You are on page 1of 8

Chapter 15 You and Your Career The Career Planning Process Step 1 Gather information.

n. Gather information about yourself to assist in making a decision about your career. You should develop an understanding of yourself, including values, interests, aptitudes, abilities, personal traits, and desired lifestyle, and become aware of the interrelationship between self and occupational choice. Step 2 Investigate Investigate the world of work in greater depth, narrow a general occupational direction into a specific one through an informed decision-making process, and declare a major. For a first job, your choices are not that many. The schools Guidance and Placement Office can help you, the Wanted Ads in newspapers have many choices to offer; friends, relatives, and family will offer suggestions, too. Listen to all of the suggestions and read the various job openings. Lastly, employment agencies can be of help, too. Step 3 Evaluate occupational choices and gain practical experience Evaluate the occupational choices that you have and gain practical experience through practicum work or internships, relevant summer employment, volunteer work, and campus activities. Step 4 Prepare and begin a job search Prepare yourself for job-hunting and start sending out your resume. Competencies Defined Skills are obtained through full- or part-time work, volunteering for a campus or off-campus organization, completing an internship, or through extracurricular activities. You already have some transferrable skills which can be used in any occupation. Speaking, listening, greeting people, writing, meeting deadlines, operating expensive equipment cars, computers developing a sense of humor and maintaining a budget are examples of learned skills. Planning and Organizational Skills Follow up with others to evaluate progress of tasks Conduct meeting Give praise and credit to others for work well done Motivate others on group projects Facilitate brainstorming activities Develop goals for an organization Work effectively with organization members Identify tasks to be accomplished Prioritize tasks Facilitate discussion on program planning processes Give constructive feedback

Oral and Written Communication Skills Organize and present ideas effectively Effectively participate in group discussions Prepare concise and logically written materials Listen carefully and respond to verbal and nonverbal messages Effectively utilize campus resources for public relations Respond appropriately to positive and negative feedback Debate issues without being abrasive to others Possess courteous telephone skills Decision-Making, Supervisory, Management and/or Leadership Skills Understand the steps involved with effective decision-making Facilitate groups in the decision-making process Implement sound decisions Take responsibility for decisions Evaluate the effects and effectiveness of a decision Be able to make decisions without feeling pressured Remain flexible with decisions Explain to other unpopular decisions Motivate others toward common goals Use effective coaching/mentoring skills with peers or subordinates Financial Management Skills Develop a budget accurately estimating expenses and income Justify the organizations budget to others Work within a budget Keep accurate and complete financial records Ensure timeliness of payments Develop and implement a fund-raising event Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Conflict Resolution Skills Anticipate problems before they occur Define the problem and identify possible/apparent causes Identify possible alternative solutions and select the most appropriate ones Facilitate group members in identifying and evaluating possible solutions Develop plans to implement solutions Handle several problems at one time Understand the steps involved with critical thinking Recognize if a problem needs to be addressed Teamwork and Team Building Skills Motivate team members to work toward common goals Understand strengths and weaknesses of members and use strengths to build team development Collaborate on projects Support and praise one another for reaching goals and accomplishments Ethics and Tolerance Skills Define and explain ethical behavior Practice ethical behavior in difficult situations

Accept others opinions and actions in a non-judgmental way Understand sexist, racist, ageist, and homophobic behavior and exhibit non-sexist, non-racist, non-ageist, and non-homophobic behavior Interact with and appreciate people from diverse cultural, social, and religious backgrounds Interact with and appreciate physically- or mentally-challenged individuals Personal and Professional Management Skills Work effectively under pressure Manage time and stress effectively Seek additional opportunities for professional development Regularly participate in a healthy combination of activities for stress management Arrive at work at an appropriate time Evaluate personal and professional strengths and weaknesses Take initiative in job related duties Discern appropriate behavior for the workplace Transferrable Skills Information Management Skills - Sort data and objects - Compile and rank information - Apply information creatively to specific problems or tasks - Synthesize facts, concepts, and principles - Understand and use organizing principles - Evaluate information based on appropriate standards Design and Planning Skills - Identify alternative courses of action - Set realistic goals - Follow through with a plan or decision - Manage time effectively - Predict future trends and patterns - Accommodate multiple demands for commitment of time, energy, and resources - Assess needs - Make and keep a schedule - Set priorities Research and Investigation Skills - Use a variety of sources of information - Apply a variety of methods to test the validity of data - Identify problems and needs - Design an experiment, plan, or model that systematically defines a problem - Identify information sources appropriate to special needs or problems - Formulate questions relevant to clarifying a particular problem, topic, or issue Communication Skills - Listen with objectivity and paraphrase the content of a message - Use various forms and styles of written communication - Speak effectively to individuals and groups

Use various media to present ideas imaginatively Express ones needs, wants, opinions, and preferences without offending the sensitivity of others - Identify and communicate valuable judgments effectively - Describe objects or events with few errors Human Relations and Interpersonal Skills - Keep a group on track and moving toward the achievement of a goal - Maintain group cooperation and support - Delegate tasks and responsibilities - Interact effectively with peers, superiors, and subordinates - Express ones feelings appropriately - Understand the feelings of others - Use argumentation techniques to persuade others - Make commitments to people - Be willing to take risks - Teach a skill, concept, or principle to others - Analyze behavior of self and others in group situations - Demonstrate effective social behavior in a variety of settings and under different circumstances - Work under time and environmental pressures Critical Thinking Skills - Identify quickly and accurately the critical issues when making a decision or solving a problem - Identify a general principle that explains interrelated experiences of factual data - Define the parameters of a problem - Identify reasonable criteria for assessing the value or appropriateness of an action or behavior - Adapt ones concepts and behavior to changing conventions and norms - Apply appropriate criteria to strategies and action plans - Take given promises and reason to their conclusion - Create innovative solutions to complex problems - Analyze the interrelationships of events and ideas from several perspectives Management and Administration Skills - Analyze tasks - Identify people who can contribute to the solution of a problem or a task - Identify resource materials useful in the solution of a problem - Delegate responsibility for completion of a task - Motivate and lead people - Organize people and tasks to achieve specific goals Valuing Skills - Assess a course of action in terms of its long-range affects on the general human welfare - Make decisions that will maximize both individual and collective good

Appreciate the contributions of art, literature, science, and technology to contemporary society - Identify ones own values - Assess ones own values in relation to important life decisions Personal and Career Development Skills - Analyze and learn from life experiences both ones own and others - Relate the skills developed in one environment (school, for instance) to the requirements of another (work) - Match knowledge about ones own characteristics and abilities to information about job or career opportunities - Identify, describe, and assess the relative importance of ones needs, values, interest, strengths, and weaknesses - Develop personal growth goals that are motivating - Identify and describe skills acquired through formal education and general life experiences - Identify ones own strengths and weaknesses - Accept and learn from negative criticism - Persist with a project when faced with failure unless it is clear that the project cannot be carried out or is not worth the time or effort required to complete it - Generate trust and confidence in others - Take risks - Accepts the consequences of ones actions - Market ones self to prospective employers MAKING SUCCESSFUL RESUMES A resume is a written summary of capabilities, accomplishments, and work history. An applicant sends one to an employer. Employers do not hire a person on the basis of the resume alone, but the resume should motivate an employer to interview you. The resume should have the following qualities: It should be well-organized so that it can be read in six to eight seconds. The preferred length is one or two pages on an 8 x 11-inch paper no matter how many years of experience a candidate has. It should emphasize strengths and accomplishments and show that the applicant is qualified for the available job. It should demonstrate excellent writing skills, with perfect grammar, spelling, and punctuation. A well-written resume is tailored to the available job and shows the applicants skills and talents suitable for the vacancy. A resume is not a life history. It should be attractive to the eye. The best way to ensure this is to use a computer. Word-processed resumes may be easily and quickly accessed in order to make changes and corrections. The resume should be printed on a laser printer or a comparable high-quality printer on a paper. If a copy-machine is used to copy an original, a highquality machine should be used. Use wide margins, double-spacing, or indentations. White, beige, gray, or pale blue paper may be used. The resume should have the following components: heading; job objective (not always necessary); work experience, and; education.

Part of a Resume 1. Heading The heading should include your name and contact information address, mobile, home, and/or work telephone numbers, and email address. 2. Job Objective If you have only a limited experience (or none), omit the job objective because it may be limiting. A candidate with job experience should have a clear idea of a career area. The job objective lets the employer know that you have gone through a thorough analysis of your career. The job objective immediately follows the heading and states a job title or specific occupational field. Some objectives are: Administrative assistant to the director of sales Legal secretary for a law firm specializing in litigation Word processing specialist in the insurance industry Medical transcriptionist in a metropolitan hospital Record management specialist for a manufacturing firm Front desk clerk for a hotel 3. Work Experience This is the core of the resume. Experience should be listed in reverse chronological order or according to job function. This is to show your growth and development in your field. Any major accomplishment can be included under the job function. Use action verbs, which are verbs that help create a well-defined image of contributions and accomplishments. Some action verbs are: analyzed, assisted, coordinated, developed, organized, performed, planned, prepared, represented, supervised, etc. if you are a fresh graduate, write down our practicum experience or a task that was assigned to you by your family, or any summer job that you might have had. Avoid long sentences Avoid using I, instead use action verbs Use years, instead of months and days (ex: 2002-present) Omit jobs that go back 10 or 25 years Include home or volunteer work, and part-time jobs if job experience is limited 4. Education If you have just graduated, you may put education right after job objective. If you have been out of school for some time or your education is not related to the job, place this information after experience and omit the years. Indicating the year you graduated will give the employer an idea as to your age. Eliminate high school if you have graduate degrees. The date should be included if the degree was earned recently. List degrees as follows: University of the Philippines Master of Business Administration Lyceum of the Philippines Bachelors Degree in Business Administration University of the East, Manila

Associate in Secretarial Administration If you have taken classes but have not earned a degree, list the institution and courses relevant to the job. Include seminars or trainings. List professional certification, such as Certified Public Accountant or Registered Nurse and include the rating. Additional Resume Tips: Include academic awards and grade-point average if impressive. Include major awards if related to your profession. Include leadership roles. Include hobbies only if related to job. Do not give references unless asked. Put References provided upon request. Do not give reasons for leaving previous jobs. It is optional to include personal information such as height, age, weight, sex, health, and marital status. Keep Your Resume Current As you advance in your career, you may decide to look for other jobs. With that possibility in mind, you should keep your resume current. Maintain a file folder and record information about achievements, education, dates of employment, and other data that would be useful for a future resume. When you must prepare another resume, all the information you need will be readily available. THE COVER LETTER A cover letter is sent to a prospective employer together with the resume. A personalized cover letter gives the applicants and additional opportunity to sell themselves. It usually describes how the qualifications and skills listed on the resume correspond with those required for the job. A three-paragraph letter will be sufficient in most cases. A cover letter should have the following qualities: It should be readable, to the point, and refer to the specific job. A computer should be used in preparing the cover letter. It should match the color of the stationery used for the resume. Good spelling, grammar, and punctuation are necessary. It should be addressed to a specific individual. If the individuals name is not listed in the advertisement, address the letter as requested in the ad, find out the exact name, spelling, title, and name of the company by telephone. Do not use a business envelop to mail in your letter. Buy your own office supplies. The First Paragraph The first paragraph should state why you are writing, where you learned about the job, and what your most important qualification is for the job. The Second Paragraph The second paragraph emphasizes education and work background and creates interest in you as an applicant. It may be six or seven sentences long and it must relate your education and experience directly to the available job.

The Third Paragraph This paragraph asks for an interview and indicates your availability. This is usually two or three sentences long. THE JOB INTERVIEW Some positions may require two or three interviews. The higher the job level and the more bureaucratic the organization, the more interviews there will be. Here are some Dos and Donts to help you pass that interview with flying colors: Dos Dress appropriately. DONTs Bring a friend or a relative to the interview. Greet the interviewer with a smile and a Display nervousness by tapping a pencil firm handshake. on the desk, twirling your hair, or any other annoying habit. Remain standing until you are asked to Slouch in your chair. have a seat. Retain good posture when standing Answer questions with yeah, nope, and/or sitting. or uh-huh. Listen attentively. Lie about your strengths or your accomplishments. Answer questions honestly and clearly. Smoke, chew gum, or complain. Observe good grammar. Criticize past employers or your teachers. Exhibit a positive attitude. Ask questions only about the companys benefit package (what the company will do for you). Ask questions about the company, its Stand at the door after the interview products, and your possible role in the and continue to talk. company, as well as about the benefits. Maintain eye contact with the interviewer.