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Hidden Hazards in the Ocean of Microwave

Dr. Sudhabindu Ray (PhD, IIT Bombay), Reader, Jadavpur University


sudhabin@etce.jdvu.ac.in, sudhabin@iitb.org, sudhabin@yahoo.com

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to my teacher Prof. Girish Kumar, IIT Bombay who played the key role to bring me in this area of research. My gratitude also goes to the teachers and colleagues of ETC Dept., Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur for helping me to carry out research in this field. My sincere thanks goes to teachers colleagues of Jadavpur University, Kolkata for their continuous support. I am also grateful to my student Faruk Ali for his help to produce this document.
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Microwaves

A short electromagnetic wave (longer than infrared but shorter than radio waves); used for radar and microwave ovens and for transmitting telephone, facsimile, video and data. Cook or heat in a microwave oven; "You can microwave the leftovers"
Kitchen appliance that cooks food by passing an electromagnetic wave through it; heat results from the absorption of energy by the water molecules in the food Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz.
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Electromagnetic Rules

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EM wave propagation

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Standing waves, Interferences, Nodes and anti-nods

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Microwave oven hot spot effects

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Ocean of Microwaves

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Electromagnetic wave based applications

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Electromagnetic wave based applications

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Electromagnetic wave based applications

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Electromagnetic wave based applications

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Electromagnetic wave based applications

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Typical power/voltage rating of common applications

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Typical power/voltage rating of common applications

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Typical power/voltage rating of common applications

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A very common GSM 17 dB (Gain = 50) panel antenna

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Typical CDMA 800 BTS

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RF sources in India

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Type of RF exposure
Almost infinite combination of each of the five following factors: FREQUENCY - Certain frequencies are absorbed in the body more than others. DURATION - How long you are exposed to the radiation DISTANCE - How close you are to the antenna. Energy levels decrease with the square of the distance. POWER LEVEL - What the strength of the signal is. This is measured in microwatts, mill-watts and watts.

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Power density calculation (W/m^2)

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Power density at various distances from a 17 dB (Gain = 50) for P = 20 Watt

>> [P G] ans = 20 50

>> [R;S] ans = 0.5000 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 5.0000 10.0000 20.0000 30.0000 50.0000 100.0000 318.3099 79.5775 19.8944 8.8419 3.1831 0.7958 0.1989 0.0884 0.0318 0.0080 >>

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Received power calculation

Received power Pr = S x (Effective aperture area of receiver) Where S is power density # REM Effective height of a person is slightly higher than his actual height when he is placed on free space :)) # REM if a person is placed on a large conductor then his effective height will be more than double of his actual height

# REM if we consider a person as cylinder, then for certain frequencies and conditions, the whole cylindrical surface will contribute to the effective aperture area instead of cross sectional area depending upon diffraction and resonance modes. hazards in the ocean of microwaves - Dr. Sudhabindu Ray 27/09/11 Hidden 23

Power received by a person for 17dB antenna and 20 W power


For a cylinder (person here) with 6' effective height of and 40'' circumference provides 2 sq. m surface area.
Transmitted 20W and received 636 W !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

[R;S;2*S] ans = 0.5000 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 5.0000 10.0000 20.0000 30.0000 50.0000 100.0000 318.3099 79.5775 19.8944 8.8419 3.1831 0.7958 0.1989 0.0884 0.0318 0.0080 636.6198 159.1549 39.7887 17.6839 6.3662 1.5915 0.3979 0.1768 0.0637 0.0159
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Power received by a baby for multiple 17dB antennas and 20 W power/carrier


A baby with 1.2' x 6'' effective area will receive 0.26 Watt/s for ICNIRP upper limit. (Power density limit = 4.7 Watt/s for 900 MHz occurs at 4.11m).
[R;S;Pr_1o_1c;Pr_2o_2c;Pr_3o_3c;Pr_4o_4c;Pr_5o_5c] ans = 0.5000 318.3099 17.7432 70.9727 159.6886 283.8908 443.5793 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.1100 5.0000 10.0000 20.0000 30.0000 50.0000 79.5775 19.8944 8.8419 4.7109 3.1831 0.7958 0.1989 0.0884 0.0318 4.4358 1.1089 0.4929 0.2626 0.1774 0.0444 0.0111 0.0049 0.0018 17.7432 4.4358 1.9715 1.0504 0.7097 0.1774 0.0444 0.0197 0.0071 39.9221 9.9805 4.4358 2.3634 1.5969 0.3992 0.0998 0.0444 0.0160 70.9727 17.7432 7.8859 4.2015 2.8389 0.7097 0.1774 0.0789 0.0284 110.8948 27.7237 12.3216 6.5649 4.4358 1.1089 0.2772 0.1232 0.0444

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Polar molecules as dielectric


The dielectric effect on polar molecules has been known since 1912 (DeBye). Polar molecules are those which possess an uneven charge distribution and respond to an electromagnetic field by rotating. The angular momentum developed by these molecules results in friction with neighboring molecules and converts thereby to linear momentum, the definition of heat in liquids and gases. Because the molecules are forced to rotate first, there is a slight delay between the absorption of microwave energy and the development of linear momentum, or heat.
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Equivalent Recipe for brain

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Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)

SAR (specific absorption rate) is an indication of the amount of radiation that is absorbed into a head Higher the SAR rating the more radiation that is absorbed into the head. A SAR value is a measure of the energy absorbed by a unit of mass of exposed tissue, averaged over a given time. SAR values are usually expressed in units of watts per kilogram (W/kg) in either 1g or 10g of tissue.
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FCC

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ICNIRP

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EXPOSURE LEVELS: CELLULAR BASESTATIONS AND POWER LINES

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Exposure limit in India

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International Exposure Limits

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Exposure limit for handsets

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SAR limits in different countries

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IMC Recommendations for handsets

Adoption of SAR level for mobile handsets limited to 1.6 Watt/Kg, averaged over a 6 minutes period and taken over a volume containing a mass of 1 gram of human tissue as per the FCC norms of United States. SAR value information is to be embossed and displayed in the handset. Mobile hand set manufactured and sold in India or Imported from other countries should be checked for compliance of SAR limit and no hand sets of SAR value above the prescribed standard adopted in India should be manufactured or sold in the country.
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IMC Recommendations for base stations

The RF exposure limits in India may be lowered to 1/10th of the existing level. To provide static continuous testing / measuring centers for online monitoring of radiation level at prominent places in metro/cities and the data to be sent to the central server for information. Apart from self certification for compliance of radiation norms on EMF exposure as is presently being done, the mobile service providers should also measure the radiation level of certain prominent places and display it for information of the general public. They should also have mobile unit for its measurement wherever necessary.
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Regulations regarding Mobile Telephony Towers issued by Environment Department, Government of West Bengal

No. EN/939/T-IV-1/001/2006, Dated: April 24th. , 2008. Installation of Base Station Antennas within the premises of schools and hospitals may be avoided because children and patients are more susceptible to Electro Magnetic Field. Installation of Base Station Antennas in narrow lanes should be avoided in order to reduce the risks caused by any earth quake or wind related disaster. The Base Station Antennas should be at least 3 m away from the nearby building and antennas should not directly face the building. Further, the lower end of the antenna should be at least 3 metre above the ground or roof.
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Typical Site (Data copied from Internet, may be incorrect)

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Leading experts:

We are safe

Delhi, 21st December, 2010: The first of its kind study, specific to the Indian environment carried out independently by the Premier Engineering Institutes revealed that Levels of Radiation from cellular base stations in Delhi fall hundreds of times below international safety standards. The independent study was commissioned by the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) and Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India (AUSPI) as a proactive measure stemming from the concern for the public health and safety issues. Leading experts from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (IITM), Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai (TCE) and Centre of Excellence in Wireless Technology, Chennai (CEWIT), while carrying out measurements on the electromagnetic radiation at over 180 locations in New Delhi found that in all circumstances, the Cumulative Measurements were well below the compliance limit set by the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), adopted by the Government for the Telecom sector in India, bringing it at par with the International safety standards.
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Hidden Hazards in the Ocean of Microwaves

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Impact of mobile phones on the density of honeybees

Sainudeen Sahib S. ,Department of Zoology, S.N. College, Kollam-691001, Kerala, India


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Microwaved food think twice

Microwaving distorts and deforms the molecules of whatever food or other substance you subject to it. Microwaving fatty foods in plastic containers leads to the release of dioxins (known carcinogens) and other toxins into your food A problem with microwave ovens is that carcinogenic toxins can leach out of your plastic and paper containers/covers, and into your food.
Blood is normally warmed before being transfused into a person. Now we know that microwaving blood products damages the blood components. In fact, one woman died after receiving a transfusion of microwaved blood in 1991 , which resulted in a well-publicized lawsuit.
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High-powered doppler radar kills bird @ Beebe, Arkansas


At about 11:30pm, on New Years Eve, thousands of redwinged blackbirds began falling from the sky over Beebe. Beebe is located just under 30 miles form the Little Rock radar sight.

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HAARP: Controlling the Ionosphere?

High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program.

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Space-based solar power


Christian science Monitor, November 9 2010,

Multi-gigawatt power satellite (30 mW/cm^2 at microwave


beam center)
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In a step toward solving the global energy crisis, a new plan aims to harvest the sun's energy from space with satellites then beam it down to Earth. The initiative, announced Nov. 4, is spearheaded by former president of India A.P.J. Kalam and the National Space Society, a nonprofit dedicated to making humanity a spacefaring civilization.
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Hidden hazards behind SAR rules?

SAR Simulation
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CST Studio

HUGO Human Body Model The CST STUDIO SUITE product family allows to import arbitrary voxel data sets. The most prominent and most often used one is the anatomical data set of the Visible Human Project . The so-called Voxel Man is based on a dissected male corpse sliced into several thousand layers.

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SEMCAD X MED
Models Database Largest library of CAD based phantoms available on the market Standard and measurement phantoms (SAM, SAM V4.5, Eli, DASY phantoms) Grid-independent (not based on voxel data), CAD based anatomical phantom data (axial resolutions < 0.1mm) More than 5 full body anatomical human phantoms (HUGOs, Virtual Family, etc.) More than 10 anatomical head models (children, adult, male, female, European, Asian, etc.) More than 10 small animal models (rat, mouse, young, adult, male, female, pregnant, etc.) Large animal models via Brooks AF Base voxel data 3-D voxel based data importer, smoothing, interpolation, compound model conversion 3-D High resolution CAD based Virtual Family Models Segmentation tool to convert MRI/CT data to CAD model Generic birdcage CAD models

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FEKO

Highly Inhomogeneous Bodies Volume discretisation techniques such as the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) or Finite Element Method (FEM) are most suitable, and therefore popular, for the analysis of highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. The hybrid MoM/FEM as implemented in FEKO, is particularly suitable for cases where there is a free space region of arbitrary size between the antenna and the dielectric body. The advantage offered by the MoM/FEM hybrid is that the free space between the MoM region (antenna) and the FEM region (dielectric body) does not have to be discretised leading to a reduction in memory and runtime requirements.
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Zeland Fidelty

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XFDTD

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Limitation of commercial software


Many parameters remains unknown Many parameters can not be changed manually Many hidden results Incompatibility Very costly rd In most cases medical data supplied by 3 party
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CST with modified Zubal phantom

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Simulation without commercial software

Develop your own biomedical voxel model from available scan data and write FDTD/FEM code

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CT Scan data available in public domain

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In-house program: MLSAR Analysis in a Realistic Grounded Human Head Model for a Dipole Antenna using FDTD method

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Geometry of human head model along the ocean of microwaves - used in the simulation. Hidden hazards in with dipole antenna Dr. Sudhabindu Ray

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In-house program: Study of Induced EM Field Parameters Inside A Realistic Human Head Model

d Dipole

Dipole

Ground Plane

Ground Plane

(a)

(b)

Geometry of the realistic grounded human head model along with a dipole antenna in (a) YZ plane and (b) XZ plane. The head is comprised of twenty two types of tissues; i.e., brain, cerebellum, skin, bone, muscle, fat, lense, eyeball, tongue, blood, cartilage, CSF, parotid gland, retina, teeth, trachea, spinal chord, nerve, eye sclera, bone marrow, pituitary gland and mouth 27/09/11 Hidden hazards in the ocean of microwaves - Dr. Sudhabindu Ray 58 cavity/sinuses.

In-house program: No hidden parameter


Value of maximum local electric field is 40.64 V/m. Value of maximum local magnetic field is 0.121 A/m. (a) (b) Value of maximum local induced current is 2.674 mA. Value of maximum local power density is 2.197 mW/cm2.

(c) (d) Variation of maximum local (a) electric field, (b) magnetic field, (c) induced current and (d) power density with D for d = 4 mm
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Measuring SAR?

Accurate RF dosimetry measurements in simulated humans are difficult to perform, yet they are essential in establishing the compliance of the phone with the relevant compliance standards. The new harmonized SAR test method adopted by CENELEC and IEEE will ensure that the measurement regimes used to test compliance with either the ICNIRP or IEEE exposure standards are largely the same. The following provides only an outline of the complicated process used in measuring the SAR values. Essentially the SAR measurement system comprises a phantom human head, specially developed liquids, a robot fitted with a measurement probe, and a mobile phone powered up to its maximum certified power level.

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The Phantom

The phantom is filled with a liquid that correlates with the dielectric properties of human head tissue. The dielectric properties of head tissue have been calculated taking into account the properties of human brain tissue and the matching effects of the outer tissue layers of the head (e.g., skin and skull) to provide a conservative overestimate of the values. Different recipes are used for tests on different frequencies.
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Recorded SAR

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Limitation of SAR concepts

Mostly related temperature rise

to

SAR measurement or simulation is difficult for higher resolutions and 10gm or 1 gm average is not enough Time average of SAR cannot take care of sudden abrupt rise of radiations.
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1.6 W/kg SAR averaged over 6 min


1.6 W/kg SAR consistently for 6 min 3.2 W/kg SAR consistently for 3 min and next 3 min without radiation 9.6 W/kg SAR consistently for 1 min and next 5 min without radiation 57.6 W/kg SAR consistently for 10 sec and next 5 min 50 sec without radiation 576 W/kg SAR for 1sec and

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1.6 W/kg SAR averaged over 1gm

0.0016 W/gm SAR distributed over 1000 1gm cubic mass 1.6 W/gm SAR for a single 1 gm cubic mass and other 999 1gm cubic mass in that local area without radiation AGAIN 1.6 W/gm = 1.6 W/cell and other ~1gm cells without radiation EM wave may create hot spots

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SAR: 10gm/1gm average is not enough


About 6x10e13 cells in a human body, of about 320 different types. The cell sizes may vary depending on the cell type and circumstances. For instance, a human red blood cell is about 5 microns (0.005 mm) in diameter, while some neurons are about 1 m long (from spinal cord to leg). Typically the diameter of animal and plant cells are between 10 and 100 microns.

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Human cells

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Human chromosome chart

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Existing resolution of SAR level & DNA


Simulation requires Mixed classical quantum theory, experiment will become very expansive

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DNA fragmentation
Some researchers claimed shown single and double stranded DNA breakage in cell cultures after several hours of cell phone radiation. Although DNA molecules are too stable to be damaged directly by non-ionising radiation, they can still be damaged indirectly as a result of enzyme leakage from lysosomes.
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Calcium efflux effects


Calcium efflux from the membranes of brain tissue in response to weak electromagnetic fields was first discovered by Bawin et al. (1975). It has since been repeated many times and also with other tissues such as frog heart muscle (Schwartz et al. 1990). The effects are strongest in the extremely low frequency range and in radio waves that have been amplitude modulated with extremely low frequencies). The phenomenon is curious in that it occurs only within amplitude windows with little or no effect at amplitudes above and below the window. However, the explanation is simple. Divalent positive ions such as calcium, because of their double charge, are more easily removed from the negatively charged membrane by weak alternating fields.
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Protein leakage from blood vessels

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Don't be confused
The thermal and non-thermal dividing line currently used as the basis for safety standards of RF radiation exposures (SAR) is no more than a "red herring," a distraction from the publics understanding of the actual health effects of microwave radiation and therefore our ability to protect the public. It increasingly appears invalid to distinguish ionizing from non-ionizing radiation with respect to their health effects.
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The ultimate question for cancer development


Is not exactly related to the amount of radiation for non thermal non ionizing radiation. And the questions are: 1. Can the radiation cause DNA damage! 2. Can our body repair DNA damage without mutating genes?

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SAFE SAR!!!!
ICNIRP/FCC guidelines are irrelevant if you are not only considering the immediate effects. THE "SAR" GUIDELINES MAY BE THE BIGGEST SCAM ON THE EARTH! "NO" SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) RATING can be called safe if it can make irrecoverable damage in a single DNA with mutation in gene.
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Why these companies are always in complete denial mode?

OUR GOVT. SHOULD ADOPT PRECAUTIONARY LIMITS UNTIL THESE COMPANY PROVE EXPOSURE TO CELL PHONE RADIATION DOES NOT INVOKE "ANY" BIOLOGICAL CHANGES, AND IS SAFE FOR EVERYONE!

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Reducing Exposure - using your existing phone


Use your phone only when necessary, and keep the call short. Where possible, try to only use your phone in areas with the best signal Indoors, use your phone near the window and make sure it is between your body and the window. Hold the phone away from your body immediately after dialing, as the phone uses maximum power until the call is connected. Ideally, keep the phone away from your body (such as in a bag) when it is not in use. If you have to keep it next to your body, a location such as rear trouser pocket will help keep it away from major organs, and try to make sure the antenna is on the outer side. Using a mobile phone in a car or train traps the fields inside the metal frame of the vehicle, and should be avoided except in an emergency. If you are not imminently expecting a phone call, you can greatly reduce your exposure by having the phone switched off when you carry it around instead of just on standby, as your phone contacts the nearest mast every time you move into a different masts coverage, and also checks regularly even when you are stationary This contact is always made at the phone's full power.
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Is headset safer?

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Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Conducted Emissions (CE), Radiated Emissions (RE), Conducted Susceptibility (CS), and Radiated Susceptibility (RS).
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EMC measurements

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Is it possible to make handset safer?

Yes, by adding air gaps, pads, opto-coupler, optical-fibers and repeaters.

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Quiz
Q. How to warm a bottle of milk using microwave oven?

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Quiz
Q. How to warm a bottle of milk using microwave oven? Ans. Boil water in bowel and put the milk
bottle in it. Be careful during boiling of water, avoid super heating and leakage radiation

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Conclusion: The choice is yours


So, it's up to you. Our society runs pretty much on money. The multinational companies who make microwave ovens/cellphones make a lot from the sale of them. There is no money in telling people to stop microwave cooking/cellphoning. There is, however, the satisfaction of knowing that you are saving people's lives and future happiness by spreading the TRUTH
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References
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