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Centrifugal Pumps and Turbines

* Objects:
1To find the efficiency of the pump for fully opened vanes and for half opened vanes by calculating. 2To know the basic way how the centrifugal flow pump will be doing in the pump and how the efficiency will be increase or decrease for fully open and for half open which is fitted with guide vanes.

* The Apparatus:
Figure (1) below shows schematic diagram for the apparatus of this experiment, it consist of large tank, two pumps (test pump and supply pump), many pipes to carry the water, level glass (to gets h), pressure gauges to measure the pressure in different location on the pump, and some valves to make control for the rate of flow of water. Also the different pressure gage to measure the pressure of a different point test for fully opened or for half opened.
Test Pump V3

Level glass

V2

P Tank
Screen

Supply Pump Figure (1): The centrifugal .pump

* The Procedure:
1Check for the adjustment of the instrumentation used in the experiment. 2Close all the valve in the devices expect the valve of the supply pump. 3Be sure that the guide vanes are fully opened in the first part of the experiment and be half opened in the second part for the test pump. 4Start in the first part to be the valve fully opened to supply pump and open the supply discharge valve slowly and also open vent valve to ensure that the supply-pump discharge is fed back into the tank then close the valve partially. Open the vent valve on the test pump these steps to ensure that all the air has been vented on the system and switch off the supply pump mater.
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6Now switch the mode of operation on the control console to pump (mater) operation and set the diffuser vanes for fully opened in the flow. Turn the control tank till you obtain a speed of 1500rpm and use the pump discharge valve to control flow rate by increased the valve opened for flow and record the needed data of each flow rate.
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8Set diffuser vanes half way open and repeat the same step that the same of the first part.

List of Symbols:
p: the efficiency of the pump. : water density (1000Kg/m3). Hp: turbine outlet pressure, in (par=100KPa). Hs: turbine inlet pressure, in (par=100KPa). H: the head, in (m). Q: flow rate, in (m3/hr). F: the force, in (N). R: the radius, in (m).

T: torque = R * F, in (N.m). N: the angular velocity, in (RPM). Wm: mechanical power = 2**N*T/60 watt

* Experimental Data:
N=1200RPM, R=0.248m.
Table (1): Shows the Exp. Data for 1200 RPM

NO.
1

Part one (fully opened vanes) F H Q Hs


(N) (mm) (m /hr)
3

Hp
(Par)

(Par)

2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 P1
Fully Half -0.15 -0.10

12.5 12.2 12 11 6.5 12 11.5 11 9 4.5

90 70 50 30 0 70 50 30 10 0

33 31 25 19 0 24 25 18 8 0

-0.05 -0.05 -0.04 -0.035 0 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04 -0.02 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.4 0 0.05 0.2 0.3 0.35

Part two (half opened vanes)

P2
0.00 0.00

P3
0.05 0.10

P4
0.00 0.10

P5
-0.10 -0.30

P6
0.00 0.00

P7
0.80 0.80

N=1600RPM, R=0.248m.
Table (2): Shows the Exp. Data for 1600 RPM

NO.
1

Part one (fully opened vanes) F H Q Hs


(N) (mm) (m /hr)
3

Hp
(Par)

(Par)

2 3 4 5 6

22 21.5 21 20.5 19 16.5

170 140 110 80 50 20

46 42 37 31 25 15

-0.08 -0.08 -0.07 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7

7 1 2 3 4 5 P1
Fully Half -0.20 -0.15

11 21.5 21 19.5 16 7

0 120 90 50 20 0

0 39 33 25 15 0

0 -0.06 -0.06 -0.04 -0.025 0

0.8 0 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.75

Part two (half opened vanes)

P2
0.00 0.00

P3
0.20 0.30

P4
0.20 0.30

P5
0.00 -0.40

P6
0.10 0.00

P7
0.80 0.80

* Calculation:
1)
F = 21.5 N

For Fully Opened:


H p = 0.2bar P w H s = 0.08bar

H = 210mm = Head meter =

w = specific gravity of water = 9810kg / m 2 .s 2 = speed of the pump in rad / s Pinput = FR


= 21.5 0.248 167.6 = 893.4W = 1600 rpm 2 (1600) = = 167.6rad / s 60 Poutput = 6QH
F = 21N H = 125 cm Pinput = FR = 26 0.248 188 .5 = 1215 .45W = 1600 rpm Q = Flowrate m3 / s 2 (1600 ) = = 188 .5rad / s 5 51 (0.2 + 0.09 ) 10 Poutput 60 9810 = 9810 Poutput = 6QH 3600 = = output m3 411 .8 = 0.46 = 46 % Q Flowrate = / s F input p 893 .s4 H Q H H th 3 = /s (N) 39 m(bar) (bar) (cm) (m3/hr) 5 39 0.17 10 = 184 46 Poutput = 98100.1 -0.08 22 9810 170 .2W 3600 output 184 .2 th = = = 0.152 = 15.2% input 1215 .45 H p = 0.2bar H s = 0.06bar

2) For Half Opened:

* Results:
= 411 .8W

Pin
(W)

1215.4 5

1) For Fully opened: H H Pout (bar) (W) w 549.0 0.43 4.38 3

p
%

45.2

21.5 21 20.5 19

0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6

-0.08 -0.07 -0.06 -0.04

140 110 80 50

42 37 31 25

1168.7 1145.3 3 1028.4 6 747.97

0.67 0.84 1.03 1.3

6.83 8.56 10.5 13.2 5

707.2 5 676.4 5 629.5 0

61 59.1 61.1 0

2) For Half Opened: F


(N)

Hp
(bar)

Hs
(bar)

H
(cm)

Q
(m /hr)
3

Pin
(W)

H
(bar)

21.5 21 19.5 16 7

0 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.75

-0.06 -0.06 -0.04 -0.025 0

120 90 50 20 0

39 33 25 15 0

1168.7 1051.83 981.71 818.1 654.5

0.56 0.78 1.12 1.3

H w 5.71 7.95 11.42 13.25

Pout
(W)

p
%

513.47 541.59 626.48 466.79 0

44 51.5 63.8 57.1 0

1.025 10.45

Fig.2 (Pump head)


Pump head at 1200 rpm 1200 RPM (Fully)
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100

1200 RPM (Half )

Q(m3/s)

H(mm) Fig.3 (Pump head)

Pump Head at 1600 RPM


1600 RPM(Fully)
50

1600 RPM(Half)

Q(m3/s)

40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150

H(mm)

Fig.4(Pump efficiency)

The pump efficiency


(Fully Opened)
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50

(Half Opened)

eff.(% )

Q(m3/hr)

* Discussion:
We note ( in fig.2&3) that by draw that the power input to the pump decrease as the flow rate decrease while power output increase but not like power input decreases and it reaches the maximum value then it start to decrease until it reaches zero when the flow reaches zero. We note in (fig.4) that from drawing that the efficiency of the pump always increase but there is one time will be decrease, I don't know why but may be that related to some error in reading or by error in

calculations but in the next reading will be continue the decrease like before. For we note that the efficiency of the pump is dependent in the ratio between the power output to the power input so that the efficiency is not function of (Pin) only but it is a function of another type of parameter so we note the increase in the efficiency. By comparing the efficiency between the half open valve and the fully open valve there is no big different between them in efficiency. Also, as you see in (fig.4) the pump efficiency (p) and the head (H) increases as the flow rate (Q) (or the time) also decreases. And we can say that the power input decreases when the flow rate (Q) decreases, and power output increases.

* Conclusion:
From the experiment for half open guide vane we also see that the

power input tends to decrease as the flow rate decreases and power output tends to increase when the flow rate decrease until it will be the max value opened then it start to be decrease so the efficiency on the other hand tends to increase to the maximum value then it start decrease to zero.
By comparing between the two systems note that the flow rate is

approximate half the value in the fully open vane. But the power input is nearly the same into the system while power output is less half open vane then it will be in the second part Fully opened system.
From data note that we have the best efficiency but on the trial that

give as the best efficiency when it will be largest (Pout) because the (b) gives as a good view about (Pin) and (Pout).
From the result that there is some error but I don't know really why

but I think that it is in reading only.