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Weather and Climate Differentiate weather from climate.

Weather refers to the condition of the atmosphere at any given time while climate is the average weather in a particular region over a fairly long period of time. Weather describes the conditions in the atmosphere at a particular time, on a particular day, in a particular place. Climate describes the average of all weather conditions in a particular place over many , many years , usually decades. Elements of weather : 1. temperature 2. humidity 3. atmospheric pressure 4. wind and air masses 5. cloud formation

Discussion : 1. temperature the most important element of weather as it influences many other elements such as humidity, cloud formation, precipitation , air pressure , wind speed and direction . 2. what affects temperature ? Incoming solar radiation, the time of the day and year , and geographical factors

Humidity the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere It refers to the ratio of moisture actually present in the air compared to what the air can hold at a given temperature. Humidity is measured by hygrometer. What is saturated air ? This happens when almost all the empty space between air molecules has been occupied by water vapor,, the rate of evaporation decreases. Which can hold more moisture warm or cold air ? Warm air. Atmospheric Pressure the pressure exerted by air Atmospheric pressure is determined by the thickness and temperature of the air mass over a region. High pressure areas areas where the air is thicker Low pressure areas areas where the air is not as thick

How does low pressure area form ? When air rises over a region, the air in this region becomes lighter and creates low pressure area. Air pressure is measured by a barometer. Where is air pressure greater mountain or sea level ? Sea level because the density and pressure of air increase as altitude increase. Air circulates clockwise around a high pressure center and counterclockwise around a low pressure center. Low pressure areas produce bad weather High pressure areas produce good weather. Winds and Air Masses. What determines weather on earth ? the suns energy What is wind? Wind is moving air.. How does winds form ? Winds are caused by the continual rising and falling of air. Does winds always blow from north to south ? No, the rotation of the earth around it s axis caused the wind to move in a circular pattern at the same time. How does the suns energy determine the weather on earth ? When air near the equator is heated by strong radiation from the sun, it rises and moves toward the polar regions. This heated air becomes less dense and rises, it forms an area of low pressure. Air entering the polar regions is cooled and begins to flow downward to the earths surface. Since the air becomes more dense, it creates areas of high pressure near the poles and flows back towards the equator. What are the two major wind belts? What are the global wind systems ? a. the trade winds == near the equator b. the prevailing westerlies == near the middle latitudes c. polar easterlies == near the poles How is wind named ? by the direction from which it came from . What can be seen on at the topmost part of the troposphere ? a fast moving river called the jet stream which travels at 80 km / hr. to 600 km / hr. What are the smaller wind systems ? 1. land and sea breezes What happens when air gets warmer .. when it gets cooler ?

Air rises when it gets warmer, it drops when it gets cooler. Why is the rate of cooling down and heating up different in air over land and air on water ? because land heats up and cools faster than water .

What is the effect of the unequal heating of air, land, and water ? it results in breezes near shorelines. Sea breeze blows from the water toward the land. Land breeze moves from the land towards the ocean.

The condition of the atmosphere with regard to heat , humidity , clouds, and precipitation The layer of air that surrounds the earth The force of air against a unit air Moving air A large body of air that has about the same temperature and mixture throughout The line along which large masses of air often meet The boundary between two unlike air masses A front at which a colder air mass thrusts under a warmer air mass A front at which a warmer air mass overrides a colder air mass A front that does not move or barely moves A front that is formed when warm air is caught between two masses of cold air. The force that causes air to move from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure