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TRYMER Pipe Insulation

Your Guide to Features, Installation and Use

How To Choose the Right Pipe Insulation for Your Facilitys Needs
Choosing the right pipe insulation for your facilitys needs depends on being able to distinguish the proper insulation requirements for your specific application. This brochure is designed to assist you in making that critical selection, and to help guide you in proper installation practices. When looking for an insulation material you are concerned with: Insulation efficiency Moisture vapor permeability/water resistance Weight of insulation Damage resistance Chemical and solvent compatibility High product quality Cost competitiveness TRYMER* polyisocyanurate pipe insulation combines all of these characteristics and presents them to you as a cost-effective, high-quality choice for your insulation needs. What is TRYMER pipe insulation? It is a polyisocyanurate insulation, made in a continuous process in LaPorte, Texas, by The Dow Chemical Company. TRYMER polyisocyanurate pipe insulation has been used in the pipe insulation industry for more than 25 years.

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

Characteristics of TRYMER Pipe Insulation


Insulation Efficiency
The k-factor is a measure of thermal (heat) conductivity. At a given thickness, insulation with a lower k-factor reduces energy costs by providing more resistance to heat transfer. TRYMER pipe insulation has a very low average k-factor for temperatures ranging from -297F to 300F (-183C to 148C). The k-factor indicates the ability of a material to conduct heat. Lower k-factors indicate better thermal performance. At a specified k-factor, TRYMER pipe insulation reduces installed system costs and allows you to use thinner cross sections. This allows: Use of less insulation, sealant, vapor retarder and jacketing. Insulated pipe to be installed in tighter spaces.

Light Weight
The weight of an insulation system impacts the static loading of the support structure, which could require costly design modifications. The weight of an insulation material is directly related to its k-factor and structural density. How does TRYMER pipe insulation rate? Consider service temperatures ranging from -30F to 250F (-35C to 121C) with the required insulation thickness, TRYMER pipe insulation was the lightest, compared with other insulation materials, by up to 15.5 pounds per three-foot length.

Figure 1: k-Factor of TRYMER Pipe Insulation

Moisture Resistance
Water has a thermal conductivity 10 to 20 times greater than most insulation materials. As a consequence, when moisture penetrates an insulation, it raises the insulations thermal conductivity and lowers its long-term effectiveness. Water absorbed into insulation not only reduces insulation efficiency, it also adds weight to the line, increases the likelihood of corrosion and can contribute to fungal and bacterial growth. In cold service, water can freeze, causing the eventual destruction of the insulation. In food and beverage plants, frequent wash downs with scalding water are cause for concern. For these reasons, resistance to water absorption is an important factor in the selection of insulation material. Choosing a moisture-resistant insulation such as TRYMER pipe insulation helps ensure long-term insulation effectiveness in these types of services.

Low Moisture Vapor Permeability


It is important to recognize that an effective insulation system should not wick or transport water from a breach in the jacket to the pipe surface or along the pipe. In this sense, the insulation is a second line of defense for the pipe against the entry of water. The accumulation of water within the insulation system often requires major maintenance and repairs. For these reasons, resistance to water absorption is an important factor in the selection of an insulation material for pipe and vessels. TRYMER pipe insulation has a low moisture vapor permeability that can provide a temporary, second line of defense should the primary vapor retarder fail.

Compressive Strength
An insulations compressive strength provides support to the insulation system. Vapor retarders, sealants and jacketing all function better with a firm, rigid base. Also, a high compressive strength increases the static load that can be applied to the pipe and jacketing. It also permits hanger installation on the outside of the jacketing, eliminating direct routes for moisture and heat transfer. Choosing an insulation with the right compressive strength required for your application is vital to ensure long-term performance. TRYMER pipe insulation is available in grades that offer a compressive strength from 19 to 140 pounds per square inch.

Wide Range of Service Temperatures


There are two reasons for specifying an insulation with a wide service temperature range: You can minimize the cost of using a variety of insulation materials to meet different temperature requirements. You can eliminate the cost of reinsulating due to insulation failure caused by exposure to temperatures outside the service range. The wide service temperature range of TRYMER pipe insulation can help you ensure better control of your processes and high performance for your applications (see figure 2).

Damage Resistance
There are two factors to consider when examining the damage resistance of TRYMER pipe insulation: friability and breakage resistance. Insulation with a high friability level is more easily damaged during installation. Fortunately, TRYMER pipe insulation is formulated to provide a balance between toughness and the ability to fabricate detailed shapes at an economical rate. Damaged insulation creates pathways for direct heat transfer, thereby wasting energy and money. TRYMER pipe insulation offers a product that is tough and durable, resists damage and yet is friable enough to cut and shape with ease. Due to its toughness, TRYMER pipe insulation can even be applied to hot systems that are at operating temperatures without interrupting or shutting down the service, or damaging the insulation. This quality allows you to keep your process running, or if you are starting up from a shutdown, to start running sooner.

Electrical Tracing Insulation Systems


TRYMER pipe insulation is an ideal choice for your electrically traced insulation system. Due to its moisture resistance and low moisture vapor permeability, TRYMER pipe insulation helps protect your investment in an electrical tracing system from the damage water creates when it migrates through the insulation to the electrical tracing. Additionally, due to its excellent k-factor at a given insulation thickness, compared to other insulation products, you can realize a 25 percent savings in insulation value, thereby reducing your system cost by reducing the wattage necessary to maintain a desired temperature.

Figure 2: Service Temperature Range of TRYMER Pipe Insulation

Recommended Practices for All Applications


This guideline covers recommended requirements and design features found in typical above-grade pipe applications of TRYMER pipe insulation. It may be followed unless state and/or local building codes dictate otherwise. Instructions from the insulation accessory manufacturer supersede recommendations contained in this guideline for those accessory materials. Because TRYMER pipe insulation is a closed-cell material, it provides excellent moisture resistance. However, the primary purpose of the insulation in a system is to provide thermal protection, not moisture protection. The other parts of the system, including primers, vapor retarders and jackets, are necessary to create an effective barrier to moisture.

Insulation Job Site Storage and Protection


Prolonged storage at the job site is discouraged. The insulation must be: 1) kept off the ground, floor or deck, and 2) completely covered (top and sides) by a waterproof material designed to prevent formation of condensation on the inside surface.

During a routine inspection of the insulation system: Look for signs of moisture or ice on the lower part of horizontal pipe, at the bottom elbow of a vertical pipe, and around pipe hanger/saddles as moisture will migrate to low areas. Look for any jacketing penetrations, openings or separations. Check the jacketing to determine if loose banding or screws are present. Look for bead caulking failure, especially around flange and valve covers. Look at jacketing integrity around all intersecting points such as pipe transitions, branches and tees. Look for cloth visible through the mastic if the pipe is protected by a reinforced mastic weather barrier. During an extensive inspection of an insulation system: Use thermographic equipment to isolate areas of concern. Design a method to close any cut into the insulation so that a positive seal can be maintained throughout the entire system. Examine the pipe surface for corrosion if the insulation is physically wet. The extent of moisture present within the insulation system and (or) the corrosion to the pipe will determine the need to replace the insulation. Generally, all wet parts of the insulation system are replaced.

Preparation of the Outer Pipe Surface


The outer surface of the pipe should be properly prepared before installing the insulation. The pipe should be free of oil, corrosion, loose particles, moisture and frost at the time of installation. With any insulation, corrosion can be a concern in service temperatures above 25F. In service temperatures between 25F and 300F, recommendations in the insulation industry call for coatings on austenitic stainless steel equipment. Consult a coating/primer manufacturer in the selection of appropriate protective coatings.

Insulation Material
A qualified engineer should specify both the TRYMER pipe insulation product and thickness based on design criteria. Design criteria include service temperature, ambient conditions, jacket type, etc. Desired service life and economics are also important to consider. Physical properties can be found in individual technical data sheets published for each TRYMER pipe insulation product. The insulation thickness is chosen to prevent condensation on the outside pipe surface, reduce heat flow rates to a specified value or provide personal protection. Fabricated pipe, valve and fitting coverings should have dimensions and tolerances in accordance with ASTM C 585 and ASTM C 450.

Maintenance of Insulation Systems


Insulation systems must be maintained to ensure the system operates as designed. The presence of moisture in any insulation system will lower the thermal efficiency, often destroying the insulation package. Corrosion can develop on the exterior surface of the pipe if moisture is present and the temperature is above 32F (0C). The frequency of inspection should be determined by the critical nature of the process, the external environment, and the age of the insulation system.

Role of Specifiers and Design Engineers


The information in this guideline is intended to serve as examples of typical installations and practices. It is not intended to be used as precise specifications for any and every application. A design or specification engineer will be able to create precise specifications tailored to particular owners and contractors. These engineers are familiar with the key attributes of an application, including its environment, the desired life expectancy of the installation and the budgetary or time constraints of the owner. Dow has used both internal and external resources and can provide contacts for interested owners and contractors.

TRYMER Pipe Insulation in a Dow Plant Facility.

Advisement
Every installation system has a finite service life that depends on the types of materials used, the quality of the installation, and the exact conditions of the surrounding environment. Dow believes the information in this document can help installers and owners build insulation systems that will increase the service life of the system, but proper installation, inspection and maintenance of the insulation system are always necessary to achieve the maximum potential of its service life. Dow recommends that you consult a design or specification engineer regarding the use of TRYMER pipe insulation in specific applications. In addition, Dow recommends a review of applicable building codes and construction regulations in order to determine if TRYMER pipe insulation is an acceptable material in the intended application.

TRYMER Pipe Insulation in a Double- and Single-layer Application.

Installation Guidelines Common to All Temperature Ranges


Now that you are familiar with the many benefits TRYMER pipe insulation offers, it is important to note the installation guidelines common to all temperature ranges. General: Complete all welding, hot work, hydrostatic and performance testing before installing the pipe insulation. Keep insulation dry at all times before and during the installation. Any vapor retarder and weather barrier must be installed only over dry insulation and dry piping. All insulation joints (except for contraction/expansion joints) must butt together tightly. Insulate all valves and flanges to the same thickness as the adjacent pipe insulation. If the valve design permits, insulate valves to the packing gland. Secure the insulation sections using a filament tape with a 3/4" minimum width. In general, each 3' section should be taped 3" from the end with all other banding occurring on 9" to 12" maximum centers. Do not use wire to secure the insulation. Pipe support areas: Supporting the pipe outside of the protective jacket eliminates the need to insulate over the pipe clamps, hanger rods and cut holes. This support method minimizes the potential for vapor drive and thermal shorts within the system as a continuous envelope surrounds the pipe. Hangers will need to be spaced so that the insulation will not collapse under static loading if located on the exterior surface of the jacket. A designer can specify a higher compressive strength TRYMER pipe insulation product for the section Insulation protection saddles should be provided and installed at all pipe hangers and supports for insulated lines. All insulation saddles should be rolled with a true radius to suit the insulation outside diameter. Sheet metal is typically used for all saddles. High-compressive-strength rigid insulation, like TRYMER 4000 or 6000 pipe insulation, can be used at the saddle supports. High-compressivestrength insulation can be used on any diameter pipe, but is typically used on all pipe approximately 12" in diameter or greater.
Pipe Support Installation with High-density TRYMER Pipe Insulation on Saddles and TRYMER 2000 Pipe Insulation.

supporting the hanger if necessary. The formula in figure 3 can be used to calculate the minimum spacing required to prevent TRYMER pipe insulation collapsing under different load requirements.

The saddles should be sized to wrap the insulation in an arc between 120 degrees and 180 degrees depending on the load. Pipes greater than or equal to 8'' in diameter should only use an arc of 180 degrees.

Effective Method to Maintain a Staggered Joint Configuration through the Pipe Support.

Figure 3: Formula for Pipe Support Spacing

S=

(Comp. Str.) x (Pipe O.D.) x (Saddle Length) x (Safety Factor) (Weight of Pipe + Weight of Fluid) Where S = Minimum spacing in feet Pipe O.D. = Pipe outer diameter in inches Saddle Length = Saddle (support) length in inches Safety Factor = Typically 0.33 (for a 3-fold safety factor) Weight of Pipe = Empty weight in pounds per foot Weight of Fluid = Fluid weight in pounds per foot 7

Vapor Stops
Vapor stops are used in insulation design to isolate potential sources of moisture infiltration from migrating throughout your insulation system. Potential areas of infiltration include: pipe supports and collars, problem fittings, fittings that are removed or replaced regularly, or an uninsulated drain valve or stub end. The vapor stop is designed to limit the infiltration to a small area and isolate the rest of the piping system from being exposed to moisture through migration. An effective vapor retarder barrier design is shown in figure 4. Using a mastic with fabric support to form a vapor stop at each end of this flanged connection will reduce the chance that moisture infiltrating through the valve flange (see figure 5) will migrate out from the valve through the rest of the system. Vapor stops are standard practice in applications where moisture drive into the system is high or in areas where a good moisture seal is not possible.

Figure 4: Cutaway View of Vapor Stop at Flange Fabric mesh support sandwiched between two layers of mastic spread over and under entire end of butt joint.

Figure 5: Vapor Stop System to Allow for Valve Access Vapor stops at each end of valve protect insulation system from moisture infiltration while allowing access for maintenance.

Sealants and Joints


There are many types of sealants available for use with TRYMER pipe insulation products. Sealants are specified for service temperature, perm ratings, type of application (troweled, brushed, sprayed), color, etc. Contact your sealant manufacturer for choosing the right product for your application. Where sealants are applied on joints (see figure 6), it is important that the entire joint is buttered using a putty knife to ensure a seal that is free of voids that may be a source of water infiltration in the future. A layer of sealant should also be buttered over the seam once the two sections have been joined. This will mitigate moisture infiltration through the joint. In double-layer applications the first layer should not be sealed to itself nor to the second layer, to allow free movement of the inner layer of insulation as it cycles between ambient temperature and its operating temperature. Ship-lap and tongue-and-groove systems can be designed for this inner layer to ensure maximum joint integrity for the life of the insulation system. (Refer to the Special Joint Configurations section on page 10 for more information.) Joint sealants are not required on systems operating above 80F. Because the pipe surface is generally hotter than ambient temperatures, moisture is typically driven away from the pipe. In a double-layer insulation system the longitudinal joints between the inner and outer layer should be 90 degrees to each other. Additionally, the butt joints should be staggered between the inner and outer layer. This installation technique will make moisture migration through joints more difficult. This same principle would be applied when designing a triple-layer insulation system.

Figure 6: Non-setting Joint Sealants Applied to butt joints and longitudinal joints of a single layer.

Composite Insulation Systems


Composite insulation systems allow the system designer to take advantage of the best properties of two different insulation materials. Following is one example of a composite system, available from several distributors, which incorporates TRYMER pipe insulation. High-temperature steam lines: A composite of mineral wool and TRYMER pipe insulation can withstand service temperatures of 400F (204C), or about 200 psig saturated steam. The inner layer of mineral

wool provides an initial layer of heat resistance that keeps the polyisocyanurate insulation below its service temperature of 300F (148C). In return, the TRYMER pipe insulation maintains its normal properties of water resistance and rigidity, and its superior k-factor allows the pipe to be insulated with less overall thickness than if the mineral wool were used by itself. Multiple-layer systems of cellular glass, calcium silicate and mineral wool with TRYMER pipe insulation can provide an effective composite insulation system.

Figure 7: Composite Material Insulation System Outer layer of TRYMER pipe insulation, inner layer of other insulation material. Joint sealants are optional.

Special Joint Configurations/Fittings


The ease of fabrication of TRYMER pipe insulation allows economical production of special joints, elbows and fittings. Two types of joint configurations that can be fabricated for additional joint integrity are the ship-lap (figures 8 and 9) and tongue-and-groove (figure 11). Both systems are offered as an upgrade from the standard flat face offered on fabricated pipe rounds. Figure 8: Ship-lap Longitudinal Joint

Ship-lap and tongue-and-groove joints are ideally suited for use as a first-layer application in a two-layer insulation system, where the firstlayer joints are not sealed. This upgrade can help further reduce water penetration through the joints when compared to a standard butted joint. Additionally, elbows (figure 10) and prefabricated fittings can be matched with these fabricated joints for a complete system.

Due to the manufactured size and ease of cutting TRYMER pipe insulation, flanges, elbows, tees and valve stations can be prefabricated as one piece and shipped to the job site in two half sections for easy installation. These fabricated techniques can be used on a variety of different fittings and can be cut to your specification. Contact your Dow representative for further information. All joint and fitting fabrication work is cut according to ASTM C 585 and C 450 specifications. Figure 10: Ship-lap Elbow

Figure 9: Ship-lap Butt Joint

Special joint configurations can be used to improve the seal of a single-layer system. In many cases, ship-lap longitudinal joints (fig. 8) and butt joints (fig. 9) are used together (fig. 10).

Since elbows and tees are usually single layer, ship-lap joints are a more effective sealing system.

Figure 11: Tongue-and-groove Longitudinal Insert Joint For straight pieces, this configuration can be used with a multi-layer application in cryogenic systems. The tongue-and-groove is usually in the first of a double-layer arrangement. Elbows and tees can also be made similarly.

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Tape Pattern for Staggered Insulation


While every installation is unique, the tape pattern shown in figure 12 provides ample physical support for the insulation during installation, before applying vapor retarders or jacketing. Two wraps (or more) of tape, rather than one, add assurance and integrity to the fit of the pieces. The nylon filament tape used in installing TRYMER pipe insulation has no effect on thermal or moisture performance of the system.

Figure 12: Typical Tape Pattern

Underground Insulation Systems


Low-pressure Steam, Chemical Processing Lines, Hot Water, Chilled Water and Chilled Brine
Due to the compressive strength and water absorption properties, TRYMER pipe insulation products are ideally suited for use in underground insulation systems. Principles (1) Insulation must be used in conjunction with a waterproof membrane to protect the insulation from ground water infiltration. Jacketing is not typically used in underground applications. (2) The trench must be designed to keep the insulation system from being immersed in ground water (see trench detail, figure 13). (3) An experienced engineer/designer should be consulted to determine soil conditions, frost depths, anchor details, wall penetrations, required compressive strength, etc. Contact your Dow representative for help in determining the proper product selection. Figure 13: Trench Detail Backfill detail for high water table area.

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Guidelines for Cryogenic Service in the Temperature Range of -297F to -100F (-183C to -73C)
Industrial Chemicals, Hydrocarbons and Natural Gas
Principles (1) Two or three layers of insulation are needed at these temperatures to mitigate moisture infiltration and to allow for expansion and contraction of the system. Using more than one layer allows the joints between pieces of insulation to be staggered so that thermal conduction paths and moisture entry paths are kept to a minimum. Typically, the inner layer is not adhered to the outer layer (or layers) so that the layers can move relative to each other. The outer layer should be sealed tightly. Sealing the inner layer is sometimes recommended in this service, depending on the pipe operating conditions. (2) Stagger all joints where possible. Staggering joints will improve the integrity of the insulation system and reduce thermal shorts within the system. (3) Elbows should be prefabricated, not mitered, eliminating many unnecessary seams, except for large diameter fittings that cannot be made any other way. The insulation surrounding an elbow should be the same thickness as the adjacent pipe insulation. (4) Cryogenic temperatures require proper vapor retarders with very low perm ratings to resist the vapor drive of warm, moist air to the cold surface of the pipe. It is also imperative that the vapor retarder be completely sealed throughout the entire installation. Any penetration of the vapor retarder can lead to rapid icing and eventual system failure.

Figure 14: Double-layer System Showing vapor retarder and protective outer jacket.

TRYMER Pipe Insulation Installation on an Off-shore Liquefied Natural Gas Facility.

Figure 15: Double- or Triple-layer System, Showing Staggered Joints Typically 3" - 6" (or more) of TRYMER pipe insulation.

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These low-temperature systems require experienced engineers and/or specifiers for their design. Likewise, trained installers are recommended to attain the best, long-lasting results.

Design Some other features that can be incorporated in a good design: Pipe support areas: Foam inserts are short sections of insulation that support the pipe at a pipe hanger. The top section of insulation should be removed to maintain a staggered orientation of the insulation pieces. This also will help ensure adequate structural tie-in between insulation pieces. Wood or scrap foam can be used as temporary support. Joint sealants: It is important that the joint sealant is spread across the whole joint to ensure a full bed of sealant. This full bed will help mitigate moisture due to vapor drive and ensure a good bond at the joint. Vapor stops are necessary in this service temperature range; for example, pipe supports, standoffs, frequently removed fittings and uninsulated drains are all spots where the high vapor drive in this type of service will attack your insulating system. Vapor stops can be used in these locations to isolate your problem area and stop the moisture infiltration from continuing throughout your insulating system. Voids in all valve and flange covers should be packed with glass fiber insulation. Foam-in-place polyurethane can be used in conjunction with a prefabricated valve cover if the valve is covered with a poly film (in case the valve has to be opened for maintenance). Valves and instruments that necessarily have exposed pieces need extra care during installation. Vapor stops should be used to isolate valves from the rest of the system. Every installation is unique. While certain engineering principles apply to all insulation jobs, it is best to contact an experienced contractor, distributor or fabricator. Design engineers may be required, especially for the temperature applications described here.

Figure 16: Cross Section of a Double-layer Installation

Figure 17: Cross Section of a Triple-layer Installation

The detail above is for a Liquefied Natural Gas pipeline constructed in harsh conditions (90F temperatures with 90 percent humidity). A triple-layer system with a double vapor barrier design was used to ensure long-term insulation integrity over several miles of pipeline.

Figure 18: Expansion/Contraction Joints

Use of TRYMER Pipe Insulation in Critical Low Temperature Service (Below -297F or -183C) Dow product literature states that the lower service temperature limit for TRYMER pipe insulation is -297F (-183C), which is the boiling point of oxygen. TRYMER pipe insulation does not have any inherent physical or thermal properties that would preclude its use at this temperature or below. The limit of -297F (-183C) is cited to caution end-users that there are significantly different design concerns when dealing with service temperatures this cold. The design concerns center on the fact that at service temperatures below -297F (-183C), oxygen from the air can begin to condense on the cold pipe surface or in the cells of the insulation, resulting in local regions of higher liquid oxygen concentration. Also, if the pipe subsequently warms above -297F (-183C), there will be a thin region of air within the insulation system with higher than normal levels of oxygen. Either situation poses a flammability and reactivity concern regardless of the type of insulation, sealant, vapor retarder or jacket used. Special care must be given to the design and installation of cryogenic insulating systems. A qualified and experienced design engineer should be consulted when designing these types of insulating systems. Furthermore, the quality of the workmanship assumes greater importance when dealing with the vapor drives that will be present when operating at these very cold temperatures. It is generally prudent to employ contractors who are experienced in multi-layer systems.

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Guidelines for Very Cold Service in the Temperature Range of -100F to 0F (-73C to -18C)
Ammonia, Brines, Glycols and Coolants
Principles (1) The temperature range of -100F to 0F (-73C to -18C) is a very common service condition for ammonia and other refrigerant lines. This temperature range can be considered a transition range. At temperatures below -100F (-73C), multiple layers of insulation are virtually a necessity. Above 0F, a single layer is often adequate. In the range of -100F (-73C) to 0F (-18C), however, the design may or may not call for multiple layers, depending on the pipe diameter, service temperature, ambient conditions and desired service life. (2) While there is no hard and fast rule, double layers of TRYMER pipe insulation are usually advisable when the insulation thickness is about 3" or more. Relative humidity is an important consideration. High humidity environments should be double layered if possible, because of greater vapor drive. (3) Staggered joints: Longitudinal and circumferential joints are staggered between layers where possible. While joint sealant is generally not used on the inner layer of insulation, the second layer requires a full bedding coat of non-setting elastomeric joint sealer. (4) Cold temperatures require proper vapor retarders with low perm ratings to resist the vapor drive of warm, moist air to the cold surface of the pipe. It is also imperative that the vapor retarder be completely sealed throughout the entire installation. Any penetration of the vapor retarder can lead to rapid icing and eventual system failure. Figure 19: Double-layer System Showing vapor retarder and protective outer jacket over a double layer of insulation. A single layer of insulation can be used if service temperatures and ambient conditions are not severe.

(5) Vapor stops can also be used in this temperature range. Vapor stops can help isolate a failure of the vapor retarder to a small portion of the insulation, and are particularly useful on either side of problem fittings, pipe supports, pipe collars, exposed drains, valve boxes, etc. Every installation is unique. While certain engineering principles apply to all insulation jobs, it is best to contact an experienced contractor, distributor or fabricator. Design engineers may be required, especially for the temperature applications described here. For material suppliers of jacketing, joint sealants, vapor retarders, etc., see your fabricator or distributor.

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(6) Voids in all prefabricated valve and flange covers should be packed with glass fiber insulation. Foamedin-place polyurethane can be used instead of fiberglass. This will require drilling both fill and vent holes in the prefabricated valve cover, and filling after the valve is in place. Valves and instruments which necessarily have exposed pieces need extra care during installation. Vapor stops should be used to isolate valves from the rest of the system.

TRYMER Pipe Insulation Valve Cover Fabricated to Manufacturers Specifications for Exact Fit.

Figure 20: Valve Insulation Procedure For cold service (welded or screwed valves).

Because of the need to have a valve stem accessible to operators, it is difficult to completely isolate a valve in cold service. Vapor stops on either side of the valve can help restrict ice build-up to the small area of the valve itself, and protect the line in either direction from the valve from moisture migration.

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Guidelines for Cold Service in the Temperature Range of 0F to 35F (-18C to 1.6C)
Ammonia, Brines, Glycols and Cooling Fluids
Principles (1) Since this service temperature is below freezing, condensation and icing are concerns. Vapor retarders and a sturdy jacket are necessary. However, moisture vapor drive is not as severe as with colder service temperatures. The moisture vapor drive is less severe as the service temperature increases, so less elaborate vapor retarders and jackets are acceptable. (2) Depending on the relative humidity, a single layer of insulation is probably sufficient. (Jacket type, wind and ambient temperature will also have an effect.) Single layers of insulation are usually adequate because expansion and contraction forces are not as great as at lower service temperatures. However, if the required insulation thickness for condensation control is greater than about 3", double layers of insulation should be used regardless of service temperature. See charts on pages 21-23, or consult your Dow representative for computer calculations of recommended thickness.

Typical Outdoor Installation of TRYMER Pipe Insulation on a Rooftop Ammonia Line.

Figure 21: Single-layer System Typically 1" - 3" of TRYMER pipe insulation.

Stagger the end joints by beginning a length of pipe with half- and full-length sections of insulation. If the system is installed with a factory-applied vapor retarder, you will not be able to stagger the upper and lower butt joints.

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Low temperatures require proper vapor retarders to resist the vapor drive of warm, moist air to the cold surface of the pipe. It is also imperative that the vapor retarder be completely sealed throughout the entire installation. Any penetration of the vapor

retarder can lead to rapid icing and eventual system failure. TRYMER pipe insulation can be specified with a factory-applied Saran* vapor retarder film and tape already adhered to the insulation

(see figure 22). This product reduces installation time and is ideal for ammonia lines, chilled water lines, brine systems and other chilled or cold systems. Contact your Dow representative for more details.

Figure 22: Single-layer System With Factory-applied Saran Vapor Retarder Film Typical TRYMER pipe insulation with Saran vapor retarder film for a chilled water line. Every installation is unique. While certain engineering principles apply to all insulation jobs, it is best to contact an experienced contractor, distributor or fabricator. Design engineers may be required, especially for the temperature applications described here.

Figure 23: Double-layer Contraction Joint in a Single-layer Application Inner layer milled to half thickness of single-layer insulation. Second layer milled to fit over first layer. Seal inner and outer layers to single layer at butt joints.

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

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Guidelines for Chilled Service in the Temperature Range of 35F to 60F (1.6C to 16C)
Primarily Chilled Water Lines in the 40F (4C) Temperature Range
Principles (1) Although there is only a small difference between ambient temperature and the pipes surroundings, in humid areas condensation will still occur and create problems with sweating or water build-up. (2) Except for the very highest humidity areas, the excellent k-factor of TRYMER pipe insulation means that only a small thickness (1" - 2") of insulation should be required for this temperature range. (3) Elbows should be prefabricated, not mitered, eliminating many unnecessary seams, except for very large diameter fittings that cannot be made any other way. The insulation surrounding an elbow should be the same thickness as the adjacent pipe insulation. Every installation is unique. While certain engineering principles apply to all insulation jobs, it is best to contact an experienced contractor, distributor or fabricator. Design engineers may be required, especially for low temperature applications. Consult local building codes and your Dow representative for appropriate use of TRYMER pipe insulation in applications where 25/50 flame and smoke ratings apply. Figure 24: Single-layer Elbow Tie-in Insulation surrounding the elbow should be the same thickness as the adjacent pipe insulation.

Figure 25: Cross Section of a Single-layer Installation Insulation for chilled water lines in low-humidity environments.

Contact your local TRYMER pipe insulation fabricator or Dow representative for information about factory-applied Saran vapor retarder films.

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Guidelines for Hot Service in the Temperature Range of 80F to 300F (27C to 149C)
Chemical Industry, Food/Beverage, Lowpressure Steam and Condensate Lines
Principles (1) There are three reasons to insulate hot service lines: 1. Protect personnel from injury 2. Energy savings 3. Process control Commonly, the personnel protection thickness requirement drives the others, although additional insulation may be used to achieve a desired rate of heat loss. In the United States, a surface temperature of 140F (60C) is often specified. (2) Because the pipe surface is hotter than ambient, moisture is generally driven away from the pipe. Vapor retarders and staggered joints are not needed for high temperature service. However, water entry is still an issue, especially in wash-down areas or outdoors. An effective jacket is still required. (3) A vapor retarder might be required for some lines that cycle around moderate temperatures, especially if the ambient temperature is higher than the pipe temperature. However, in most hot service applications a vapor barrier is not required. Figure 26: Single-layer System Vapor retarders are not necessary for higher temperatures unless the pipe temperature cycles to temperatures near or below the dew point.

Use an aluminum or plastic (PVC) jacket, depending on indoor or outdoor application.

Above 300F (149C), the portion of the insulation next to the pipe can begin to char and/or discolor. The immediate effect is a reduction of the insulating ability of the insulation. Therefore, TRYMER pipe insulation is not recommended for continuous service above 300F (149C).

Figure 27: Single-layer System in Hot Service Typically 1" - 2" (or more) of TRYMER pipe insulation.

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While design and typical service temperatures may be less than 300F (149C), occasional purges or cleanings may exceed this temperature for brief periods with some effect on the insulation. In applications such as this, or in applications at the high end of TRYMER pipe insulation service temperatures, refer to figure 7 or 30 and the section on Composite Insulation Systems on page 9, or contact your Dow representative for more information.

Figure 29: Expansion Joints in a Hot Service Application Spacing of the joints depends on length of pipe run, temperature, etc. Consult an engineer or specifier for details.

Figure 28: Electrical Tracing System

Every installation is unique. While certain engineering principles apply to all insulation jobs, it is best to contact an experienced designer, contractor, distributor or fabricator. Design engineers may be required, especially for these temperature applications.

Figure 30: Example of a Composite Material System Outer layer of TRYMER pipe insulation: provides water resistance, k-factor and rigidity. Inner layer of mineral wool: provides heat resistance.

Contact your fabricator, distributor or Dow representative for information on multiple-material systems.

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Condensation Control Thickness


To help determine required thickness for controlling condensation, Dow representatives can provide calculations using the NIA 3EPLUS program, which uses heat flow algorithms based on ASTM C 680-95. Estimations of required thickness call for the following data: Service temperature, ambient relative humidity, ambient temperature, wind velocity, pipe diameter (nominal) and jacket material. Note for hot ser vice: Service temperatures for hot service do not require relative humidity. A maximum allowable surface temperature of 140F (60C) is generally assumed as a default for personnel protection. Greater thickness of insulation is often used to reduce heat loss. For convenience, Dow has prepared charts based on the 3EPLUS program that include some common design conditions. Tables 1 - 4 can be used to give an estimate of minimum insulation thickness required to prevent condensation under these conditions.

Table 1: Condensation Control Thickness for Typical Indoor Applications Using TRYMER 2000 Pipe Insulation Conditions: 80F, 70% Relative Humidity, No Wind, PVC or Mastic Jacket (Emittance 0.9)

This table is based on ASTM C 680-95 heat transfer algorithms. The suggested insulation thickness values assume proper system design and installation, do not include a safety factor and are applicable only for the specified scenario. Dow recommends that the user consult a qualified design engineer familiar with this type of construction for proper system design and specification.

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Table 2: Condensation Control Thickness for Typical Indoor Applications Using TRYMER 2000 Pipe Insulation Conditions: 80F, 80% Relative Humidity, No Wind, PVC or Mastic Jacket (Emittance 0.9)

This table is based on ASTM C 680-95 heat transfer algorithms. The suggested insulation thickness values assume proper system design and installation, do not include a safety factor and are applicable only for the specified scenario. Dow recommends that the user consult a qualified design engineer familiar with this type of construction for proper system design and specification.

Table 3: Condensation Control Thickness for Typical Outdoor Applications Using TRYMER 2000 Pipe Insulation Conditions: 80F, 80% Relative Humidity, 8 mph Wind, PVC or Mastic Jacket (Emittance 0.9)

This table is based on ASTM C 680-95 heat transfer algorithms. The suggested insulation thickness values assume proper system design and installation, do not include a safety factor and are applicable only for the specified scenario. Dow recommends that the user consult a qualified design engineer familiar with this type of construction for proper system design and specification.

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Table 4: Condensation Control Thickness for Typical Outdoor Applications Using TRYMER 2000 Pipe Insulation Conditions: 80F, 80% Relative Humidity, 8 mph Wind, Aluminum Jacket (Emittance 0.2)

This table is based on ASTM C 680-95 heat transfer algorithms. The suggested insulation thickness values assume proper system design and installation, do not include a safety factor and are applicable only for the specified scenario. Dow recommends that the user consult a qualified design engineer familiar with this type of construction for proper system design and specification.

Table 5: Additional Guidance in Selecting Insulation Thickness

This chart is based on the ASTM C 680 algorithm for thickness of insulation required to control condensation on the surface of a line or vessel, as used in NIA 3EPLUS program. It is not intended for use in design calculations, but rather to give an idea of the relative importance of variables that influence the amount of insulation needed on a cold application.

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NOTICE: No freedom from any patent owned by Dow or others is to be inferred. Because use conditions and applicable laws may differ from one location to another and may change with time, Customer is responsible for determining whether products and the information in this document are appropriate for Customers use and for ensuring that Customers workplace and disposal practices are in compliance with applicable laws and other government enactments. Dow assumes no obligation or liability for the information in this document. NO WARRANTIES ARE GIVEN; ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. COMBUSTIBLE: Protect from high heat sources. For more information, consult MSDS and/or call Dow at 1-866-583-BLUE (2583). In an emergency, call 1-989-636-4400. Local building codes may require a protective or thermal barrier. Contact your local building inspector for more information.

The Dow Chemical Company


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McKAY177460-04/04