monument
The

and even, in order to show better how devoted he was to the goddess, he changed his cartouche, and instead of calling himself the son of Isis, as
he does elsewhere, he styles himself the
Bast.
so7i

of this king has been found in the Delta.

of

fragment

is

now

in the British

Museum.

When
;

he made the great constructions

of Bubastis, he of
Hell

had already erected the temple


however, we discovered a
built the
|^>_=/l

his cartouche contained already the


;

THE THIRTIETH DYNASTY.


I NOTICED in another

name
of

of that city

fragment of a statue dedicated at the beginning


his reign,

work the considerable which have been raised in the Delta by the thirtieth dynasty, and especially by the first king, Nekhthorheb. Bubastis is one of the localities where he disfor he added to played the greatest activity

when he had not yet

number

of constructions

temple
as

of

Isis.

He

is

called

there

(pi. xliii. k)

Nelchthorneh, or Ilornehnehht,

^\
K:::^

on the

large

cartouches of Sama-

nood.'^

\^;
satisfied
it

Nekhthorheb was not


the great hall, he put in
red granite
it
;

with building

the temple a hall which he intended to be the


largest.

a shrine of polished
so perfect that

It prolonged the temple


feet square.

on the west,

the

workmanship is

and was 160

All around the walls,

on the top, ran a cornice adorned with large a fragment of it was visible at projecting asps the end of last century, and has been repro;

must rank among the finest remains of Egyptian art. The sculptures are not very deep, but engraved with the most minute details (pi. xlvii. and xlviii.). Most of the frag"

Gosliei), p. 3.

See Tlie

Mound

of the

Jew,

pi. vi. 2, p.

25.

"HK THIRTIETH

DYNAHTY.
it seems that the text was intended be a catalogue of temples, for the text always
:

ments have been carried away and sent to the museum of Ghizeh or to the British Museum.
^Ye cannot make even an approximate reconstruction of the

represented,
to

begins with the words


thesaiirtuaryof; thus

monument
Tt
is

too

many fragments

^ ""^
:

the holy abode,

have disappeared.

not impossible

that there were two of them.

even In the cartouches,

we have, R]

^J^J
Ra, of

[o|l|^--]'^^
Barneses,
in
the

the dirive abode of


the

which are regularly repeated, and which are the ornament of the cornice, Nekhthorheb is always styled fJie aon of Basf, the goddess with a lion's
head being substituted for
Isis,

district

valcr of

Bu

ar:iii(MiE]?:^fls
holy uliode of
J'hfJt'ih

>'

who is generally
It is

Toneii of Barneses, on the

seen in cartouches found in other places.

not possible to translate even one sentence from


the inscriptions

The kind of property over the gods which Rameses had assumed, and which probably entitled him to a special protection,
bank of the
rirer.

which were engraved on the


to his

persisted in the tradition as late as Nekhthorheb.

walls of the hall, which the king had built

As
the

for the localities indicated


first

mother, Bast
left (pi. xliv.

there are only short fragments


xlvi.).

may

be the

city

called

The

by those names, under the

peculiar character of

Ptolemies Onias,^ north of HeHopolis, the present


Tell el Yahoodieh. We do not know what is meant by the second, which may be Memphis.

those sculptures, as of most of those which are


the

work of Nekhthorheb or

his successor, is the

strange religious representations of which they


consist.

Several other sacred abodes are quoted

most of

called

Nekhthorheb erected the tablet now from the name of its owner the " Metterunder Nectanebo's
el

them are much


teresting are
:

obliterated

some

of the

most

in-

nich tablet," which is covered with religious texts


of the greatest interest
;

^ "^ J^^^r^ |
fZ^
city,

the sacred

abode
;

ofTeb, the god ofAphroditopolis in

reign the shrine of

Saft

Henneh was
of which

enis

n
the

\\

Upper Egypt

the divine

abode of

Amon

of

graved,

the

partial

destruction
_

Northern

Diospolis parva, in the Delta

much

to

be regretted, and

which

has
of

the

greatest likeness to the

monuments
it

Nekhthe

thorheb,

At

that time

seems that

abode of Arsaphes, the king of the gods, the lord


of Haves, Heracleopolis.

sovereigns wished to
;

give their

monuments a

more religious stamp the texts which accompany the figures are no mere commonplace they are much more developed sentences as for the divinities, they are more numerous, and are seen under the most various appearThe god to whom a monument is ances. dedicated appears followed by a train of divinities, who are nearly the whole Egyptian
;

Very
of

little

remains of the inscription of the


;

basement, as well as of the upper cornice

one

them contained a

date, or something con-

nected with chronology, as

from the fragment now


Ghizeh, where

in

we may conclude the museum of


of the festival,

we read

(pi. xliv. v),

every one, ffty years.

Is

it

the length of the

period after which the festival was celebrated


or did Nekhthorheb build the hall, as Osorkon
II.

pantheon.

From

the larger fragments which have been

preserved,

we may infer that

the repi'esentatious

solemnity?

had done before, on the occasion of a great We can express only conjectures.
;

were divided into successive panels, between which stood a huge serpent (pi. xlvi. n, e). In each panel appear several divinities, the names of which are given ; but though the god alone is

at

One thing is certain all, it was decidedly

if

there was any festival

in

honour of Bast, and


p. 12.

The Moun.l of the Jew


Biugscl), Diet. geog.

p 928.

uot of

Amon,

as under Osorkon.

Among
we we

tbc
find

the half

month.

].

5,

on the fifth of the month

sacred animals sculptured on the walls,

of Tyhi, the day

when
the

the stafne -was sculjjtured.

tte ichneumon
before, being an

(pi.

xlv.

v),

which, as

said

Judging from the


classify

style of the

work we must
Nekhthorheb
In the

emlilem of Tuni, Avas buried

among

monuments
(pi.

of

with the cats.

a fragment of a statue of Bast, standing, of

At

the end of the hall

was a shrine

of red

beautiful

workmanship
fJie

xliii.

o).

granite, perhaps even two, covered with religious

inscription are contained part of the titles of

representations, and processions of gods.


walls

The

the goddess,

lady of Bast, the daughter

were

divided

in

horizontal

registers,

of Ua, the queen of the shy, u^ho rules over all


the gods,
. . .

separated by a band covered with stars, which


figures the sky,

the great one, the lady of Bast, the

and which

is

supported by

men

priestess herseshta of T^lm, the only one, ivho has

with raised arms.

Shrines of the same kind


in several places

no descent, the goddess of the North, icho rules.


. . .

were made by Nekhthorheb


of another at Belbeis, ship

The name
identifies

of Mehent, the

goddess of the

I found fragments of one at Saft el

Henneh, and
wor-

North,

her Avith Uoti.'


at

A text
el

of the

two

cities -where the

same king, discovered


(Heb, Iseum), speaks of

had great

similarity with that of Bubastis.

Hagar her under the name of


Behbeit
is

particularly artistic fragment to be noticed,

Meht
lion.

'

the determinative

a cat, and not a

contains the
predicate

name

of the king, followed


'^'-^

by

the
]!n.

^^3:7-f-2?

lirivr/

lord,
in

liJrr

To
l)y

all

the above described monuments, the


is

Name and
way
as to

predicate are arranged

such a
size,

age of which
the style,
is

pointed to either by a

name

or

form two medallions of the same

we must add

a few, the date of

and perfectly symmetrical.

The name
;

of the

which
both
fully

uncertain.

Two
large
of

fragments of red
the
first

king has not the shape of an oval


reads, NehJdhorheh si

all

the signs

limestone have been found in

hall,

are included in the sign Heh, so that the whole

bearing
engraved.
;

very

inscriptions

care-

Bad
is

(pi. xlvii. a).


is

One

them was horizontal


the

On

somewhat
Bast
is

larger fragment Bast

seen

(pi. xlix. o)

it

accompanied probably a scene of


mentions
great princess,

sitting,

and the king

before
ilic

her

making
the

offerings.

It

who

offerings.
the

called

lady of the shrine,


in

may be Bast
is

or any other goddess.


the gods,

The

other

daughter of Horns,
the well-known
(xlvii. g).

residivg

hohj

vertical,

and reads,
another

by the art of
(pi. xlix.

field,

name

for the territory of

Shet

^^,

name

of

Bast

d).

Bubastis

Immediately after came the name of a king,


entirely destroyed.

To

the reign of Nekhthorheb belongs also a

A fragment

of a pillar in

statue, so

much

mutilated, that only a shapeless preserved.


It

white limestone, used by the

Romans

in

fragment has been

probably

very rude construction which they erected at


the entrance of the
first hall,

represented the king himself, sitting, with a


smaller figure standing near him.

bears the following

On

the

side.*

words
is

tJte

divine father, the Jierseshta in the

and on the back of the throne was engraved a


procession
ferring to
of figures,
festivals,

temjile of the

mighty goddess

(pi. xlix. a).

There

and an inscription
date
of

re-

an omission in the inscription, the sign ^^:5


first
<:r=>.

the

which was

has been forgotten above the


signs are cut very deep.

The
the

given
(PI. xliii, F
p'
I'''')
.
.

The

pillar

may be
for

1.

o, tov-ards the statues

of

Ptolemaic,

and have been engraved


in his

the temple of his mother, JJsert [the mighty) Bast.


.

same man who had


"

tomb a Canopic vase,


324, 329, 33G.
i)l.

1.4, fhe lord of the diadems, Nelchfhorheh,


fesliral of
iJie

Brugsch, Myth.
Tlie

p.

in

tlie

first

of the month, ami of

'

Mound

of the .low,

vi.

'HE I'TOLKMIES

AN'l) 'I'm'; liO,\L\N8.

we purchased from the sebakh His titles and name were (pi. xlix.
wliich

dii^-o'ers.

to

him by

Ptoletiiv,

one of the

StaSo\'ot, the

n),

t]ie
j

l'Jt'-(jiuirds,

who probably were


soldiers.

the successors of
calls

divine father, the

hersesJita

of Bast,

t/ic

ladtj uf

the

Macedonian

He

himself the
as they

Bast, the scribe (f the treasury, Aba.

brother, dSeX^d?, of

Apollonios,

but

THE PTOLEMIES AND THE ROMANS.


At
the entrance of the hjposfcyle hall, on two
of

had not the same father, since Ptolemy was the i^ou of another Apollonios, and Apollonios the
son of Theon, the word dSeX<^os must either first cousin or uterine brother. In the second inscription son of Theon,
it is

mean

blocks
statues,

red granite, which were bases

of

Apollonios, the

we found two Greek


The
them
inscriptions
is

inscriptions, with-

who

writes the dedication, for I

out

any remains of the statues which stood


ai'e

do not think there can be any doubt as to the restitution, '^jroXXwi/tos0coi/os(l.


3).

above.

the

following.

Heseemsto

One

of

complete, and has been carried


of Ghizeh, the other
is

to the

museum

only half

have erected two statues, since he mentions first the king and afterwards his brother Ptolemy.
It is natural that the

preserved

(pi. xlix. e, f).

high standing minister


of

should
AtoWwviov
TOV
Toi'

ecui'os tuiv

</)u\.(u)I')

y3aO-l\c(l)S

Kal SLOLKIJTrJU

his sovereign. Both brothers give a curious motive for niaking a

speak

first

lavTOv a8c\<f>6u IlToAe^natos


tojv SiaSoYwi'
jy-;

monument
the king

to each other,

AttoWwvlov

twoias (veKCf
KXeoTrdTpaif

di jSacnkia
Kal

and queen."

It

"kindness towards may have been a

YlTuXefialov Kat paa-iXicraav


Oeoii'; i-rrirfyavw

d^apia-Toi"; koi ra TtKva airiui'.

present intended to court the good-will of tlu^ sovereign, but if they had some favour to ask for, it is strange that they both should have

BaffiAea llroAf/xaroi' 6
Kal iv^apidTov Kal to
.

done

it

IlToAe/iaioi' A7roAAio(i'ios Wtwi'os)


tSiv t^iiXmv 6 8ioik)5(ti/s
. . .

monuments

by adorning the temple of Bast with which were testimonies of their


left

friendliness to each other.

iVlKiV TiyS CIS TO.


al'TOV Kal

TU TiK

...
!

Although they
that the

no inscriptions,

it is

clear

Undoubtedly these inscriptions were dedications of statues


;

Romans did not abandon the temple of Bubastis. At the entrance of the hypostyle
the place where the Greek inscriptions were discovered, was the pedestal of a statue (pi. vi.), part of which we may have found, for
hall,

it is

the rule to employ the

accusative

alone

in

honorary

inscriptions.official

They acquaint us with a high

of the

reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes, the dioicetes, or


minister of finance, A^^ollonios, the son of Theon.

at a short distance basalt,

was a headless torso

wearing a

in green toga with an ornamental

According to M. Lumbroso
six of those officials,

"

we knew already

fringe exactly similar to that of

the

Roman

cue of whom, Tlepolemos,

statue in the

museum

of Ghizeh.

belongs to the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes,

and

is

described by Polybius as a bad adminis-

trator.

As Tlepolemos was

in office in

the

part of a fine torso in white stone, used as a bridge over a ditch, and which we purchased from a fellah, is also Roman work.
I think that the

The front which was

twentieth year of Ptolemy, he must have been

Romans used
the

the temple for


to

the successor of Apollonios,

who was one of the


is

military purposes, for they


to
it

seem

have made

friends of the king, a veiy high dignity at the

strong doors,

court of the Greek kings.


-

A statue

posts of which were

erected

built of

Reiiiach, Epig. grecqiie, p. 380.

there
still

huge stones. On the west side, where was an entrance, was found a large block,
Nekhthorheb

'

Ecnn.

pol. p.

339.

in silu, with a cartouche of

BUB AST! S.
turned upside down, showing that
it

had been

scattered.
I obtained

After long and

difficult negotiations,

nsed after the king for a purpose quite different

from the owner, the sheikh of a

from what he originally intended.

On

the
a

neighbouring village, the permission to excavate


in his field, with the condition that I should

north side of the Festival Hall was also


xxvii.

door, the hinge of which has been preserved


(pi.

not carry
cover.

away anything which

might

dis-

and

xxii.

r,).

It is

cube

of

one foot of solid bronze inserted into a stone,

This excavation lasted a week.


light a small

It

brought to

and

fastened

underneath with a very hard


seen the slight hollow where the
;

heap of broken stones jumbled

welding, and on the sides with stone wedges.

together, and which evidently were the remains

On the

top

is

pivot of the door tm-ned

the stone

itself,

which

was the threshold, and out of which we took


the hinge, bears a circular furrow produced by

Temple of Bast. was an architrave, bearing Except this one, all the name of Rameses II. the others had the name of Osorkon I., who had
of a building smaller than the

The

largest fragment

the door
xxii. b).

in

being opened

and

closed

(pi.

certainly enlarged this small temple,

if

he did
lii.

not raise
buried
their

it

completely.
all

On

plates

1.

to

has

As
dead

the Egyptians sometimes

been reproduced
scriptions,
is

that remains of the inIt

in the enclosure walls of the cities, I in the very thick wall

made

which must have been numerous.

some excavations

which

possible that the temple extended

further,

surrounded Bubastis, and two sides of which

and that there were other chambers around that


which 1 discovered
fellah prevented
;

have been preserved, on the west and the north


of the Tell.
I

but the

ill-will

of

the

even cut completely through

it.

me from

searching for them,

It did not give

any interesting result


bricks, such as

found
seen

and could not be conquered even by the high


pecuniary compensation which
I

only very late burials, in coffins of terra-cotta,


or

offered

for

made

of

raw

may be

on plate

xxviii.

bodies, but quite destitute

They contained mummified of any amulet, inany kind.


I con-

more extensive excavations. In Egypt we must always reckon with the innate feeling, of
w^hich
free,

even highly situated

persons arc not

scription, or funereal object of

that the explorer looks only for gold and

sider

them

as being interments of poor people

treasures.

of the end of the

Roman

period.

Herodotus seems

to

have made a mistake,

when be
crated

says that the small temple


It

was dedi-

cated to Hermes.

must have been conse-

THE SMALL TEMPLE.


We
hear from Herodotus that at a distance of
three furlongs from the temple of Bast, at the

same divinities as the great few and badly preserved remains of the representations which adorned its wall (pi. I.), we find the king making offerto

the

temple.

In

the

end of a road which passed through the market-place,

ings to the triad of Bubastis, Bast being seen


twice, once as Tefnut, the other time as Sekhet.

and which was

lined

by

trees

of

an extraordinary height, was the temple of

Also in the sacred barges which were sculptured

Hermes.

The

direction

of

the road

is
is

still

on the walls, and of which a few remains only


have been
left.

traceable, although above its level there

an
the

Bast

is

seen standing before a

accumulation of several feet of earth.


ends, and
I

At

man who must be

the king.

The reason which


is

distance indicated by the Greek writer, the Tell

induced Herodotus to consider the temple as


having been dedicated to Thoth,
the frequent

we reach
first,

cultivated fields where,

when

went there

a few granite blocks wore

occurrence of the god in the inscriptions, and

THE SMALL TEMPLE.


probably in

which have been destroyed, and where the Greek traveller, who
the sculptures

when he

did it: 1.2. " /fc built their abodes,


the

and he multiplied
precious stones.

rases of (jold, silver,


ijace
Jiis

and

could not read hieroglyphs, might recognize the


ibis head of the god. The mistake of Herodotus was perhaps suggested to him by the character

The king

directions

ill, his form of the god of Ilesert (Thoth), meaning as being Thoth himself. We are struck here,

treasury.

of the edifice, which I believe to have been a Thoth was the " lord of truth" from

as

on the other fragments, by the high amount

of the

whom Avisdom
proceed.
treasures of
tection, just

and intelligence were thought


Bubastis under his

to

following

sums given. sums 1.


:

We

find, for

instance, the
'

3, gold,

5010 uten
lazuli,

silver,

It is natural that

he should have the


special pro-

30,720

nien.;
;

genuine lapis

ICOO; black
like

copper, oOOO

and something which looks

as in other

temples

we

see

him

a shrine or a vase,
uteiK'

and has a weight

of 100,000

represented in sculptures or inscriptions con-

Turn Kheper of Heliopolis receives as his

cerning measurements, accounts, and dates.

share 15,315 uten of gold and 14,150 of silver.


the

Notwithstanding

the

ai'chitrave

with

According to Brugsch's latest researches, and


taking his estimate of the proportion of the
value of both metals at ten to one, the approxi-

name

Rameses II.. it is obvious from the great number of cartouches of Osorkon I. disof

covered there, that

it

is this

king who mostly


of the small

mate value of

tlie

above sums would be


in

in

contributed to the construction


temple, which he intended to be a
his wealth

English money 130,311/. worth

gold and
If

monument of
towards the

12,827/. of silver given to a single temple.


it

and of

his munificence

gods.

A-U the inscriptions


silvei',

which we found are


jDrecious

was so, Ave can understand that the last line, where some of these gifts seem to have been

accounts of gold,

and

stones,

summed
ntcii.,

up, should mention a

sum

of 494,300

especially lapis lazuli, offered to several divinities.

taking only the signs which are distinct,

It is

much

to

be regretted that there

for on account of the erasure, the first figux'e

are such scanty remains of these inscriptions,

may have been much


pillar
:

higher.

On
sums

other
of this

which were engraved on four

sides of a pillar.
several, the

fragments of the same

we

find

The

dates, of

which there were

amount

gold and silver, 2,300,000 uten, and


(pi. Hi. c, 2)

valuations of sums, would be very interesting,

elsewhere

more than two

millions

considering

that

they refer to a period


is

of

of uten of silver.

We

have no reason to think

Egyptian history which

nearly unknown.

that there

is

exaggeration in these statements,

There
it

is

only one fragment of a certain extent

considering that
cations, but
units.
It gives

contains parts of five hues of an horizontal

sums given

we have not here vague indicorrectly down to the


idea of Avhat

inscription which

was engraved on one


(pi. li.).

of the
is

faces of the pillar

The fragment

us a very high

the

broken

in two.

made paper
to let

casts of the in-

riches

scription,
sell

but I could not persuade the fellah to

me the stone, and museum of Ghizeh.


bourhood.

me

take

it

to the
it

and the prosperity of the kingdom must have been under Osorkon I. In this case, as with the thirtieth dynasty, we have to reverse

Since

my

departure,

the generally admitted opinion as to the con-

has been carried away by a pasha of the neigh'

Brugsdi assigns
diilers

to the

uten the weight of 90.9 grammes,

In this inscription the name of Thoth


quently occurs.
to the king to
It is the

fre-

whieh
p.

god who suggested was

only slightly from the 1450 grains assigned to the uten by iMr. Pctrie, vid. Brugsch, Zeitschr. vol. xxvii.

make

85
*

&
as

if.

these generosities to the

I'rof.

temples.

Osorkon

even

Thoth himself

word

Brugsch in a private letter says lie considers meaning a very high sum of money.

tire

ditiou of the
is

empire under the Bubastites.


it

It

fellaheen

digging for " sebakh."


in

There are
col-

clear that

was only

in a time of

peace

some, for instance,


lection,

Mr. Hilton Price's

and prosperity that such gorgeous


could be

liberalities

which comes chiefly from Tell Basta.


purchased from

made

to the temples,
it

In
is

my

last visit to the place I

Revei'ting to the horizontal inscription,

a fellah a small porcelain tablet, which I gave


to the

remarkable through

several

new words and

museum

of Ghizeh,

and which bears on


'"^

some unknown
regretted.

signs,

which make the loss of

one

side

the greatest part of the text the more to be L. 5 mentions the tributes of two good god,

l^gC IW^l^ At'


tJte
,-^
,.a 5-?-,^^,

lord of Egypt, Darius, everlasting,

of the oases, El

Khargeh and

Dakhel.''

This
L. 3

and on the other


brave,
tlie

Mahes, the

verii

tribute consists of several kinds of wine.'*

lord
III.,

of {Bast).

Large scarabs of

there

is

a chronological indication, where un-

Amenophis

even

the so-called marriage

fortunately

wc have lost an important datum, the name of the month /rom the first year, the
:

scarabs of the king, are not rare,

They come

from the tombs which are under the Roman


houses, and are often met with by the fellaheen.

7th of
lohich

.,

to the

^th year, the 25th of Mesori,

makes
it

years, 3 months,

and 16 days
taken to
fill

The discovery
I very soon

of

these

tombs was

originally

Whatever name
the gap,

of the

month

is

up

the purpose which attracted

me to Bubastis,

but

does not correspond exactly to this

gave them up for the great temple,


winters, that in

number

of

months and days.

which has been excavated so thoroughly during

We

end here the description of the antiquities

more than two


further

my

opinion any
entirely
is

and of the texts discovered at Bubastis, As we have shown, they extend from the fourth
dynasty to the Romans. Twenty-five kings arc mentioned, from Cheops to Ptolemy Epiphanes,

excavation
I

there

would be

devoid of result.

do not think there

any

more work
places of

to be

done in the great sanctuary of


to be

Bast, which proved to be one of the richest

one of

them, lan-Ra, being quite unknown


is

Lower Egypt, only


It is a striking

compared

before. It

possible that other royal

names may

with Tanis.

example of the
lie

be discovered on the small objects found by the


Brugsch, Reisc nach der grossen Oase, pp. GG, G9. Brugsch,
1.

archgeological treasures

which

buried in the
pii^k

Delta,

and which only wait for the


scientific explorer.

and

1, p.

79.

spade of the

LIST OF KINGS
Whose Names
locro

Found

in the Inscrijdions of Buhastis.

Cheops

CONTENTS OF PLATES,
itii

references to the 'parjes of the Memoir.

I.

Great Hyksos liead found at


trance of the temple on
in the British

tlie

en-

Lotus -bud
capitals.

columns
of

and

Hathor
British
.

tlie east,

now
.

Ph. Rev.

W. MacGregor 1013
Cheops,

Museum/

see

pi. x.

26

VIII. Standard

II.

Roman
Gregor

brick

constructions,

remains

Museum.
3

Ph. Rev.

W. MacGregor

of the old city.

......
of

Phot. Rev. AV. Macthe


east,

IX. Great Hathor capital, Boston.

Ph.

Bragsch-Bey.
file,

See the same in pro. . . .

III.

General

view

excavations,
in

pi. xxiii. A

.11
.

taken
1887.

from the

February,

In the foregronnd, headdress


b, c).
.

X. Great Hyksos head, the same as pi. i. XL Great Hyksos head, first discovered.

2G

of a colossal statue (pi. xxi.

Ph.
.

Museum
3,

of

Gliizeh.

Ph.

Brugsch2G

Brugsch-Bey

Bey
XII. Base of a statue of lan-Ra.
XIII.

IV. The same taken a month

later.

In

Ghizeh

23

the foreground, base of the


statue

Hyksos
2, 3,

Two

statues of the official Araeno-

now

in

the

British
.

Museum.
.

phis.

Ph. Rev.

W. MacGregor

2G

V. Hypostyle Hall taken from the south.

The left one in the Ghizeh Museum, the right one in the British Museum. Ph. Rev. W. MacGregor.
See
in
pi.

On the
Gregor

right, lotus-bud capital,

now
.

in

XXV.

b,

the back of the statue

Boston Museum.
(pi. liii.)

Ph. Rev.
.
.

W. Mac1013
On
frag(p.

Ghizeh
of

31

VI. Hypostyle

linll

taken from the north.

XTV. Statue bearing the name II., now in the Museum


Ph. Thevoz
.

Rameses
IG, 37

of Geneva.
. .

In the middle,
the
I'ight,

Roman
On

pedestal.

base of a statue of Nekh58).

XV. Head
name

of

an ornamental statue wearatef,

thorheb

(p.

the

left,

ing the
of

and inscribed with the


II.

mentofa
45),

statue of

Rameses VI.

Rameses

Ghizeh.

Ph.

and base of the statue of Tau-Ra.

Brugsch-Bey

38

Ph. Rev.

W. MacGregor

10

13

XVI. Rameses VI. Ghizeh. Ph. BrugschBey.


See the inscription on the back,
pi. xxxviii.

VII. The same taken more to the west.

.46
40

mentioned, the pliototypes liave teen made from photographs which I took myself.
'

AVhcrcvei- no

name

is

XVII. Block bearing a


countries.

list

of conquered

Ph. Rev.

W. MacGregor.

CONTENTS OP TLATES.
making an offering to W. MacGregor 47 XIX. Group of Plitliah and Rameses II. In front block from the inscriptions Ph. of the festival of Osorkon TI. Rev. W. MacGregor .42 XX. Block bearing the name of Set of
XVIII. Osorkon
Bast.
.

I.

of
is

Rameses
in

II.,

the head

of

which
.

Ph. Rev.

Sydney,
of the

left

on the spot

9, 14,

87

D.

Base

British

Hyksos statue in the Museum, when first dis20


lintel

covered

XXVI.

A.

Upper

of

a door.

The

other side bears an inscription of

Barneses.
overseers).

Two
.

of our reises

(Arab

Amcnophis

II. (pi.
.

xxxv.
. .

u).

British
.

Ph. Rev.
.

W. MacGregor.
. .

Museum
B.

.30
.

York Museum

.42
pi.

Fragments
statues,

of

the

two

Hyksos
20
II.,

XXI.

A.

Architectural

head

of

Rameses
c.

when
still

first

discovered

II.

Ph. Count d'Hulst.


c.

See also
. .

Architrave usurped by Rameses

xxiv.
T; c.

British

Museum

.38
34
D.

showing

part of the cartouche


British

Headdress of a colossal statue of Ghizeh Ra.


A.

of Uscrtesen III.

Museum

9,

30

Erased architrave showing traces


of

XXII.
B.

Inscription
.

of
.

Apcpi.
.

British
.

the

words

the

chiefs of

the

Museum
xxvii.)
c.

.22
(pi.

Betennu.

Stone in which a bronze hinge

name
the

of

The other Rameses II.


of

side bears the

See

pi. v.,

on
30

was inserted

.CO
.42
7

left

Architrave showing the dedication


of the temple to Set
. .

XXVII. Bronze hinge


Ghizeh.

Ph.

Rev.

Roman time. W. MacGregor.


it

D.

False
British

door of

the

Museum
. .

....
Old
. .

Empire.

See

pi. xxii. B,

the stone in which

XXIII. A. Profile of the Hathor capital in Boston .11 B. Hathor capital of the smaller type.
.

was inserted XXVIII. Interment


Rev.

CO
of late

Roman
.
.

time,

in the enclosure wall of the city.

Ph.

W. MacGregor

.00
Pli.

Sydney
c.

12
of

XXIX.

Shayaleen dragging blocks.

Shoulder

colossal
II.
.

statue
.

Rev. ^Y. MacGregor

....
Rev.

usurped by Osorkon
D.

14, 35

XXX.

Shayaleen carrying stones out of


trenches.

Part of an architrave of Rameses


II
9,

the

Ph.

W. Mac4
Rev,

3G
36

Gregor

XXIV.
B.
c.

Stone of the twelfth dynasty, usurped by Rameses II.


A.
.
.

XXXI. Gang

of labourers.

Pli.

W.

MacGregor.

Hathor

capital.

Louvre

.11
38

Architectural head of Rameses II.


(pk xxi. a)

INSCRIPTIONS.
XXXIT.
B.

A.

Standard of Cheops.

See

pi.

D.

Base of a colossal Hyksos Ghizeh


A.

statue.
9, 26,

viii

48

Standard and name


British

XXV.
B.

left

Base of a statue of Rameses VI. on the spot .46


. .
.

Museum
and
. .

....
of Chefren.
of
.

(!,

D.

Titles

name
.

Pepi
.

I.

Back
Base

of the statue of

Amcnophis
. .

Ghizeh

.6
I.
.

(pi. xiii.)
c.

Ghizeh

.32
name

XXXIII.
B

A.

Inscription of

Amenemha

of a statue

bearins: the

F.

Usertesen III.

...
K

8 9

GG

CONTENTS OF PLATES.

I.

Cartouclies of Sebekliotcp
A.

T.

K.

Statue of King Rameses VI., red


granite
(pi. xvi.).

XXXIV.
B. c.

Historical inscrii^tion

Ghizeh
I.

45

Fragment

of the twelfth dynasty

XXXIX.

and

XL.
to

Osorkon

making
various
47, 48

List of nomes.
]i.

Usertesen III.
Usertesen
T.
.

offerings
divinities

Bast

and

to

D,

Xile gods.

XXXV.
B.
c.

A.

King lan-Ra

(pi. xii.)

XLI.

0.

Inscriptions under the Hathor


. .

Standard of Apepi
Inscription of Apepi
D.

capitals

47, 48

Pedestal in black basalt for a statue


or a shrine

D.

Stone of Amenopliis
a).

.....
priestess

IT. (pi. xxvi.


.

.....
....
II.

II.

Osorkon

Inscriptions

of

E.

Smaller statue of Amenopliis

the gateway
.

49, 50

r, f".

Larger statue of Amenopliis


Ghizeh

XLTI.

A.

Osorkon

II.

and

his

queen,
. .

G.

H.
I.

Group of priest and The official Khcrfu.

Karoama.
B.

British

Museum

52 50 52

Date of the
Set and

festival of

Amon
II.
.

The god of Khucnaten. Ghizeh XXXVI. A. Rameses II. making offerings


B

c.

Daughters of Osorkon
0.

Mahes
and
.

.49

D.

Lists of captives

n.

Fragment
A.

of an usurped statue
priest
priestess.
.

E.
!',

Tablet of red granite


G.

XLIII.
B.
0.

Saito

Plithah of Barneses

British

Museum
official

.55
56
55

n.
I.

The god Meuthu.


Set of Barneses

....
Montreal.
.

Statue of Hakoris. British

Museum
.
.

Unknown

.56
56
58

K, L, 0.

Merenphtliah as prince

D.
E.

Statuette of Nespahor.

Ghizeh

M.

The royal son Khaemuas


42,
.

Unusual cartouche of Nekhthoi-heb


Statue of Nekhthorheb
. .

Boston N. A royal son of Kush. XXXVII. List of nomes. Rameses II. XXXVIII. A. Nile gods. Rameses II.
B.

F. f'".

G.
9,

Statue of Bast

.58
.

Tablet of black granite.


Statue of

Ghizeh

0, o".

Menthuhershepshef.

XLIV.VI. Hall of Nekhthorheb XLVII., VIII. Shrine of Nekhthorheb XLIX. A. White limestone. Ptolemaic or
. .

57

58 58

Boston
D.
E.
F.

Roman
B.
c, D.

......
. .
.

Statue of King Merenphthah

Canopic vase

.59
.

Statue of a royal son of Kush


Statue of the god Phthah Statue
of
.

Red

limestone,

unknown epoch
Ghizeh
the
of

58 59

42^

E, f.

Greek inscriptions.
Inscriptions

G.

King

Rameses

III.

L.

LII.

small

Ghizeh
H, h". Statue of

temple

GO 02
in
.

King Rameses VI.,


Ghizeh
,

LTII. Architectural drawing of the great

red limestone.
1, I.'

column now
VI.,

Boston, made by M.
. .
.

Statue of

King Rameses
left

E. Cramer

.11
.

black granite,

on the spot.

LIV. Plan drawn by Count d'Hulst

13

INDEX.
Aamu
Aha,
priest

Aboo Simbel
Abydos
Accad
Africamis

Ahmes, general

... ... ... ...

Ahmes
Amasis

I.,

King

Amen,

see

Anion.
I.
... ...
...

Amenemlia

...

n
Ill

Amenopliis,

ofiicial

ir
III
13,

29-

U,

IC, 20,

IV
Amon, god
15, 30, ai, 35, 37,

4214,

1648,

of Rameses

Ammihershepslief

Amu
Amyitaeos

An, King
Ankhrenpnefcr,
oilicial
...

Ankldoui, Eauctuary of Memphis


Apadinao...

Apcpi

... ... ...


...

...

...

21-

Apbroditopolis
Apollonios

son of Theon

ApophU,
Apries

gee

k^Q\n

Arab, conquest
Arabia, nonic of

...
...

Arabs

...

...

Architraves, usurped

Archies

Argo, island

ArUu, Syrian
Armer, princess
... ... ...

INDEX.

Chabas

....

KhanMci,

KIiael, laud

...

Khataanah
Kherfu,
official

Kheta
Kliiaii

Klmdur

iS'akhuiita

Khuenaicn
Kosseaiis...

Krall, Prof

Kummeh
Kusli, royal son of
Kushilc's...

Lcnormaiit
Lcpsins
...

Libya

nomo
Libyan
...

of

Lotus-bud columns

Lumbroso, G.

...

Luxor
Ma, goddess
JLicrisy
...

Mafek, Mafkat, mineral

Maflmt, region of

Mahes
Malus, traveller
...

Manetho

...

Mariette...

Marsli of Bubastis
of

Horus
...

Marshes of the north


MasJiuash, Ma^uEs

Maspero, Prof.
3Ieht,

...

Mehent

ilemphis...

Mcnhor, priest
Menlilieperra

...

Mentha
MenthuJiershe^fshrf, prince

Mentor
Mcrenphthah
!Mermashu, King
]\resopotamia

Mcsori, montli

...

Metternich tablet
Mispliragmutlwsis

Mitrahenny
Mongoloid type

INDEX.

Pi-Besoth

statues usurped

LONDON
On.TiF.HT

ST.

JOHN

IIOUKI!,

ANn mVINOTON", LIMITED, CUaiKKNWELI. IIOAP,

E.C.

PL.

P!,.

Ill

PL. IV

i-L V

PL. Vi

FL, VII

PL. VIII

PL

IX

.r

PL.

PL.

XI

PL. XII

,'

.^

^;^

PL. XIII

PL.

XIV

PL.

XV

PL.

XVI

PL. XVII

PL. XV]

PL.

XIX

PL.

XK

PL.

XXI

PL. XXII

PL. XXIll

'^^

.<*.--v^r-

J'-- *!,;}

PL.

XXIV

PL.

XXV

PL.

XXVI

tis?^

PL.

XXVI

PL.

XXV]

PL.

XXIX

PL XXX

PL.

XXXI

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y:^

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PL. LIV

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND PUBLICATIONS.


[.

The Store-City of Pithom and


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