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VMware Server Users Guide

VMware Server 2.0

VMware Server Users Guide

VMware Server Users Guide Revision: 20080819 Item: EN-000057-00

You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on our Web site at: http://www.vmware.com/support/ The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates. If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to: docfeedback@vmware.com

2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Protected by one or more U.S. Patent Nos. 6,397,242, 6,496,847, 6,704,925, 6,711,672, 6,725,289, 6,735,601, 6,785,886, 6,789,156, 6,795,966, 6,880,022, 6,944,699, 6,961,806, 6,961,941, 7,069,413, 7,082,598, 7,089,377, 7,111,086, 7,111,145, 7,117,481, 7,149,843, 7,155,558, 7,222,221, 7,260,815, 7,260,820, 7,269,683, 7,275,136, 7,277,998, 7,277,999, 7,278,030, 7,281,102, 7,290,253, and 7,356,679; patents pending. VMware, the VMware boxes logo and design, Virtual SMP and VMotion are registered trademarks or trademarks of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.

VMware, Inc. 3401 Hillview Ave. Palo Alto, CA 94304 www.vmware.com


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Contents

AboutThisBook
LogFiles 16

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1 IntroductionandSystemRequirements 19
VMwareServerProductBenefits 19 NewFeaturesofVMwareServer2.0 20 WebBasedInterface 20 VMwareRemoteConsole 21 IncreasedMemorySupport 21 IncreaseinNumberofNetworkAdaptersSupported 21 QuiescedBackupsofVirtualMachinesonWindows 21 SupportforHighSpeedUSB2.0Devices 21 AdditionalHostOperatingSystemSupport 22 AdditionalGuestOperatingSystemSupport 22 Improved64BitGuestSupport 22 64BitSoundDriver 22 Native64BitHostSupportonLinux 22 UpdatedVIXAPI 23 VMCISocketsInterface 23 AbouttheHostandGuestComputers 23 HostSystemRequirements 23 PCHardware 23 Memory 24 DiskDrives 24 LocalAreaNetworking 25 WindowsHostOperatingSystems 25 LinuxHostOperatingSystemRequirements 26 VIWebAccessandVMwareRemoteConsoleClientSystemRequirements 27 VirtualMachineSpecifications 28 Processor 28 ChipSet 28 BIOS 28 Memory 29 Graphics 29
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IDEDrives 29 SCSIDevices 29 PCISlots 29 FloppyDrives 30 Serial(COM)Ports 30 Parallel(LPT)Ports 30 USBPorts 30 Keyboard 30 MouseandDrawingTablets 30 EthernetCard 30 VirtualNetworking 31 Sound 31 SupportedGuestOperatingSystems 31 ProcessorSupportfor64BitGuestOperatingSystems 34

2 InstallingVMwareServer 35
InstallationPrerequisites 35 PreparingtoInstallVMwareServer 35 SharingaVMwareServerHostwithOtherVMwareProducts 36 InstallingVMwareServeronaWindowsHost 37 InstallingVMwareServerSilently 39 UninstallingVMwareServeronaWindowsHost 41 InstallingVMwareServeronaLinuxHost 41 ConfiguringVMwareServeronLinuxHostsUsingvmwareconfig.pl 43 UninstallingVMwareServeronaLinuxHost 44 UninstallingatarInstallationofVMwareServer 44 UninstallinganRPMInstallationofVMwareServer 44 UpgradingfromVMwareServer1 44 WheretoGoNext 46

3 LearningVMwareServerBasics:UsingVIWebAccess 47
LoggingIntoVMwareServerUsingVIWebAccess 47 OverviewofVIWebAccess 48 UsingtheVMwareServerHostWorkspace 49 UsingtheVirtualMachineWorkspace 50 ViewingVirtualMachineSummaryInformation 50 InstallingtheVMwareRemoteConsoleAddOn 51 StartingVMwareRemoteConsolefromtheConsoleTab 53 UsingVIWebAccessMenuOptions 53 ApplicationMenu 53
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VirtualMachineMenu 54 AdministrationMenu 55 ViewingVMwareServerandVirtualMachineTasks 55 ViewingVMwareServerandVirtualMachineEvents 56 LoggingOut 56

4 CreatingandUpgradingVirtualMachines 57
SettingUpaNewVirtualMachine 57 BeforeYouBegin 57 UsingtheNewVirtualMachineWizard 62 InstallingaGuestOperatingSystem 66 UpdatingtheGuestOperatingSystem 68 UpgradingtheVirtualMachineVersion 69

5 InstallingandUsingVMwareTools 71
ComponentsofVMwareTools 71 VMwareToolsService 72 VMwareDeviceDrivers 72 VMwareUserProcess 73 VMwareToolsControlPanel 73 InstallingVMwareTools 73 ManuallyInstallingVMwareToolsinaWindowsGuestSystem 74 ConfiguringtheVideoDriveronOlderVersionsofWindows 75 InstallingVMwareToolsinaLinuxGuestSystem 78 InstallingVMwareToolsinaSolarisGuestSystem 81 InstallingVMwareToolsinaFreeBSDGuestSystem 82 InstallingVMwareToolsinaNetWareGuestSystem 84 StartingtheVMwareUserProcessManuallyIfYouDoNotUseaSession ManageronUNIX 86 UpdatingVMwareTools 86 UninstallingVMwareTools 87 RepairingorChangingVMwareTools 88 UsingtheVMwareToolsControlPanel 88 UsingtheWindowsControlPaneltoDisplaytheTaskbarIcon 89 OptionsTab 89 DevicesTab 90 ScriptsTab 91 SharedFoldersTab 91 ShrinkTab 91 AboutTab 92

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ConfiguringVMwareToolsinaNetWareGuest 92 CustomizationstoVMwareTools 93 HowVMwareToolsScriptsAffectPowerStates 93 ExecutingCommandsAfterYouPowerOfforResetaVirtualMachine 96 PassingaStringfromtheHosttotheGuestatStartup 97 PassingInformationBetweentheGuestandAnotherProgram 99 UsingtheVMwareToolsCommandLineInterface 99

6 ManagingVMwareServer 101
ManagingtheVirtualMachineInventory 101 AddingaVirtualMachinetotheInventory 102 RemovingaVirtualMachinefromtheInventory 102 PerformingPowerOperationsonVirtualMachines 103 ManagingDatastores 103 AddingDatastores 104 RenamingDatastores 105 RemovingDatastores 106 RefreshingDatastores 106 EditingHostWideMemoryandSnapshotSettings 106 ConfiguringHostMemory 106 EnablingandDisablingBackgroundSnapshots 108 ConfiguringVirtualMachineStartupandShutdownSettings 109 EnablingSystemWideStartupandShutdownSettings 109 SpecifyingtheStartupandShutdownOrderforVirtualMachines 110 CustomizingtheStartupandShutdownSettingsforIndividualVirtual Machines 110 EnablingQuiescedBackupsofVirtualMachinesonWindows 111

7 RunningVirtualMachines 115
RunningVMwareTools 116 ChangingthePowerStateofaVirtualMachine 116 ChangingVirtualMachineNameandGuestSystemSettings ChangingVirtualMachinePowerSettings 118 ChangingVirtualMachineSnapshotSettings 119 LockingtheSnapshot 120 SettingSnapshotPowerOffOptions 120 ChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettings 121 DeletingaVirtualMachine 123 UsingVMwareRemoteConsole 124 InteractingwiththeGuestOperatingSystem 124
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EnteringandLeavingFullScreenMode 124 ConnectingandDisconnectingClientDevices 125 ResettingandPoweringOff 126 ViewingtheMessageLog 126 QuittingVMwareRemoteConsole 126 GeneratingandSharingVirtualMachineShortcuts 127 GeneratingaWebShortcut 127 GeneratingaVMwareRemoteConsoleDesktopShortcut 128 EditingNotesintheVirtualMachineSummaryTab 128 EditingtheHardwareConfigurationofaVirtualMachine 129 AddingHardwaretoaVirtualMachine 130 InstallingNewSoftwareinaVirtualMachine 131 AdvancedOptionsforApplicationDevelopers 132

8 ConfiguringVirtualMachineHardware 135
ConfiguringHardDisks 135 HardDiskTypesandProperties 136 AddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachine 138 EditingaVirtualHardDisk 139 RemovingaHardDiskfromaVirtualMachine 140 VirtualDiskMaintenanceTasks 140 ConfiguringCD/DVDDrives 143 CD/DVDDriveTypeandProperties 144 AddingaCD/DVDDrivetoaVirtualMachine 144 EditingaVirtualCD/DVDDrive 146 RemovingaCD/DVDDrivefromaVirtualMachine 147 ConfiguringFloppyDrives 147 AddingaFloppyDrivetoaVirtualMachine 147 EditingaVirtualFloppyDrive 149 RemovingaFloppyDrivefromaVirtualMachine 150 ConfiguringPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDevices 150 AddingaPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDevice 150 EditingPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDevices 151 RemovingPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDevices 151 ConfiguringSCSIControllers 152 ConfiguringUSBControllersandDevices 152 AddingaUSBControllertoaVirtualMachine 152 RemovingaUSBControllerfromaVirtualMachine 153 ConnectingUSBDevices 153 UsingUSBDevicesinaVirtualMachine 154

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DisconnectingUSBDevicesfromaVirtualMachine 157 ConfiguringSound 157 AddingaSoundAdaptertoaVirtualMachine 158 EditingaVirtualSoundAdapter 158 RemovingaSoundAdapterfromaVirtualMachine 159 ConfiguringSerialPorts 159 AddingaSerialPorttoaVirtualMachine 159 EditingaVirtualSerialPort 162 RemovingaSerialPortfromaVirtualMachine 163 SerialPortGeneralUsageExamples 163 SerialPortDebuggingUsageExamples 166 ConfiguringParallelPorts 169 AddingaParallelPorttoaVirtualMachine 170 EditingaVirtualParallelPort 171 RemovingaParallelPortfromaVirtualMachine 171 UsingParallelPorts 171 ConfiguringaParallelPortonaWindowsHost 172 ConfiguringaParallelPortonaLinuxHost 172 NotesforUsingtheIomegaZipDrive 176 KeyboardMappingonLinuxHosts 176

9 PreservingtheStateofaVirtualMachine 185
SuspendingandResumingVirtualMachines 185 ConfiguringHardSuspendorSoftSuspend 186 SuspendingorResumingaVirtualMachine 186 UsingSnapshots 187 WhattoUseSnapshotsFor 187 WhatIsCapturedbyaSnapshot 188 ActivitiesThatConflictwithSnapshots 188 EnablingandDisablingBackgroundSnapshotsforAllVirtualMachines 189 SnapshotsandaVirtualMachinesHardDisks 189 ExcludingVirtualDisksfromSnapshots 189 TakingaSnapshot 190 RevertingtoaSnapshot 190 RemovingaSnapshot 191 LockingaSnapshot 191

10 ManagingRolesandPermissions 193
AccessElements 193 ManagingUsers 194

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ManagingGroups 195 ManagingRoles 195 CreatingRoles 196 EditingandRenamingRoles 197 RemovingRoles 197 ManagingPermissions 198 CreatingPermissions 198 EditingPermissions 199 RemovingPermissions 200 AccessRules 200 HierarchicalInheritance 200 MultiplePermissionSettings 201

11 ConfiguringaVirtualNetwork 203
NetworkBasics 203 ComponentsoftheVirtualNetwork 204 VirtualNetworkSwitch 205 InternalDHCPServer 205 VirtualNetworkAdapter 206 HostVirtualAdapter 206 CommonNetworkingConfigurations 207 BridgedNetworking 207 NetworkAddressTranslation(NAT) 208 HostOnlyNetworking 210 CustomNetworkingConfigurations 211 ChangingtheNetworkingConfiguration 215 RefreshingtheNetwork 215 AddingaVirtualNetworkAdapter 215 EditingaNetworkAdapter 216 RemovingaNetworkAdapter 217 ConfiguringBridgedNetworkingOptionsonaWindowsHost 217 Enabling,Disabling,Adding,andRemovingHostVirtualAdapters 219 AdvancedNetworkingTopics 222 SelectingIPAddressesonaHostOnlyNetworkorNATConfiguration 222 AvoidingIPPacketLeakageinaHostOnlyNetwork 224 MaintainingandChangingtheMACAddressofaVirtualMachine 225 ControllingRoutingforaHostOnlyNetworkonaLinuxHost 227 IssueswithHostOnlyNetworkingonaLinuxHost 227 SettingUpaSecondBridgedNetworkInterfaceonaLinuxHost 229 ConfiguringBridgedNetworkingWhenUsingTeamedNetworkInterface Cards 229
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SettingUpTwoSeparateHostOnlyNetworks 232 RoutingBetweenTwoHostOnlyNetworks 235 UsingVirtualNetworkAdaptersinPromiscuousModeonaLinuxHost UnderstandingNAT 239 UsingNAT 240 TheHostComputerandtheNATNetwork 240 DHCPontheNATNetwork 240 DNSontheNATNetwork 241 ExternalAccessfromtheNATNetwork 241 AdvancedNATConfiguration 242 CustomNATandDHCPConfigurationonaWindowsHost 245 ConsiderationsforUsingNAT 246 UsingNATwithNetLogon 247 SampleLinuxvmnetnat.confFile 248 UsingSambaforFileSharingonaLinuxHost 249 UsingtheVirtualNetworkEditor 258 SummaryTab 258 AutomaticBridgingTab 259 HostVirtualNetworkMappingTab 259 HostVirtualAdaptersTab 260 DHCPTab 261 NATTab 261

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12 PerformanceTuningforVMwareServer 265
ConfiguringandMaintainingtheHostSystem 265 DefragmentingHardDisks 265 MaintainingAdequateFreeDiskSpace 266 EnablingDiskWriteCachingonWindowsHosts 266 ConfiguringSwapSpaceonLinuxHosts 266 IncreasingNICInterruptCoalescing 266 CalculatingMemoryRequirementstoAllowforVirtualMachine Overhead 267 ConfiguringHostWideVirtualMachineMemoryUsage 267 AllocatingMemorytoaVirtualMachine 268 EditingVirtualMachineMemory 269 UsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetricMultiprocessing 270 EditingVirtualProcessors 270 ConfiguringandMaintainingGuestOperatingSystems 271 MonitoringVirtualMachinePerformanceonWindowsHosts 275

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13 ConfiguringClusteringonWindowsHosts 277
OverviewofClusteringwithVMwareServer 277 ClusteringSoftwareRequirements 278 ApplicationsThatCanUseClustering 278 UsingSCSIReservationtoShareVirtualSCSIDisks 278 SCSIReservationPrerequisitesandRestrictions 279 EnablingSCSIReservation 279 CreatingaClusterinaBox 281 ConfiguringVirtualMachinesforClusterinaBox 282 CreatingaTwoNodeClusterwithMicrosoftClusteringServices 283

A DefinedPrivileges 289
Alarms 290 Datacenter 291 Datastore 291 Extensions 292 Folders 293 Global 293 HostCIM 295 HostConfiguration 296 HostInventory 298 HostLocalOperations 299 Network 300 Performance 300 Permissions 301 Resource 301 ScheduledTask 303 Sessions 303 Tasks 304 VirtualMachineConfiguration 304 VirtualMachineInteraction 307 VirtualMachineInventory 309 VirtualMachineProvisioning 309 VirtualMachineState 311

B FilesThatMakeUpaVirtualMachine 313
FilesThatMakeUpaVirtualMachine 313

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Glossary

317

Index 325

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About This Book

TheVMwareServerUsersGuideprovidesinformationaboutinstallingandusing VMwareServer2.

Revision History
Thismanualisrevisedwitheachreleaseoftheproductorwhennecessary.Arevised versioncancontainminorormajorchanges.Table 1summarizesthesignificant changesineachversionofthismanual. Table 1. Revision History
Revision 20080828 Description FirstversionoftheVMwareServer2.0documentation.

Toviewthemostcurrentversionofthemanual,seetheVMwareWebsite: http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/server_pubs.html

Intended Audience
Thisbookisintendedforanyonewhoneedstoinstall,upgrade,configure,oruse VMwareServer.VMwareServeruserstypicallyworkinsmallandmediumsized businesses,doingsoftwaredevelopmentandtestingorworkingwithmultiple operatingsystemsorcomputingenvironments.Usersincludesoftwaredevelopers,QA engineers,trainers,salespeoplewhorundemos,andanyonewhowantstocreate virtualmachines.

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Document Feedback
VMwarewelcomesyoursuggestionsforimprovingourdocumentation.Ifyouhave comments,sendyourfeedbackto: docfeedback@vmware.com

Technical Support and Education Resources


Thefollowingsectionsdescribethetechnicalsupportresourcesavailabletoyou.To accessthemostcurrentversionofthisbookandotherbooks,goto: http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs

Online and Telephone Support


Useonlinesupporttosubmittechnicalsupportrequests,viewyourproductand contractinformation,andregisteryourproducts.Goto: http://www.vmware.com/support Customerswithappropriatesupportcontractsshouldusetelephonesupportforthe fastestresponseonpriority1issues.Goto: http://www.vmware.com/support/phone_support.html

Support Offerings
FindouthowVMwaresupportofferingscanhelpmeetyourbusinessneeds.Goto: http://www.vmware.com/support/services

VMware Professional Services


VMwareEducationServicescoursesofferextensivehandsonlabs,casestudy examples,andcoursematerialsdesignedtobeusedasonthejobreferencetools. Coursesareavailableonsite,intheclassroom,andliveonline.Foronsitepilotprograms andimplementationbestpractices,VMwareConsultingServiceshelpsyouassess, plan,build,andmanageyourvirtualenvironment.Toaccessinformationabout educationclasses,certificationprograms,andconsultingservices,goto: http://www.vmware.com/services

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About This Book

Reporting Problems
IfyouhaveproblemswhilerunningVMwareServer,reportthemtotheVMware supportteam.Youmustfirstregisteryourserialnumber.Thenyoucanreportyour problemsbysubmittingasupportrequestto: http://www.vmware.com/requestsupport Logfilesareneededtodiagnoseandreportproblems.Therequiredlogfilesdependon theproblemyouencounter. Youcansimplifytheprocessofcollectingtheinformationbyrunningthesupportscript tocollectthelogfilesandsysteminformation.Followtheprocedurethatappliesto yourhostcomputer. NOTEThesupportscriptrunsonlyontheVMwareServerhost.Ifyouencounter problemsonaremoteclient,youmustcollectthelogfilesmanually. To run the support script on a Linux host 1 2 Openaterminalwindow. Runthesupportscriptastherootuser:
vm-support

Ifyoudonotrunthescriptasroot,thescriptdisplaysmessagesindicatingthatit cannotcollectsomeinformation.Thisisnormal.IftheVMwaresupportteam needsthatinformation,asupportrepresentativemightaskyoutorunthescript again,asroot. Thescriptcreatesacompressed.tgzfileinthecurrentdirectory. 3 Includetheoutputfilewithyoursupportrequest. Ifyourvirtualmachinesareinstalledinanonstandardlocation,thescriptmight notpickupalltherequireddata.Makesurethatthe*.log and*.vmxfilesfrom yourvirtualmachinefoldersareincludedwiththefilesyousend. To run the support script on a Windows host 1 2 Openacommandprompt. ChangetotheVMwareServerprogramdirectory.Thedefaultdirectoryis:
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Server

Runthesupportscript:
cscript vm-support.vbs

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Afterthescriptruns,itdisplaysthenameandlocationofthezippedoutput.

Log Files
ThefollowinglogfilesaregeneratedbyVMwareServerandcollectedbythesupport script.

Virtual Machine Log File


Ifavirtualmachineexitsabnormallyorcrashes,runthesupportscriptorsavethe virtualmachinelogfilesbeforeyourestartthevirtualmachine. Thevirtualmachinelogfilesarelocatedinthesamedirectoryasthevirtualmachine configuration(.vmx)file.IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummary tab,clickConfigureVM.ThepathtotheconfigurationfileisshownintheGeneraltab. OnWindowsandLinuxhosts,thefilesarenamedvmware-<n>.log. Alsosaveanydump(Windows)orcore(Linux)files.

VMware Host Agent Log File


TheVMwareHostAgentwritesinformationtologfiles. OnaWindowsandLinuxhosts,thefilesarenamedhostd-<n>.log. OnWindowshosts,thefilesarelocatedinthedirectory
<%ALLUSERSPROFILE%>\VMware\VMware Server.

Forexample:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\VMware Server

OnLinuxhostsystems,thefilesarelocatedinthedirectory/var/log/vmware.

VMware Authorization Service Log File


YoucanmanuallyenableloggingfortheVMwareAuthorizationService,named vmware-authdonLinuxhosts. To enable logging for the VMware Authorization Service 1 Inatexteditor,editthefollowingfile: Windowsconfig.ini,locatedinthedirectory
<%ALLUSERSPROFILE%>\VMware\VMware Server

Forexample:

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About This Book

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\VMware Server

Linux/etc/vmware/config 2 Addthefollowinglinestotheconfigurationfile:
vmauthd.logEnabled = TRUE log.vmauthdFileName = "vmauthd.log" pref.hardLimitDebug = 2

Toenablelogging: OnaWindowshost,selectStart>AdministrativeTools>Services,rightclick VMwareAuthorizationService,andselectRestart. OnaLinuxhost,thelogfileisenabledwhenyousaveandclosethe configurationfile. OnWindowshosts,thevmauthd.logfileiscreatedinC:\Windows\system32or C:\WINNT\system32. OnLinuxhosts,thevmauthd.logfileiscreatedin/var/log/vmware.

VI Web Access Log Files


OnWindowshosts,TomcatWebserverlogfilesarelocatedinthedirectory <%ALLUSERSPROFILE%>\VMware\tomcat-logs. Forexample:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\tomcat-logs

OnLinuxhosts,logfilesarelocatedinthedirectory/var/log/vmware/WebAccess.

VMware Remote Console Log Files


OnWindowsclients,theVMwareRemoteConsolelogfilesarenamed vmware-<username>-<nnnn>.log,locatedinthedirectory %TEMP%\vmware-<username>. OnLinuxclients,theVMwareRemoteConsolelogfilesarenamedvmrc-<nnnn>.log and<nnnn>.log,locatedinthedirectory/tmp/vmware-<username>.

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Introduction and System Requirements

ThischapterdescribesthekeyproductfeaturesandbenefitsofusingVMwareServer. ItalsodescribesthesystemrequirementsforoperatingVMwareServer.Thischapter containsthefollowingtopics: VMwareServerProductBenefitsonpage 19 NewFeaturesofVMwareServer2.0onpage 20 HostSystemRequirementsonpage 23 VIWebAccessandVMwareRemoteConsoleClientSystemRequirementson page 27 VirtualMachineSpecificationsonpage 28 SupportedGuestOperatingSystemsonpage 31

VMware Server Product Benefits


VMwareServerisafreevirtualizationproductforMicrosoftWindowsandLinux servers.Itenablesyoutoquicklyprovisionnewservercapacitybypartitioninga physicalserverintomultiplevirtualmachines.YoucanuseVMwareServerto provisionawidevarietyofplugandplayvirtualappliancesforcommonlyused infrastructure. VMwareServersupportsthefollowinghardwareandsoftware: Anystandardx86compatibleorx8664compatiblepersonalcomputer AwidevarietyofWindows,Linux,Solaris,andotherguestoperatingsystems, including64bitoperatingsystems TwowayVirtual SMP

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IntelVirtualizationTechnology(IntelVT) AMDVirtualization(AMTV) WithVMwareServer,youcandothefollowing: Provisionanewserverwithoutpurchasingmorehardwarebylocatingmultiple virtualmachinesonthesamehost. RunWindows,Linux,andotheroperatingsystemsandapplicationswithout softwareconflictsbecausevirtualmachinesarecompletelyisolatedfromone anotherandfromthephysicalhost. Movevirtualmachinesfromonephysicalhosttoanotherwithouthavingto reconfigurethem.

New Features of VMware Server 2.0


ThissectionprovidesinformationaboutkeynewfeaturesofVMwareServer2.0.

Web-Based Interface
UseVMwareInfrastructureWebAccess(VIWebAccess)toperformhostandvirtual machineconfigurationforVMwareServer2.0.Thisintuitivewebbasedinterface providesasimpleandflexibletoolforvirtualmachinemanagement.UsingVI Web Access,youcandothefollowing: Create,configure,anddeletevirtualmachines Addandremovevirtualmachinesfromtheinventory Performpoweroperations(start,stop,reset,suspend,andresume)onvirtual machines Monitortheoperationofvirtualmachines GenerateaWebshortcutforvirtualmachineusersthatallowsthemtointeract directlywiththeguestoperatingsystemfromaWebbrowser,withtheoptionto limittheirviewtotheconsoleorasinglevirtualmachine GenerateaVMwareRemoteConsoledesktopshortcutthatallowsvirtualmachine userstointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperatingsystemoutsideofaWebbrowser ConfigurehostwideVMwareServersettings VI WebAccessandVMwareRemoteConsolereplacetheVMwareManagement InterfaceandVMwareServerConsole.SeeChapter 3,LearningVMwareServer Basics:UsingVIWebAccess,onpage 47.

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Introduction and System Requirements

VMware Remote Console


VMwareRemoteConsoleenablesyoutointeractwiththeguestoperatingsystem runninginavirtualmachine. YoucanrunVMwareRemoteConsoleonthehostoraremoteclientsystem.Afteryou installitasaWebbrowseraddonfromVI Web Access,VMware Remote Consolecan runindependentlyfromVI Web Access. VMware Remote ConsolealsoallowsyoutoconnectanddisconnectclientCD/DVD andfloppydevices. SeeUsingVMwareRemoteConsoleonpage 124.

Increased Memory Support


Themaximumamountofmemorythatcanbeallocatedpervirtualmachineis increasedfrom3.6GBto8GB.Theamountofmemorythatcanbeusedbyallvirtual machinescombinedislimitedonlybytheamountofmemoryonthehostcomputer.

Increase in Number of Network Adapters Supported


Youcannowhaveatotalof10networkadaptersforavirtualmachine.

Quiesced Backups of Virtual Machines on Windows


OnWindowshosts,youcanenabletheVMwareVSSWriter,whichusessnapshotsto maintainthedataintegrityofapplicationsrunninginsidethevirtualmachinewhen youtakebackups.SeeEnablingQuiescedBackupsofVirtualMachinesonWindows.

Support for High-Speed USB 2.0 Devices


IftheguestoperatingsystemhastheappropriateUSB2.0devicedrivers,youcanuse peripheralsthatrequirehighspeedperformance,suchasspeakers,webcams, nextgenerationprintersandscanners,faststoragedevices,MP3players,DVDRW drives,andhighcapacityCDROMjukeboxes.YoucanalsoconnecttoUSB1.1devices. SeeConnectingUSBDevicesonpage 153. USB2.0supportisavailableonlyforVMwareproductsthatsupportvirtualmachine hardwareversions6and7,suchasVMwareServer2andWorkstation6.ForUSB2.0 support,yourhostmachinemustsupportUSB2.0.

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Additional Host Operating System Support


Newlysupportedhostoperatingsystemsincludethefollowing: WindowsServer2008StandardEditionandEnterpriseEdition RedHatEnterpriseLinux4.5,5.0,and5.1 UbuntuLinux6.10Edgy,7.04Fiesty,7.10Gutsy,and8.04Hardy SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10and10SP1 Forafulllistofsupported32bitand64bithostoperatingsystems,seeHostSystem Requirementsonpage 23.

Additional Guest Operating System Support


Newlysupportedguestoperatingsystemsincludethefollowing: WindowsServer2008StandardEditionandEnterpriseEdition WindowsVistaBusinessEditionandUltimateEdition RedHatEnterpriseLinux4.5,5.0,and5.1 UbuntuLinux6.10Edgy,7.04Fiesty,7.10Gutsy,and8.04Hardy SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10and10SP1 SeeSupportedGuestOperatingSystemsonpage 31.

Improved 64-Bit Guest Support


64bitguestoperatingsystemsthatrunonIntelEM64TVTcapableandAMD64 revisionDorlaterprocessorsaresupported.SeeProcessorSupportfor64BitGuest OperatingSystemsonpage 34.

64-Bit Sound Driver


VMwareToolsinstallsasounddriverin64bitWindowsguestoperatingsystems. Newlycreated64bitWindowsvirtualmachinesarenowconfiguredwithaudio hardwarebydefault.SeeSoundonpage 31.

Native 64-Bit Host Support on Linux


VMwareServernowrunsnativelyon64bitLinuxhostoperatingsystems.

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Introduction and System Requirements

Updated VIX API


TheVMwareVIXAPI(formerlyknownastheProgrammingAPI)allowsyoutowrite scriptsandprogramstoautomatevirtualmachineoperations.TheVIXAPIishigh level,easytouse,andpracticalforbothscriptwritersandapplicationprogrammers. ThisreleaseoftheVIXAPIisavailableintheClanguage.APIfunctionsallowyouto register,poweronoroffvirtualmachines,andrunprogramsintheguestoperating systems.AdditionallanguagebindingsforPerl,COM,andshellscripts(vmrun)are available.SeetheVMwareVIXAPI1.5ReleaseNotes.

VMCI Sockets Interface


Developerswhowanttowriteclientserverapplicationsforvirtualmachinescannow usethissocketsinterfacefortheVirtualMachineCommunicationInterface.VMCI providesafastermeansofcommunicationamongapplicationsrunningonthehostand invirtualmachines.SeetheVMCISocketsProgrammingGuide.

About the Host and Guest Computers


Thetermshostandguestdescribeyourphysicalandvirtualmachines: ThephysicalcomputeronwhichyouinstalltheVMwareServersoftwareiscalled thehostcomputer,anditsoperatingsystemiscalledthehostoperatingsystem. Theoperatingsystemrunninginsideavirtualmachineiscalledaguestoperating system.

Host System Requirements


YoucaninstalltheVMwareServersoftwareonaWindowsorLinuxserver.Youcan storevirtualmachinesontheserverhostorlocatethemonanetworkshare.

PC Hardware
Thenumberofvirtualmachinesyoucanrunconcurrentlydependsontheresources theyrequire.VMwareServersupportsupto16waymultiprocessorservers,witha maximumoffourvirtualmachinesrunningconcurrentlyperprocessor. VMwareServerhostsmustmeetthefollowingrequirements: Standardx86compatibleorx8664compatibleserverwithupto16processors. Hostswith32bitIA32processorsandIA32processorswith64bitextensionsare supported.

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733MHzorfasterCPUminimum. Compatibleprocessorsinclude: IntelXeon: DualCore,including5000series(Dempsey),5100series(Woodcrest), 3000series(Conroe),7000series(PaxvilleMP),and7100series(Tulsa) QuadCore,including5300series(Clovertown) IntelCore2,includingE6300,E6400,E6600,andE6700(Conroe),Q6600 andQ6700/E(Kentsfield),andE4300(Allendale)Series AMDOpteron1000/2000/8000series(SantaAna,SantaRosa) AMDOpteron100/200/800series(Venus,Troy,Athens,Denmark,Italy,Egypt) AMDAthlon64(Clawhammer,Newcastle,Winchester,Venice,SanDiego, Orleans,Lima) AMDAthlon64X2/X2(Manchester,Toledo,Windsor,Brisbane)

Memory
Youmusthaveaminimumof512MBofmemory(2GBisrecommended).Thetotal amountofmemoryyoucanassigntoallvirtualmachinesrunningonasinglehost systemislimitedonlybytheamountofmemoryonthehostcomputer. Youmusthaveenoughmemorytorunthehostoperatingsystem,plusthememory requiredforeachguestoperatingsystemandforapplicationsonthehostandguest systems.SeeVirtualMachineSpecificationsonpage 28andyourguestoperating systemandapplicationdocumentationforadditionalmemoryrequirements.The maximumamountofmemorypervirtualmachineis8GB.

Disk Drives
Guestoperatingsystemstypicallyresideinvirtualdiskfiles,althoughyoucanalso bootfromCDROMorfromaPrebootExecutionEnvironment(PXE)server.

Hard Disk
IDEandSCSIharddrivesaresupported. Atleast1.7GBfreediskspaceisrequiredforbasicinstallation.Youcandeletethe installerafterwardstoreclaimapproximately600MBdiskspace.

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Introduction and System Requirements

Ifyouuseadefaultsetup,thediskspaceneedsareapproximatelythesameas thoseforinstallingandrunningtheguestoperatingsystemandapplicationsona physicalcomputer.

Optical CD/DVD Drive


IDEandSCSIopticaldrivesaresupported. CDROMandDVDROMdrivesaresupported. ISOdiskimagefilesaresupported.

Floppy Drives
Virtualmachinescanconnecttothehostsfloppydrives.Floppydiskimagefilesare alsosupported.

Local Area Networking


AnyEthernetcontrollersupportedbythehostoperatingsystem StaticIPaddressforyourhostmachine(recommended)

Windows Host Operating Systems


YoumustuseaWindowsserveroperatingsystem. NOTEOperatingsystemsandservicepacksthatarenotlistedarenotsupportedfor useasahostoperatingsystemforVMwareServer. 64bithostcomputerscanrunthefollowingoperatingsystemsfor64bitextended systems: WindowsServer2008x64StandardEdition WindowsServer2008x64EnterpriseEdition NOTEWindows2008ServerCoreinstallationsarenotsupported. WindowsServer2003x64StandardEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003x64WebEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003x64EnterpriseEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 32bithostcomputerscanrunthefollowingoperatingsystems: WindowsServer2008StandardEdition WindowsServer2008EnterpriseEdition

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NOTEWindows2008ServerCoreinstallationsarenotsupported. WindowsServer2003StandardEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003WebEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003EnterpriseEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsSmallBusinessServer2003StandardEdition,R2 WindowsSmallBusinessServer2003PremiumEdition,R2 Windows2000ServerSP3,SP4 Windows2000AdvancedServer,SP3,SP4

Linux Host Operating System Requirements


Supporteddistributionsandkernelsarelistedinthissection.VMwareServermightnot runonsystemsthatdonotmeettheserequirements.Platformsthatarenotlistedare notsupported. NOTEAsnewLinuxkernelsanddistributionsarereleased,VMwaremodifiesand testsitsproductsforstabilityandreliabilityonthosehostplatforms.VMwaremakes everyefforttoaddsupportfornewkernelsanddistributionsinatimelymanner,but untilakernelordistributionisaddedtothelist,itsuseisnotsupported.Lookfornewer prebuiltmodulesintheDownloadsectionofVMwareWebsiteat http://www.vmware.com/download. 64bithostcomputerscanrunthefollowingoperatingsystemsfor64bitextended systems: MandrivaCorporateServer4 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.1 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.0 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxAS4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxES4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxWS4.5 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10SP1 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer9SP4 UbuntuLinux8.04 UbuntuLinux7.10 UbuntuLinux7.04 UbuntuLinux6.10 UbuntuLinux6.06
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32bithostcomputerscanrunthefollowingoperatingsystems: MandrakeLinux10.1 MandrivaCorporateServer4 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.1 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.0 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxAS4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxES4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxWS4.5 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10SP1 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer9SP4 TurboLinuxEnterpriseServer10 UbuntuLinux8.04 UbuntuLinux7.10 UbuntuLinux7.04 UbuntuLinux6.10 UbuntuLinux6.06

VI Web Access and VMware Remote Console Client System Requirements


VIWebAccessenablesyoutomanagevirtualmachinesfromaWebbrowseronthehost oraremoteclient. VMwareRemoteConsoleenablesyoutointeractwiththeguestoperatingsystemon thehostoraremoteclient.ItisinstalledasaWebbrowseraddon. TouseVIWebAccessorinstallVMwareRemoteConsole,runoneofthefollowingWeb browsers: MozillaFirefox2.0or3.0forLinux MozillaFirefox2.0or3.0forWindows InternetExplorer6.0or7.0(7.0recommended) NOTEOtherbrowsersarenotexcluded,butarenotcertifiedbyVMware.Pleaserefer toyourbrowservendorsdocumentationforadditionalrequirements.Forthebest experience,makesurethatyourbrowserincludesallofthesecurityandstability updatesrecommendedbythevendor.

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JavaScript,XMLHttpRequest,andcookiesmustbeenabledinyourWebbrowser settingstouseVIWebAccess.Thesefeaturesareenabledbydefault. Toavoidperformancedegradation,disabletheFirebugextensiontoFirefoxwhenusing VIWebAccess. TheVMwareRemoteConsoleaddonmightconflictwithotherFirefoxaddons.Ifyou experienceproblemswhenyouattempttoinstalltheVMwareRemoteConsoleaddon, trydisablingotheraddonsyouhaveenabled.Specifically,youmighthavetodisable thethirdpartyLeakMonitoraddonbeforeyouinstalltheVMwareRemoteConsole addon.

Virtual Machine Specifications


ThefollowingsectionsdescribethedevicessupportedbyVMwareServervirtual machines.

Processor
Sameprocessorasthehostcomputer Onevirtualprocessoronahostsystemwithoneormorelogicalprocessors Twovirtualprocessors(twowayvirtualsymmetricmultiprocessingor Virtual SMP)onahostsystemwithatleasttwologicalprocessors Thefollowingareallconsideredtohavetwologicalprocessors: AmultiprocessorhostwithtwoormorephysicalCPUs AsingleprocessorhostwithamulticoreCPU Asingleprocessorhostwithhyperthreadingenabled SeeUsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetricMultiprocessingonpage 270.

Chip Set
Intel440BXbasedmotherboard NS338SIO 82093AAIOAPIC

BIOS
PhoenixBIOS4.0Release6withVESABIOS

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Memory
Upto8GB,dependingonhostmemory,virtualmachinehardwareversion,and guestoperatingsystemsupport. Totalmemoryavailableforallvirtualmachinesislimitedonlybytheamountof memoryonthehostcomputer.

Graphics
VGA SVGA

IDE Drives
Uptofourdevices.AnyofthesedevicescanbeavirtualharddiskorCD/DVD drive. IDEvirtualdisksupto950GB. CD/DVDdrivecanbeaphysicaldeviceonthehostorclientsystem,oranISO imagefile.

SCSI Devices
Upto60devices.AnyofthesedevicescanbeavirtualharddiskorCD/DVDdrive. SCSIvirtualdisksupto950GB. LSILogicLSI53C10xxUltra320SCSII/Ocontroller.ForWindowsXPguest systems,thisrequiresanaddondriverfromtheLSILogicWebsite.Formore information,seetheVMwareGuestOperatingSystemInstallationGuideat http://pubs.vmware.com/guestnotes/. Mylex(BusLogic)BT958compatiblehostbusadapter.ForWindowsXPand WindowsServer2003guestsystems,thisrequiresanaddondriverfromthe VMwareWebsite.Formoreinformation,seetheVMwareGuestOperatingSystem InstallationGuideathttp://pubs.vmware.com/guestnotes/.

PCI Slots
SixvirtualPCIslotscanbedividedamongthevirtualSCSIcontrollers,virtualEthernet cards,virtualdisplayadapter,andvirtualsoundadapter.

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Floppy Drives
Uptotwo1.44MBfloppydevices Physicaldrivesorfloppyimagefiles

Serial (COM) Ports


Uptofourserial(COM)ports Outputtoserialports,hostoperatingsystemfiles,ornamedpipes

Parallel (LPT) Ports


Uptothreebidirectionalparallel(LPT)ports Outputtoparallelportsorhostoperatingsystemfiles

USB Ports
USB2.0supportisavailableonlyforVMwareproductsthatsupportvirtual machinehardwareversions6and7,suchasVMwareServer2andWorkstation6. ForUSB2.0support,yourhostmachinemustsupportUSB2.0. Supportsmostdevices,includingUSBprinters,scanners,PDAs,harddiskdrives, memorycardreadersanddigitalcameras,aswellasstreamingdevicessuchas webcams,speakers,andmicrophones.

Keyboard
104keyWindows95/98enhanced

Mouse and Drawing Tablets


PS/2mouse Serialtablets USBtablets

Ethernet Card
Upto10virtualEthernetcardsinhardwareversion6and7virtualmachines. AMDPCnetPCIIIcompatible. For64bitguests:IntelPro/1000MTServerAdaptercompatible.

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Virtual Networking
Supportfor10virtualnetworkswitchesonWindowshostoperatingsystems. Supportfor255virtualnetworkswitchesonLinuxhosts.Threeswitchesare configuredbydefaultforbridged,hostonly,andNATnetworking. SupportformostEthernetbasedprotocols,includingTCP/IP,Microsoft Networking,Samba,NovellNetware,andNetworkFileSystem(NFS). BuiltinNATsupportsclientsoftwareusingTCP/IP,FTP,DNS,HTTP,andTelnet, includingVPNsupportforPPTPoverNAT.

Sound
Soundoutputandinputonhostsystemonly. EmulatesCreativeLabsSoundBlasterAudioPCI.MIDIinput,gamecontrollers, andjoysticksarenotsupported,exceptforUSBdevices.

Supported Guest Operating Systems


VMwareiscontinuallyaddingsupportfornewguestoperatingsystemsandnew versionsandupdatesofcurrentlysupportedoperatingsystems.Thissectionprovides asimplifiedlistofsupportedguestoperatingsystemsforVMwareServer.Forthemost currentlistofsupportedguestoperatingsystems,includingdetailedinformationabout thespecificoperatingsystemversions,servicepacks,andupdatessupported,seethe VMwareGuestOperatingSystemInstallationGuideat http://pubs.vmware.com/guestnotes/.Thisguidealsoprovidesnotesoninstallingthe mostcommonguestoperatingsystems. OperatingsystemsthatarenotlistedarenotsupportedforuseinaVMwareServer virtualmachine.

Windows 64-Bit Operating Systems


WindowsServer2008x64StandardEditionandEnterpriseEdition WindowsVistax64BusinessEditionandUltimateEdition WindowsXPx64 WindowsServer2003x64StandardEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003x64WebEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003x64EnterpriseEdition,SP1,SP2,R2

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Windows 32-Bit Guest Operating Systems


WindowsServer2008StandardEditionandEnterpriseEdition WindowsVistaBusinessEditionandUltimateEdition WindowsXPSP2 WindowsServer2003StandardEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003WebEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsServer2003EnterpriseEdition,SP1,SP2,R2 WindowsSmallBusinessServer2003StandardEdition,R2 WindowsSmallBusinessServer2003PremiumEdition,R2 Windows2000ServerSP3,SP4 Windows2000AdvancedServerSP3,SP4

Linux 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems


MandrivaLinux2006 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.1 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.0 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxAS4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxES4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxWS4.5 SUSELinux9.0,SP1,SP2,SP3 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10SP1 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer9.0,SP1,SP2,SP3,SP4 SUSELinuxEnterpriseDesktop10,10.1,10.2 openSUSE10.2(formerlyknownasSUSELinux10.2) OpenEnterpriseServerSP1,SP2 UbuntuLinux8.04 UbuntuLinux7.10 UbuntuLinux7.04 UbuntuLinux6.10 UbuntuLinux6.06 UbuntuLinux5.10 UbuntuLinux5.04

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Linux 32-Bit Guest Operating Systems


MandrivaLinux2006 MandrakeLinux10.1 MandrakeLinux10.0 MandrakeLinux9.x RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.1 RedHatEnterpriseLinux5.0 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxAS4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxES4.5 RedHatEnterpriseLinuxWS4.5 SUSELinux9.0,9.1,9.2,9.3 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10SP1 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer10 SUSELinuxEnterpriseServer9,SP1,SP2,SP3,SP4 SUSELinuxEnterpriseDesktop10,10.1,10.2 openSUSE10.2(formerlyknownasSUSELinux10.2) OpenEnterpriseServerSP1,SP2 UbuntuLinux8.04 UbuntuLinux7.10 UbuntuLinux7.04 UbuntuLinux6.10 UbuntuLinux6.06 UbuntuLinux5.10 UbuntuLinux5.04

Sun Solaris 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems


Solarisx86PlatformEdition10,update3,update4

Sun Solaris 32-Bit Guest Operating Systems


Solarisx86PlatformEdition10,update3,update4

Novell NetWare 32-Bit Guest Operating System


NetWare6.xServer6.5SP6

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Processor Support for 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems


VMwareServersupportsvirtualmachineswith64bitguestoperatingsystemsonlyon hostmachinesthathaveIntelEM64TVTcapableorAMD64revisionDorlater processors. Whenyoupoweronavirtualmachinewitha64bitguestoperatingsystem,VMware Serverperformsaninternalcheck.IfthehostCPUisnotasupported64bitprocessor, youcannotpoweronthevirtualmachine. VMwarealsoprovidesastandaloneutilitythatyoucanusewithoutVMwareServerto performthesamecheckanddeterminewhetheryourCPUissupportedforVMware Servervirtualmachineswith64bitguestoperatingsystems.Youcandownloadthe 64bitprocessorcheckutilityfromhttp://www.vmware.com/download.

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ThischapterdescribeshowtoinstallVMwareServeronyourLinuxorWindowshost systemandcoversthefollowingtopics: InstallationPrerequisitesonpage 35 InstallingVMwareServeronaWindowsHostonpage 37 UninstallingVMwareServeronaWindowsHostonpage 41 InstallingVMwareServeronaLinuxHostonpage 41 ConfiguringVMwareServeronLinuxHostsUsingvmwareconfig.plon page 43 UninstallingVMwareServeronaLinuxHostonpage 44 UpgradingfromVMwareServer1onpage 44 WheretoGoNextonpage 46

Installation Prerequisites
InstallingVMwareServerisusuallyasimpleprocessofrunningastandardinstallation wizard.Thissectionoutlinesthetasksyouneedtoperformbeforestartingan installationandwhichVMwareproductscanbeinstalledonthesamecomputeras VMwareServer.

Preparing to Install VMware Server


Beforeyoubegininstallation,besureyouhave: CompatiblehostVerifythatthecomputerandhostoperatingsystemmeetthe systemrequirementsforrunningVMwareServer,asdescribedinHostSystem Requirementsonpage 23.

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VMwareServerinstallationsoftwareVMwareServerisavailableforboth WindowsandLinuxhostcomputers. InthepackageddistributionofVMwareServer,theinstallationsoftwarefilesfor bothhostplatformsareincludedonthesameCD. Intheelectronicdistribution,theinstallationsoftwareisinthefileyou downloaded. VMwareServerserialnumberYourserialnumberisontheregistrationcardin yourpackage.IfyouobtainedVMwareServeronline,theserialnumberissentby email. YourserialnumberallowsyoutouseVMwareServeronlyonthehostoperating systemforwhichyoulicensedthesoftware.Forexample,ifyouhaveaserial numberforaWindowshost,youcannotrunthesoftwareonaLinuxhost.Make surethatyouentertheserialnumberforthecorrectoperatingsystem. GuestoperatingsystemAfterVMwareServerisinstalled,youneedthe operatingsysteminstallationCDsorOSimagestosetupyourguestsystems.You canalsodownloadavirtualappliancefromtheVirtualApplianceMarketplaceor useabootableCDorPXEimagefile. WebbrowserTomanageVMwareServerusingVIWebAccess,useasupported Webbrowser,asdescribedinVIWebAccessandVMwareRemoteConsoleClient SystemRequirementsonpage 27.

Sharing a VMware Server Host with Other VMware Products


YoucannothaveVMwareServerinstalledonthesamehostmachinewithanother VMwareproduct,suchasVMwareWorkstation,VMware GSX Server,orVMwareESX. YoucannothavemultipleversionsofVMwareServerinstalledonthesamehost. TheonlyVMwareproductsthatcanshareahostmachinewithVMwareServerarethe VMwareVirtualCenterclient(VMwareInfrastructureClient)andserversoftwareand VMwareConverter.IfyouplantoinstallVMwareServeronahostmachinethatalready containsanotherVMwareproduct,youmustuninstallthatproductfirst. NOTEYoucannotcurrentlymanageVMwareServer2.0usingVirtualCenter. OnaWindowshost,uninstallusingAdd/RemoveProgramsintheControlPanel.The uninstalleraskswhetheryouwanttokeeplicensesinyourregistry.Donotremovethe licenses.IfyoureinstalltheVMwareproductthatyouuninstalled,youdonotneedto entertheserialnumberagain.

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OnaLinuxhost,seeyourproductmanualforthecommandsneededtouninstallthe product.Thelicenseremainsinplace.Youdonotneedtotakeanyspecialaction. Afteryouhavecompletedtheprerequisitesanddeterminedwhichcomputeryouwant touseforhostingVMwareServer,followtheproceduretoinstallVMwareServeron yourhostsystem.

Installing VMware Server on a Windows Host


Beforeyouperformtheinstallationprocedure,makesurethatyouhavetheVMware Serverserialnumberready.Althoughyoucanenterthenumberafterinstallation,itis recommendedthatyouenteritatinstallationtime.Entertheserialnumberthatis appropriateforyourhostoperatingsystem. ThefollowingproceduredescribeshowtoruntheVMwareServerinstallationwizard. NOTEYoureceivetheserialnumbersinanemailmessagefromVMware.Themessage includesoneserialnumbertouseonaWindowshostandanotherserialnumbertouse onaLinuxhost.Entertheserialnumberthatisappropriateforyourhostoperating system.Todownloadthesoftwareagainorrequestadditionalserialnumbers,goto http://www.vmware.com/download/server/.

Ifyouwanttousethecommandlineinterfacetoperformasilentinstallationonmany computers,seeInstallingVMwareServerSilentlyonpage 39. To install VMware Server on a Windows host 1 LoginastheAdministratoruserorasauserwhoisamemberoftheWindows Administratorsgroup. Loginasalocaladministrator(thatis,donotlogintothedomain,unlessyour domainaccountisalsoalocaladministrator). AlthoughanadministratormustinstallVMwareServer,auserwithout administrativeprivilegescanuseVMwareServer. 2 FromtheStartmenu,selectRun,andspecifythepathtotheinstallerfile: IfyouareinstallingfromaCD,enterD:\setup.exe,whereD:isCD/DVD drive. Ifyouareinstallingfromadownloadedfile,browsetothedirectorywhere yousavedthefile,andruntheinstaller.(Thefilenameissimilarto VMware-server-<xxxx-xxxx>.exe,where<xxxx-xxxx>isaseriesof numbersrepresentingtheversionandbuildnumbers.)

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NOTEIfyouhaveanearlierversionofVMwareServerinstalledonyoursystem, theinstallerremovesthatversionbeforeinstallingthenewversion.Afterthe uninstallationiscomplete,youmightbepromptedtorestartyourcomputerbefore theinstallercaninstallthenewversion. 3 4 5 Whenthewizardfinishescomputingspacerequirements,clickNexttoclosethe Welcomepage. OntheLicenseAgreementpage,readandacceptthelicenseagreementtocontinue theinstallation. OntheDestinationFolderpage,ifyoudonotwantVMwareServerinstalledinthe directorythatisshown,clickChangeandspecifyanalternateinstallation directory. WindowsandtheMicrosoftInstallerlimitthelengthofapathtoadirectoryona localdriveto255characters.Forapathtoadirectoryonamappedorshareddrive, thelimitis240characters.Ifthepathexceedsthislimit,anerrormessageappears, andyoumustselectorenterashorterpath. Ifyouspecifyadirectorythatdoesnotexist,theinstallercreatesitforyou. YoucannotinstallVMwareServeronanetworkdrive. 6 7 ClickNext. OntheServerConfigurationInformationpage,ifyoudonotwantvirtualmachine filesstoredinthedirectorythatisshown,clickChangeandspecifyanalternate virtualmachinedirectory. Ifyouspecifyadirectorythatdoesnotexist,theinstallercreatesitforyou. 8 AlsoontheServerConfigurationInformationpage,acceptorchangethedefault valuesforFQDN,ServerHTTPPort,andServerHTTPSPort. Thefullyqualifieddomainname(FQDN)includesthehostnameandthedomain name.Forexample,intheFQDNmyserverhost.companydomain.com, myserverhostisthehostname,andcompanydomain.comisthedomain.The FQDNisusedtocreatethedesktopshortcutthatopensVI WebAccess. IfyoudonotsetServerHTTPPortto80,youmustincludetheportnumberyou specifyhereintheVIWebAccessconnectionURL,forexample:
http://<host name>:8222

Whenyouconnectremotely,youareautomaticallyredirectedtothesecureHTTP (HTTPS)port.

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AlsoontheServerConfigurationInformationpage,selectAllowvirtualmachines tostartandstopautomaticallywiththesystemifyouwanttoconfigurevirtual machinestostartupandshutdownautomaticallywhenthehostoperatingsystem startsandshutsdown.Formoreinformation,seeConfiguringVirtualMachine StartupandShutdownSettingsonpage 109. ClickNext. OntheConfigureShortcutspage,deselectanyshortcutsyoudonotwantthe installertocreate. OntheReadytoInstalltheProgrampage,clickInstallorclickBacktomake changes. (Optional)AfteryouclickInstall,ontheRegistrationInformationpage,enteryour name,companyname,andserialnumberandclickNext.Ifyouskipthisstep,you mustenteryourserialnumberlaterinVIWebAccess,beforeyoucanpowerona virtualmachine. Yourserialnumberiseitherontheregistrationcardinyourpackageorinanemail ifyouobtainedVMwareServeronline.

10 11 12 13

14

WhenthewizarddisplaystheInstallationWizardCompletedpage,clickFinish. Someinstallationsmightrequirethatyourebootyourcomputer.Whenyourestart, youdontneedtologinasauserwithAdministratorprivileges.

Installing VMware Server Silently


IfyouareinstallingVMwareServeronseveralWindowshostcomputers,youmight wanttousethesilentinstallationfeatureoftheMicrosoftWindowsInstaller.This featurecanbeconvenientinalargeenterprise. BeforeinstallingVMwareServersilently,makesurethatthehostcomputerhasversion 2.0orhigheroftheMSIruntimeengine,whichisavailableinWindowsbeginningwith WindowsXPandseparatelyfromMicrosoft.Foradditionaldetailsonusingthe MicrosoftWindowsInstaller,seetheMicrosoftWebsite. To install VMware Server silently 1 ExtracttheadministrativeinstallationimagefromtheVMwareServerinstaller:
setup.exe /a /s /v TARGETDIR="C:\temp\server" /qn

Inthisexample,setup.exeisthenameoftheinstallerontheCDdistribution.The targetdirectoryisthefullpathtothefolderwhereyouwanttostorethe administrativeinstallationimage.

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Ifyouareusingadownloadedinstaller,thefilenameissimilarto VMware-server-<xxxxx>.exe,where<xxxxx>isaseriesofnumbers representingtheversionandbuildnumbers.Foradownloadedinstaller,an examplecommandis:


VMware-server-<xxxx>.exe /a /s /v TARGETDIR="C:\temp\server" /qn

Runtheinstallationusingmsiexecandtheinstallationimagethatyouextracted inthepreviousstep.Enterthecommandononeline.
msiexec /i "<InstallTempPath>\VMware Server.msi" [INSTALLDIR="<PathToProgramDirectory>"] ADDLOCAL=ALL [REMOVE=<featurename,featurename>] /qn

ToinstallVMwareServerinalocationotherthanthedefault,changethe INSTALLDIRpath. UsetheoptionalREMOVEsettingtoskipinstallationofcertainfeatures.TheREMOVE settingcantakeoneormoreofthevalueslistedinTable 21. Table 2-1. Values for the REMOVE Setting
Value Network Description Networkingcomponentsincludingthevirtualbridgeandthehostadapters forhostonlyandNATnetworking.Donotremovethiscomponentifyou wanttouseNATorDHCP. VirtualDHCPserver. VirtualNATdevice.

DHCP NAT

Ifyouspecifymorethanonevalue,useacommatoseparatethevalues,for example,REMOVE=DHCP,NAT.IfyouspecifyREMOVE=Network,youdonotneedto specifyDHCPorNATseparately. Youcancustomizetheinstallationfurtherbyaddinganyofthefollowing installationpropertiestothecommandusingtheformat<property>="<value>". Avalueof1meanstrue.Avalueof0meansfalse.Ifyouusetheserialnumber property,entertheserialnumberwithhyphens(xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx).

Table 2-2. PROPERTY Values


Property DESKTOP_SHORTCUT DISABLE_AUTORUN Effect of the Property Installsashortcutonthedesktop. DisablesCDautorunonthehost. Default 1 1

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Table 2-2. PROPERTY Values


Property REMOVE_LICENSE SERIALNUMBER Effect of the Property (Uninstallonly)Removesallstoredlicensesat uninstall. Enterstheserialnumber. Default 0

Checktheinstallationlogfiletoverifythattheinstallationcompletedsuccessfully. Thelogfileindicateswhetheryouneedtorebootthehostsystemorifanyerrors occurred.Thefileislocatedintheadministratoruserstemporarydirectory,inthe format:


vminst.log_<date_and_time_stamp>_<Success_or_Failed>.log

Uninstalling VMware Server on a Windows Host


TouninstallVMwareServer,usetheAdd/RemoveProgramscontrolpanel.Select VMwareServerandclickRemove.Followtheonscreeninstructions.

Installing VMware Server on a Linux Host


Beforeyoubegin,readthefollowingnotesandmakeadjustmentstoyourhostsystem: TherealtimeclockfunctionmustbecompiledinyourLinuxkernel. TheparallelportPCstylehardwareoption(CONFIG_PARPORT_PC)mustbe builtandloadedasakernelmodule(thatis,itmustbesettomwhenthekernelis compiled). To install VMware Server on a Linux host using a tar installation file 1 2 LoginwiththeusernameyouplantousewhenrunningVMwareServer. Inaterminalwindow,usethecommandtobecomeroot,forexample:
su -

OnUbuntuhosts,usethecommand:
sudo -s -H

Ifyouhaveaprevioustarinstallation,deletethevmware-server-distrib directorybeforeinstallingfromatarfileagain. Thelocationofthisdirectoryisusually/tmp/vmware-server-distrib.

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IfyouareinstallingfromaCDinsteadofadownloadedfile: a b MounttheCDandchangetotheLinuxdirectory. Copythetararchivetoatemporarydirectoryonyourharddrive:


cp VMware-server-<xxxx>.tar.gz /tmp

Inplaceof<xxxx>thefilenamecontainsnumbersthatcorrespondtothe versionandbuild. 5 Changetothetemporarydirectorywhereyoucopiedorsavedtheinstallationfile:


cd /tmp

Unpackthearchive:
tar zxpf VMware-server-<xxxx>.tar.gz

Changetotheinstallationdirectory:
cd vmware-server-distrib

Runtheinstallationscript:
./vmware-install.pl

Respondtothepromptsforthedirectorylocationsforbinaryfiles,initialization scripts,daemonfiles,libraryfiles,manualfiles,anddocumentationfiles. Inmostcases,thedefaultresponseisappropriate.

10 11

EnterYeswhenpromptedtorunvmware-config.pl. Respondtotheprompts,asdescribedinConfiguringVMwareServeronLinux HostsUsingvmwareconfig.plonpage 43.

To install on a Linux host using the RPM installation file 1 2 LoginwiththeusernameyouplantousewhenrunningVMwareServer. Inaterminalwindow,usethecommandtobecomeroot,forexample:
su -

3 4

Ifyouareinstallingfromtheinstallationmediainsteadofadownloadedfile, mounttheinstallationmediaandchangetotheLinuxdirectory. RunRPMspecifyingtheinstallationfile:


rpm -Uhv VMware-server-<xxxx>.rpm

Inplaceof<xxxx>thefilenamecontainsnumbersthatcorrespondtotheversion andbuild.

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Runtheconfigurationscript:
./vmware-config.pl

Respondtotheprompts,asdescribedinConfiguringVMwareServeronLinux HostsUsingvmwareconfig.plonpage 43.

Configuring VMware Server on Linux Hosts Using vmware-config.pl


Thissectiondescribeshowtousevmware-config.pltoconfigureyourinstallationof VMwareServer. Configurationwithvmware-config.plisrequiredinthefollowingcircumstances: WhenyouinstallVMwareServerthefirsttime. WhenyouupgradeyourversionofVMwareServer. Whenyouupgradeyourhostoperatingsystemkernel.(Itisnotnecessaryto reinstallVMwareServerafteryouupgradeyourkernel.) ToreconfigurethenetworkingoptionsforVMwareServerforexample,toaddor removeavirtualnetwork. NOTEIfyouruntheRPMinstaller,youneedtorunthisprogramseparatelyfromthe commandline.Ifyouinstallfromthetararchive,theinstallerofferstolaunchthe configurationprogramforyou.AnswerYeswhenyouseetheprompt. Ifyouhavenotalreadydoneso,openaterminalwindowandbecomerootbefore performingthefollowingprocedure. To configure VMware Server using vmware-config.pl 1 Ifvmware-config.plisnotstartedbytheinstallationscript,enterthefollowing commandtorunthescript:
vmware-config.pl

vmware-config.plislocatedin/usr/bin.Ifthisisnotinyourdefaultpath,enter thefollowingcommandtorunthescript:
/usr/bin/vmware-config.pl

Respondtotheprompts.Inmostcases,thedefaultresponseisappropriate.

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Thefollowingportsareusedbydefault:port902fortheVMwareAuthorization Service,port8222forhttpconnections,andport8333forsecurehttp(https) connections.Changetheportnumberwhenpromptedifyoudonotwanttouse thedefaultvalue. Ifyoudonotspecifyport80forhttpconnections,youmustentertheportnumber whenyouconnecttoVMwareServerusingVI WebAccess.SeeLoggingInto VMwareServerUsingVIWebAccessonpage 47. Iftheconfigurationprogramdoesnotdisplayamessagesayingtheconfiguration completedsuccessfully,runtheconfigurationprogramagain. 3 Whendone,exitfromtherootaccount:
exit

Uninstalling VMware Server on a Linux Host


ThissectionprovidesinstructionsforuninstallingatarinstallationandanRPM installation.

Uninstalling a tar Installation of VMware Server


IfyouusedthetarinstallertoinstallVMwareServer,removethesoftwarefromyour systemusingthefollowingcommand:
vmware-uninstall.pl

Uninstalling an RPM Installation of VMware Server


IfyouusedtheRPMinstallertoinstallVMwareServer,removethesoftwarefromyour systemusingthefollowingcommand:
rpm -e VMware-server-<xxxx>

Inplaceof<xxxx>thefilenamecontainsnumbersthatcorrespondtotheversionand build.IfyouhaveVMwareServerproperlyinstalled,youcanfindtheVMwareServer buildnumberbyrunning:


rpm -qa | grep VM

Upgrading from VMware Server 1


RuntheVMwareServer2installerforyourhosttoupgradetoVMwareServer2from VMwareServer1.Theinstallerautomaticallyuninstallsthepreviousversionofthe software,exceptfortarinstallations,whichrequireyoutouninstalltheprevious versionofVMwareServermanually.
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However,therearesomefeaturedifferencesbetweentheseproductversions: VI WebAccessandVMwareRemoteConsolereplacetheVMwareManagement InterfaceandVMwareServerConsole.SeeChapter 3,LearningVMwareServer Basics:UsingVIWebAccess,onpage 47. VMwareServer2doesnotsupportphysical(raw)disks. VMwareServer2usesdatastorestomanagevirtualmachinelocations.Adatastore isastoragelocationforVMwareServervirtualmachinefiles.Thestoragelocation canbethelocalfilesystem,aCIFSstore(Windowsonly),oranNFSmountedfile system(Linuxonly). VirtualmachinesthatwereregisteredinVMwareServer1areautomatically registeredinVMwareServer2.However,thelocationsforexistingvirtual machinesarenotautomaticallyaddedasdatastores.Itisrecommendedthatyou addthemmanually.SeeManagingDatastoresonpage 103. VMwareServer2createshardwareversion7virtualmachinesbydefault.Ifyou wanttouseallfeaturesofVMwareServer2,itisrecommendedthatyouupgrade virtualmachinestohardwareversion7. Youcanimporthardwareversion3andabovevirtualmachines.However,theonly tasksVIWebAccesscanperformonhardwareversion3virtualmachinesare poweroperationsandupgrade.Toupgradethehardwareversionofoldervirtual machines,seeUpgradingtheVirtualMachineVersiononpage 69. VMwareServer2usesadifferentpermissionsmodelfromVMwareServer1.After youinstallVMwareServer2,loginasanadministratorusertocreateandmanage permissionsfornonadministratorusers.SeeChapter 10,ManagingRolesand Permissions,onpage 193. VMwareServer2automaticallynamesbothdefaultandcustomvirtualnetworks. TheNetworkssectionoftheVIWebAccesshostSummarytabshowsthename, virtualnetwork(VMnet),andnetworktypeofeachvirtualnetwork.Ifyou customizevirtualnetworkingafterinstallation,youmustrefreshthenetwork,as describedinChangingtheNetworkingConfigurationonpage 215. ForupgradesfromVMwareServer1,ifyoubridged(mapped)virtualnetworksto specificphysicalorvirtualadapters,writedownthesettingsyouused. AlthoughVMwareServer2generallypreservesnetworksettingsduringthe upgrade,itcannotpreservebridgesettingscreatedwithVMwareServer1.

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Where to Go Next
AfteryouhaveinstalledtheVMwareServersoftwareontheserver,typicalnextsteps include: 1 2 Createavirtualmachine.SeeChapter 4,CreatingandUpgradingVirtual Machines,onpage 57. Installaguestoperatingsystem.Youneedtheinstallationmediaforyourguest operatingsystem.SeeInstallingaGuestOperatingSystemonpage 66andthe VMwareGuestOperatingSystemInstallationGuide. InstalltheVMwareToolspackageinyourguestoperatingsystemforenhanced performanceandfeatures.SeeInstallingVMwareToolsonpage 73. Createadditionaldatastoresandaddexistingvirtualmachinestoyourinventory. SeeChapter 6,ManagingVMwareServer,onpage 101. Startusingthevirtualmachines.SeeRunningVirtualMachinesonpage 115.

3 4 5

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Learning VMware Server Basics: Using VI Web Access

ThischapterdescribeshowtoconnecttoVMwareServerandintroducestheVI Web Accessmanagementinterface.VI WebAccessprovidesasimpleandflexibletoolfor virtualmachinemanagement.Thischaptercontainsthefollowingsections: LoggingIntoVMwareServerUsingVIWebAccessonpage 47 OverviewofVIWebAccessonpage 48 UsingtheVMwareServerHostWorkspaceonpage 49 UsingtheVirtualMachineWorkspaceonpage 50 UsingVIWebAccessMenuOptionsonpage 53 LoggingOutonpage 56 Typically,yournextstepafterfamiliarizingyourselfwithVI WebAccessistocreatea virtualmachine.Theinformationandstepsyouneedtocreateavirtualmachineare describedinChapter 4,CreatingandUpgradingVirtualMachines,onpage 57.

Logging In to VMware Server Using VI Web Access


AnyuserthathasauthorizationonthehostmachinecanlogintoVI WebAccess. To log in to VI Web Access 1 2 LaunchyourWebbrowser. EntertheURLofyourVMwareServerinstallation:
http://<host_name>/

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Ifyouarenotusingport80toconnecttoVMwareServer,youmustincludetheport numberyouspecifiedduringinstallationintheconnectionURL,forexample:
http://<host_name>:8222

Whenyouconnectremotely,youareautomaticallyredirectedtothesecurehttp (https)port. TheVI WebAccessloginpageappears. NOTEIfthespecifiedURLdoesnotwork,usethecorrecthostname,IPaddress, orlocalhost,asappropriate,intheconnectionURL.Youcanalsomanuallyenter theshortnameandtheFQDN,orlocalhost,inthe/etc/hostsfile. 3 Entertheusernameandpasswordyouusetologintothehost,andclickLog In. Afteryourusernameandpasswordareauthorized,themainapplicationpage appears. Rolesassignedtousersdeterminewhatuserscanseeandtheactionstheycanperform inVIWebAccess.SeeChapter 10,ManagingRolesandPermissions,onpage 193.

Overview of VI Web Access


TheVI WebAccesspageisdividedintofourmainsections: InventorypanelAppearingontheleft,thisareadisplaysthevirtualmachine inventory. ClickthehosttoviewsummaryinformationaboutVMwareServerinthe workspace. Clickavirtualmachinetoviewsummaryinformationaboutthevirtual machineintheworkspace. WorkspaceAppearingontheright,thisisthemainpartofthewindow. WhenthehostisselectedintheInventorypanel,theworkspaceincludesthe Summary,VirtualMachines,Tasks,Events,andPermissionstabs.Thesetabs containdetailedinformationabouttheVMwareServerhostandallowyouto configurehostwidesettings.SeeUsingtheVMwareServerHost Workspaceonpage 49. WhenavirtualmachineisselectedintheInventorypanel,theworkspace includestheSummary,Console,Tasks,Events,andPermissionstabs.These tabscontaindetailedinformationaboutvariousaspectsofthevirtualmachine andallowyoutoconfigurethem.SeeUsingtheVirtualMachineWorkspace onpage 50.
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MenubarThemenusabovetheInventorypanelprovideaccesstocommon applicationandvirtualmachineoperations,includingpoweroperationsand snapshotandconsolecommands.SeeUsingVIWebAccessMenuOptionson page 53. ToolbarAppearingalongthetopofthepage,thesebuttonsallowyoutoacton theselectedvirtualmachine,offeringoneclickaccesstopoweroperations.See ChangingthePowerStateofaVirtualMachineonpage 116. TaskareaAppearingalongthebottomofthepage,thisareadisplaystasks recentlyexecutedbyVMwareServer,includinghostlevelconfigurationchanges. Youcansorttasksbyclickingthecolumnheaders.Bydefault,tasksappearin reversechronologicalorder(mostrecenttasksfirst).Youcandoubleclickataskto getmoredetailedinformation.

Using the VMware Server Host Workspace


WhenthehostisselectedintheInventorypanel,theworkspacedisplaysinformation abouttheVMwareServerinstallation,dividedintotabs: SummaryTheGeneralsectiondisplaysthehostsystemsmanufacturer,name, model,processortypeandutilization,andmemorycapacityandutilization.The Datastoressectionshowsthename,capacity,freespace,andlocationofeach datastore.TheNetworkssectionshowsthename,virtualnetwork(VMnet),and networktypeofeachvirtualnetwork. Fromthistab,youcanmanageyourvirtualmachineinventory,add,rename,or removedatastores,createvirtualmachines,andconfigureglobalmemory, snapshot,andvirtualmachinestartupandshutdownsettings.Forinformation abouthowtoperformtheseandotherhostwidemanagementtasks,seeChapter 6, ManagingVMwareServer,onpage 101. TasksDisplaystasksthatareperformedbyusersintheVMwareServerhost. SeeViewingVMwareServerandVirtualMachineTasksonpage 55. EventsDisplayseventsthatoccurredintheVMwareServerhost.SeeViewing VMwareServerandVirtualMachineEventsonpage 56. VirtualMachinesDisplayshighlevelinformationabouttheallthevirtual machinesintheinventory,includingprocessorandmemoryutilizationwhenthe virtualmachineispoweredon.Fromthistab,youcancreateavirtualmachine, addavirtualmachinetotheinventory,anddeleteorperformpoweroperationson aselectedvirtualmachine.SeeAddingaVirtualMachinetotheInventoryon page 102andPerformingPowerOperationsonVirtualMachinesonpage 103

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PermissionsDisplaysandallowsyoutoconfigurepermissionsforthehost.See Chapter 10,ManagingRolesandPermissions,onpage 193.

Using the Virtual Machine Workspace


WhenavirtualmachineisselectedintheInventorypanel,theworkspacedisplays informationaboutthevirtualmachine,dividedintotabs: SummaryDisplaysperformanceandstatusinformation.Youcanviewa summaryofthevirtualmachinesstate,includinginformationaboutvirtual devicesandconfigurationoptions.Fromthistab,youcanmodifytheselected virtualmachineshardwareandperformothervirtualmachinemanagementtasks. SeeChapter 7,RunningVirtualMachines,onpage 115. TasksDisplaystasksthatusersperforminthevirtualmachine.SeeViewing VMwareServerandVirtualMachineTasksonpage 55. EventsDisplayseventsthatoccurredinthevirtualmachine.SeeViewing VMwareServerandVirtualMachineEventsonpage 56. ConsoleAllowsyoutointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperatingsystem.See InstallingtheVMwareRemoteConsoleAddOnonpage 51andStarting VMwareRemoteConsolefromtheConsoleTabonpage 53. PermissionsDisplaysandallowsyoutoconfigurepermissionsforthevirtual machine.SeeChapter 10,ManagingRolesandPermissions,onpage 193.

Viewing Virtual Machine Summary Information


WhenyouclicktheSummarytabforavirtualmachine,VIWebAccessdisplaysa summaryoftheconfigurationinformationaboutthatvirtualmachineinthe workspace. TheSummarytabincludesthefollowingsections: ThePerformancesectiondisplaysthevirtualmachineprocessorandmemory capacityandcurrentutilization. TheNotessectiondisplays,andallowsyoutoedit,texttodescribethevirtual machine. TheHardwaresectionenablesyoutoview,edit,orremovethevirtualmachines hardware.Tochangemostsettings,youmustpoweroffthevirtualmachine.See EditingtheHardwareConfigurationofaVirtualMachineonpage 129. TheStatussectiondisplaysthefollowing:

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Thecurrentpowerstateofthevirtualmachine:whetheritispoweredon, poweredoff,orsuspended.Forinformation,seeChangingVirtualMachine PowerSettingsonpage 118. Theguestoperatingsysteminstalledinthevirtualmachine. VMwareToolsstatus,indicatingwhetherVMwareToolsisinstalledand running,andwhetheryouneedtoupgradetothelatestversion.See Chapter 5,InstallingandUsingVMwareTools,onpage 71. TheDNSnameandIPaddressofthevirtualmachine. TheCommandssectiondisplays: Poweroperationscommands. AcommandtostarttheAddHardwarewizard.SeeAddingHardwaretoa VirtualMachineonpage 130. Snapshotcommands. Acommandtoopenthevirtualmachineconfigurationdialogbox. Acommandtocreateavirtualmachineshortcutthatenablesuserstointeract directlywiththeguestoperatingsystem.SeeGeneratingandSharingVirtual MachineShortcutsonpage 127. TheRelationshipssectiondisplaysthecurrentrelationshipsofthevirtualmachine: thehostname,datastores,andnetworks.

Installing the VMware Remote Console Add-On


VMwareRemoteConsoleallowsyoutointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperating system. YoumustinstallVMwareRemoteConsoleasaWebbrowseraddonthefirsttimeyou useitwithaWebbrowserthatdoesnotalreadyhavetheaddoninstalled.Whenanew versionoftheaddonisavailable,youarepromptedtoinstallthenewversion. To install the browser add-on for VMware Remote Console 1 ClicktheConsoletab. Iftheaddonisnotinstalledoranewversionoftheaddonisavailable,thetext showninFigure 31appears.

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Figure 3-1. Console Tab When the Add-On Is Not Installed

ClickInstallplugin. IfyouareusingInternetExplorer,theFileDownloadSecurityWarningdialog boxisdisplayed. a CloseallinstancesofInternetExplorerbeforecontinuing. TheaddoncannotbeinstalledifanyInternetExplorerwindowsareopen. b c d ClickRun. TheInternetExplorerSecurityWarninginstallationdialogboxisdisplayed. ClickRun. NOTEDependingonyourInternetExplorersecuritysettings,youmightsee amessageatthetopofthebrowser:Thiswebsitewantstorunthefollowing addon. Ifyouseethismessage,clickitandallowtheaddontorun. Theaddonisinstalled.Skiptheremainingstepsofthisprocedure. IfyouareusingFirefox,amessageappearsatthetopofthebrowserindicating thatFirefoxpreventedthesitefromaskingyoutoinstallthesoftwareonyour computer. i ClickEditOptionsnexttotheFirefoxmessage. TheAllowedSitesAddonsInstallationpageappears. ii ClickAllowtoallowtheaddontobeinstalledfromtheVMwareServer hostsystem,andclickClose. YouarereturnedtotheConsoletabasshowninFigure 31. iii ClickInstallplugin. TheSoftwareInstallationpageappears. iv ClickInstallNow.

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Theaddonisinstalled. Firefoxrequiresyoutorestartyourbrowser.

Starting VMware Remote Console from the Console Tab


SelecttheConsoletabwhenyouwanttointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperating systemrunninginavirtualmachine. IftheVMwareRemoteConsoleaddonisnotinstalledintheWebbrowseroranew versionoftheaddonisavailable,youarepromptedtoinstallit,asdescribedin InstallingtheVMwareRemoteConsoleAddOnonpage 51. Whenavirtualmachineispoweredoff,suspended,orunavailable,theConsoletab displaysamessageandpossibleactions.Forexample,whenthevirtualmachineis poweredoff,thepoweronoptionisavailable. Whenthevirtualmachineispoweredon,youcanclickanywhereintheConsolescreen toopenVMwareRemoteConsole.YouseetheVMwareRemoteConsolestartupscreen forafewmomentsbeforetheguestoperatingsystembeginstorun. ForinformationaboutusingVMwareRemoteConsole,seeUsingVMwareRemote Consoleonpage 124. YoucancontinuetouseVMwareRemoteConsoleifyoucloseyourWebbrowser.

Using VI Web Access Menu Options


VIWebAccessmenusincludethefollowing: ApplicationOptionsrelevanttotheVIWebAccessapplicationinterface. VirtualMachineVirtualmachinecommands.Mostvirtualmachineoperations areenabledonlywhenavirtualmachineisselectedintheInventorypanel. Theavailablemenuoptionsaredescribedinthefollowingsections.

Application Menu
TheApplicationmenuincludesgeneralVIWebAccessoptionsforgettingversion information,browsingtheVirtualApplianceMarketplace,viewingonlinehelp,and loggingout. AboutDisplaystheVIWebAccessversionnumber,VMwareServerversion number,andVMwarecopyrightinformation. EnterSerialNumberAllowsyoutoenteranewVMwareServerserialnumber ifyourcurrentserialnumberisexpiring.
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VirtualApplianceMarketplaceOpenstheVirtualApplianceMarketplaceWeb page.Virtualappliancesareprebuilt,preconfigured,readytorunenterprise applicationspackagedwithanoperatingsysteminsideavirtualmachine. CheckforUpdatesOpenstheVMwareServerdownloadpage. HelpDisplaysonlinehelpcontents. LogOutLogsyououtofVI WebAccess.

Virtual Machine Menu


TheVirtualMachinemenuincludesoptionsformanagingthepowerstateofavirtual machineandforviewingtheconsole. Themenuincludesthefollowingcommands,whichcanalsobeperformedusingthe buttonsandothervisualelementsofthemanagementinterface: CreateVirtualMachineStartstheNewVirtualMachinewizard.SeeChapter 4, CreatingandUpgradingVirtualMachines,onpage 57. AddVirtualMachinetoInventoryAddsavirtualmachinetothehost inventory.SeeManagingtheVirtualMachineInventoryonpage 101. RemoveVirtualMachineRemovesavirtualmachinefromtheinventory,and optionallydeletesthevirtualmachinefiles.Thisoptionisenabledifthevirtual machineispoweredoff.SeeManagingtheVirtualMachineInventoryon page 101. PowerOn/ResumePowersonapoweredoffvirtualmachineorresumesa suspendedvirtualmachine. PowerOffPowersoffthevirtualmachineimmediately.Thisisthesameas pullingtheplugonaphysicalcomputer. SuspendSuspendsapoweredonvirtualmachine. SuspendGuestSuspendstheguestoperatingsystem.VMwareToolsexecutes thescriptassociatedwiththispowerstatechange,ifany. ResetResetsthevirtualmachineimmediately.Thisisthesameaspressingthe resetbuttononaphysicalcomputer. ShutDownGuestShutsdowntheguestoperatingsystem.VMwareTools executesthescriptassociatedwiththispowerstatechange,ifany. RestartGuestRestartstheguestoperatingsystemandthevirtualmachine.
VMwareToolsexecutesthescriptassociatedwiththispowerstatechange,ifany.

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TakeSnapshotTakesasnapshotofthevirtualmachine. ReverttoSnapshotRevertstoanexistingsnapshot. RemoveSnapshotRemovesanexistingsnapshot. ManageSnapshotsOpensthesnapshotmanagertodisplayinformationabout anexistingsnapshot. EnterFullScreenModeStartsVMwareRemoteConsoleinfullscreenmode. OpeninaNewWindowOpensanewVMwareRemoteConsoleinstance. FordetailedinformationaboutusingVI WebAccesstoperformvirtualmachinetasks, seeChapter 7,RunningVirtualMachines,onpage 115.

Administration Menu
TheAdministrationmenuliststheManageRolesoptionformanagingVMwareServer roles.SeeChapter 10,ManagingRolesandPermissions,onpage 193.

Viewing VMware Server and Virtual Machine Tasks


WhenyouclicktheTaskstabforthehostoravirtualmachine,VIWebAccessdisplays taskinformationforthathostorvirtualmachineintheworkspace. TheTaskstabdisplaysasortedlogofthemostrecentuserinitiatedtasks,suchasa requesttopoweronavirtualmachineortochangeavirtualmachineorhostsetting. Youcansorttasksbyclickingthecolumnheaders.Bydefault,tasksappearinreverse chronologicalorder. TheTaskstabfieldsaredescribedinthefollowingtable.
Field Triggered Status Object Name TriggeredBy Description Dateandtimetheeventoccurred. Indicatestaskssuccessorfailure. Theobjectonwhichthetaskwasperformed. Thenameofthetask,suchasPower on this Virtual Machine. Entitythattriggeredtheevent,suchasAdministrator.

SelectataskandclickViewDetailstoseeadditionalinformation.Theadditionalfields aredescribedinthefollowingtable.

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Field TaskID Target Triggeredat Completedat

Description Theidentifierforthetypeoftask. Thehostorvirtualmachinename. Thetimethatthetaskwasrequested. Thetimethatthetaskwascompleted.

Viewing VMware Server and Virtual Machine Events


WhenyouclicktheEventstabforthehostoravirtualmachine,VIWebAccessdisplays eventinformationforthathostorvirtualmachineintheworkspace. TheEventstabdisplaysasortedlogofthemostrecenthostorvirtualmachine transactions,suchasaddinganewrole,andothereventslikepoweroperations. Youcansorteventsbyclickingthecolumnheaders.Bydefault,eventsappearinreverse chronologicalorder. TheEventstabfieldsaredescribedinthefollowingtable.
Field Triggered Severity Description Description Dateandtimetheeventoccurred. Indicatesthewarninglevel,suchasInformationorAlert. Textexplanationoftheevent.

SelectaneventandclickViewDetailstoseeadditionalinformation.Theadditional fieldsaredescribedinthefollowingtable.
Field Object TriggeredBy Type Message Description Theobjectonwhichthetaskwasperformed. Entitythattriggeredtheevent. Typeofeventthatoccurred. Textexplanationofaction.

Logging Out
YoucanlogoutofVIWebAccessbyclickingLogOutintheupperrightcornerofany page.

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Creating and Upgrading Virtual Machines

Thischapterdescribeshowtocreateanewvirtualmachineandcoversthefollowing topics: SettingUpaNewVirtualMachineonpage 57 InstallingaGuestOperatingSystemonpage 66 UpdatingtheGuestOperatingSystemonpage 68 UpgradingtheVirtualMachineVersiononpage 69

Setting Up a New Virtual Machine


TheNewVirtualMachinewizardguidesyouthroughthekeystepstocreateanew virtualmachinefromscratch.Youcanlatermakechangestoyourvirtualmachinesetup fromtheHardwareandCommandssectionsoftheVIWebAccessvirtualmachine workspace.

Before You Begin


AsyoucompletetheNewVirtualMachinewizard,youarepromptedtomake decisionsaboutmanyaspectsofthevirtualmachine.Thissectionprovidesinformation tohelpyoudeterminewhichchoicesyouwanttomakebeforerunningthewizard.

Virtual Machine Location


Thefilesthatmakeupavirtualmachinearecreatedinadatastore.

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AdefaultdatastorecalledstandardiscreatedwhenyouinstallVMwareServer,but youcanspecifyanyexistingdatastore.Toaddanewdatastore,seeAdding Datastoresonpage 104. Thefollowingexamplesshowthedefaultlocationforvirtualmachinefilesinthe standarddatastore. Windowshosts:ThedefaultlocationofavirtualmachinecalledMy Windows XP Professionalis:


<installdrive>:\Virtual Machines\My Windows XP Professional

Linuxhosts:ThedefaultlocationofavirtualmachinecalledMy Windows XP Professionalis:


/var/lib/vmware/Virtual Machines/My Windows XP Professional

Virtualmachineperformancemightbeslowerifyourdatastoreisonanetworkdrive. Forbestperformance,useadatastoreonalocaldrive.However,ifotherusersneedto accessthevirtualmachine,considerplacingthevirtualmachinefilesinalocationthat isaccessibletothem.

Guest Operating System


Thewizardpromptsyoutospecifywhichtypeofoperatingsystemyouwanttoinstall inthevirtualmachine.ExamplesincludeWindows2000Professional,RedHat EnterpriseLinux 5(32bit),andUbuntuLinux(64bit).VMwareServerusesthis informationto: Selectappropriatedefaultvalues,suchastheamountofmemoryneeded Namefilesassociatedwiththevirtualmachine Adjustsettingsforoptimalperformance Workaroundspecialbehaviorsandknownissueswithinaguestoperatingsystem Donotinstalla64bitoperatingsystemifyouselecta32bitguestoperatingsystem typehere. Iftheoperatingsystemyouwanttouseisnotlisted,selectOtherandselecta32bitor 64bitsystem. NOTEVMwareServersupports64bitguestoperatingsystemsonlyonhostmachines withsupportedprocessors.

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Creating and Upgrading Virtual Machines

Product Compatibility (Virtual Machine Hardware Version)


IntheProductCompatibilitysectionoftheGuestOperatingSystempage,virtual machinehardwareversion7isselectedbydefault.Ahardwareversion7virtual machinecanusenewVMwareServer2features,including: 8GBmemorymaximumpervirtualmachine,insteadof3.6GB Tenvirtualnetworkadaptermaximum,insteadofthree VMIparavirtualizationsupportoncertainLinuxguests,configuredasdescribed inChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121 IfyoumigrateavirtualmachinewiththenewfeaturestoWorkstation6.x,allthelatest VMwareServer2featuresaresupported.However,youcannotmigratethevirtual machinetomostotherVMwareproducts. Ifyouselecthardwareversion4,thevirtualmachineiscompatiblewithothercurrent VMwareproducts,includingWorkstation5and6,ESX3,andVMwareServer1and2. Formoreinformation,seetheVirtualMachineMobilityPlanningGuide.

Amount of Memory
OntheMemoryandProcessorspage,thememorysizeissettotheRecommendedSize bydefault.Therecommendedvalueisbasedontheselectedguestoperatingsystem andtheamountofmemoryinthehostcomputer. ClickRecommendedMaximumforbestperformance.Optimalmemorysizeis determinedbyanumberoffactors,describedinAllocatingMemorytoaVirtual Machineonpage 268. ClickRecommendedMinimumtominimizethehostmemoryresourcesallocatedto thisvirtualmachine. NOTEDonotenteravaluelowerthantherecommendedminimum.Thiscould preventtheguestoperatingsystemfromrunning. Themaximumamountofmemorypervirtualmachineis8GBforahardwareversion6 or7virtualmachine.Thetotalamountofmemoryyoucanassigntoallvirtual machinesrunningonasinglehostislimitedonlybytheamountofmemoryonthehost system.

Number of Processors
Settingthevirtualmachinetohavemultipleprocessorsissupportedonlyforhost machineswithatleasttwologicalprocessors.

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Thefollowingareallconsideredtohavemultiplelogicalprocessors: Asingleprocessorhostwithhyperthreadingenabled AsingleprocessorhostwithamulticoreCPU AmultiprocessorhostwithtwoormoreCPUs,regardlessofwhethertheyare multicoreorhavehyperthreadingenabled ForinformationaboutVMwareServersupportforvirtualSymmetricMultiprocessing (SMP),seeUsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetricMultiprocessingonpage 270.

Hard Disk Type and Properties


OntheHardDiskpage,CreateaNewVirtualDiskisselectedbydefault.Whenyou createanewvirtualdisk,thewizarddisplaysthePropertiespage,fromwhichyoucan acceptorchangethedefaultvaluesfordiskcapacity,datastorelocation,fileallocation options,diskmode,virtualdevicenode,andcachingpolicysettings.Anewvirtualdisk iscreatedandusedforthevirtualmachinebasedonthesesettings,describedlaterin thissection. Ifyouwanttoreuseorshareanexistingvirtualdisk,clickUseanExistingVirtual Disk.ThewizarddisplaysthePropertiespage,fromwhichyoucanbrowsetoavirtual disk(.vmdk)fileyoucreatedpreviously.Afteryouselecttheexistingdiskfileusingthe datastorebrowser,itscurrentpropertiesaredisplayed.Youcanmodifythediskmode, virtualdevicenode,andcachingpolicysettings. Ifyoudonotneedtocreateavirtualdisk(forexample,ifyouplantouseabootableCD orPXEimagefile),selectDontAddaHardDisk. Hard Disk Capacity Setting (New Disk Only) Whencreatinganewvirtualdisk,specifyamaximumdisksizeinMBorGB.Setthe maximumsizetoavaluebetween1MBand950GB. Hard Disk File Options Settings (New Disk Only) Whencreatinganewvirtualdisk,youcanspecifywhetherspaceforthediskfilesis allocatedasneeded(calledagrowabledisk)orallocatedallatoncewhenthediskis created(calledapreallocateddisk). Bydefault,agrowablediskiscreated.Thediskfilesuselessdiskspaceinitiallyand growtotheirmaximumsizeonlyasadditionalspaceisneeded.However,ittakes longertowritedatatogrowabledisks. IfyouselectAllocatealldiskspacenow,alldiskspaceispreallocatedatthetimethe diskiscreated.Thisprovidesbetterperformanceforyourvirtualmachine.However, youcannotshrinkthedisklater.
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Creating and Upgrading Virtual Machines

NOTEPreallocatingdiskspaceisatimeconsumingoperationthatcannotbecanceled andrequiresasmuchphysicaldiskspaceasyouspecifyforthevirtualdisk. YouarealsogiventheoptionSplitdiskinto2GBfiles.Selectthisoptionifyourvirtual diskisstoredonafilesystemthatdoesnotsupportfileslargerthan2GB. Virtual Device Disk Mode Settings SelectwhetherornottorunthediskinIndependentMode.DisksinIndependent Modearenotaffectedbysnapshots. IfyouselectIndependentMode,selectoneofthefollowing: PersistentDisksinpersistentmodebehavelikeconventionaldiskdriveson yourphysicalcomputer.Alldatawrittentoadiskinpersistentmodearewritten outpermanentlytothedisk. NonpersistentChangestodisksinnonpersistentmodearesavedtothedisks, butarelostwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredofforreset.Nonpersistentmode isforuserswhowanttostartwithavirtualdiskinthepreviousstate.Exampleuses includeprovidingknownenvironmentsforsoftwaretesting,technicalsupport, anddemonstratingsoftware. Virtual Device Node Settings Whencreatinganewvirtualdisk,thedefaultadaptertypeisbasedonyourselected guestoperatingsystem.Anavailabledevicenodeisalsoselected. VirtualdiskscanbesetupasIDEdisksforanyguestoperatingsystem.Theycanbeset upasSCSIdisksforanyguestoperatingsystemthathasadriverfortheLSILogicor BusLogicSCSIadapteravailableinavirtualmachine.ThecorrectSCSIadapteris chosenbasedonyourselectedguestoperatingsystem. NOTETouseSCSIdisksina32bitWindowsXPvirtualmachine,youneedaspecial SCSIdriveravailablefromtheDownloadsectionoftheVMwareWebsiteat http://www.vmware.com/download.FollowtheinstructionsontheWebsitetousethe driverwithafreshinstallationofWindowsXP. Avirtualdiskofeithertypecanbestoredoneithertypeofphysicalharddisk.Thatis, thefilesthatmakeupanIDEvirtualdiskcanbestoredoneitheranIDEharddiskora SCSIharddisk.SocanthefilesthatmakeupaSCSIvirtualdisk.Theycanalsobestored onothertypesoffastaccessstoragemedia. Hard Disk Write Caching Policy Setting Thecachingpolicydetermineswhenchangesarewrittentodisk:

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OptimizeforsafetySavesallchangestothevirtualdiskimmediately. OptimizeforperformanceAcknowledgeschangestothevirtualdisk immediately,butsavesthematalatertime.

Network Connection Type


Ifyouaddanetworkadapter,youcanselectanexistingvirtualnetwork. Foradefaultinstallationwithnocustomnetworks,youhavethefollowingoptions: BridgedConfiguresyourvirtualmachineasauniqueidentityonthenetwork, separatefromandunrelatedtoitshost.Othercomputersonthenetworkcanthen communicatedirectlywiththevirtualmachine.Ifyourhostcomputerisona networkandyouhaveaseparateIPaddressforyourvirtualmachine(orcanget oneautomaticallyfromaDHCPserver),selectBridged. NATConfiguresyourvirtualmachinetosharetheIPandMACaddressesofthe host.Thevirtualmachinesharesthehostspublicnetworkidentity,andhasa privateidentitythatisnotvisiblebeyondthehost.NATcanbeusefulwhenyou areallowedasingleIPaddressorMACaddressbyyournetworkadministrator. YoumightalsouseNATtoconfigureseparatevirtualmachinesforhandlingHTTP andFTPrequests,withbothvirtualmachinesrunningoffthesameIPaddressor domain. HostOnlyConfiguresyouvirtualmachinetocommunicateonlywiththehost andothervirtualmachinesinthehostonlynetwork.Thiscanbeusefulwhenyou wantasecurevirtualmachinethatisconnectedtothehostnetwork,butavailable onlythroughthehostmachine.Inthisconfiguration,thevirtualmachinecannot connecttotheInternet. FormoredetailsaboutVMwareServernetworkingoptions,seeChapter 11, ConfiguringaVirtualNetwork,onpage 203.

Using the New Virtual Machine Wizard


Whenyoucreateanewvirtualmachine,theresultisasetoffilesthatrepresentanew computer.IfyouarenotusingabootableCDorPXEimagefile,thevirtualmachine includesablank,unformattedharddiskthevirtualdiskontowhichyouinstallthe guestoperatingsystem. NOTEBeforeyoucreatethevirtualmachine,checktheinstallationnotesfortheguest operatingsystemyouintendtoinstall.YoucanfindthisinformationintheVMware GuestOperatingSystemInstallationGuideavailablefromtheVMwareWebsiteat http://www.vmware.com/support/guestnotes/doc/index.html.

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To create a new virtual machine 1 InyourWebbrowser,entertheURLofyourVMwareServerinstallation:


http://<host name>/

Ifyouarenotusingport80toconnecttoVMwareServer,youmustincludetheport numberyouspecifiedduringinstallationintheconnectionURL,forexample:
http://<host name>:8222

Whenyouconnectremotely,youareautomaticallyredirectedtothesecurehttp (https)port. TheVI WebAccessloginpageappears. 2 3 4 Enteryourusernameandpassword,andclickLogIn. IntheCommandssectionofthehostworkspace,clickCreateVirtualMachine. OntheNameandLocationpage,enterthenameofthevirtualmachine. Thenameyouenterhereisusedinthevirtualmachineinventorylist.Asubfolder withthisnameisalsocreatedtostoreallthefilesassociatedwiththisvirtual machine. 5 AlsoontheNameandLocationpage,selectadatastorefromthelistofexisting datastores.Thedatastoredetermineswherevirtualmachinefilesarestored. Afteryouselectadatastore,clickOK. Formoreinformation,seeVirtualMachineLocationonpage 57. 6 7 ClickNext. OntheGuestOperatingSystempage,selectthetypeofoperatingsystemthatyou intendtoinstallinthenewvirtualmachine.Thenselecttheoperatingsystem versionfromthedropdownmenu. Formoreinformation,seeGuestOperatingSystemonpage 58. 8 AlsoontheGuestOperatingSystempage,youcanexpandtheProduct Compatibilityheadingtoselectthevirtualmachineproductcompatibilitylevel. Ifyouselecthardwareversion7(thedefault),yourvirtualmachinecanusenew VMware Server 2features,suchasincreasedmaximummemorypervirtual machine.However,thevirtualmachinecannotbemigratedtomostotherVMware products,withtheexceptionofWorkstation6.x. Ifyouselecthardwareversion4,thevirtualmachinecanbeusedwithother currentVMwareproducts,includingWorkstation5and6,ESX3,andVMware Server1and2.
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Formoreinformation,seeProductCompatibility(VirtualMachineHardware Version)onpage 59. 9 10 ClickNext. OntheMemoryandProcessorspage,youcanadjustthememorysettingsoraccept therecommendedsize. Inmostcases,itisbesttokeepthedefaultmemorysetting.Ifyouplantousethe virtualmachinetorunmanyapplicationsorapplicationsthatneedlargeamounts ofmemory,youmightwanttouseahighermemorysetting.Formoreinformation, seeAmountofMemoryonpage 59. 11 AlsoontheMemoryandProcessorspage,selectthenumberofprocessorsforthe virtualmachine. Formoreinformation,seeNumberofProcessorsonpage 59. 12 13 ClickNext. OntheHardDiskpage,toconfigurethevirtualdisk,selectoneofthefollowing: CreateaNewVirtualDiskClicktoaddanewblankharddisktoyour virtualmachine. ThewizarddisplaysthePropertiespageforyoutoenterthediskcapacity, datastore,fileallocationoptions,diskmode,virtualdeviceadaptertypeand node,andcachingpolicysettings.Makeanyrequiredchangestothedefault valuesonthePropertiespage,andclickNext.Fordetailedinformationabout settingsyoucanconfigureonthePropertiespage,seeHardDiskTypeand Propertiesonpage 60. UseanExistingVirtualDiskClickifyouwanttoreuseorshareavirtual harddiskthathasalreadybeencreated. ThewizarddisplaysthePropertiespageforyoutoenterthepathorbrowseto theexistingvirtualdisk(.vmdk)file.Selectthevirtualdisktoviewthe capacityandfileallocationoptions,whichcannotbechanged.Youcanmodify thediskmode,virtualdevicenode,andcachingpolicysettings.Makeany requiredchangestothedefaultvaluesonthePropertiespage,andclickNext. FordetailedinformationaboutsettingsyoucanconfigureontheProperties page,seeHardDiskTypeandPropertiesonpage 60. DontAddaVirtualDiskClickonlyifyoucanuseabootableCDorPXE imagefileanddonotneedaharddisktoinstalltheoperatingsystem. 14 OntheNetworkAdapterpage,selectwhetherornottoaddanetworkadapter.

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AddaNetworkAdapterSelecttoaddanetworktoyourvirtualmachine. ThewizarddisplaysthePropertiespage.Selectthevirtualnetworkforthe virtualmachinefromthedropdownmenuofexistingnetworks. Optionally,deselectConnectatPowerOn,ifyoudonotwantthisnetworkto beconnectedwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon. ClickNext. DontAddaNetworkAdapterYoucancreateavirtualmachinewithout networking,oraddavirtualnetworklater. Formoreinformation,seeNetworkConnectionTypeonpage 62. 15 OntheReadytoCompletepage: ClickBackornavigateusingthePagespaneltomakechanges. ExpandMoreHardwaretoaddmorehardwaretothevirtualmachinebefore youfinishcreatingit: Toaddaharddisk,seeAddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachineon page 138. Toaddanetworkadapter,seeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteron page 215. ToaddaCD/DVDdrive,seeAddingaCD/DVDDrivetoaVirtual Machineonpage 144. Toaddafloppydrive,seeAddingaFloppyDrivetoaVirtualMachine onpage 147. Toaddapassthrough(generic)SCSIdevice,seeAddingaPassthrough (Generic)SCSIDeviceonpage 150. ToaddaUSBcontroller(onepervirtualmachine),seeAddingaUSB ControllertoaVirtualMachineonpage 152. Toaddasoundadapter(onepervirtualmachine),seeAddingaSound AdaptertoaVirtualMachineonpage 158. Forinformationaboutaddingaserialport,seeAddingaSerialPorttoa VirtualMachineonpage 159. Toaddaparallelport,seeAddingaParallelPorttoaVirtualMachine onpage 170. Eachtimeyoufinishaddinganewdevice,youreturntotheReadyto Completepage.

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Ifyouwanttopoweronthevirtualmachineimmediatelyaftercreatingit, selectPoweronyourvirtualmachinenow. ClickFinishtocreatethevirtualmachinewiththelistedhardware. Thewizardcreatesthefilesandhardwareforyourvirtualmachine. Afterthevirtualmachineiscreated,continuewithInstallingaGuestOperating Systemonpage 66.

Installing a Guest Operating System


Anewvirtualmachineislikeaphysicalcomputerwithablankharddisk.Beforeyou canuseit,youneedtopartitionandformatthevirtualdiskandinstallanoperating system.Theoperatingsystemsinstallationprogrammighthandlethepartitioningand formattingstepsforyou. NOTEIfyouplantouseaPXEservertoinstalltheguestoperatingsystemovera networkconnection,youdonotneedtheoperatingsysteminstallationmedia.When youpoweronthevirtualmachine,thevirtualmachinedetectsthePXEserver. Installingaguestoperatingsysteminsideyourvirtualmachineisessentiallythesame asinstallingitonaphysicalcomputer. Insomehostconfigurations,thevirtualmachinecannotbootfromtheinstallationCD. YoucanworkaroundthatproblembycreatinganISOimagefromtheinstallationCD andinstallingfromtheISOimage.Thissectiondescribesbothinstallationprocedures. Forinformationaboutyourspecificguestoperatingsystem,seetheVMwareGuest OperatingSystemInstallationGuide,availablefromtheVMwareWebsite. NOTEVMwareServersupports64bitguestoperatingsystemsonlyonhostmachines withsupportedprocessors. To install a guest operating system from an installation CD 1 2 3 4 5 LogintoVIWebAccess. Selectthevirtualmachineintowhichyouareinstallingtheguestoperatingsystem fromtheInventorypanel. InserttheinstallationCDforyourguestoperatingsystem. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheCD/DVDdrivesiconand selectEdit. Themediasourceisselectedatthetopofthedialogbox.

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NOTEInthisrelease,onlyHostMediaissupported. 6 7 8 SelectConnectatpoweron. SelectPhysicalDrive. EnterthelocationofthedriveinthePhysicalDrivetextbox. Forexample,theserversCD/DVDdrivemightbed:(Windows)or/dev/cdrom (Linux). 9 10 11 12 SelecttheSCSIorIDEdevicenodeintheVirtualDeviceNodesection. ClickOKtosaveyourchanges. ClickPowerOntopoweronyourvirtualmachine. ClicktheConsoletabtocompletetheguestoperatingsysteminstallationusing VMwareRemoteConsole. Followtheinstructionsprovidedbytheoperatingsystemvendor. NOTEYoumightneedtochangethebootorderinthevirtualmachineBIOSso thatthevirtualmachineattemptstobootfromtheCD/DVDdevicebeforetrying otherbootdevices.Todoso,pressF2whenpromptedduringvirtualmachine startup. 13 InstallVMwareTools,asdescribedinInstallingVMwareToolsonpage 73.

To install a guest operating system from an ISO image 1 2 3 4 5 LogintoVIWebAccess. Selectthevirtualmachineintowhichyouareinstallingtheguestoperatingsystem fromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheCD/DVDdrivesiconand selectEdit. SelectConnectatpoweron. SelectISOImage. ClickBrowsetonavigatetoafilewiththe.isoextensioninanexistingdatastore. Ifyouenterthepathmanually,youmustusetheformat:
[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.iso

SelecttheSCSIorIDEdevicenodeintheVirtualDeviceNodesection.

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7 8 9

ClickOKtosaveyourchanges. ClickPowerOntopoweronyourvirtualmachine. ClicktheConsoletabtocompletetheguestoperatingsysteminstallationusing VMwareRemoteConsole. Followtheinstructionsprovidedbytheoperatingsystemvendor. NOTEYoumightneedtochangethebootorderinthevirtualmachineBIOSso thatthevirtualmachineattemptstobootfromtheCD/DVDdevicebeforetrying otherbootdevices.Todoso,pressF2whenpromptedduringvirtualmachine startup.

10

IftheISOimagespansmultiplefiles,whenyouarepromptedtoinsertthenextCD: a b c d e f g ClicktheSummarytab. IntheHardwaresection,edittheCDsettingsbyclickingtheCD/DVDdrives iconandchoosingEdit. BrowsetothelocationofthenextISOimagefile,andkeepallotherselections astheyare. ClickOK. ClicktheConsoletabtoreturntoVMwareRemoteConsole. Intheguestoperatingsystem,clickOKorotherwiserespondtotheprompt sothatinstallationcancontinue. Repeatthisprocessforadditionalfiles.

11

InstallVMwareTools,asdescribedinInstallingVMwareToolsonpage 73.

Updating the Guest Operating System


WhenyouusetheNewVirtualMachinewizardtocreateavirtualmachine,youspecify theguestoperatingsystemtypeandversion.VMwareServerchoosesvirtualmachine configurationdefaultsbasedontheguesttypeandversionyouselect. Whenyouwanttoupgradeaguestoperatingsystemtoanewerversion,youmust Updatethevirtualmachineinformationabouttheguestoperatingsystemtype andversion,asdescribedinthissection. Followtheinstructionsprovidedbytheoperatingsystemvendortoupdatethe guestoperatingsystem.

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To update configuration information about the guest operating system 1 2 3 4 Selectthevirtualmachine. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheCommandssectionoftheworkspace,clickConfigureVM. IntheGuestOperatingSystemsectionoftheGeneraltab,selectthenewguest operatingsystemtypeandversion. Thesettingyouspecifyhereiswrittentothevirtualmachinesconfigurationfile. NOTEThissettingdoesnotchangetheguestoperatingsystemitself. 5 Poweronthevirtualmachine.

To update the guest operating system 1 2 Followtheinstructionsprovidedbytheoperatingsystemvendortoupdatethe guestoperatingsystem. Aftertheguestoperatingsystemisinstalled,usethestandardtoolswithinthe operatingsystemtoconfigureitssettings.

Upgrading the Virtual Machine Version


IfyoucreatedvirtualmachineswithanearlierversionofVMwareServeroranother VMwareproduct,youcanupgradethevirtualmachineversionsoyoucantake advantageofnewVMwareServer2features,suchasincreasedmaximummemoryper virtualmachine. IfavirtualmachinewithnewfeaturesismigratedtoWorkstation6,allthelatest VMwareServer2featuresaresupported.However,youcannotmigratethevirtual machinetomostotherVMwareproducts. Formoreinformation,seeProductCompatibility(VirtualMachineHardware Version)onpage 59. To upgrade the virtual machine version 1 2 3 4 Selectthevirtualmachine. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. ClickUpgradeVirtualMachineintheStatussectionoftheworkspace. ClickOKtoconfirmthatyouwanttoupgradethevirtualmachine.

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Afterthevirtualmachineversionisupdated,youcanconfigureittousethefeatures supportedwiththenewversion.

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Thischapterdiscusseshowtoinstall,upgrade,andrunVMwareTools.Thischapter containsthefollowingsections: ComponentsofVMwareToolsonpage 71 InstallingVMwareToolsonpage 73 UpdatingVMwareToolsonpage 86 UninstallingVMwareToolsonpage 87 RepairingorChangingVMwareToolsonpage 88 UsingtheVMwareToolsControlPanelonpage 88 CustomizationstoVMwareToolsonpage 93 UsingtheVMwareToolsCommandLineInterfaceonpage 99

Components of VMware Tools


VMwareToolsisasuiteofutilitiesthatenhancestheperformanceofthevirtual machinesguestoperatingsystemandimprovesmanagementofthevirtualmachine. AlthoughtheguestoperatingsystemcanrunwithoutVMwareTools,youlose importantfunctionalityandconvenience. VMwareToolsincludesthefollowingcomponents: VMwareToolsservice VMwaredevicedrivers VMwareuserprocess VMwareToolscontrolpanel
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VMware Tools Service


TheprogramfileiscalledVMwareService.exeonWindowsguestoperatingsystems andvmware-guestdonLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests. Thisserviceperformsvariousdutieswithintheguestoperatingsystem: Passesmessagesfromthehostoperatingsystemtotheguestoperatingsystem. Executescommandsintheoperatingsystemtocleanlyshutdownorrestarta Linux,FreeBSD,orSolarissystemwhenyouselectpoweroperationsin VMware Server. SendsaheartbeattoVMwareServer. OnWindowsguests,allowsthemousecursortomovefreelybetweentheguest andhostoperatingsystems. OnWindowsguests,matchestheguestsscreenresolutiontothehostsscreen resolutionandthereverse. Synchronizesthetimeintheguestoperatingsystemwiththetimeinthehost operatingsystem. Runsscriptsthathelpautomateguestoperatingsystemoperations.Thescriptsrun whenthevirtualmachinespowerstatechanges. Theservicestartswhentheguestoperatingsystemboots. TheVMwareToolsserviceisnotinstalledonNetWareoperatingsystems.Instead,the vmwtoolprogramisinstalled.ItsynchronizestimeandallowsyoutoturntheCPU idleronoroff.

VMware Device Drivers


Thesedevicedriversinclude: SVGAdisplaydriverthatprovideshighdisplayresolutionandsignificantlyfaster overallgraphicsperformance. Thevmxnetnetworkingdriverforsomeguestoperatingsystems. BusLogicSCSIdriverforsomeguestoperatingsystems. VMwaremousedriver. Akernelmoduleforhandlingsharedfolders,calledhgfs.sysonWindowsand vmhgfsonLinuxandSolaris.VMwareServerdoesnotsupportsharedfolders. However,themoduleisincludedforproductcompatibility.

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TheVirtualMachineCommunicationInterface(VMCI)driverforcreating clientserverapplicationsthatareoptimizedforfastandefficientcommunication betweenvirtualmachines.

VMware User Process


TheprogramfileiscalledVMwareUser.exeonWindowsguestsandvmware-useron Linux,Solaris,andFreeBSDguests. Thisserviceperformsthefollowingtaskswithintheguestoperatingsystem: Enablesyoutocopyandpasteupto64Kofplaintextbetweentheguestandhost operatingsystems. OnLinuxandSolarisguests,grabsandreleasesthemousecursorwhentheSVGA driverisnotinstalled. OnLinuxandSolarisguests,matchestheguestsscreenresolutiontothehosts. ThisprocessstartswhenyoubeginanX11session.Touseadifferentmechanismto starttheprocess,seeStartingtheVMwareUserProcessManuallyIfYouDoNotUse aSessionManageronUNIXonpage 86. TheVMwareToolsuserprocessisnotinstalledonNetWareoperatingsystems.Instead, thevmwtoolprogramisinstalled.Itcontrolsthegrabbingandreleasingofthemouse cursor.Italsoallowsyoucopyandpastetext.

VMware Tools Control Panel


TheVMwareToolscontrolpanelletsyoumodifysettings,shrinkvirtualdisks,and connectanddisconnectvirtualdevices.SeeUsingtheVMwareToolsControlPanel onpage 88.

Installing VMware Tools


TheinstallersforVMwareToolsforWindows,Linux,FreeBSD,Solaris,andNetWare guestoperatingsystemsareinstalledwithVMwareServerasISOimagefiles.When youclickInstallVMwareToolsorUpgradeVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthe virtualmachineSummarytabinVIWebAccess,VMwareServertemporarilyconnects thevirtualmachinesfirstvirtualCD/DVDdrivetothecorrectISOimagefileforthe guestoperatingsystem. ClickthecommandtoinstallorupgradeVMwareTools.Theinstallationprocedure variesdependingontheoperatingsystem.

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Manually Installing VMware Tools in a Windows Guest System


VMwareToolsissupportedonallWindowsguestoperatingsystems. BeforeyouclicktheInstallVMwareToolscommandtoinstallVMwareTools,perform thefollowingtasks,asnecessary: IfyouarerunningVMwareServeronaWindowshostandyourvirtualmachine hasonlyoneCD/DVDdrive,makesurethattheCD/DVDdriveisconfiguredasan IDEorSCSICD/DVDdrive.ItcannotbeconfiguredasagenericSCSIdevice.If necessary,addanIDEorSCSICD/DVDdrivetothevirtualmachine.SeeAdding aCD/DVDDrivetoaVirtualMachineonpage 144. MakesurethatthevirtualCD/DVDdriveisconfiguredtoautodetectaphysical drive.ThistaskisnecessaryifyouconnectedthevirtualmachinesCD/DVDdrive toanISOimagefilewhenyouinstalledtheoperatingsystem.Changethe connectionfromtheISOimagetoautodetectaphysicaldrive. WhenyouinstallVMwareTools,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispowered on. IftheguestoperatingsystemisaWindowsNT,Windows2000,WindowsXP, WindowsServer2003,orWindowsVistaoperatingsystem,loginasan administrator.AnyusercaninstallVMwareToolsinaWindows 95,Windows98, orWindowsMeguestoperatingsystem. To install or upgrade VMware Tools in a Windows guest operating system 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools. 2 ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine. Dependingonwhetherautorunisenabled,oneofthefollowingoccursinsidethe guestoperatingsystem: Ifautorunisenabledintheguestoperatingsystem,adialogboxappearsafter afewseconds.ItaskswhetheryouwanttoinstallVMwareTools. Ifautorunisnotenabled,thedialogboxdoesnotappearautomatically.Click Start>RunandenterD:\setup\setup.exewhereD:isyourfirstvirtual CD/DVDdrive. 3 ClickYestolaunchtheInstallShieldwizard.

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Followtheonscreeninstructions. OnsomeWindowsoperatingsystems,aftertheSVGAdriverisinstalled,youare promptedtoreboottousethisnewdriver.

Rebootthevirtualmachineifnecessary.

Tochangethedefaultconfigurationoptions,seeUsingtheVMwareToolsControl Panelonpage 88.

Configuring the Video Driver on Older Versions of Windows


IfyouareinstallingVMwareToolsinavirtualmachinethathasaWindowsNT, WindowsMe,Windows98,orWindows95operatingsystem,youmightneedto configurethevideodrivermanually.WhenyouclickFinishintheVMwareTools installationwizard,amessageappearsindicatingthatVMwareToolsfailedtoinstall theSVGAdriverappears. ANotebookwindow,theDisplayProperties/Settingsdialogbox,andamessagebox appear,promptingyoutorebootthemachine. To configure the video driver on older versions of Windows 1 2 Inthemessageboxthatpromptsyoutoreboot,clickNo. FollowtheinstructionsintheNotebookfile. Theinstructionsarespecifictoeachoperatingsystem.Theyprovidestepsfor selectingtheVMwareSVGAdriver,usuallyintheDisplayProperties/Settings dialogbox,andinstallingitfromtheVMwareToolsISOimage. TheEnglishversionoftheinstructionsfromtheNotebookfilearereprintedin KnowledgeBasearticle1001819attheVMwareWebsite.

Automating the Installation of VMware Tools in a Windows Guest


IfyouareinstallingVMwareToolsinanumberofWindowsvirtualmachines,youcan automateitsinstallation.ThissilentinstallationfeatureusestheMicrosoftWindows Installerruntimeengine. MakesurethattheMicrosoftWindowsInstallerruntimeengineversion2.0orhigheris installedintheguestoperatingsystem. Version2.0orhigherisincludedwithnewerversionsofWindows.Ifyouareinstalling VMwareToolsinolderWindowsguestoperatingsystems,checktheversionofthe %WINDIR%\system32\msiexec.exefile.

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Ifthefileversionisnot2.0orhigher,upgradetheenginebyrunninginstmsiw.exe (instmsia.exeforWindows95orWindows98guests),whichisincludedwiththe VMwareToolsinstaller. FormoreinformationaboutusingtheMicrosoftWindowsInstaller,including commandlineoptions,gototheWindowsInstallerpageontheMSDNWebsite: http://msdn2.microsoft.com/enus/library/aa367449.aspx To automate the installation of VMware Tools in a Windows guest 1 MakesurethatthevirtualmachinesCD/DVDdriveisconnectedtotheVMware ToolsISOimageandthatitisconfiguredtoconnectwheneveryoupoweronthe virtualmachine: a b c d e 2 Selectthevirtualmachine. IntheHardwaresectionofthevirtualmachineSummarytab,clickthe CD/DVDdrivetomodifyandselectEdit. IntheDevicestatussection,selecttheConnectatpoweroncheckbox. IntheConnectionsection,selectISOImageandbrowsetothewindows.iso file,locatedinthedirectorywhereyouinstalledVMwareServer. ClickOK.

(Optional)Intheguestoperatingsystem,suppresspromptsaboutinstalling unsigneddrivers. IfyouareinstallingVMwareToolsfromabetaorRC(releasecandidate)versionof VMwareServer,youareaskedtoconfirmtheinstallationofunsigneddrivers. Followthesestepstosuppresstheseconfirmationprompts. ForallWindowssystemsexceptWindowsVista: a b c d OnthevirtualmachinesdesktoporStartmenu,rightclickMyComputerand selectProperties. ClicktheHardwaretabandclickDriverSigning. IntheDriverSigningOptionsdialogbox,clickIgnoreandclickOK. ClickOKintheSystemPropertiesdialogbox.

ForWindowsVista: a b OntheStartmenu,rightclickComputerandselectProperties. ClickAdvancedsystemsettings>Hardware>WindowsUpdateDriver Settings.

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c d 3

ClickNevercheckfordriverswhenIconnectanewdeviceandclickOK. ClickOKintheSystemPropertiesdialogbox.

Openacommandpromptandusethefollowingcommandtoinstallsomeorallof theVMwareToolscomponents:
msiexec -i "D:\VMware Tools.msi" ADDLOCAL=ALL [REMOVE=<component>] /qn

Inthiscommand,youcanoptionallyuse REMOVE=<component>ifyoudonot wanttoinstallaparticularcomponent: ToolboxVMwareToolscontrolpanelanditsutilities.Excludingthis featurepreventsyoufromusingVMwareToolsintheguestoperatingsystem. VMwaredoesnotrecommendexcludingthisfeature. DriversIncludestheSVGA,mouse,BusLogic,andvmxnetdrivers. SVGAVMwareSVGAdriver.Excludingthisfeaturelimitsthedisplay capabilitiesofyourvirtualmachine. MouseVMwaremousedriver.Excludingthisfeaturedecreasesmouse performanceinyourvirtualmachine. BuslogicVMwareBusLogicdriver.Ifyourvirtualmachineis configuredtousetheLSILogicdriver,youmightwanttoremovethis feature. VMXNetVMwarevmxnetnetworkingdriver. MemCtlVMwarememorycontroldriver.Recommendedifyouplantouse thisvirtualmachinewithESX.Excludingthisfeaturehindersthememory managementcapabilitiesofthevirtualmachinerunningonanESXsystem. HgfsVMwaresharedfoldersdriver.Thesharedfoldersfeatureisnot supportedinVMwareServer.Recommendedifyouplantousethisvirtual machinewithVMwareWorkstationoranotherproductthatsupportsshared folders. Forexample,toinstalleverythingbutthesharedfoldersdriver,typethefollowing onthecommandline:
msiexec -i "D:\VMware Tools.msi" ADDLOCAL=ALL REMOVE=Hgfs /qn

TheSVGA,Mouse,BusLogic,VMXnet,andMemCtlfeaturesarechildrenofthe Driversfeature.Thismeansthatthefollowingcommandskipsinstallationofthe SVGA,mouse,BusLogic,vmxnet,andMemCtldrivers:


msiexec -i "D:\VMware Tools.msi" ADDLOCAL=ALL REMOVE=Drivers /qn

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Toincludeafeature,useitwiththeADDLOCALoption.Toexcludeafeature,use itwiththeREMOVEoption.

Installing VMware Tools in a Linux Guest System


OnaLinuxguest,youcaninstallVMwareToolswithinXorfromthecommandline.

Installing VMware Tools in a Linux Guest Within X Using the RPM Installer
YoucanuseagraphicaluserinterfacetoinstallVMwareToolsinaLinuxguest.For informationabouthowtoinstallVMwareToolfromthecommandline,seeInstalling VMwareToolsfromtheCommandLinewiththeTarorRPMInstalleronpage 79. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredonandtheguest operatingsystemisrunning. To install VMware Tools in a Linux Guest Within X Using the RPM Installer 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools. 2 ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine. TheguestoperatingsystemmountstheVMwareToolsinstallationvirtualCD.A windowmanagerdisplayingtwofilesmightappear.OnefileisfortheRPM installerandoneisforthetarinstaller.Alternatively,aVMwareToolsCDicon mightappearonthedesktop. 3 Dooneofthefollowing: IfyouseeaVMwareToolsCDicononthedesktop,doubleclickit,andafter itopens,doubleclicktheRPMinstallerintherootoftheCDROM. Ifyouseeafilemanagerwindow,doubleclicktheRPMinstallerfile. InsomeLinuxdistributions,theVMwareToolsCDiconmightfailtoappear.In thiscase,installVMwareToolsfromthecommandline,asdescribedinInstalling VMwareToolsfromtheCommandLinewiththeTarorRPMInstalleronpage 79. 4 Whenprompted,entertherootpasswordandclickOK. Theinstallerpreparesthepackages. 5 ClickContinuewhentheinstallerpresentsadialogboxthatshowsCompleted SystemPreparation.

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Whentheinstallerisdone,noconfirmationwindoworfinishbuttonappears,but VMwareToolsisinstalled. 6 InanXterminal,asroot(su),runthefollowingfiletoconfigureVMwareTools:


vmware-config-tools.pl

Respondtothequestionsthecommandlinewizarddisplaysonthescreen.Press Entertoacceptthedefaultvalue. 7 Exitfromtherootaccount.


exit

InanXterminal,tostarttheVMwareUserprocess,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-user

(Optional)TostarttheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-toolbox &

TochangethedefaultVMwareToolsconfigurationoptions,seeUsingtheVMware ToolsControlPanelonpage 88. YoucanrunVMwareToolsasrootorasanormaluser.Toshrinkvirtualdisksorto changeanyVMwareToolsscripts,youmustrunVMwareToolsasroot.

Installing VMware Tools from the Command Line with the Tar or RPM Installer
YoucaninstallVMwareToolsfromthecommandlineinaLinuxguest.Forinformation abouthowtoinstallVMwareToolfromagraphicaluserinterface,seeInstalling VMwareToolsinaLinuxGuestWithinXUsingtheRPMInstalleronpage 78. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredonandtheguest operatingsystemisrunning. To install VMware Tools from the command line with the tar or RPM installer 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools. 2 ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine. 3 Intheguest,loginasroot(su).

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Ifnecessary,mounttheVMwareToolsvirtualCDROMimagebyenteringa commandsimilartothefollowing:
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

SomeLinuxdistributionsautomaticallymountCDROMs.Ifyourdistribution usesautomounting,youcanskipthisstep. SomeLinuxdistributionsusedifferentdevicenamesororganizethe/dev directorydifferently.IfyourCDROMdriveisnot/dev/cdromorifthemount pointforaCDROMisnot/mnt/cdrom,modifythecommandtoreflectthe conventionsusedbyyourdistribution. 5 Changetoaworkingdirectorybyenteringacommandsuchasthefollowing:


cd /tmp

Ifapreviousinstallationexists,deletethepreviousvmware-tools-distrib directorybeforeinstalling. Thelocationofthisdirectorydependsonwhereyouplaceditduringtheprevious installation.Oftenitisplacedin:


/tmp/vmware-tools-distrib

RuntheinstallerandunmounttheCDROMimage. DependingonwhetheryouareusingthetarinstallerortheRPMinstaller,doone ofthefollowing: Forthetarinstaller,atthecommandprompt,enter:


tar zxpf /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-<xxxx>.tar.gz umount /dev/cdrom

Where<xxxx>isthebuildnumberoftheproductrelease. FortheRPMinstaller,atthecommandprompt,enter:
rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-<xxxx>.i386.rpm umount /dev/cdrom

Where<xxxx>isthebuildnumberoftheproductrelease. IfyourLinuxdistributionautomaticallymountedtheCDROMs,youdonotneed tousetheunmountportionofthecommand. IfyouattempttoinstallanRPMinstallationoveratarinstallationorthereverse, theinstallerdetectsthepreviousinstallationandmustconverttheinstaller databaseformatbeforecontinuing. 8 ConfigureVMwareTools.

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DependingonwhetheryouareusingthetarinstallerortheRPMinstaller,doone ofthefollowing: Forthetarinstaller,enterthefollowingcommandstoruntheinstaller:


cd vmware-tools-distrib ./vmware-install.pl

Respondtothequestionsthecommandlinewizarddisplaysonthescreen. PressEntertoacceptthedefaultvalue.Theconfigurationfile, vmware-config-tools.pl,runsaftertheinstallerfilefinishesrunning. FortheRPMinstaller,enterthefollowingcommandtoruntheconfiguration file:


vmware-config-tools.pl

Respondtothequestionsthecommandlinewizarddisplaysonthescreen. PressEntertoacceptthedefaultvalue. 9 Logoutoftherootaccount.


exit

10 11

(Optional)Startyourgraphicalenvironment. InanXterminal,tostarttheVMwareUserprocess,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-user

12

(Optional)TostarttheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-toolbox &

TochangethedefaultVMwareToolsconfigurationoptions,seeUsingthe VMwareToolsControlPanelonpage 88. YoucanrunVMwareToolsasrootorasanormaluser.Toshrinkvirtualdisksor tochangeanyVMwareToolsscripts,youmustrunVMwareToolsasroot.

Installing VMware Tools in a Solaris Guest System


Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredonandtheguest operatingsystemisrunning. To install VMware Tools in a Solaris guest operating system 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools.

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ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine.

3 4

Intheguest,loginasroot(su). Ifnecessary,mounttheVMwareToolsvirtualCDROMimage. Usually,theSolarisvolumemanagervoldmountstheCDROMunder /cdrom/vmwaretools.IftheCDROMisnotmounted,restartthevolume managerusingthefollowingcommands:


/etc/init.d/volmgt stop /etc/init.d/volmgt start

AftertheCDROMismounted,changetoaworkingdirectory(forexample,/tmp) andextractVMwareToolsbyenteringthefollowingcommands:
cd /tmp gunzip -c /cdrom/vmwaretools/vmware-solaris-tools.tar.gz | tar xf -

RuntheVMwareToolstarinstaller:
cd vmware-tools-distrib ./vmware-install.pl

Respondtotheconfigurationquestionsonthescreen.PressEntertoacceptthe defaultvalue. 7 Logoutoftherootaccount:


exit

8 9

(Optional)Startyourgraphicalenvironment. InanXterminal,tostarttheVMwareUserprocess,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-user

10

(Optional)TostarttheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-toolbox &

TochangethedefaultVMwareToolsconfigurationoptions,seeUsingtheVMware ToolsControlPanelonpage 88. YoucanrunVMwareToolsasrootorasanormaluser.Toshrinkvirtualdisksorchange VMwareToolsscripts,youmustrunVMwareToolsasroot.

Installing VMware Tools in a FreeBSD Guest System


Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredonandtheguest operatingsystemisrunning.
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To install VMware Tools in a FreeBSD guest operating system 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools. 2 ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine. 3 Makesurethattheguestoperatingsystemisrunningintextmode. YoucannotinstallVMwareToolswhileXisrunning. 4 5 Intheguest,loginasroot(su). Ifnecessary,mounttheVMwareToolsvirtualCDROMimagebyenteringa commandsimilartothefollowing:
mount /cdrom

SomeFreeBSDdistributionsautomaticallymountCDROMs.Ifyourdistribution usesautomounting,skipthisstep. 6 Changetoaworkingdirectorybyenteringacommandsuchasthefollowing:


cd /tmp

UntartheVMwareToolstarfile:
tar zxpf /cdrom/vmware-freebsd-tools.tar.gz

Ifnecessary,unmounttheVMwareToolsvirtualCDROMimagebyenteringa commandsimilartothefollowing:
umount /cdrom

Ifyourdistributionusesautomounting,skipthisstep. 9 RuntheVMwareToolsinstaller:
cd vmware-tools-distrib ./vmware-install.pl

10

Logoutoftherootaccount:
exit

11 12

(Optional)Startyourgraphicalenvironment. InanXterminal,tostarttheVMwareUserprocess,enterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-user

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(Optional)TostarttheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,enterthefollowingcommand:

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vmware-toolbox &

InminimalinstallationsoftheFreeBSD4.5guestoperatingsystem,sometimes VMwareToolsdoesnotstart.SeeInstalltheMissingFreeBSDLibraryon page 84. TochangethedefaultVMwareToolsconfigurationoptions,seeUsingtheVMware ToolsControlPanelonpage 88. YoucanrunVMwareToolsasrootorasanormaluser.Toshrinkvirtualdisksorchange VMwareToolsscripts,youmustrunVMwareToolsasroot.

Install the Missing FreeBSD Library


IfVMwareToolsdoesnotstartafteryouinstallit,youmightneedtoinstallalibrary thatismissingbecauseyoudonothaveafullinstallationofFreeBSD4.5. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatyouhavetheFreeBSD4.5installationCDoraccessto theISOimagefile. To install the missing FreeBSD library 1 2 Reboottheguestoperatingsystem. Intheguest,inanXterminal,enterthefollowingcommandtostarttheVMware Toolscontrolpanel:
vmware-toolbox &

Ifthefollowingerrormessageappears,therequiredlibrarywasnotinstalled:
Shared object 'libc.so.3' not found.

3 4

InsertandmounttheFreeBSD4.5installationCDoraccesstheISOimagefile. Changedirectoriesandruntheinstallationscript:
cd /cdrom/compat3x ./install.sh

Installing VMware Tools in a NetWare Guest System


Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredonandtheguest operatingsystemisrunning. To install VMware Tools in a NetWare guest operating system 1 InVIWebAccess,clickInstallVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. IfanearlierversionofVMwareToolsisinstalled,clickUpgradeVMwareTools.
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ClicktheConsoletab. Theremainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine.

Intheguest,loadtheCDROMdriversotheCDROMdevicemountstheISO imageasavolumebydoingoneofthefollowing: ForaNetWare6.5virtualmachineinthesystemconsole,enter:


LOAD CDDVD

ForaNetWare6.0orNetWare5.1virtualmachine,inthesystemconsole, enter:
LOAD CD9660.NSS

ForaNetWare4.2virtualmachine,inthesystemconsole,enter:
load cdrom

MounttheVMwareToolsCDROMimagebyentering:
cd mount vmwtools

Inthesystemconsole,enteroneofthefollowing: ForNetWare5.1,6.0,or6.5:
vmwtools:\setup.ncf

ForNetWare4.2:
vmwtools:\setup

Whentheinstallationfinishes,themessageVMware Tools for NetWare are now runningappearsintheLoggerScreen(NetWare6.5andNetWare6.0guests)orthe ConsoleScreen(NetWare4.2and5.1guests). 5 IfyouhaveaNetWare4.2guest,restarttheguestoperatingsystem,asfollows: a Toshutdownthesystem,inthesystemconsole,enter:
down

Torestarttheguestoperatingsystem,inthesystemconsole,enter:
restart server

MakesurethattheVMwareToolsvirtualCDROMimage(netware.iso)isnot attachedtothevirtualmachine. Ifitisattached,disconnectit.

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Starting the VMware User Process Manually If You Do Not Use a Session Manager on UNIX
OneoftheexecutablesusedbyVMwareToolsinUNIXguestsisvmware-user.This programimplementsfitguesttowindowandotherfeatures. Normally,vmware-userisstartedautomaticallyafteryouconfigureVMwareTools andthenlogoutofthedesktopenvironmentandlogbackin. However,ifyourunanXsessionwithoutasessionmanager(forexample,byusing startxandgettingadesktopandnotusingxdm,kdm,orgdm),youmuststartthe VMwareUserprocessmanually. Youmustalsostartvmware-usermanuallyafteryouupdatetoanewversionof VMwareTools. To start the VMware User process manually if you do not use a session manager Dooneofthefollowing: Tohavevmware-userstartwhenyoustartanXsession,addvmware-usertothe appropriateXstartupscript,suchasthe.xsessionor.xinitrcfile. Thevmware-userprogramislocatedinthedirectorywhereyouselectedtoinstall binaryprograms,whichdefaultsto/usr/bin.Thestartupscriptthatneedstobe modifieddependsonyourparticularsystem. Tostartvmware-userafteraVMwareToolssoftwareupdateorifyounotice certainfeaturesarenotworking,openaterminalwindowandenterthefollowing command:
vmware-user

Updating VMware Tools


BecauseVMwareToolsinstallers(ISOimages)areinstalledwithVMwareServer,when youupdatetoanewversionofVMwareServer,acheckisperformedtodetermineifa newversionofVMwareToolsisavailable.Whenyouupdatefromanearlierversionof VMwareTools,thepreviousversionofVMwareToolsmightbeuninstalled. TheguestoperatingsystemchecksforVMwareToolsupdatesonlywhenyoupoweron avirtualmachine.ItcomparesitsversionofVMwareToolsagainsttheversionthatis installedonthehost.ForVMwareToolsupdatesonLinuxandWindowsguests,you cansettheguesttoupdateautomatically(seeOptionsTabonpage 89)oryoucan performamanualupdate.Onotherguests,youmustmanuallyupdate.

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WhenyouupdateVMwareTools,anychangesyoumadetothedefaultscriptsare overwritten.Anycustomscriptsyoucreatedremainuntouched,butdonotbenefit fromanyunderlyingchangesthatenhancethedefaultscripts. To update VMware Tools for a virtual machine, do one of the following IntheOptionstaboftheVMwareToolsControlPanelclicktheUpdatebutton. InVIWebAccess,clickUpgradeVMwareToolsintheStatussectionofthevirtual machineSummarytab. Adialogboxenablesyoutoselectautomaticorinteractiveupgrade: IfyouselectAutomaticVMwareToolsUpgradeandclickUpgrade, VMwareToolsisupgradedwithoutfurtheruserinteraction. IfyouselectInteractiveVMwareToolsUpgradeandclickUpgrade,the remainingstepstakeplaceinsidethevirtualmachine. UsethesameprocedurethatyouusedforinstallingVMwareToolsthe firsttime.Forplatformspecificinstallationinstructions,seeInstalling VMwareToolsonpage 73. YouarepromptedtoselecttheVMwareToolscomponentstoupgrade.

Uninstalling VMware Tools


Occasionally,anupdateofVMwareToolsisincomplete.Youcanusuallysolvethe problembyuninstallingVMwareToolsandthenreinstalling. To uninstall VMware Tools Dependingontheguestoperatingsystem,dooneofthefollowing: OnaWindowsguest,usetheguestoperatingsystemsAdd/RemovePrograms itemtoremoveVMwareTools. OnanyUNIXguest,logonasroot(su)andenterthefollowingcommand:
vmware-uninstall-tools.pl

OnaLinuxguestthathasVMwareToolsinstalledusinganRPMinstaller,enterthe followingcommand:
rpm -e VMwareTools

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Repairing or Changing VMware Tools


IffeaturesdonotworkafteraVMwareToolsupdate,youmightneedtouninstall VMwareToolsandreinstall.Besuretofollowthesesteps.Donotusetherepairor changeoptionintheguestsAdd/RemoveProgramsitemintheWindowsControl Panel. To repair or change installed modules 1 2 UninstalltheoldversionofVMwareToolsasdescribedinUninstallingVMware Toolsonpage 87. InstallthenewversionofVMwareToolsasdescribedinInstallingVMware Toolsonpage 73.

Using the VMware Tools Control Panel


UsetheVMwareToolscontrolpaneltomodifyVMwareToolsconfigurationsettings, shrinkvirtualdisks,andconnectanddisconnectvirtualdevices. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatVMwareToolsisinstalledintheguestoperating system. OnWindowsVistaguests,logintotheoperatingsystemasanAdministratoruser. To open the VMware Tools control panel Dooneofthefollowing: InWindowsguests,doubleclickVMwareToolsiconinthenotificationareaofthe guestsWindowstaskbar. IfyoucannotfindtheVMwareToolsiconinthenotificationarea,usetheguests WindowsControlPaneltodisplayit.SeeUsingtheWindowsControlPanelto DisplaytheTaskbarIcononpage 89. InLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests,openaterminalwindowandenterthe command:
/usr/bin/vmware-toolbox &

InNetWareguests,dooneofthefollowing: InaNetWare5.1orhigherguest,selectNovell>Settings>VMwareToolsfor NetWare. InaNetWare4.2guest,useVMwareToolscommandsinthesystemconsole. TheVMwareToolsprogramiscalledvmwtool.

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Using the Windows Control Panel to Display the Taskbar Icon


IfVMwareToolsisinstalledinaWindowsguestoperatingsystembuttheVMware ToolsicondoesnotappearinthenotificationareaoftheWindowstaskbar,youcanuse theWindowsControlPaneltodisplayit. To use the Windows Control Panel to display the taskbar icon 1 2 3 GotoStart>ControlPanel. DoubleclicktheVMwareToolsicon. OntheOptionstab,selectShowVMwareToolsinthetaskbarandclickApply.

Options Tab
TheOptionstaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanelprovidesthefollowingoptions: Timesynchronizationbetweenthevirtualmachineandthehostoperating systemPeriodically(everyminute)checkswhethertheguestoperatingsystems timeislaggingbehindthehosts.Ifso,theguestsclockismovedforwardtomatch thehostsclock.Ifyouusethisoption,disableallothertimesynchronization mechanisms.Forexample,someguestsmighthaveNTPorCMOSclock synchronizationturnedonbydefault. Regardlessofwhetheryouenablethissetting,timesynchronizationoccurswhen theVMwareToolsdaemonisstarted(suchasduringareboot),whenresuming fromasuspendoperation,andaftershrinkingadisk.Whentheoperatingsystem startsorreboots,synchronizationcanbeeitherforwardorbackwardintime.For otherevents,synchronizationisforwardintime. Todisabletimesynchronizationcompletely,seeDisableTimeSynchronizationby EditingtheVirtualMachineConfigurationFileonpage 90. ShowVMwareToolsinthetaskbar(Windowsguestsonly)Displaysthe VMwareToolsiconinthenotificationareaofthetaskbar.Theiconindicates whetherVMwareToolsisrunningandwhetheranupdateisavailable. Notifyifupdateisavailable(Windowsguestsonly)DisplaystheVMware Toolsiconwithayellowcautioniconwhenanupdateisavailable. Updatebutton(Windowsguestsonly)Becomesenabledwhenanupdateis available.ClickingthisbuttonhasthesameeffectasclickingtheUpgradeVMware ToolscommandintheStatussectionoftheVIWebAccessSummarytab.

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Disable Time Synchronization by Editing the Virtual Machine Configuration File


Avirtualmachineoccasionallysynchronizestimewiththehostevenifyouusethe VMwareToolscontrolpanel(Optionstab)todisableperiodictimesynchronization. Youcandisabletimesynchronizationcompletelybyeditingthevirtualmachine configurationfile. Youcanfollowthesestepstokeepafictitioustimeinyourguest,sothattheguestis neversynchronizedwiththehost. To disable time synchronization by editing the virtual machine configuration file 1 2 Poweroffthevirtualmachine. Editthevirtualmachinesconfigurationfile(seeChangingVirtualMachine AdvancedSettingsonpage 121)andsettheoptionslistedinTable 51toFALSE. Table 5-1. Time Synchronization Options
Option name time.synchronize.tools.startup Relates to time synchronization when Poweringonavirtualmachine.Controls whetheraoneshottimesynchronizationoccurs thenexttimetheguestoperatingsystemis booted. Thevirtualmachineisrunning.Controls whethertheguestoperatingsystemsclockis checkedonceaminuteandsynchronizedifitis foundtobelaggingbehindthehostsclock. Revertingtoasnapshot. Resumingasuspendedvirtualmachine. Takingasnapshot. Shrinkingavirtualdisk.

tools.syncTime

time.synchronize.restore time.synchronize.resume.disk time.synchronize.continue time.synchronize.shrink

Devices Tab
TheDevicestaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanelprovidesoptionsforenablingand connectingtocertaindevices. Thecontrolsforconnectinganddisconnectingcertaindevicesmightnotbeavailable. ToconnectanddisconnectremovabledevicesusingVMwareRemoteConsole,see ConnectingandDisconnectingClientDevicesonpage 125.

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Scripts Tab
FromtheScriptstaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,youcanedit,disable,orrun scriptsthathelpautomateguestoperatingsystemoperationswhenyouchangethe virtualmachinespowerstate. Fromthistab,youcanalsospecifythelocationofcustomscriptsfortheSuspend, Resume,PowerOn,PowerOff,andResetbuttons. Onmostguestoperatingsystems,ifVMwareToolsisinstalledandifyouconfigurea virtualmachinespowercontrolstousetheguestoptions,oneormoredefaultscripts runontheguestwheneveryouchangethepowerstateofthevirtualmachine. Forexample,ifyouusethevirtualmachineconfigurationsettings(clickConfigureVM intheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachineworkspace,andclickthePowertab) andsetthePowerOffcontroltouseShutDownGuest,thenthe poweroff-vm-defaultscriptrunswhenyouclickthePowerOffbuttoninthetoolbar. Thisscriptcausestheguestoperatingsystemtoshutdowngracefully.Adescriptionof eachscriptisprovidedlaterinthissection,inHowVMwareToolsScriptsAffectPower Statesonpage 93. Forinformationaboutcreatingacustomscript,seeCreatingScriptstoOverride DefaultVMwareToolsScriptsonpage 94.

Shared Folders Tab


VMwareServerdoesnotsupportthisfeature.

Shrink Tab
TheShrinktaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanelprovidesoptionsforreclaiming unusedspaceinavirtualdisk.Ifyourvirtualmachinecannotbeshrunk,thistab displaysinformationexplainingwhyyoucannotshrinkyourvirtualdisks. Shrinkingadiskisatwostepprocess:apreparationstepandtheshrinkstep.Inthefirst step,VMwareToolsreclaimsallunusedportionsofdiskpartitions(suchasdeleted files)andpreparesthemforshrinking.Thissteptakesplaceintheguestoperating system. Theshrinkprocessisthesecondstep,andittakesplaceoutsidethevirtualmachine. TheVMwareapplicationreducesthesizeofthediskbasedonthediskspacereclaimed duringthepreparationstep.Ifthediskhasemptyspace,thisprocessreducesthe amountofspacethevirtualdiskoccupiesonthehostdrive.SeeShrinkingVirtual Disksonpage 141.

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OnUNIXguests,runVMwareToolsastherootuser(su)toshrinkvirtualdisks.Ifyou shrinkthevirtualdiskasanonrootuser,youcannotpreparetoshrinkthepartsofthe virtualdiskthatrequirerootlevelpermissions.

About Tab
TheAbouttabdisplaysversion(buildnumber)andcopyrightinformation.In Windowsguests,thistabalsoshowsthestatusoftheVMwareToolsservice.

Configuring VMware Tools in a NetWare Guest


InaNetWarevirtualmachine,usingthesystemconsole,youcanconfigurecertain virtualmachineoptionssuchastimesynchronization,CPUidling,anddevice configurationwithVMwareTools.TheVMwareToolscommandlineprogramiscalled vmwtool. To configure VMware Tools in a NetWare guest operating system 1 2 Openaterminalwindow(systemconsole)intheNetWareguest. Enteracommandthatusesthefollowingformat:
vmwtool <command>

<command>isoneofthecommandslistedinTable 52. Table 5-2. VMware Tools Commands for Netware Guests
vmwtool Command help partitonlist shrink [<partition>] Definition DisplaysasummaryofVMwareToolscommandsand optionsinaNetWareguest. Displaysalistofalldiskpartitionsinthevirtualdisk andwhetherornotapartitioncanbeshrunk. Shrinksthelistedpartitions.Ifnopartitionsare specified,allpartitionsinthevirtualdiskareshrunk. Thestatusoftheshrinkprocessappearsatthebottomof thesystemconsole. devicelist Listseachremovabledeviceinthevirtualmachine,its deviceID,andwhetherthedeviceisenabledor disabled.Removabledevicesincludethevirtual networkadapter,CD/DVDdrives,andfloppydrives. Disablesthespecifieddeviceordevicesinthevirtual machine.Ifnodeviceisspecified,allremovabledevices inthevirtualmachinearedisabled.

disabledevice [<device name>]

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Table 5-2. VMware Tools Commands for Netware Guests (Continued)


vmwtool Command enabledevice [<device name>] Definition Enablesthespecifieddeviceordevicesinthevirtual machine.Ifnodeviceisspecified,allremovabledevices inthevirtualmachineareenabled. Letsyouturnonoroffsynchronizationoftimeinthe guestoperatingsystemwithtimeonthehostoperating system.Bydefault,timesynchronizationisturnedoff. Usethiscommandwithoutanyoptionstoviewthe currenttimesynchronizationstatus. idle [on|off] LetsyouturntheCPUidleronoroff.Bydefault,the idleristurnedon.TheCPUidlerprogramisincludedin VMwareToolsforNetWareguests. TheidlerprogramisneededbecauseNetWareservers donotidletheCPUwhentheoperatingsystemisidle. Asaresult,avirtualmachinetakesCPUtimefromthe hostregardlessofwhethertheNetWareserversoftware isidleorbusy.

synctime [on|off]

Customizations to VMware Tools


Customizationsincludemodifyingorwritingscriptsthatrunwhenavirtualmachines powerstatechanges,executingcommandswhenyoushutdownorrestartaUNIX guest,andpassingcommandsinstringsthatruninstartupscripts.

How VMware Tools Scripts Affect Power States


WhenVMwareToolsisinstalled,ifyouconfigureavirtualmachinespowercontrolsto usetheguest,orsoft,poweroptions,oneormoredefaultscriptsrunintheguest wheneveryouchangethepowerstateofthevirtualmachine.Youchangethepower statebyusingmenucommandsorbyclickingtheSuspend,Resume,PowerOn,and PowerOffbuttons. Whatthedefaultscriptsdodependsinpartontheguestoperatingsystem: OnmostMicrosoftWindowsguests,butnotwindowsNTandWindowsMe,the defaultscriptexecutedwhenyoususpendavirtualmachinereleasestheIP addressofthevirtualmachine.Thedefaultscriptexecutedwhenyouresumea virtualmachinerenewstheIPaddressofthevirtualmachine(thisaffectsonly virtualmachinesconfiguredtouseDHCP).ScriptscannotberunonWindows95 guests. InWindowsguests,thedefaultscriptsarelocatedintheProgram Files\VMware\VMware Toolsfolder.
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OnmostUNIXguests,thedefaultscriptexecutedwhenyoususpendavirtual machinestopsnetworkingforthevirtualmachine.Thedefaultscriptexecuted whenyouresumeavirtualmachinestartsnetworkingforthevirtualmachine. ScriptscannotberunonNetWareandFreeBSDguests. OnUNIX,thedefaultscriptsarelocatedinthe/etc/vmware-toolsdirectory. Youcancreateyourownscriptsandusetheminsteadofthedefaultscriptsshownin Table 53. Table 5-3. Default VMware Tools Scripts
Script Name poweroff-vm-default Description Ifyouconfiguredthepoweroffoperationtoshutdowntheguest, thisscriptrunswhenthevirtualmachineisbeingpoweredoff. Ifyouconfiguredtheresetoperationtorestarttheguest,thisscript runswhenthevirtualmachineisbeingreset. Thisscripthasnoeffectonnetworkingforthevirtualmachine. poweron-vm-default Ifyouconfiguredthepoweronoperationtostarttheguest,this scriptrunswhenthevirtualmachineisbeingpoweredonrather thanresumed. Ifyouconfiguredtheresetoperationtorestarttheguest,thisscript runsaftervirtualmachinerestarts. Thisscripthasnoeffectonnetworkingforthevirtualmachine. resume-vm-default Ifyouconfiguredthepoweronoperationtostarttheguest,orthe resetoperationtorestarttheguest,thisscriptrunswhenthevirtual machineisresumedafteritwassuspended. OnWindowsguests,ifthevirtualmachineisconfiguredtouse DHCP,thisscriptrenewstheIPaddressofthevirtualmachine. OnLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests,thisscriptstartsnetworking forthevirtualmachine. suspend-vm-default Ifyouconfiguredthesuspendoperationtosuspendtheguest,this scriptrunswhenthevirtualmachineisbeingsuspended. OnWindowsguests,ifthevirtualmachineisconfiguredtouse DHCP,thisscriptreleasestheIPaddressofthevirtualmachine. OnLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests,thisscriptstopsnetworking forthevirtualmachine.

Creating Scripts to Override Default VMware Tools Scripts


YoucancreateyourownscriptstooverridethedefaultVMwareToolsscriptsthat controlpowerstatechanges.

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ScriptsarerunbytheVMwareToolsdaemon(VMwareService.exe onWindowsand vmware-guestdonUNIX).Becausevmware-guestdisrunasrootonUNIXandas SystemonWindows,thescriptsareruninaseparatesessionfromtheloggedinusers session.TheVMwareToolsdaemonhasnoknowledgeofdesktopsessions,which meansthatitcannotdisplaygraphicalapplications.Donotattempttousecustom scriptstodisplaygraphicalapplications. Beforecreatingcustomscripts,makesurethatthefollowingconditionsaremetinthe guestoperatingsystem: ThevirtualmachineisusingthelatestversionofVMwareTools. TheVMwareToolsserviceisrunninginthevirtualmachine. Dependingontheoperationthescriptperforms,thevirtualmachinehasavirtual networkadapterconnected.Ifnot,thepoweroperationfails. (UNIXguestsonly)ToeditascriptbyusingtheEditbuttonontheScriptstab, xtermandvimustbeinstalledintheguestoperatingsystemandmustbeinyour PATH.Youmustbearootusertoeditthescript. To create scripts to override default VMware Tools scripts 1 Determinewhetheryouwanttocreateyourcustomscriptbymakingchangesto thedefaultscriptandsavingittoanewlocation. InWindowsguests,thedefaultscriptsarelocatedintheProgram Files\VMware\VMware Toolsfolder. OnUNIX,thedefaultscriptsarelocatedinthe/etc/vmware-toolsdirectory. 2 Modifythedefaultscriptandsaveitwithadifferentnameorwriteadifferent script. OnWindowsguests,ifyouwriteanewscript,createthescriptasabatchfile.For UNIX,createthescriptinanyexecutableformat(suchasshellorPerlscripts). YoucanalsousetheEditbuttonontheScriptstaboftheVMwareToolscontrol paneltoeditacustomscript.Youcanalsoeditscriptsmanuallyusinganytext editor. 3 Associateeachcustomscriptwithitsparticularpoweroperation: a b c
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OntheScriptstaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,selecttheappropriate scriptevent. SelecttheUseScriptcheckbox,selectCustomscript,andusetheBrowse buttontopointtothescriptyouwanttouse. ClickOK.

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WhenyoureinstallVMwareToolsafteryouupdatetheVMwareServersoftware,any changesyoumadetothedefaultscriptsareoverwritten.Anycustomscriptsyou createdremainuntouched,butdonotbenefitfromanyunderlyingchangesthat enhancethedefaultscripts.

Running or Disabling a Script


Ifyouarecreatingacustomscript,runthescriptbeforeassociatingitwithapower operation. To run or disable a script 1 2 OntheScriptstaboftheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,selecttheappropriatescript event. Dooneofthefollowing: Todisablethescript,cleartheUseScriptcheckboxandclickOK. Defaultscriptsforsuspendingandresumingworktogether.Ifyoudisablethe scriptofoneoftheseactions,disablethescriptfortheotheractionaswell. Torunascriptimmediately,clickRunNow. YoucansuccessfullyrunascriptbyclickingtheRunNowbuttoninthe VMwareToolscontrolpanel,butthissamescriptcanfailwhenrunaspartof aVMwareServerpoweroperation.ThisisbecausescriptsrunbyclickingRun Nowarerunastheloggedinuserandhaveadifferentworkingdirectorythan whenscriptsarerunbytheVMwareToolsdaemon duringapoweroperation.

Executing Commands After You Power Off or Reset a Virtual Machine


InaLinux,Solaris,orFreeBSDguest,youcanusetheVMwareToolsservicetoexecute specificcommandswhenyoushutdownorrestarttheguestoperatingsystem.Thisis inadditiontoanyscriptthatyouspecifiedtorunwhenyoushutdowntheguest operatingsystem. 1 Useatexteditortoopenthefollowingfile:
/etc/vmware-tools/tools.conf

Addoneorbothofthefollowingcommandstothefile: halt-command = <command> <command>isthecommandtoexecutewhenyoushutdowntheguest operatingsystem.

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reboot-command = <command> <command>isthecommandtoexecutewhenyourestarttheguestoperating system.

Passing a String from the Host to the Guest at Startup


Topassastringfromthehosttotheguestatstartup,youpassthestringfromyour virtualmachinesconfigurationfileinthehosttotheguestoperatingsystemwhenyou poweronthevirtualmachine. YoucanpassitemsliketheWindowssystemID(SID),amachinename,oranIP address.Insidetheguestoperatingsystemstartupscript,youcanhavetheservice retrievethisstring.Thestringcanthenbeusedinanotherscripttosetyourvirtual machinessystemID,machinename,orIPaddress. Usethisstrategy,forexample,tomakecopiesofthesameconfigurationfile,adda differentstringtoeach(eitherintheconfigurationfileitselforatthecommandline), andusethesevariationsofthesameconfigurationfiletolaunchthesamevirtualdisk innonpersistentmodemultipletimesinatrainingortestingenvironment. Passingastringisalsousefulwhenyouwanttodeployvirtualmachinesonanetwork usingacommonconfigurationfilewhileprovidingeachmachinewithitsownunique identity. Youcanpassstringstoavirtualmachinesguestoperatingsysteminoneoftwoways: placingthestringinthevirtualmachinesconfigurationfileorpassingthestringtothe guestfromthecommandline. Usethisfeatureonlyifyouhaveagoodunderstandingofascriptinglanguage(for example,PerlorNetShell)andknowhowtomodifysystemstartupscripts.

String in a Configuration File


Placeastringinthevirtualmachinesconfiguration(.vmx)filebysettingthestringto themachine.idparameter.Forexample,youcansetthisstring:
machine.id = "Hello World."

Followingisanexampleofportionsoftwoconfigurationfilesthatpointtothesame virtualdisk.Eachconfigurationfilecontainsitsownuniquestringsetforthe machine.idparameter. config_file_1.vmxcontains:


ide0:0.present = TRUE ide0:0.fileName = "my_common_virtual_hard_drive.vmdk" machine.id = "the_string_for_my_first_vm"

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config_file_2.vmxcontains:
ide0:0.present = TRUE ide0:0.fileName = "my_common_virtual_hard_drive.vmdk" machine.id = "the_string_for_my_second_vm"

Topreventastringfrombeingpassedfromthehosttotheguestthroughtheservice, setthefollowinglineinyourvirtualmachinesconfigurationfile:
isolation.tools.getMachineID.disable = "TRUE"

String in a Startup Command


Ratherthansettingthemachine.idparameterintheconfigurationfile,youcanpass thestringtotheguestoperatingsystemfromthecommandlinewhenyoupoweron thevirtualmachine.Followingisanexampleofsuchastartupcommand(enteredon oneline):
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Server\vmware -s 'machine.id=Hello World' C:\Virtual Machines\win2000\win2000.vmx

Usethismethodtodeployvirtualmachinesonanetworkusingacommon configurationfilewhileprovidingeachmachinewithitsownuniqueidentity. Launcheachvirtualmachinewiththevmware -scommand.Eachvirtualmachinedisk filemustbecopiedintoitsowndirectoryifitsharesitsfilenamewithanothervirtual machinediskfile. OnaLinuxhost,themachineIDpassedonthecommandlinetakesprecedenceandis passedtotheguestoperatingsystemifthefollowingconditionsaremet: AvirtualmachineIDisspecifiedinthevirtualmachinesconfiguration(.vmx)file whichisusedtoopenthevirtualmachine. YouspecifyamachineIDonthecommandline.

Using a String in a Startup Script to Set a Name and IP Address


ThefollowingexampleusesaWindowshosttoillustratehowyoucanusetheservice toretrieveastringcontainingwhatbecomesthevirtualmachinesmachinenameand IPaddress.Inthisexample,W2KVMisthemachinenameand148.30.16.24istheIP address. To use a string in a startup script to set a name and IP address 1 Definethestringbyusingoneofthefollowingmethods: Onthehostmachine,addthefollowinglinetoyourvirtualmachines configuration(.vmx)file:

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machine.id = "W2K-VM 148.30.16.24"

Openthevirtualmachineusingthisconfigurationfile. Openthevirtualmachinefromthecommandlinebyenteringthefollowing ononeline:


C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Server\vmware -s 'machine.id=W2K-VM 148.30.16.24' C:\Virtual Machines\win2000\win2000.vmx

Dooneofthefollowingtoretrievethestringinthevirtualmachine: InaWindowsguest,enterthefollowingcommandtoretrievethestring:
VMwareService --cmd machine.id.get

InaLinuxguest,intheoperatingsystemsstartupscript,addthefollowing commandbeforethenetworkstartupsection.Forexample:
/usr/sbin/vmware-guestd --cmd 'machine.id.get'

Thelocationofvmware-guestddependsonthedirectoryyouspecifyatthe timeofinstallation. 3 Furthercustomizethisstartupscriptsothatitusesthestringtheserviceretrieved duringstartuptosetthevirtualmachinesnetworknametoW2KVManditsIP addressto148.30.16.24. Placethisstringinthescriptbeforethecommandtostartthenetworkservices. IfyouareusingaWindows2000guestoperatingsystem,forexample,youcancall theNetShellutility(netsh)andpassitthecontentsofthestring,whichusesthe stringaccordingly.Thatis,itcansetanewIPaddressforthevirtualmachine,if thatiswhatwaspassedinthestringoriginally.

Passing Information Between the Guest and Another Program


TheVMwareToolsserviceallowsyoutouseVMwareprogrammaticinterfacesto managevirtualmachinesfromyourownindependentprogramsandfromexisting frameworksdevelopedbypartnersandthirdparties. FormoreinformationabouttheVMwareInfrastructureSDK,gototheVMwareAPIs andSDKsDocumentationpageoftheVMwareWebsite.

Using the VMware Tools Command-Line Interface


TheVMwareToolscommandlineinterfaceenablesyoutodothefollowing: ConfiguretimesynchronizationinyourLinuxguestoperatingsystemwithout runningX.
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InstallanduninstallVMwareTools,determinetheversion,andsoon. To use the VMware Tools command-line interface 1 Intheguestoperatingsystem,changedirectoriestothedirectorythatcontainsthe VMwareToolsdaemon. Dependingontheoperatingsystem,thenameanddefaultlocationofthedaemon areasfollows: OnMicrosoftWindowssystems,thedaemoniscalledVMwareService.exe andthelocationis:
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools\VMwareService.exe

OnUNIXsystems,thedaemoniscalledvmware-guestd. Thelocationof vmware-guestddependsonthedirectoryyouspecifyatthetimeof installation.Thedefaultlocationis:


/usr/sbin/vmware-guestd

Toconfigureperiodictimesynchronization,usethevmx.set_optioncommand. Usethefollowingsyntax: <daemon> --cmd "vmx.set_option synctime <old_val> <new_val>" <daemon>isvmware-guestdonUNIXsystemsorVMwareService.exeon Windowssystems. <old_val>and<new_val>aretheoldandnewvalues,respectively.Use0tomean FALSEand1tomeanTRUE. FollowingisanexampleofsettingtimesynchronizationtoTRUEonaLinuxguest:
./vmware-guestd --cmd "vmx.set_option synctime 0 1"

Thenewsettingiswrittentothetools.syncTimepropertyinthevirtual machinesconfiguration(.vmx)file.Usingthisoptionisequivalenttousingthe timesynchronizationoptionontheOptionstaboftheVMwareToolscontrol panel. Tousecommandsotherthan--cmd,usethe--helpcommandlinecommand.

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Managing VMware Server

Thischapterdescribeshowtoperformhostwideconfigurationtasks,including managingyourvirtualmachineinventoryanddatastores,andconfiguringglobal memory,snapshot,andvirtualmachinestartupandshutdownsettings.Italso describesWindowshostfeaturesforbackingupvirtualmachinesusingtheVolume ShadowCopyService(VSS)andloggingVMwareServereventsintheEventViewer.To performhostmanagementoperations,youmusthavetherequiredpermissions. Forinformationaboutmanagingindividualvirtualmachines,seeChapter 7,Running VirtualMachines,onpage 115. ForinformationaboutconfiguringVMwareServernetworking,seeChapter 11, ConfiguringaVirtualNetwork,onpage 203. Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics: ManagingtheVirtualMachineInventoryonpage 101 ManagingDatastoresonpage 103 EditingHostWideMemoryandSnapshotSettingsonpage 106 ConfiguringVirtualMachineStartupandShutdownSettingsonpage 109 EnablingQuiescedBackupsofVirtualMachinesonWindowsonpage 111

Managing the Virtual Machine Inventory


AfteryouhaveinstalledVMwareServer,youcancreatenewvirtualmachines,as describedinChapter 4,CreatingandUpgradingVirtualMachines,onpage 57.These virtualmachinesareautomaticallyaddedtoyourinventory.Youcanalsoaddexisting virtualmachinestoyourinventorysoyoucanmanagethemusingVI WebAccess.

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Thissectiondescribeshowtoaddandremovevirtualmachinesintheinventory.

Adding a Virtual Machine to the Inventory


WhenyoucreateavirtualmachineusingVI WebAccess,itisautomaticallyaddedto theinventory.Thissectiondescribeshowtoaddavirtualmachinetotheinventoryifit isonanetworkedfilesystemorcopiedfromanotherhost. Beforeyoucanaddavirtualmachinetotheinventory,thefilesthatmakeupthevirtual machinemustbelocatedinadatastore.SeeManagingDatastoresonpage 103. To add a virtual machine to the inventory 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,clickAddVirtualMachineto Inventory. ClickBrowsetolocatetheconfigurationfile(.vmxfileextension)forthevirtual machineyouwanttoaddtotheinventory. UsetheInventorycolumntonavigatethefilesystem. TheContentscolumnliststhecontentsofthecurrentdirectory. TheInformationcolumnshowsdetailedinformationabouttheselecteddirectory orfile. 4 Whenyoufindthevirtualmachineconfigurationfilethatyouwant,selectitfrom theContentscolumnandclickOK. Thevirtualmachineisaddedtotheinventory.

Removing a Virtual Machine from the Inventory


VMwareServerincludesoptionstoremoveavirtualmachinefromtheinventoryorto completelydeletethevirtualmachine.Youdonotneedtomanipulatefilesonthehost filesystemtodeleteavirtualmachine. Beforeyoucandeleteavirtualmachineorremoveitfromtheinventory,itmustbe poweredofforsuspended. To delete a virtual machine or remove it from the inventory 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. ClicktheVirtualMachinestab. Selectthevirtualmachinetodelete.

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Whenthevirtualmachineispoweredoff,theRemoveVirtualMachinecommand appearsintheCommandssectionoftheworkspace. 4 ClickRemoveVirtualMachine. Aconfirmationdialogboxappears. 5 (Optional)Todeleteallthevirtualmachinefilesfromdisk,selectDeletethis virtualmachinesfilesfromthedisk. IfyoudonotselectDeletethisvirtualmachinesfilesfromthedisk,thevirtual machineisremovedfromtheinventory,butallthevirtualmachinefilesremain intactonthedatastore. 6 ClickOK. Thevirtualmachineisdeletedorremovedfromtheinventory. YoucanalsodeleteavirtualmachineorremoveitfromtheinventoryfromtheVirtual Machinemenu.SeeDeletingaVirtualMachineonpage 123.

Performing Power Operations on Virtual Machines


Youcanperformpoweroperationsonanyvirtualmachinesinyourinventoryfromthe VirtualMachinestabofthehostworkspace.Thisismoreefficientthanperforming poweroperationsoneachvirtualmachinefromitsownworkspace. To change the power state of a virtual machine from the host workspace 1 2 3 4 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. ClicktheVirtualMachinestab. Inthelistofvirtualmachines,selectthevirtualmachineforwhichyouwantto changethepowerstate. Clicktheappropriatepowerbuttoninthetoolbar.

Youcanalsochangethepowerstateofavirtualmachinefromitsownworkspace. Foradetaileddescriptionofhowpoweroperationsaffectvirtualmachines,see ChangingthePowerStateofaVirtualMachineonpage 116.

Managing Datastores
Thissectiondescribeshowtoadd,rename,andremovedatastores.

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Adding Datastores
AdatastoreisastoragelocationforVMwareServervirtualmachinefiles.Thestorage locationcanbethelocalfilesystem,aCIFSstore(Windowsonly),oranNFSmounted filesystem(Linuxonly).

Prerequisites for Samba CIFS Datastores


SambaCIFSstoresrequireadditionalconfiguration.Youmustaddthesetting create mask = 766totheconfiguration(smb.conf)fileforeachSambaCIFSstore. TheuserthatconnectstotheSambaservermustalsohavewriteprivilegesforthe operatingsystemandtheSambaserver.

Prerequisites for NFS Datastores


BeforeyoucanaddanNFSdatastore,youmustmounttheNFSvolumeonthehost. Insomecases,toprotectNFSvolumesfromunauthorizedaccess,NFSadministrators mightexportvolumeswiththeroot squashoptionturnedon.Whenroot squashis on,theNFSservertreatsaccessbyrootasaccessbyanyunprivilegedusersandmight refusetheVMwareServerhostaccesstotheNFSvolume.Tomakesurethatyoucan createandmanagedatastoresfromyourhost,theNFSadministratormustturnoffthe root squashfeatureoraddtheVMwareServerhostsphysicalnetworkadaptertothe listoftrustedhosts. To add a datastore 1 2 3 4 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickAddDatastore. EnteranameforthedatastoreintheNametextbox. Entertheinformationforthelocal(hostsystem)orremotedirectory. Toaddalocaldatastore: i ii iii SelectLocalDatastore. EnterthepathintheDirectoryPathtextbox. ClickOKtoaddthedatastore.

ToaddaCIFSdatastore(Windowshostonly): i ii iii
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SelectCIFS. EnteravalidservernameorIPaddress. Enterthelocationofthesharedfolder.

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iv

Enteravalidusername. Includethedomainorservername,forexample:
<domain_name>\<username>

or
<server_name>\<username>

v vi
.

Enterthecorrespondingpassword. ClickOKtoaddthedatastore.

NOTEVMwareServerusestheWindowscredentialmanagerforuser authentication.Becausethiscredentialmanagerfeatureisnotsupportedon Windows2000Server,youcannotaddaCIFSdatastoreifVMwareServeris installedonaWindows2000Serverhost. ToaddanNFSdatastore(Linuxhostonly): i ii iii iv SelectNetworkFileSystem. EnteravalidNFSservernameorIPaddress. Enterthelocationofthesharedfolder. ClickOKtoaddthedatastore.

Thedatastoreappearsinthelistofdatastores.

Renaming Datastores
Youcanrenameanexistingdatastore. To rename a datastore 1 2 3 4 5 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheDatastoressectionoftheSummarytab,clickthedatastoretorename. IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickRenameDatastore. EnteranewnameforthedatastoreintheNametextbox. ClickOK. Therenameddatastoreappearsinthelistofdatastores.

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Removing Datastores
Ifyounolongerwanttoaccessadatastore,youcanremoveitfromVMwareServer. Beforeyoucanremoveadatastore,youmustremoveallvirtualmachinesinthe datastore. To remove a datastore 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheDatastoressectionoftheSummarytab,clickthedatastoretoremove. IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickRemoveDatastore. Aconfirmationdialogboxappears. 4 ClickOKtoremovethedatastore. Thedatastorenolongerappearsinthelistofdatastores.

Refreshing Datastores
Whenyourefreshadatastore,VMwareServerupdatesthecapacityandfreespace availableforthatdatastore.Therefreshcommandallowsyoutoseechangesindisk capacityandfreespacecausedbyoperationsperformeddirectlyonthehostsystem. ThesevaluesareautomaticallyupdatedwhenyouperformVMwareServeroperations suchascreatingordeletingavirtualmachine. To refresh a datastore 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheDatastoressectionoftheSummarytab,clickthedatastoretorefresh. IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickRefreshDatastore. Thevaluesforcapacityandfreespaceareupdatedforthatdatastore.

Editing Host-Wide Memory and Snapshot Settings


Thissectiondescribeshowtoconfigurehostmemorysettingsandwhetherornot snapshotsaretakeninthebackground.

Configuring Host Memory


Inadditiontoconfiguringthememorylimitforeachvirtualmachine,VMwareServer allowsyoutospecifythefollowing:

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Howmuchofthehostsystemsmemorycanbeusedforallrunningvirtual machines Theextenttowhichthehostoperatingsystemsmemorymanagercanswapvirtual machinesoutofphysicalRAM Thesesettingsaffectbothvirtualmachineandoverallsystemperformance.See ConfiguringHostWideVirtualMachineMemoryUsageonpage 267.

Reserving Host Memory for All Virtual Machines


YoucansettheamountofhostRAMthatVMwareServerisallowedtoreserveforall runningvirtualmachines. To configure the amount of reserved memory for all virtual machines 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,clickEditHostSettings. IntheReservedMemorysection,enteravaluefortheSize. Theminimumandmaximumsettingsaredisplayed. Ifyouentertoohighavalue,thehostmightperformpoorlywhenother applicationsarerunningonthehost.Ifyouentertoolowavalue,virtualmachines mightperformpoorlyandyoucannotrunasmanyvirtualmachinesatonce.For moreinformation,seeReservingHostMemoryforVirtualMachineUseon page 267. 4 ClickOKorcontinuetothenextsectiontoconfigureadditionalhostmemory settings.

Configuring Additional Memory for Swapping


VMwareServerlimitsthenumberofvirtualmachinesthatcanrunatthesametime basedontheamountofmemoryreservedforallrunningvirtualmachines.Toadjust thenumberofvirtualmachinesthatcanberunortheirtotalmemoryusage,specifythe amountofvirtualmachinememorythatthehostoperatingsystemcanswaptodisk. To configure the amount of additional virtual machine memory that can be swapped 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,clickEditHostSettings. IntheAdditionalMemorysection,selectoneofthefollowingoptions:

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FitallvirtualmachinememoryintoreservedhostRAMStrictlyapplies thereservedmemorylimit.Thissettingimposesthetightestrestrictionsonthe numberandmemorysizeofvirtualmachinesthatcanrunatagiventime. BecausethevirtualmachinesarerunningentirelyinRAM,theyhavethebest possibleperformance. AllowsomevirtualmachinememorytobeswappedAllowsthehost operatingsystemtoswapamoderateamountofvirtualmachinememoryto diskifnecessary.Thissettingallowsyoutoincreasethenumberormemory sizeofvirtualmachinesthatcanrunonthehostsystematagiventime.It mightalsoresultinreducedperformanceifvirtualmachinememorymustbe swappedbetweenRAManddisk. AllowmostvirtualmachinememorytobeswappedAllowsthehost operatingsystemtoswapthemaximumamountofvirtualmachinememory todisk.Thissettingallowsyoutorunmorevirtualmachinesandusemore memorythanthemoderatesettingdoes.Performancemightbefurther decreasedifvirtualmachinememorymustbeswappedbetweenRAMand disk. 4 ClickOK.

Ifyoutrytopoweronavirtualmachinewheninsufficientmemoryisavailable, VMwareServerdisplaysawarningdialogbox.Themessageshowshowmuchmemory thevirtualmachineisconfiguredtouseandhowmuchmemoryisavailable.Toattempt topoweronthevirtualmachineusingtheavailablememory,clickOK.Otherwise,click Cancel.

Enabling and Disabling Background Snapshots


TakingsnapshotsinthebackgroundallowsyoutocontinueworkingwhileVMware Serverpreservesthestateofthevirtualmachine.However,enablingbackground snapshotsforahostwithslowharddiskscanadverselyaffectperformance.Ifyou experiencesignificantperformanceproblemswhentakingorrestoringsnapshots, disablebackgroundsnapshots. Foradditionalinformationonmanagingsnapshots,seeUsingSnapshotson page 187. To enable or disable background snapshots 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,clickEditHostSettings. IntheSnapshotssection,dooneofthefollowing:

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Toenablebackgroundsnapshots,selectthecheckbox. Todisablebackgroundsnapshots,deselectthecheckbox. 4 ClickOK. Thesettingtakeseffectafterthevirtualmachinesarerestarted.

Configuring Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown Settings


Youcanconfigurevirtualmachinestostartupandshutdownautomaticallywhenthe hostoperatingsystemstartsandshutsdown,orallowthemtobestartedandshut downmanually.Youcanalsospecifytheorderinwhichvirtualmachinesare automaticallystartedandshutdown. Youcanalsoconfiguresystemwidesettingsthatspecifyadelaybetweeneachvirtual machinesstartupandshutdown,andwhatkindofactionisperformedatshutdown (suspend,poweroff,orshutdownguest).Youcanoptionallyoverridethesystemwide settingsforindividualvirtualmachines.

Enabling System-Wide Startup and Shutdown Settings


Youcanenablevirtualmachinestobestartedandshutdownautomaticallyand configurehowandwhenvirtualmachinesarestartedandshutdown. To enable system-wide startup and shutdown settings 1 2 3 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,click Edit Virtual Machine Startup/ShutdownSettings. SelectAllowvirtualmachinestostartandstopautomaticallywiththesystem. Ifthisoptionisdisabled,youcannotconfigurestartupandshutdownsettingsfor anyofthevirtualmachinesonthehost. NOTEToallowvirtualmachinestobestartedandshutdownonaWindowshost system,youmustalsoselectAllowvirtualmachinestostartandstop automaticallywiththesystemduringtheinstallationofVMwareServer. 4 (Optional)Configureoneormoreofthefollowingsettings: DefaultStartupDelayEntertheamountoftimeinsecondstowaitaftera virtualmachineisstartedbeforestartingthenextvirtualmachineinthelist.

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Thisdelaypreventsplacinganexcessiveburdenonthehostresources. StartnextVMimmediatelyiftheVMwareToolsstartSelecttostartthe nextvirtualmachineinthestartuplistimmediatelyafterVMwareToolsstarts inthecurrentvirtualmachine. DefaultShutdownDelayEntertheamountoftimeinsecondstowaitafter shuttingdownavirtualmachinebeforeshuttingdownthenextvirtual machineinthelist. Thisdelaypreventsplacinganexcessiveburdenonthehostresources. ShutdownActionSelectPowerOff,Suspend,orShutdownguest.

Specifying the Startup and Shutdown Order for Virtual Machines


Aftervirtualmachinesareconfiguredtostartandshutdownautomatically,youcanset theorderinwhichthevirtualmachinesarestartedandshutdown. To configure the startup and shutdown order for virtual machines 1 Makesurethatsystemwidesettingsareenabled. SeeEnablingSystemWideStartupandShutdownSettingsonpage 109. 2 Movevirtualmachinesbetween,andwithin,thefollowinglistsbyselectingoneor morevirtualmachinesandclickingMoveUporMoveDown: SpecifiedOrderThesevirtualmachinesarelistedintheorderinwhich theyareconfiguredtostartup.Thevirtualmachinesareshutdowninthe reverseorderfromwhichtheyarestarted. AnyOrderThesevirtualmachinesarestartedandshutdown automatically,butnotinaspecificorder.Thevirtualmachinesinthiscategory donotstartorshutdownuntilallthevirtualmachineslistedintheSpecified Orderlistarestartedorshutdown. ManualStartupThesevirtualmachinesarenotstartedautomaticallywhen thehostisbroughtup.Whenthehostisshutdown,thesevirtualmachinesare shutdownaccordingtotheshutdownactionindicated. 3 ClickOKtosaveyoursettings.

Customizing the Startup and Shutdown Settings for Individual Virtual Machines
Youcanoverridethesystemwidesettingsforthedelaybetweeneachvirtualmachines startupandshutdownforindividualvirtualmachines.
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Youcanchangethestartupsettingsforvirtualmachinesthatarestartedautomatically, butnotforvirtualmachinesthatarestartedmanually.Youcanchangetheshutdown settingsforanyvirtualmachine. To override system-wide settings for individual virtual machines 1 Makesurethatsystemwidesettingsareenabled. SeeEnablingSystemWideStartupandShutdownSettingsonpage 109. 2 3 Selectthevirtualmachineforwhichyouwanttooverridethesystemsettingsand clickEdit. (Optional)Tooverridethedefaultsystemsettingforstartup,selectUsespecified settingsandchangeoneorbothofthefollowing: StartupDelayEntertheamountoftimeinsecondstowaitafteravirtual machineisstartedbeforestartingthenextvirtualmachineinthestartuplist. ContinueimmediatelyiftheVMwareToolsstartSelecttostartthenext virtualmachineinthestartuplistimmediatelyafterVMwareToolsstartsin thecurrentvirtualmachine. 4 (Optional)Tooverridethedefaultsystemsettingforshutdown,selectUse specifiedsettingsandchangeoneorbothofthefollowing: ShutdownDelayEntertheamountoftimeinsecondstowaitaftershutting downavirtualmachinebeforeshuttingdownthenextvirtualmachineinthe shutdownlist. PerformShutdownActionSelectSystemDefault,PowerOff,Suspend,or ShutDownGuest. 5 ClickOK.

Enabling Quiesced Backups of Virtual Machines on Windows


TheVolumeShadowCopyService(VSS)providesabackupinfrastructurefor applicationsrunningonWindowsoperatingsystems.TheVMwareVSSWriter interactswithVMwareToolsrunninginvirtualmachines,andenablesbackup applicationsthatuseVSStoperformquiescedbackupsofvirtualmachines.Whenthe VSSenabledapplicationrequestsabackup,theVMwareVSSWriterautomatically quiescesthevirtualmachinediskfilesandcreatesasnapshotofthevirtualmachinefor thebackupapplication.

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NOTEVMwarehastestedquiescedbackupsusingWindowsBackup(NTBackup).For informationaboutsupportforthirdpartybackupapplications,contactyourbackup applicationvendor. YoucanperformquiescedbackupsonhostoperatingsystemsrunningWindowsServer 2003andWindowsServer2008.Only32bitWindowsServer2008hostsaresupported. TheguestoperatingsystemmustberunningWindowsServer2003orWindowsServer 2008.AnuptodateversionofVMwareToolsmustbeinstalledintheguestoperating system. ForWindowsServer2003guestsystems,theVSSWriterusesapplicationVSSwriters sothattheVSSsnapshotisapplicationconsistent.Thesnapshotrepresentstheentire stateoftheVSSawareapplicationsregardlessoftheirbackuphistoryanddoesnot modifythebackuphistory. ForWindowsServer2008guestsystems,theVSSWriterdoesnotuseapplication writersand,asaresult,thesnapshotisfilesystemconsistent. NOTEVMwareServerallowsonesnapshotforeachvirtualmachine.Ifasnapshot exists,theVSSwriterdoesnotquiescethevirtualmachines,unlessyouoverridethis defaultbehavior. To enable and disable quiesced backups for virtual machines 1 (Optional)ToallowtheVSSWritertooverwriteanexistingsnapshot: a b Createthefilevmvsswriter.cfgintheVMwareServerinstallationdirectory, typicallyC:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Server. Addthefollowingparametertothevmvsswriter.cfgfiletospecifythatan existingsnapshotcanbeoverwrittensovirtualmachinescanbequiesced beforebackup:
vmwriter.overwriteSnapshots = "TRUE"

IfsettoTRUE,anyexistingsnapshotsareoverwrittenwithoutwarning,and thevirtualmachinesarebackedupusingquiescedsnapshots. Ifnotset,orsettoFALSE,thevirtualmachinesarenotquiescedifasnapshot existswhenthebackupistaken. 2 StarttheVMwareVSSWriterServiceusingtheWindowsServicescontrolpanel.

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TheuserrunningtheVSSWriterServicemusthavepermissiontoperform administrativetasksonvirtualmachines,suchascreatingsnapshots.Theuser mustalsobeabletowritetothevirtualmachinediskfiledirectory.Youcanverify orchangetheusernameandpasswordintheLogOntabofthePropertiesdialog boxfortheVSSWriterService. YoumustrestarttheVSSWriterServiceanytimeyoumakechangestothe vmvsswriter.cfgfile. To restore a virtual machine from a quiesced backup 1 2 Makesurethatanyvirtualmachinesyouwanttorestorearepoweredoff. Dooneofthefollowing: Usethebackupsoftwaretorestorethevirtualmachines. Restoreanindividualvirtualmachinebyrevertingtothesnapshot.For informationaboutrevertingtoasnapshot,seeRevertingtoaSnapshoton page 190.

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Running Virtual Machines

AfteryouhaveinstalledVMwareServer,createdavirtualmachine,andinstalleda guestoperatingsystemandVMwareTools,youarereadytorunyourvirtualmachine. Toperformvirtualmachineoperations,youmusthavetherequiredpermissions.Many configurationmodificationsaredisabledwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon. NOTETheonlytasksVIWebAccesscanperformonhardwareversion3virtual machinesarepoweroperationsandupgrade. Thischapterdescribesthemostcommontaskstomanageandusevirtualmachinesand coversthefollowingtopics: RunningVMwareToolsonpage 116 ChangingthePowerStateofaVirtualMachineonpage 116 ChangingVirtualMachinePowerSettingsonpage 118 ChangingVirtualMachineNameandGuestSystemSettingsonpage 117 ChangingVirtualMachineSnapshotSettingsonpage 119 ChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121 DeletingaVirtualMachineonpage 123 UsingVMwareRemoteConsoleonpage 124 GeneratingandSharingVirtualMachineShortcutsonpage 127 EditingNotesintheVirtualMachineSummaryTabonpage 128 EditingtheHardwareConfigurationofaVirtualMachineonpage 129

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AddingHardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130 InstallingNewSoftwareinaVirtualMachineonpage 131 AdvancedOptionsforApplicationDevelopersonpage 132

Running VMware Tools


Forimprovedguestoperatingsystemperformanceandvirtualmachinemanagement, makesureVMwareToolsisinstalledandrunninginyourvirtualmachine.See Chapter 5,InstallingandUsingVMwareTools,onpage 71. AfterVMwareToolsisinstalledinaWindowsvirtualmachine,theVMwareTools servicesstartwhenyoustarttheguestoperatingsystem.TheVMwareToolsicon appearsintheguestsnotificationareaunlessyoudisabletheicon.
VMware Tools icon

OnWindowsguests,iftheVMwareToolsiconincludesayellowcautionicon,itmeans thatanupdateisavailable.Toperformtheupdate,doubleclicktheicon,andonthe Optionstabthatappears,clicktheUpdatebutton. IftheVMwareToolsiconappearswitharedcircleandslashoverit,thismeansthat theVMwareToolsserviceisnotrunning.Tostarttheservice,selectRunfromthe WindowsStartmenu,andenterservices.msc.Inthewindowthatappears,startthe servicecalledVMwareToolsService. IftheVMwareToolsicondoesnotappearinthenotificationareaoftheWindows gueststaskbar,usetheVMwareToolscontrolpanelintheguesttodisplayit.See UsingtheWindowsControlPaneltoDisplaytheTaskbarIcononpage 89. TochangeotherVMwareToolsproperties,seeUsingtheVMwareToolsControl Panelonpage 88.Formoreinformationabouttheproperties,clickHelp.

Changing the Power State of a Virtual Machine


YoucanuseVIWebAccesstochangethepowerstateofthevirtualmachine. Tochangeavirtualmachinespowerstate,dooneofthefollowing: SelectthevirtualmachinefromtheInventorypanel,andclickthebuttoninthe toolbarthatindicatesthedesiredpowerstate.

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FromthehostworkspaceVirtualMachinestab,selectthevirtualmachine,and clickthebuttoninthetoolbarthatindicatesthedesiredpowerstate. Table 71describeswhathappenswhenyouchangethepowerstateofavirtual machine. Table 7-1. Toolbar Power Operations
Button Description Powersoffthevirtualmachine.Dependingonhowyouhaveconfiguredthe poweroptionsforthisvirtualmachine,VMwareServermightshutdownthe guestoperatingsystemandexecuteanyscriptsassociatedwiththispowerstate change. Whenthisiconisdepressed,thevirtualmachineispoweredoff. Suspendsarunningvirtualmachine.Dependingonhowyouhaveconfiguredthe poweroptionsforthisvirtualmachine,VMwareServermightputtheguest operatingsystemonstandbyandexecuteanyscriptsassociatedwiththispower statechange. Whenthisiconisdepressed,thevirtualmachineissuspended. Powersonastoppedvirtualmachineorresumesasuspendedvirtualmachine. Dependingonhowyouhaveconfiguredthepoweroptionsforthisvirtual machine,VMwareServermightrestartorresumetheguestoperatingsystemand executeanyscriptsassociatedwiththispowerstatechange. Whenthisiconisdepressed,thevirtualmachineisrunning. Resetsthevirtualmachine.Dependingonhowyouhaveconfiguredthepower optionsforthisvirtualmachine,VMwareServermightshutdownandrestartthe guestoperatingsystemandexecuteanyscriptsassociatedwiththispowerstate change.

NOTEShuttingdownorrestartingaguestoperatingsystemworksonlywhen VMwareToolsisinstalled.Otherwise,thepoweristurnedofforthevirtualmachineis resetexactlyasifyouhadpushedthepowerorresetbuttononaphysicalmachine.For informationaboutinstallingVMwareTools,seeChapter 5,InstallingandUsing VMwareTools,onpage 71.ForinformationabouthowtouseVMwareToolsscripts toaffectpowerstatebehavior,seeChangingVirtualMachinePowerSettingsonpage 118 andHowVMwareToolsScriptsAffectPowerStatesonpage 93.

Changing Virtual Machine Name and Guest System Settings


Youcanchangethenameandtheguestoperatingsystemsettingoftheselectedvirtual machine.
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To change virtual machine name or guest operating system settings 1 2 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. IntheGeneraltab,changethenameorguestoperatingsystemsetting: (Optional)Tochangethedisplayname,typeanewnameintheVirtual MachineNametextbox. (Optional)Tochangetheguestoperatingsystemsetting(forexample,ifyou areupgradingtheguestoperatingsystemversion),selectthetypeof operatingsystemandthenselecttheoperatingsystemversionfromthe dropdownmenu. Whenyouchangetheoperatingsystemversionhere,thesettingfortheguest operatingsystemischangedinthevirtualmachinesconfigurationfile.The guestoperatingsystemitselfisnotchanged.Forinformationaboutupdatingthe guestoperatingsystem,seeUpdatingtheGuestOperatingSystemon page 68. 3 ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

TheGeneraltabalsodisplaysthelocationofthevirtualmachineworkingdirectoryand thevirtualmachineconfigurationfile.Donoteditthevirtualmachineconfigurationfile directly.Instead,usetheAdvancedtaboftheConfigureVMdialogbox.SeeChanging VirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121.

Changing Virtual Machine Power Settings


Powercontroloptionsallowyoutodefineactionsthatoccurwhenyouchangethe powerstateofavirtualmachine. To change power state options 1 2 3 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClickthePowertab. (Optional)Selectthedefaultpoweroffoptionforthevirtualmachine. SettingsforpoweringoffvirtualmachinesincludePowerOffandShutDown Guest.WhenVMwareToolsisnotinstalled,thedefaultactionistopoweroffthe virtualmachinewithoutshuttingdowntheguest.WhenVMwareToolsis installed,thedefaultactionistoshutdowntheguestbeforepoweringoffthe virtualmachine.

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(Optional)Selectthedefaultsuspendoptionforthevirtualmachine. SettingsforsuspendingvirtualmachinesincludeSuspendandSuspendGuest. WhenVMwareToolsisnotinstalled,thedefaultactionistosuspendthevirtual machinewithoutsuspendingtheguest.WhenVMwareToolsisinstalled,the defaultactionistosuspendtheguestbeforesuspendingthevirtualmachine.

(Optional)Selectthedefaultrebootoptionforthevirtualmachine. SettingsforrebootingvirtualmachinesincludeResetandRestartGuest.When VMwareToolsisnotinstalled,thedefaultactionistoresetthevirtualmachine withoutshuttingdowntheguest.WhenVMwareToolsisinstalled,thedefault actionistoshutdowntheguestbeforeresettingthevirtualmachine.

(Optional)IntheVMwareToolsScriptssection,selectoneormorecheckboxesto runaVMwareToolsscriptAfterpoweringon,Afterresuming,Before suspending,andBeforepoweringoff.SeeHowVMwareToolsScriptsAffect PowerStatesonpage 93. (Optional)IntheBIOSSetupsection,selectEntertheBIOSsetupscreenthenext timethevirtualmachinebootsifyouwanttogodirectlytotheBIOSsetupscreen thenexttimethevirtualmachineispoweredon. Afterthenextpoweron,thissettingisdeselected.

(Optional)IntheAdvancedsection,selectoneorbothoftheVMwareTools options: SelectCheckandUpgradeVMwareToolsbeforepoweringonifyouwantto automaticallyupgradeVMwareToolswheneveranewversionisavailable. SelectSynchronizeguesttimewithhosttosynchronizethetimeintheguest operatingsystemwiththetimeinthehostoperatingsystem.SeeOptions Tabonpage 89.

ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

Changing Virtual Machine Snapshot Settings


Thissectiondescribeshowtochangesnapshotsettingsforthevirtualmachine.With thesesettings,youcandothefollowing: Lockthecurrentsnapshotsoitcannotbeupdated Reverttothecurrentsnapshotwhenpoweringoff Fordetailedinformationaboutusingsnapshotstopreservethestateofthevirtual machine,seeUsingSnapshotsonpage 187.

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Locking the Snapshot


Lockingthecurrentsnapshotpreventsitfrombeingoverwritten.Thesnapshotmust alreadyexist. To lock the current snapshot 1 2 3 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClicktheSnapshottab. IntheCurrentSnapshotsection,selectLockthissnapshot. Ifthischeckboxcannotbeselected,itmeansthatnosnapshotexists. 4 ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

Setting Snapshot Power Off Options


Youcansetavirtualmachinetoautomaticallyreverttothesnapshot,ortoaskyou whetheryouwanttoreverttothesnapshot,wheneveryoupoweroffthevirtual machine. To set a snapshot power off option 1 2 3 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClicktheSnapshottab. SelectoneofthefollowingoptionsintheWhenpoweringoffsection: JustpoweroffPowersoffwithoutmakinganychangestothesnapshot. ReverttosnapshotRevertstothecurrentsnapshot,sothevirtualmachine alwaysstartsinthestateitwasinwhenthecurrentsnapshotwastaken. Revertingtothesnapshotdiscardschanges.Forexample,aninstructormight needtodiscardstudentanswersforacomputerlessonwhenavirtualmachine ispoweredoffattheendofclass. AskmeEverytimeyoupoweroffavirtualmachine,youarepromptedto specifywhetheryouwanttojustpowerofforreverttothecurrentsnapshot. 4 ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

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Changing Virtual Machine Advanced Settings


Thissectiondescribeshowtoconfigureadvancedvirtualmachinesettings,including thefollowing: WhatkindofinformationiscollectedwhileVMwareServerisrunning. Enablinganddisablinglogging. Disablingaccelerationifaprogramcannotberuninyourvirtualmachine. EnablingVirtualMachineInterface(VMI)paravirtualizationtoincrease performanceonhoststhatsupportparavirtualization. SpecifyingwhetherandhowvirtualizedMMUsupportisused Modifyingvirtualmachineconfigurationfileparameters. NOTEDonotchangeanyconfigurationfileparametersunlessyouareinstructed todosointhedocumentationorbyVMwaretechnicalsupport. To change virtual machine runtime settings 1 2 3 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClickAdvanced. IntheSettingssection,selectanoption: RecordruntimeinformationWhenselected,youcanselectoneofthe following: DebugginginformationCollectsdebugginginformation.Youcan thenprovidethisinformationtoVMwaresupporttotroubleshootany problemsyouareexperiencing. StatisticsinformationCollectsperformancestatistics.Youcanthen providethisinformationtoVMwaresupporttotroubleshoot performanceproblems. OnWindowshosts,thefilesarestoredinthedirectory
<%ALLUSERSPROFILE%>\VMware\VMware Server\hostd\stats.

OnLinuxhostsystems,thefilesarestoredinthedirectory /var/log/vmware.

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EnableloggingEnablesloggingforthevirtualmachine.Youcanthen providethistoVMwaresupporttotroubleshootanyproblemsyouare experiencing.VMwarerecommendsthatyoukeeploggingenabled.Thereis minimaloverheadforthislogging. DisableaccelerationDisablesaccelerationinthevirtualmachine.You mightwanttotemporarilydisableaccelerationinavirtualmachineifyoutry toinstallorstartaprograminavirtualmachineandtheprogramseemsto hangorcrashorreportsthatitisrunningunderadebugger.Inmanycases, youcangetpasttheproblembytemporarilydisablingacceleration. Thissettingdegradesvirtualmachineperformance,souseitonlytogetpast aproblemrunningtheprogram.Afteryougetpasttheproblem,returntothe AdvancedtabanddeselectDisableacceleration.Youmightthenbeableto runtheprogramwithacceleration. SupportVMIParavirtualizationIfyouhaveaVMwareVMI3.0enabled kernelinaLinuxguestoperatingsystem,youcanenableVMI paravirtualizationsupporttoimproveperformanceinthevirtualmachine. Formoreinformationaboutparavirtualizationingeneral,seethefollowing VMwareWebsite: http://www.vmware.com/interfaces/paravirtualization.html AvailableVMIenabledkernelsincludeUbuntu7.04(Feisty)orlater. Usethestandardimagefor32bitIntelx86systems.VMIcurrentlysupports only32bitguests. ConfigureVirtualizedMMUSettingsRecentCPUsarecapableof virtualizingtheMemoryManagementUnit(MMU).Theuseofthiscapability almostalwaysimprovesvirtualmachineperformance.However,theremight becaseswhereitispreferablenottovirtualizetheMMU.Youcanselectone ofthefollowingchoices: Allowthehosttodetermineautomatically(thedefault) Forceuseofthesefeatureswhenavailable Donotusethesefeatures 4 ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

To add a parameter to the virtual machine configuration file 1 2


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IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClickAdvanced.

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3 4 5 6 7

IntheConfigurationParameterssection,clickAddNewEntry. EnterthenameoftheparameterintheNametextbox. EnterthevaluefortheparameterintheValuetextbox. ClickOK. ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

To edit a parameter in the virtual machine configuration file 1 2 3 4 5 6 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClickAdvanced. IntheConfigurationParameterssection,selecttheparameterandclickEdit. EnterthenewvaluefortheparameterintheValuetextbox. ClickOK. ClickOKtosaveyourchangesandreturntotheSummarytab.

Deleting a Virtual Machine


VMwareServerincludesoptionstoremoveavirtualmachinefromtheinventoryorto completelydeletethevirtualmachine.Youdonotneedtomanipulatefilesonthehost filesystemtodeleteavirtualmachine. Beforeyoucandeleteavirtualmachineorremoveitfromtheinventory,itmustbe poweredofforsuspended. To delete a virtual machine or remove it from the inventory 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachineyouwanttodeleteintheInventorypanel. SelectVirtualMachine>RemoveVirtualMachine. Youcanonlyselectthismenuoptionifthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. 3 (Optional)Todeleteallthevirtualmachinefilesfromdisk,selectDeletethis virtualmachinesfilesfromthedisk. IfyoudonotselectDeletethisvirtualmachinesfilesfromthedisk,thevirtual machineisremovedfromtheinventory,butallvirtualmachinefilesremainintact onthedatastore. 4 ClickOK.

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Thevirtualmachineisdeletedorremovedfromtheinventory. Youcanalsodeleteavirtualmachineorremoveitfromtheinventoryfromthehost workspace.SeeRemovingaVirtualMachinefromtheInventoryonpage 102.

Using VMware Remote Console


VMwareRemoteConsoleallowsyoutointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperating system. VMwareRemoteConsoleisinstalledasaWebbrowseraddonandexecutedfromthe addondirectory.YoumustinstalltheVMwareRemoteConsoleaddonthefirsttime youuseitwithaWebbrowserthatdoesnotalreadyhavetheaddoninstalled,and whenanewversionoftheaddonisavailable.Formoreinformation,seeInstallingthe VMwareRemoteConsoleAddOnonpage 51andStartingVMwareRemoteConsole fromtheConsoleTabonpage 53. YoucancontinuetouseVMwareRemoteConsoleifyoucloseyourWebbrowser.

Interacting with the Guest Operating System


Ingeneral,youcanusetheguestoperatingsystemandapplicationsasyouwouldif theywererunningdirectlyonaphysicalcomputer. To interact with the guest operating system using your mouse or keyboard ClickinsidetheVMwareRemoteConsolewindow. To transfer control of your mouse and keyboard back to your computer PressCtrl+Alt.IfVMwareToolsisinstalledinthevirtualmachine,youcanmovethe cursorinandoutofthevirtualmachinetoquicklyswitchmouseandkeyboardcontrol betweenthevirtualmachineandyourcomputer. To press Ctrl+Alt+Delete (Windows clients) PressCtrl+Alt+InsertinsteadCtrl+Alt+DeleteinthevirtualmachineonWindowsclient systems. YoucanalsoselectVMwareRemoteConsole>Troubleshooting> Send Ctrl+Alt+Delete.

Entering and Leaving Full Screen Mode


VMwareRemoteConsoleallowsyoutoenterandleavefullscreenmodeandcontrol thevisibilityofthetoolbarinfullscreenmode.

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To run your virtual machine in full screen mode ClickthemaximizebuttonontheVMwareRemoteConsolewindow. Thedesktopexpandstofillthescreen,leavingatoolbarvisibleatthetopofthescreen. To pin the toolbar so it is always visible Clickthepushpinonthetoolbarsothatitisinadiagonalposition. To release the toolbar so only a very thin horizontal area is visible Clickthepushpinonthetoolbarsothatitisinahorizontalposition.Afterafewseconds withnouse,mostofthetoolbardisappears. To make the toolbar fully visible Movethemousepointertothetopmiddleofthescreenwherethethinhorizontalarea isvisible. To reduce the VMware Remote Console display so it is running in a window Clicktherestorebuttononthetoolbar. To return to a window if the mouse pointer is not available PressCtrl+Alt.

Connecting and Disconnecting Client Devices


UseVI WebAccesstoconfigurevirtualmachinestousephysicalCD/DVDandfloppy drivesandISOandfloppyimagesonthehostsystem.SeeChapter 8,Configuring VirtualMachineHardware,onpage 135. YoucanconnectanddisconnecthostdevicesfromVMwareRemoteConsole.Devices thatareconnectedtothehostsystemincludeon ServerafterthenameintheDevices menu. YoucanalsouseVMwareRemoteConsoletoconnectvirtualmachinestoCD/DVDand floppydrivesattachedtotheclientsystem.YoucanalsoconnecttoCD/DVD(.iso)and floppy(.flp)imagefilesontheclientsystem. SelectfromtheoptionsintheDevicesmenuandsubmenustoconnectanddisconnect physicaldrives,ortobrowsetoanimagefile.Acheckmarknexttothenameofadevice indicatesthatitisconnected.Ifthereisnocheckmark,thedeviceisnotconnected.

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Onlyonemachinetheclientcomputer,thehostcomputer,orthevirtualmachine canuseCD/DVDandfloppydrivesatanyonetime.Ifyourvirtualmachineis configuredtousethedevice,andifyouwanttousethatdevicedirectlyonyourclient orhostcomputer,makesureitisdisconnectedfromthevirtualmachine.

Resetting and Powering Off


Youcanselectthesepoweroperationsfromthe VMware Remote Console > Troubleshootmenu. ResetTheresetcommandaffectsyourvirtualmachinethesamewayareset buttonaffectsaphysicalcomputer.Sendingtheresetcommandisliketurningthe poweroff,thenimmediatelyturningitonagain. SuspendandExitIfselected,VMwareRemoteConsolesuspendsthevirtual machineandcloses. PowerOffandExitIfselected,VMwareRemoteConsolepowersoffthevirtual machineandcloses.Thepoweroffcommandaffectsyourvirtualmachineinthe samewaythatturningoffthepoweraffectsaphysicalcomputer.Givingthepower offcommandisliketurningthepoweroffandleavingitoff.

Viewing the Message Log


TheMessageLogdialogboxallowsyoutoopenandviewVMwareServervirtual machinemessagesandtoremoveanyorallmessagesfromthelog. SelectVMwareRemoteConsole>Troubleshoot>MessageLog.

Quitting VMware Remote Console


QuitVMwareRemoteConsolebeforeyoushutdownthecomputerwhereVMware RemoteConsoleisrunning. ToquitVMwareRemoteConsole,dooneofthefollowing: SelectVMwareRemoteConsole>DisconnectandExit(onWindows)orVMware RemoteConsole>DisconnectandQuit(onLinux). ClicktheXintheupperrightcornerofthetoolbar. WhenyouquitVMwareRemoteConsoleusingeitherofthesemethods,thevirtual machineisnotpoweredofforsuspended. QuittingVMwareRemoteConsoledisconnectsanyconnectedclientdevices.Ifyou haveactiveclientdeviceconnections,youarepromptedtoconfirmthatyouwantto quit.
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VMwareRemoteConsoleclosesautomaticallywhenthevirtualmachineissuspended orpoweredoff.

Generating and Sharing Virtual Machine Shortcuts


Youcangenerateashortcuttoenablevirtualmachineuserstointeractdirectlywiththe guestoperatingsystemfromaWebbrowserorVMwareRemoteConsole.

Generating a Web Shortcut


AdministratorscangenerateaWebshortcuttocustomizetheVI WebAccessuser interfaceforusers.YoucangenerateaWebshortcutthatdisplaysonlytheConsoletab, enablesordisablesaccesstotheworkspace,orenablesordisablesaccesstothevirtual machineinventory. TheWebshortcutislikeanyWebbrowserURL,soyoucandoanyofthefollowing: AddittoalistofWebpages Shareitwithoneormoreusersinanemailmessage NOTETotestaWebshortcut,useadifferentbrowserorcomputer.Ifyouuseyour activeVI WebAccessbrowsersessiontotesttheWebshortcut,allinstancesofthat browsermustbeclosedbeforeyoucanlogbackintoVI WebAccesswithfulluser interfacecapabilities. To create a virtual machine Web shortcut 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinefromwhichtogenerateaWebshortcutintheInventory panel. IntheStatussectionoftheSummarytab,clickGenerateVirtualMachine Shortcut. IntheWebShortcutsection,asampleURLisdisplayed. (Optional)ExpandCustomizeWebShortcuttoselecttheuserinterfacefeatures: SelectLimitworkspaceviewtotheconsoletoprovideaccesstovirtual machinesConsoletabwhilehidingotherdetailslikeeventlogs. SelectLimitviewtoasinglevirtualmachinetodisableinventorynavigation. SelectObfuscatethisURLtogenerateaURLthatobscurestheconnection information. 5 CopytheWebshortcutforfutureuse.

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ClickOKtoreturntotheSummarytab.

Generating a VMware Remote Console Desktop Shortcut


VMwareRemoteConsoleallowsyoutointeractdirectlywiththeguestoperating systemoutsideofaWebbrowser.AfteryouhaveinstalledtheVMwareRemote Consoleaddon,youcancreateadesktopshortcutthatstartsVMwareRemoteConsole andconnectstothevirtualmachine. NOTEWhenusingInternetExplorer,youmustrestarttheWebbrowserafterinstalling theVMwareRemoteConsoleaddonandbeforecreatingtheVMwareRemoteConsole desktopshortcut.IfyoudonotrestartInternetExplorer,shortcutcreationwillfailwith aJavaScripterror. To create a VMware Remote Console desktop shortcut 1 2 3 4 Selectthevirtualmachinefromwhichtogenerateadesktopshortcutinthe Inventorypanel. IntheStatussectionoftheSummarytab,clickGenerateVirtualMachine Shortcut. IntheDesktopShortcutsection,clickInstallDesktopShortcutto <Virtual Machine>. Confirmthatyouwanttocreatetheshortcutwhenprompted. Theshortcutiscreatedonthedesktop. 5 ClickOKtoreturntotheSummarytab.

Editing Notes in the Virtual Machine Summary Tab


TheNotessectionofthevirtualmachineSummarytabisaneditabletextfieldinwhich youcanentertext(upto1000characters)todescribethevirtualmachine. Savednotescanbeviewedbyotherusersofthevirtualmachine,soyoucanusethis sectiontocommunicateinformationaboutthecurrentstateofthevirtualmachine. To enter text that appears in the Notes section 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachineyouwanttoenternotesforintheInventorypanel. IntheNotessectionoftheSummarytab,clickEdit. Tosaveyourtext,clickSave. Ifyoudonotwanttosaveyourchanges,clickCancel.
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AnysavedtextappearsintheNotessectionoftheSummarytab.

Editing the Hardware Configuration of a Virtual Machine


TheHardwaresectionofthevirtualmachineSummarytabliststhevirtualhardwarein thevirtualmachine,suchasprocessors,memory,harddisks,CD/DVDdrives,and networkadapters.Thevirtualmachinemustbepoweredofftomodifymosthardware settings. Youcaneditexistinghardwareincluding: ProcessorsForinformationabouteditingtheprocessorcount,seeEditing VirtualProcessorsonpage 270andUsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetric Multiprocessingonpage 270. MemoryForinformationaboutoptimalvirtualmachinememoryallocation,see AllocatingMemorytoaVirtualMachineonpage 268.Forinformationabout howtoeditmemoryallocationforavirtualmachine,seeEditingVirtualMachine Memoryonpage 269. HardDisksForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforanexistinghard disk,seeEditingaVirtualHardDiskonpage 139.Forinformationabout removingaharddisk,seeRemovingaHardDiskfromaVirtualMachineon page 140. NetworkAdaptersForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforanexisting virtualnetworkadapter,seeEditingaNetworkAdapteronpage 216. CD/DVDDrivesForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforanexisting CD/DVDdrive,seeEditingaVirtualCD/DVDDriveonpage 146.For informationaboutremovingaCD/DVDdrive,seeRemovingaCD/DVDDrive fromaVirtualMachineonpage 147. FloppyDrivesForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforanexisting CD/DVDdrive,seeEditingaVirtualFloppyDriveonpage 149.Forinformation aboutremovingafloppydrive,seeRemovingaFloppyDrivefromaVirtual Machineonpage 150. Passthrough(Generic)SCSIDevicesForinformationaboutchangingthe settingsforanexistingpassthroughSCSIdevice,seeEditingPassthrough (Generic)SCSIDevicesonpage 151.Forinformationaboutremovinga passthroughSCSIdevice,seeRemovingPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDeviceson page 151.

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USBControllerForinformationaboutconfiguringUSBdevices,see ConfiguringUSBControllersandDevicesonpage 152.Forinformationabout removingaUSBcontroller,seeRemovingaUSBControllerfromaVirtual Machineonpage 153. SoundAdapterForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforasound adapter,seeEditingaVirtualSoundAdapteronpage 158.Forinformation aboutremovingasoundadapter,seeRemovingaSoundAdapterfromaVirtual Machineonpage 159. SerialPortsForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforserialports,see EditingaVirtualSerialPortonpage 162.Forinformationaboutremovinga serialport,seeRemovingaSerialPortfromaVirtualMachineonpage 163. ParallelPortsForinformationaboutchangingthesettingsforparallelports,see EditingaVirtualParallelPortonpage 171.Forinformationaboutremovinga parallelport,seeRemovingaParallelPortfromaVirtualMachineonpage 171.

Adding Hardware to a Virtual Machine


UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddnewhardwaretoavirtualmachine. Thevirtualmachinemustbepoweredofftoaddmosttypesofhardware.Youcanadd aSCSIvirtualdisktoahardwareversion7virtualmachinewhenthevirtualmachine ispoweredon.Insomecircumstances,youcanalsohotaddavirtualmachinewith anearlierhardwareversion.SeeAddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachineon page 138. To start the Add Hardware wizard 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethevirtualmachineispoweredoff,unlessyouareaddingaSCSIvirtual harddisk. Ifthevirtualmachineisnotalreadypoweredoff,shutdowntheguestoperating system,andclickPowerOffontheVIWebAccesstoolbar. 3 IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickAddHardware. TheAddHardwarewizardopens. 4 Addhardwaretoanexistingvirtualmachine: HardDisksSeeAddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachineonpage 138. NetworkAdaptersSeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215.

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CD/DVDDrivesSeeAddingaCD/DVDDrivetoaVirtualMachineon page 144. FloppyDrivesSeeAddingaFloppyDrivetoaVirtualMachineon page 147. Passthrough(Generic)SCSIDevicesSeeAddingaPassthrough(Generic) SCSIDeviceonpage 150. USBControllerSeeAddingaUSBControllertoaVirtualMachineon page 152. SoundAdapterSeeAddingaSoundAdaptertoaVirtualMachineon page 158. SerialPortsSeeAddingaSerialPorttoaVirtualMachineonpage 159. ParallelPortsSeeAddingaParallelPorttoaVirtualMachineon page 170. 5 OntheReadytoCompletepage,dooneofthefollowing: ClickBackornavigateusingthePagespaneltomakechanges. Ifyouwanttopoweronthevirtualmachineimmediatelyafteraddingthenew hardware,selectPoweronyourvirtualmachinenow. ExpandMoreHardwaretoaddmorevirtualhardwaretothevirtualmachine beforeyoufinish. Eachtimeyoufinishaddinganewdevice,youreturntotheReadyto Completepage. ClickFinishtocreatethevirtualmachinewiththelistedhardware. Thewizardaddsthehardwaretoyourvirtualmachine.

Installing New Software in a Virtual Machine


Installingnewsoftwareinavirtualmachineislikeinstallingitonaphysicalcomputer, exceptthatyoumusttaketheseadditionalsteps: MakesurethatVMwareServercanaccessthemediatouseforinstallingthe software.VerifythatthevirtualmachinehasaccesstotheCDROMdrive,ISO imagefile,orfloppydrive,asneeded.SeeChapter 8,ConfiguringVirtual MachineHardware,onpage 135. SetthefinalmemorysizeforyourvirtualmachineandinstallVMwareTools beforeyouactivatethesoftware.

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Someapplicationsuseaproductactivationfeaturethatcreatesakeybasedonthe virtualhardwareinthevirtualmachinewhereitisinstalled.Changesinthe configurationofthevirtualmachinemightrequireyoutoreactivatethesoftware. Tominimizethenumberofsignificantchanges,setthememorysizeandinstall VMwareTools. IntherareinstancethatVMwareServerappearstohangwhenyouinstallorrun softwareinsideavirtualmachine,considertemporarilydisablingaccelerationin thevirtualmachine,asdescribedinChangingVirtualMachineAdvanced Settingsonpage 121.Generally,theproblemoccursearlyintheprograms execution. Thissettingslowsdownvirtualmachineperformance,soitisrecommendedonly forgettingpasttheproblemwithrunningtheprogram.Afteryoupassthepoint wheretheprogramwasencounteringproblems,tryreturningtotheAdvanced SettingstabanddeselectingDisableacceleration.

Advanced Options for Application Developers


ApplicationdeveloperscanusethefollowingAPIs,SDKs,andIDEswhenwritingand debuggingapplicationsthatruninvirtualmachines: VIXAPIforwritingprogramstoautomatevirtualmachineoperations TheAPI ishighlevel,easytouse,andpracticalforbothscriptwritersandapplication programmers.APIfunctionsallowyoutoregister,poweronoroffvirtual machines,andrunprogramsintheguestoperatingsystems.Additionallanguage bindingsareavailableforPerl,COM,andshellscripts(vmrun).Formore information,seetheVMwareVIXAPIReleaseNotes. Tolaunchthevmrunapplication,fromthecommandprompt,enter:
vmrun COMMAND [OPTION]

OnLinux,vmrunisinthedirectoryforVIXAPIbinaryfiles,typically/usr/bin. BeforeusingthevmruncommandonaWindowshost,youmustdooneofthe following: ChangeyourworkingdirectorytotheVMwareServerdirectory.The defaultlocationis: c:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Server AddtheVMwareVIXdirectorytothesystempath.OnWindows2000 Server,youcanchangethissettingfromtheWindowscontrolpanel:

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ControlPanel>System>Advanced>EnvironmentVariables> System variables>Path VMCISocketsinterface ThisfeatureisasocketsinterfacefortheVirtual MachineCommunicationInterface,whichprovidesafastermeansof communicationamongapplicationsrunningonthehostandinvirtualmachines. Thisfeatureiswellsuitedfordeveloperswhowanttowriteclientserver applications.Formoreinformation,seetheVMCISocketsProgrammingGuide. Toallowavirtualmachinetocommunicatewithothervirtualmachinesand applicationsonthehost,youmustaddthevmci0.unrestricted configuration fileparameterandsetittoTRUE,asdescribedinChangingVirtualMachine AdvancedSettingsonpage 121.Ifvmci0.unrestrictedisnotsetorsetto FALSE,thevirtualmachinecannotcommunicatewithothervirtualmachinesor applicationsonthehost.

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Thischapterdescribeshowtousevariousdeviceswithavirtualmachineandcovers thefollowingtopics: ConfiguringHardDisksonpage 135 ConfiguringCD/DVDDrivesonpage 143 ConfiguringFloppyDrivesonpage 147 ConfiguringPassthrough(Generic)SCSIDevicesonpage 150 ConfiguringSCSIControllersonpage 152 ConfiguringUSBControllersandDevicesonpage 152 ConfiguringSoundonpage 157 ConfiguringSerialPortsonpage 159 ConfiguringParallelPortsonpage 169 KeyboardMappingonLinuxHostsonpage 176

Configuring Hard Disks


Likeaphysicalcomputer,avirtualmachinestoresitsoperatingsystem,applications, anddatafilesononeormorevirtualharddisks.Youcanaddandremoveharddisksin yourvirtualmachine,andmodifycertainsettingsforexistingharddisks.Youcan installanewoperatingsystemonavirtualdiskwithoutrepartitioningaphysicaldisk orrebootingthehostsystem. Thissectiondescribeshowtoadd,edit,andremovevirtualharddisks,andhowto configuredisksettings.
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Hard Disk Types and Properties


Mostvirtualmachinesareconfiguredwithoneormorevirtualharddisks.Avirtual diskisafileorsetoffilesthatappearsasaphysicaldisktotheguestoperatingsystem. Thesefilesarecreatedinthedatastorelocationthatyouspecify.SeeManaging Datastoresonpage 103. Thissectiondescribesthesettingsyoucanconfigurewhenyouaddoreditavirtual disk.

Disk Capacity Setting


Whenyoucreateanewvirtualdisk,specifyamaximumdisksizeinMBorGB.Setthe maximumsizetoavaluebetween1MBand950GB. Ifthevirtualmachinedoesnothaveasnapshot,youcanincreasethemaximumdisk sizewhenyoueditaSCSIvirtualdisk.

Disk File Options Settings (New Disk Only)


Whencreatinganewvirtualdisk,youcanspecifywhetherspaceforthediskfilesis allocatedasneeded(calledagrowabledisk)orallocatedallatoncewhenthediskis created(calledapreallocateddisk). Agrowablediskiscreatedbydefault.Growablediskfilesuselessdiskspaceinitially andgrowtotheirmaximumsizeonlyasadditionalspaceisneeded.However,ittakes longertowritedatatogrowabledisks. IfyouselectAllocatealldiskspacenow,alldiskspaceispreallocatedatthetimethe diskiscreated.Thisprovidesbettervirtualmachineperformance.However,you cannotshrinkthedisklater. NOTEPreallocatingdiskspaceisatimeconsumingoperationthatcannotbecanceled andrequiresasmuchphysicaldiskspaceastheamountyouspecifyforvirtualdisk capacity. YouarealsogiventheoptionSplitdiskinto2GBfiles.Selectthisoptionifyourvirtual diskisstoredonafilesystem(suchasFAT16)thatdoesnotsupportfileslargerthan 2GB.

Disk Mode Settings


SelectwhetherornottorunthediskinIndependentMode.Independentdisksadda layerofcontrolandcomplexitytoyourvirtualdisks.DisksinIndependentModeare notaffectedbysnapshots.

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Ifyouhaveasnapshot,youmustremoveitbeforeyoucanchangethediskmodewhen youeditavirtualdisk.SeeRemovingaSnapshotonpage 191. IfyouselectIndependentMode,alsoselectoneofthefollowing: PersistentDisksinpersistentmodebehavelikeconventionaldisksonyour physicalcomputer.Alldatawrittentoadiskinpersistentmodearewritten permanentlytothedisk. NonpersistentChangestodisksinnonpersistentmodearediscardedwhenyou powerofforresetthevirtualmachine.Nonpersistentmodeenablesyoutorestart thevirtualmachinewithavirtualdiskinthesamestateeverytime.Changestothe diskareactuallywrittentoandreadfromaredologfilethatisdeletedwhenyou powerofforreset.

Device Type and Node Settings


Whencreatinganewvirtualdisk,thedefaultadaptertypeisbasedonyourselected guestoperatingsystem. VirtualdiskscanbeconfiguredasIDEdisksforanyguestoperatingsystem.Theycan besetupasSCSIdisksforanyguestoperatingsystemthathasadriverfortheLSILogic (parallel),BusLogic(parallel),orLSILogicSASadapter.ThecorrectSCSIadapteris automaticallychosenbasedonyourguestoperatingsystem.Ifyouneedtochangethe adaptertype,followtheprocedureinConfiguringSCSIControllersonpage 152. NOTEForWindowsXPguestsystems,theLSILogicadapterrequiresanaddondriver fromtheLSILogicWebsite.ForWindowsXPandWindowsServer2003guestsystems, theBusLogicadapterrequiresanaddondriverfromtheVMwareWebsite.Seethe VMwareGuestOperatingSystemInstallationGuide,at http://pubs.vmware.com/guestnotes/. ThefilesthatmakeupanIDEvirtualdiskcanbestoredoneitheranIDEphysicalhard diskoraSCSIphysicalharddisk.SocanthefilesthatmakeupaSCSIvirtualdisk.They canalsobestoredonothertypesoffastaccessstoragemedia. Anavailabledevicenodeisselectedbydefault.

Disk Write Caching Policy Setting


Thefollowingoptionsdeterminewhenchangesarewrittentodisk: OptimizeforsafetySavesallchangestothevirtualdiskimmediately. OptimizeforperformanceAcknowledgeschangestothevirtualdisk immediately,butsavesthematalatertime.

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Adding a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine


Virtualdisksarestoredasfilesinadatastore.Thedatastorelocationcanbethelocalfile system,aCIFSstore(Windowsonly),oranNFSmountedfilesystem(Linuxonly).See ManagingDatastoresonpage 103. ItdoesnotmatterwhetherthedatastorelocationisonanIDEorSCSIphysicaldisk.An IDEvirtualdiskcanbestoredoneitheranIDEphysicalharddiskoronaSCSIphysical harddisk.SocanaSCSIvirtualdisk. YoucanaddaSCSIvirtualdisktoahardwareversion7virtualmachinewhenthe virtualmachineispoweredon.Forearliervirtualmachinehardwareversions,itis possibletoaddaSCSIvirtualdiskwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredononlyifa SCSIcontrollerwithanavailableslotalreadyexists.SCSIcontrollersarecreatedas needed,butcannotbecreatedwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredonforvirtual machineswithhardwareversionsearlierthan7. ItisnotpossibletoaddanIDEvirtualdiskwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon. NOTEIfyouhaveaWindowsNT4.0guestwithaSCSIvirtualdisk,youcannotadd bothanadditionalSCSIdiskandanIDEdisktotheconfiguration. To add a new or existing virtual disk 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickHardDisk. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 OntheHardDiskpage,clickoneofthefollowing: CreateaNewVirtualDiskClicktoaddanewblankharddisktoyour virtualmachine.ThewizarddisplaysthePropertiespage,fromwhichyoucan acceptorchangethedefaultvaluesfordiskcapacity,datastorelocation,file allocationoptions,diskmode,virtualdevicenode,andcachingpolicy settings. UseanExistingVirtualDiskClickifyouwanttoreuseorshareavirtual harddiskthathasalreadybeencreated.ThewizarddisplaystheProperties page,fromwhichyoucanbrowsetoavirtualdisk(.vmdk)fileyoucreated previously.Afteryouselecttheexistingdiskfileusingthedatastorebrowser, itscurrentpropertiesaredisplayed.Youcanmodifythediskmode,virtual devicenode,andcachingpolicysettings. 3 MakeanyrequiredchangestothedefaultvaluesonthePropertiespage,andclick Next.

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FordetailedinformationaboutsettingsyoucanconfigureonthePropertiespage, seeHardDiskTypesandPropertiesonpage 136. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 4 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard. Thewizardcreatesthenewvirtualdisk. Thevirtualdiskappearstoyourguestoperatingsystemasanewblankharddisk.Use theguestoperatingsystemsutilitiestopartitionandformatthenewdisk.

Editing a Virtual Hard Disk


Thissectiondescribeshowtochangethesettingsforanexistingharddisk.Thefile allocationoptionsaredisplayedandcannotbechanged.Whenthevirtualmachineis poweredoff,youcanmodifythevirtualdevicenode. Ifthevirtualmachinedoesnothaveasnapshot,youcanalsodothefollowing: IncreasethediskcapacityforaSCSIvirtualdisk.Thevirtualmachinemustbe poweredoff. Changethediskmode. To edit an existing hard disk 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheharddisktomodifyand selectEdit. TheHardDiskdialogboxdisplaysinformationaboutthedisk,includingthe datastoreitisin,thelocationofthefirstfileassociatedwiththedisk,thedisk capacity,whetherthediskisgrowableorpreallocated,andwhetherthediskspans multiplefiles. 4 (Optional)Forvirtualdiskswithsettingsthatallowyoutoincreasethedisk capacity,clickIncreaseCapacityandenteranewvalueintheIncreaseByor New Capacityfield.Theotherfieldisautomaticallyadjustedtoreflectthechange. Ifyouhaveasnapshot,youmustremoveitbeforeyoucanchangethedisk capacity.YoucanonlychangethediskcapacityforSCSIvirtualdisks.Thevirtual machinemustbepoweredoff. SeeDiskCapacitySettingonpage 136.

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(Optional)IntheVirtualDeviceNodesection,selectanadapteranddevicenode fromthedropdownmenus. SeeDeviceTypeandNodeSettingsonpage 137.

(Optional)IntheDiskModesection,selectwhetherornottorunthediskin IndependentMode.Anindependentdiskcanbepersistentornonpersistent. DisksinIndependentModearenotaffectedbysnapshots. Ifyouhaveasnapshot,youmustremoveittochangethediskmode.See RemovingaSnapshotonpage 191. SeeDiskModeSettingsonpage 136.

(Optional)InthePoliciessection,selectthewritecachingpolicyforthedisk. SeeDiskWriteCachingPolicySettingonpage 137.

ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing a Hard Disk from a Virtual Machine


Whenyouremoveaharddiskfromavirtualmachine,youcanchoosewhetherornot thediskfilesareremovedfromthehostsystem. To remove an existing hard disk 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheharddisktoremoveand selectoneofthefollowing: RemoveRemovestheharddiskfromthevirtualmachine. DeletefromDiskRemovestheharddiskfromthevirtualmachineand deletestheassociateddiskfilesfromthehostsystem. 4 Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedisk.Ifyouwantto removeit,clickYes. Thevirtualdiskisremoved.

Virtual Disk Maintenance Tasks


Defragmentingvirtualdiskscanimproveperformance.Shrinkingvirtualdisks reclaimsunusedspace.

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Defragmenting Virtual Disks


Likephysicaldisks,virtualdiskscanbecomefragmented.Defragmentationrearranges data,applications,andunusedspaceonthevirtualdisksothatprogramsrunfasterand filesopenmorequickly. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatyouhaveadequatefreeworkingspaceonthehost system.Ifyourvirtualdiskiscontainedinasinglefile,forexample,youneedfreespace equaltothesizeofthevirtualdisk.Othervirtualdiskconfigurationsrequirelessfree space. Defragmentationdoesnotreclaimunusedspaceonavirtualdisk.Forinformation abouthowtoreclaimunusedspace,seeShrinkingVirtualDisksonpage 141. To defragment a virtual disk 1 Runadiskdefragmentationutilityinsidetheguestoperatingsystem. Forexample,inaWindowsXPguestoperatingsystem,usetheWindowsXPDisk Defragmenterutility. 2 Runadiskdefragmentationutilityonthehostsystem.

Defragmentingdiskscantakeconsiderabletime.

Shrinking Virtual Disks


Shrinkingavirtualdiskreclaimsunusedspaceinthevirtualdisk.Ifadiskhasempty space,thisprocessreducestheamountofspacethevirtualdiskoccupiesonthe physicalharddisk. Onlyshrinkvirtualdiskswhentheamountofusedspaceonthevirtualharddiskis significantlylowerthanthesizeofthe.vmdkfilesassociatedwiththevirtualdisk. Beforeyouperformtheprocedureinthistopic,makesurethatthefollowing prerequisitesaremet: VMwareToolsisinstalledintheguestoperatingsystem. Thehostsystemhasfreediskspaceequaltothesizeofthevirtualdiskyouplanto shrink. Thediskspaceisnotpreallocatedforthevirtualdisk.Ifthediskspaceis preallocated,youcannotshrinkthedisk.(ClicktheharddiskandselectEditto determinehowdiskspaceisallocated.) Thevirtualmachinedoesnothaveasnapshot.Forinformationabouthowto removeanexistingsnapshot,seeRemovingaSnapshotonpage 191.

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Ifthevirtualdiskisanindependentdisk,itmustbepersistent.SeeDiskMode Settingsonpage 136. NOTETheshrinkprocessappliestoallvirtualdisksevenifyoudonotprepareallthe virtualdisksinavirtualmachineforshrinking. To shrink a virtual disk 1 LaunchtheVMwareToolscontrolpanel: ForaWindowsguest,doubleclicktheVMwareToolsiconinthenotification areaofthetaskbar. Iftheiconisnotavailable,selectStart>Settings>ControlPanel,and doubleclickVMwareTools. ForaLinux,Solaris,orFreeBSDguest,openaterminalwindow,becomeroot, andrunvmware-toolbox. Ifyoushrinkdisksasanonrootuser,youcannotwipethepartsofthevirtual diskthatrequirerootlevelpermissions. 2 IntheVMwareToolscontrolpanel,clicktheShrinktab. Ifthevirtualmachinedoesnotallowshrinking,theShrinktabshowsthereason. 3 SelectthevirtualdiskstoshrinkandclickPreparetoShrink. Ifyoudeselectsomepartitions,thewholediskisstillshrunk.However,those partitionsarenotwipedforshrinking,andtheshrinkprocessdoesnotreducethe sizeofthevirtualdiskasmuchasitwouldwithallpartitionsselected. VMwareToolsreclaimsallunusedportionsofdiskpartitions(suchasdeletedfiles) andpreparesthemforshrinking.Duringthisphase,youcanstillinteractwiththe virtualmachine. WhenVMwareToolsfinisheswipingtheselecteddiskpartitions,apromptto shrinkthedisksappears. 4 ClickYes. Shrinkingdiskscantakeconsiderabletime. 5 ClickOK.

Using VMware Virtual Disk Manager


VMwareVirtualDiskManagerisautilitythatallowsyoutocreate,manage,and modifyvirtualdiskfilesfromthecommandlineorinscripts.

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Unlikeaphysicaldisk,youcanenlargeavirtualdisksothatthemaximumcapacityis largerthanitwaswhenyoucreatedit.Thisisusefulifyouneedmorediskspaceina givenvirtualmachine,butdonotwanttoaddanothervirtualdiskorifyouuse ghostingsoftwaretotransferthedataonavirtualdisktoalargervirtualdisk. Youcanalsochangedisktypes.Whenyoucreateavirtualmachine,youspecifyhow diskspaceisallocated,asfollows: Allspaceforthevirtualdiskisallocatedinadvance.Thiscorrespondstothe preallocateddisktypeforVirtualDiskManager. Spaceallocatedforthevirtualdiskgrowsasneeded.Thiscorrespondstothe growabledisktypeforVirtualDiskManager. Ifyouallocateallthediskspaceforavirtualdiskbutlaterneedtoreclaimsomehard diskspaceonthehost,youcanconvertthepreallocatedvirtualdiskintoagrowable disk.Thenewvirtualdiskisstilllargeenoughtocontainallthedataintheoriginal virtualdisk. Youcanalsochangewhetherthevirtualdiskisstoredinasinglefileorsplitinto2GB files. SeetheVMwaretechnicalnoteaboutusingVirtualDiskManager.

Moving Virtual Disks


Akeyadvantageofvirtualdisksistheirportability.Becausethevirtualdisksarestored asfilesinadatastoreonalocalornetworkedfilesystem,youcanmovethemeasilyto anewlocationonthesamecomputerortoadifferentcomputer.Youcanalsocreate virtualdisksonaWindowshosttoandmovethemtoaLinuxcomputerorthe reverse.

Configuring CD/DVD Drives


YoucanuseVI WebAccesstoconfigurevirtualmachinestousephysicalCD/DVD drivesandISOimagesonthehostsystem.YoucanuseVMwareRemoteConsoleto connecttoCD/DVDdrivesandISOimagesonyourclientsystem,asdescribedin ConnectingandDisconnectingClientDevicesonpage 125. Thissectiondescribeshowtoadd,edit,andremoveCD/DVDdrivesonthehost,and howtoconfiguredrivesettings.

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CD/DVD Drive Type and Properties


ThissectiondescribesthesettingsyoucanspecifyforavirtualCD/DVDdrive.Youcan configurethedeviceadaptertypeandnode.Foraphysicaldrive,youcanchoosetouse ATAPIemulationmodeoraccessthedrivedirectly. CD/DVDdrivescanbeusedtoreaddataDVDROMdiscs.DVDvideoisnot supported.

Choosing a Device Type for the CD/DVD Drive


Likeavirtualdisk,avirtualCD/DVDdriveisassociatedwithaspecificSCSIorIDE devicenode.Thetypeofdevicedoesnothavetomatchthetypeofdeviceonthehost. AnIDECD/DVDdriveonthehostcanbeconfiguredasaSCSIvirtualCD/DVDdrive, andaSCSICD/DVDdriveonthehostcanbeconfiguredasanIDEvirtualCD/DVD drive.However,ifyouwanttodomorethanreaddatafromthedrive,suchasburn discs,matchthebustypessotheyarebothIDEorbothSCSI. YoucanconfigureuptofourbootablevirtualCDROMs.

Using ATAPI Emulation for CD/DVD Drives


Insomecases,theCD/DVDdrivemightnotworkcorrectlywhentheguestoperating systemiscommunicatingdirectlywiththedrive.Ifyouencounterproblemsusingyour CD/DVDdrive,tryeditingtheCD/DVDdriveandselectingATAPIemulationtowork aroundtheseproblems.Inemulationmode,youcanonlyreadfromdatadiscs. Ifyourunmorethanonevirtualmachineatatime,andiftheirCD/DVDdrivesarein emulationmode,startthevirtualmachineswiththeirCD/DVDdrivesdisconnected. ThisensuresthatyoudonothavemultiplevirtualmachinesconnectedtotheCD/DVD driveatthesametime.

Accessing the CD/DVD Drive Directly


SelectAccessthedrivedirectlytohavetheguestoperatingsystemcommunicate directlywiththeCD/DVDdrive.DirectcommunicationwithaCD/DVDdriveenables youtoreadmultisessionCDs,performdigitalaudioextraction,viewvideo,andburn discs.

Adding a CD/DVD Drive to a Virtual Machine


YoucanaddoneormoreCD/DVDdrivestoyourvirtualmachine.Youcanconnecta virtualdrivetoaphysicaldriveorISOimagefileonthehostsystem.

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ItdoesnotmatterwhethertheCD/DVDdriveisIDEorSCSI.AnIDEvirtualCD/DVD drivecanuseaphysicalIDEdriveoraphysicalSCSIdrive.SocanaSCSIvirtual CD/DVDdrive. To add a CD/DVD drive to a virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickCD/DVDDrive. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 SelectanoptionunderHostMediatoconnecttoadriveorISOimageonthe VMwareServerhost. ClickUseaPhysicalDrivetoconnectthevirtualmachinesdrivetoaphysical driveonthehostsystem. ClickUseanISOImagetoconnectthevirtualmachinesdrivetoanISO imagefileonthehostsystem. 3 4 ClickNext. DooneofthefollowingonthePropertiespage: IfyouselectedUseaPhysicalDrive,specifythedrivetouse. IfyouselectedUseanISOImage,clickBrowsetonavigatetoafilewiththe .isoextensioninanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually,youmust usetheformat:
[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.iso

5 6

(Optional)Tohavethedriveconnecttothevirtualmachinewhenyoupoweron, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional)IntheVirtualDeviceNodesection,selectanadapteranddevicenode fromthedropdownmenus. Formoreinformation,seeChoosingaDeviceTypefortheCD/DVDDriveon page 144.

ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings.

Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

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Editing a Virtual CD/DVD Drive


WhenyoueditaCD/DVDdrive,youcanmodifytheconnectionstatusandwhich physicaldriveorISOimagefiletoconnectto.Whenthevirtualmachineispoweredoff, youcanalsomodifythevirtualdevicenode. To edit an existing CD/DVD drive 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheCD/DVDdrivetomodify andselectEdit. SelectHostMediatoconfigureaphysicaldriveorISOimagefileonthehost system. IfyouwanttouseaCD/DVDdriveonaclientsystem,selectClientMedia.Using VI WebAccess,youcanonlychangethedevicenodeforclientdevices,as describedinStep 6.UseVMwareRemoteConsoletoselectandconnector disconnecttheclientdevice.SeeConnectingandDisconnectingClientDevices onpage 125. 4 5 (Optional)IntheDeviceStatussection,selectConnectatpowerontohavethe driveconnecttothevirtualmachinewhenyoupoweron. IntheConnectionsection,selectPhysicalDriveorISOImage. IfyouselectPhysicalDrive,selectthedrivetouseandselectoneofthe following: ATAPIEmulationSelectiftheguestoperatingsystemdoesnotwork correctlywhencommunicatingdirectlywiththeCD/DVDdrive.For moreinformation,seeUsingATAPIEmulationforCD/DVDDriveson page 144. AccessthedrivedirectlySelecttohavetheguestoperatingsystem communicatedirectlywiththeCD/DVDdrive.Formoreinformation,see AccessingtheCD/DVDDriveDirectlyonpage 144. IfyouselectISOImage,clickBrowsetonavigatetoafilewiththe.iso extensioninanexistingdatastore.ToentertheISOpathmanually,youmust usetheformat:
[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.iso

(Optional)IntheVirtualDeviceNodesection,selectanadapteranddevicenode fromthedropdownmenus.

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Formoreinformation,seeChoosingaDeviceTypefortheCD/DVDDriveon page 144. 7 ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing a CD/DVD Drive from a Virtual Machine


YoucanremoveaCD/DVDdrivefromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwanttouse thatdeviceinthevirtualmachine. To remove an existing CD/DVD drive 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheCD/DVDdrivetoremove andselectRemove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Configuring Floppy Drives


YoucanuseVI WebAccesstoconfigurevirtualmachinestousephysicalfloppydrives andfloppyimagesonthehostsystem.YoucanuseVMwareRemoteConsoletoconnect tofloppydrivesandfloppyimagesonyourclientsystem,asdescribedinConnecting andDisconnectingClientDevicesonpage 125. Thissectiondescribeshowtoadd,edit,andremovefloppydrivesonthehost,andhow toconfiguredrivesettings.

Adding a Floppy Drive to a Virtual Machine


Youcanconnectavirtualfloppydrivetoaphysicalfloppydriveorafloppyimagefile onthehostsystem. Youcanadduptotwofloppydrivestoyourvirtualmachine.Avirtualfloppydrivecan connecttoaphysicalfloppydriveonthehostsystem,anexistingfloppyimagefile,or anewblankfloppyimagefile.

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To add a new virtual floppy drive to a virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickFloppyDrive. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 SelectanoptionunderHostMediatoconnecttoafloppydriveorfloppyimageon theVMwareServerhost. ClickUseaPhysicalDrivetoconnectthevirtualfloppydrivetoaphysical driveonthehostsystem. ClickUseaFloppyImagetoconnectthevirtualfloppydrivetoafloppy imagefileonthehostsystem. 3 4 ClickNext. DooneofthefollowingonthePropertiespage: IfyouselectedUseaPhysicalDrive,selectthedrivetouse. IfyouselectedUseanexistingfloppyimageorCreateablankfloppyimage, clickBrowsetonavigatetoafilewiththe.flpextensioninanexisting datastore.Toenterthepathmanually,youmustusetheformat:
[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.flp

5 6

(Optional)Tohavethedriveconnecttothevirtualmachinewhenyoupoweron, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings.

Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

NOTEBydefault,onlyonefloppydriveisenabledinthevirtualmachinesBIOS.Ifyou areaddingasecondfloppydrivetothevirtualmachine,configurethevirtualmachine toentertheBIOSsetuputilitywhenitboots,asdescribedinChangingVirtual MachinePowerSettingsonpage 118.Onthemainscreen,selectLegacyDisketteB: andusetheplus(+)andminus()keysonthenumericalkeypadtoselectthetypeof floppydriveyouwanttouse.PressF10tosaveyourchangesandclosetheBIOSsetup utility.

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Editing a Virtual Floppy Drive


Whenyoueditavirtualfloppydrive,youcanmodifytheconnectionstatusandwhich physicaldriveorfloppyimagefiletoconnectto.Whenthevirtualmachineispowered off,youcanalsochangethevirtualdevicenode. Youcanconnectonlyonevirtualfloppydrivetoeachphysicaldriveonthehostsystem. Thephysicaldevicecanbeconnectedtoonlyonevirtualmachineatatime. To edit an existing floppy drive 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clickthefloppydrivetomodifyand selectEdit. SelectHostMediatoconfigureaphysicaldriveorfloppyimagefileonthehost system. Ifyouwanttouseafloppydriveonaclientsystem,selectClientMedia.Use VMwareRemoteConsoletoselectandconnectordisconnecttheclientdevice.See ConnectingandDisconnectingClientDevicesonpage 125. 4 5 (Optional)IntheDeviceStatussection,selectConnectatpowerontohavethe driveconnecttothevirtualmachinewhenyoupoweron. IntheConnectionsection,specifywhethertoconnecttoaphysicaldriveortoa floppyimage.SelectPhysicalDrive,FloppyImage,orNewFloppyImage. IfyouselectPhysicalDrive,selectaphysicaldriveonthehostsystemfrom thedropdownmenu. IfyouselectFloppyImage,clickBrowsetonavigatetoafilewiththe.flp extensioninanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually,youmustuse theformat:
[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.flp

IfyouselectNewFloppyImage,clickBrowsetonavigatetoanewblank floppyimagefilewiththe.flpextensioninanexistingdatastore.Toenterthe pathmanually,youmustusetheformat:


[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename.flp

ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

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Removing a Floppy Drive from a Virtual Machine


Youcanremoveafloppydrivefromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwanttousethat deviceinthevirtualmachine. To remove an existing floppy drive 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clickthefloppydriveandselect Remove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Configuring Passthrough (Generic) SCSI Devices


PassthroughSCSIdevicesintheguestoperatingsystemhavedirectaccesstoSCSI devicesconnectedtothehost,suchasscanners,tapedrivesandotherdatastorage devices.UsingthegenericSCSIdriver,VMwareServerallowsavirtualmachineto accessanySCSIdevicethatissupportedbytheguestoperatingsystem. Intheory,genericSCSIiscompletelydeviceindependent,butVMwarehasdiscovered thatitissensitivetotheguestoperatingsystem,deviceclass,andspecificSCSI hardware.TryanySCSIhardwareandreportproblemstoVMwaretechnicalsupport. Youcanadd,edit,andremovegenericSCSIdevices.

Adding a Passthrough (Generic) SCSI Device


AddapassthroughSCSIdevicetoavirtualmachinetomaptheSCSIvirtualdeviceto aphysicalpassthroughSCSIdeviceonthehost. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatyouhavethefollowingrequiredpermissions: OnWindowshosts,youmustrunVMwareServerasauserwithadministrator access. OnLinuxhosts,youmustbeloggedonasauserwhohasreadandwrite permissionstousethedevice.

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To add a passthrough SCSI device to a virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickPassthroughSCSI Device. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 SelectaSCSIdevicetouse. AphysicalSCSIdevicemustbeattachedtothedevice,anditmustbeconnectedto thevirtualmachine. 3 4 (Optional)IntheVirtualDeviceNodesection,selectaSCSIadapteranddevice nodefromthedropdownmenus. ClickOK.

Editing Passthrough (Generic) SCSI Devices


WhenyoueditapassthroughSCSIdevice,youcanchangethephysicaldevice.When thevirtualmachineispoweredoff,youcanalsochangethevirtualdevicenode. To edit an existing generic SCSI device 1 2 3 4 5 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheSCSIdevicetomodifyand selectEdit. (Optional)UnderConnection,selectthephysicaldevicetouse. (Optional)UnderVirtualDeviceNode,selectaSCSIdeviceadapterandan availablenodefromthedropdownmenus. ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing Passthrough (Generic) SCSI Devices


YoucanremoveagenericSCSIdevicefromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwantto usethatdeviceinthevirtualmachine. To remove an SCSI device 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheSCSIdeviceandselect Remove.

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Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Configuring SCSI Controllers


SCSIcontrollersareaddedandremovedautomaticallyasneeded.VMwareServer supportsuptofourSCSIcontrollers. YoucanedittheSCSIcontrollerdevicetype. CAUTIONChangingthedevicetypebeforeyouinstallthecorrespondingdriverinthe guestoperatingsystemmightpreventthevirtualmachinefrombooting.SeeDevice TypeandNodeSettingsonpage 137. To edit an existing SCSI controller 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheSCSIcontrollerandselect Edit. ClickModifydevicetypetochangetheSCSIcontrollerdevicetype. ThechoicesareBusLogicorLSILogicparallelinterfaces. Forhardwareversion7virtualmachines,youcanalsoselectLSISASserial interface. 4 ClickOK.

Configuring USB Controllers and Devices


ThissectiondescribeshowtoaddandremoveaUSBcontroller,andhowtoconfigure USBdevicesforvirtualmachines.

Adding a USB Controller to a Virtual Machine


Youcanaddonlyonecontrollerpervirtualmachine,butthecontrollersupports multipleUSBdevices.

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To add a USB controller to a virtual machine


1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickUSBController. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresetting. 2 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

Whenthevirtualmachineispoweredon,aUSBcontrollermenuappearsinthetoolbar. UseittoconnecttoUSBdevices,asdescribedinConnectingUSBDeviceson page 153.

Removing a USB Controller from a Virtual Machine


YoucanremovetheUSBcontrollerfromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwanttouse USBdevicesinthevirtualmachine. To remove the USB controller 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheUSBcontrollerandselect Remove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethecontroller.Ifyou wanttoremoveit,clickYes. TheUSBcontrollerisremoved.

Connecting USB Devices


BeforeyoucanuseUSBdevicesinavirtualmachine,youmustaddaUSBcontroller. SeeAddingaUSBControllertoaVirtualMachineonpage 152. WhenyouphysicallypluganewUSBdeviceintothehostsystem,thedeviceisinitially connectedtothehost.ThedevicenameisalsoaddedtothePluggedintoHostlistin theUSBcontrollertoolbarmenusothatyoucanconnectittothevirtualmachine,as describedinthissection. IfthephysicalUSBdeviceisconnectedtothehostsystemthroughahub,thevirtual machineseesonlytheUSBdevice,notthehub.

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To connect a USB device to a virtual machine 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. FromtheUSBcontrollermenuinthetoolbar,selectthedeviceyouwanttoconnect tointhePluggedintoHostlist.

WhentheUSBdeviceisconnectedtothevirtualmachine,itappearsasselectedinthe toolbarmenu. To release a connected USB device 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. FromtheUSBcontrollermenuinthetoolbar,deselectthedeviceyouwantto disconnect.

TheUSBdevicereturnstothedeselectedstateinthetoolbarmenu.

Using USB Devices in a Virtual Machine


VMwareServerprovidesatwoportUSBcontroller,sothatyoucanconnecttoboth USB1.1andUSB2.0devices: USB1.1UHCIcontroller,witha(transparent)virtualhub. USB2.0EHCIcontroller. USB2.0supportisavailableonlyforVMwareproductsthatsupportvirtualmachine hardwareversion6or7,suchasVMwareServer2andWorkstation6.Yourhost machinemustalsosupportUSB2.0. Onthehostsystem,whenaUSB2.0deviceconnectstoaport,thedeviceconnectsto theEHCIcontrollerandoperatesinUSB2.0mode.AUSB1.1deviceisautomatically connectedtoaUHCIcontrollerandoperatesinUSB1.1mode.Thisenablesyouto connecttohighspeedorisochronousUSBdevicessuchaswebcams,speakers,and microphones. AlthoughyourhostoperatingsystemmustsupportUSB,youdonotneedtoinstall devicespecificdriversforyourUSBdevicesinthehostoperatingsystemtousethose devicesonlyinthevirtualmachine. NOTEWindowsNTandLinuxkernelsolderthan2.2.17donotsupportUSB. OnWindowsXPguests,besuretoinstallthelatestservicepackifyouwanttouseUSB 2.0.IfyouuseWindowsXPwithnoservicepacks,thedriverfortheEHCIcontroller cannotbeloaded.

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VMwarehastestedavarietyofUSBdeviceswiththisrelease.Withtheappropriate guestoperatingsystemdrivers,youcanusePDAs,printers,storage(disk)devices, scanners,MP3players,digitalcameras,andmemorycardreaders.

Using USB with a Windows Host


WhenaparticularUSBdeviceisconnectedtoavirtualmachineforthefirsttime,the hostdetectsitasanewdevicenamedVMwareUSBDeviceandinstallstheappropriate VMwaredriver. OnsomeWindowshostsystems,confirmationisrequiredintheFoundNewHardware wizard.Selectthedefaultaction,Installthesoftwareautomatically.Afterthesoftware isinstalled,theguestoperatingsystemdetectstheUSBdeviceandsearchesfora suitabledriver. WhenyouaresynchronizingaPDA,suchasaPalmhandheldorHandspringVisor,to avirtualmachineforthefirsttime,thetotaltimerequiredtoloadtheVMwareUSB devicedriverinthehostandthePDAdriverintheguestmightexceedthedevices connectiontimeoutvalue.Thiscausesthedevicetodisconnectitselffromthecomputer beforetheguestcansynchronizewithit.Ifthisoccurs,lettheguestfinishinstallingthe PDAdriver,dismissanyconnectionerrorwarnings,andtrysynchronizingthePDA again.Thesecondattemptusuallysucceeds.

Replacing USB 2.0 Drivers on a Windows 2000 Host


TouseVMwareServeronaWindows2000hostthathasUSB2.0ports,youmustuse theMicrosoftUSB2.0driversfortheUSBcontrollerinthehostoperatingsystem.If yourhostoperatingsystemisusingathirdpartydriveradriversuppliedbyyour motherboardvendor,forexampleyoumustreplaceit. To check the provider of your driver 1 OpentheDeviceManager,asfollows: a b 2 3 4 RightclickMyComputerandselectProperties. ClicktheHardwaretabandclickDeviceManager.

ExpandthelistingforUniversalSerialBuscontrollers. RightclickthelistingforthecontrollerandselectProperties. ClicktheDrivertab. IfthedriverprovidershownonthatpageisMicrosoft,youhavethecorrectdriver already.

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IfthedriverproviderisnotMicrosoft,downloadthelatestUSBdriverforyourhost operatingsystemfromtheMicrosoftWebsiteandfollowtheMicrosoftinstructionsto installit.DetailsareavailableinMicrosoftknowledgebasearticle319973.

Using USB with a Linux Host


OnLinuxhosts,VMwareServerusestheUSBdevicefilesystemtoconnecttoUSB devices.InLinuxsystemsthatsupportUSB,theUSBdevicefilesystemisusually /proc/bus/usb. IfyourhostoperatingsystemusesadifferentpathtotheUSBdevicefilesystem,run thefollowingcommandasroottomountthefilesystemtotheexpectedlocation:
mount -t usbfs none /proc/bus/usb

DonotattempttoaddaUSBdrivesdevicenode(forexample,/dev/sda)directoryto thevirtualmachineasaharddisk.

How Device Control Is Shared Between Host and Guest


OnlythehostortheguestcanhavecontrolofaUSBdeviceatanyonetime.Device controloperatesdifferently,dependingonwhetherthehostisaLinuxoraWindows computer. Device Control on a Windows Host Whenyouconnectadevicetoavirtualmachine,itisunpluggedfromthehostor fromthevirtualmachinethatpreviouslyhadcontrolofthedevice.Whenyou disconnectadevicefromavirtualmachine,itispluggedintothehost. CAUTIONOnWindows2000andWindowsServer2003hosts,youneedtotakea specialsteptodisconnectUSBnetworkandstoragedevicesfromthehostbefore connectingthemtoavirtualmachine.Usetheappropriatesystemtrayiconto disconnectthedevicefromthehost.OnWindows2000,theiconiscalledEject Hardware,andonWindowsServer2003,itiscalledSafelyRemoveHardware. OnWindowshosts,whenyouconnectaUSBnetworkorstoragedevicetoavirtual machine,youmightseeamessageonyourhostthatsaysthedevicecanberemoved safely.Thisisnormalbehavior,andyoucandismissthedialogbox.However,donot removethedevicefromyourphysicalcomputer. Undersomecircumstances,ifaUSBstoragedeviceisinuseonthehost(forexample, oneormorefilesstoredonthedeviceareopenonthehost),anerrorappearsinthe virtualmachinewhenyoutrytoconnecttothedevice.Youmustletthehostcomplete itsoperationorcloseanyapplicationconnectedtothedeviceonthehost,andthen connecttothedeviceinthevirtualmachineagain.
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Device Control on a Linux Host OnLinuxhosts,guestoperatingsystemscanusedevicesthatarenotalreadyinuseby thehost(devicesthatarenotclaimedbyahostoperatingsystemdriver). Ifyourdeviceisinusebythehost,youcanunloadthedevicedrivermanuallyasroot (su -)byusingthermmodcommand.Or,ifthedriverwasautomaticallyloadedby hotplug,youcandisableitinthehotplugconfigurationfilesinthe/etc/hotplug directory.SeeyourLinuxdistributionsdocumentationfordetailsoneditingthese configurationfiles. Sometimesdevicesthatrelyonautomaticconnection(asPDAsoftendo)experience connectionproblems.Ifyouhavesuccessfullyusedautoconnectiontoconnectthe devicetoyourvirtualmachinebutlaterexperienceproblemswiththeconnectiontothe device,trythefollowingprocedure. To correct autoconnection problems 1 2 Disconnectandreconnectthedevicebyunpluggingitphysicallyandpluggingit backin. Ifyouseeadialogboxwarningthatthedeviceisinuse,disableitinthehotplug configurationfilesinthe/etc/hotplugdirectory.

Disconnecting USB Devices from a Virtual Machine


BeforeunpluggingaUSBdevice,besureitisinasafestate. Followtheproceduresthedevicemanufacturerspecifiesforunpluggingthedevice fromaphysicalcomputer.Thisisrequiredwhetheryouarephysicallyunpluggingit, movingitfromhosttovirtualmachine,movingitbetweenvirtualmachines,ormoving itfromvirtualmachinetohost.Thisisespeciallyimportantwithdatastoragedevices (suchasaZipdrive).Ifyoumoveadatastoragedevicetoosoonaftersavingafile,and theoperatingsystemhasnotactuallywrittenthedatatothedisk,youcanlosedata.

Configuring Sound
VMwareServerprovidesasounddevicecompatiblewiththeCreativeLabsSound BlasterAudioPCIadapterandsupportssoundinavarietyofWindowsandLinuxguest operatingsystems. SoundsupportincludesPCM(pulsecodemodulation)outputandinput.Forexample, youcanplay.wavfiles,MP3audio,andRealMediaaudio.MIDIoutputfromWindows guestsissupportedthroughtheWindowssoftwaresynthesizer.MIDIinputisnot supported,andnoMIDIsupportisavailableforLinuxguests.

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Windows2000,WindowsXP,andmostrecentLinuxdistributionsautomaticallydetect thesounddeviceandinstallappropriatedriversforit. WhenyouinstallVMwareToolsina64bitWindowsVistaguestoperatingsystem,a sounddriverisinstalled.For32bitWindowsVistaguestsandWindows2003Server guests,useWindowsUpdatetoinstalla32bitdriver.Windows95,Windows98, Windows98SE,andWindowsNT4.0donothavedriversfortheSoundBlaster AudioPCIadapter.Tousesoundintheseguestoperatingsystems,downloadthedriver fromtheCreativeLabsWebsite(www.creative.com)andinstallitintheguest operatingsystem.CreativeLabshasanumberofWebsitesservingvariousregionsof theworld.Theadapternamevaries,dependingontheregion,butusuallyincludesPCI 128.

Adding a Sound Adapter to a Virtual Machine


Youcanaddonlyonesoundadapterpervirtualmachine. To add a sound adapter to the virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSoundAdapter. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 4 OnthePropertiespage,selectthephysicalsoundadapteronthehostmachine,or selectAutoDetect(thedefault)todetectthesoundadapterautomatically. (Optional)Toconnectthisvirtualmachinetothesoundadapterwhenthevirtual machineispoweredon,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 5 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

Editing a Virtual Sound Adapter


Youcaneditthesoundadaptertochangetheconnectiontypeandwhetheritis connectedatpoweron. To edit an existing sound adapter 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clickthesoundadaptertomodify andselectEdit.

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3 4 5

(Optional)Toconnectthisvirtualmachinetothenetworkwhenthevirtual machineispoweredon,selectConnectatpoweron. Selectthephysicalsoundadapteronthehostmachine,orselectAutoDetectto detectthesoundadapterautomatically. ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing a Sound Adapter from a Virtual Machine


Youcanremovethesoundadapterfromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwanttouse thehostsystemssounddevice. To remove an existing sound adapter 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. OntheSummarytab,clickthesoundadapterandselectRemove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Configuring Serial Ports


Youcanconfigureaserialportinavirtualmachinetouseaphysicalserialportonthe hostsystem.Avirtualserialportenablesyoutouseanexternalmodemorahandheld deviceinyourvirtualmachine.Youcanalsoconfigureavirtualserialporttosendits outputtoafileonthehostsystem.Theoutputfileenablesyoutocapturethedatafrom anapplicationrunninginthevirtualmachineortoquicklytransferafilefromtheguest systemtothehostsystem.

Adding a Serial Port to a Virtual Machine


Thissectiondescribeshowtoconfigureavirtualserialportinavirtualmachinetouse anyofthefollowing: Aphysicalserialportonthehostsystem Anoutputfileonthehostsystem Anamedpipe

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To add a physical serial port to the virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 4 5 ClickUsePhysicalSerialPorttoconnecttoaphysicalportonthehostmachine. OnthePropertiespage,selectaphysicalportfromthedropdownmenu. (Optional)Toconnecttothehostsserialportwhenthevirtualmachineispowered on,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168. 6 ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 7 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

To add an output file serial port to the virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 ClickUseOutputFiletosendtheoutputofanapplicationrunningintheguest systemtoafileonthehostsystem. OnthePropertiespage,enterthepathandfilenamefortheoutputfileorclick Browsetonavigatetoafileinanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually, youmustusetheformat:[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename (Optional)Toconnecttothehostsoutputfilewhenthevirtualmachineispowered on,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168.

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ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings.

Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

To add a named pipe serial port to the virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 ClickUseNamedPipetoconnectthisvirtualmachinetoanapplicationoranother virtualmachinerunningonthehostmachine. OnthePropertiespage,enterthepathandfilenameforthepipe.Dependingonthe hostsystem,enteroneofthefollowing: OnWindowshosts:Thepipenamemustbeintheformat \\.\pipe\<namedpipe>.Thenamemustbeginwith\\.\pipe\. OnLinuxhosts:Thepipenamemustbe/tmp/<socket>oranotherUNIX socketnameofyourchoice. 4 ForNearEnd,selectwhethertheapplicationrunningintheguestoperating systemwillfunctionasaserveroraclient. SelectIsaservertostartthisendoftheconnectionfirst. SelectIsaclienttostartthefarendoftheconnectionfirst. 5 ForFarEnd,specifywheretheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewillconnectto islocated. SelectIsavirtualmachineiftheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewill connecttoislocatedonanothervirtualmachineonthehostsystem. SelectIsanapplicationiftheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewillconnect toisrunningdirectlyonthehostsystem. 6 7 (Optional)Toconnecttothenamedpipewhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168.

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ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings.

Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

Editing a Virtual Serial Port


Youcaneditanexistingvirtualserialporttochangeitsconfigurationsettings. To edit an existing serial port 1 2 3 4 5 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheserialporttomodify. (Optional)Toconnecttotheserialportwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon, selectConnectatpoweron. Selecttheconnectiontypeandconfigureitasfollows: PhysicalSelectthehostserialportfromthedropdownmenu. FileEnterthepathandfilenamefortheoutputfileorclickBrowseto navigatetoafileinanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually,youmust usetheformat:[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename NamedPipeEnterthepathandfilenameforthepipe. UnderNearEnd,specifywhethertheapplicationrunningintheguest operatingsystemwillfunctionasaserveroraclient. SelectIsaservertostartthisendoftheconnectionfirst. SelectIsaclienttostartthefarendoftheconnectionfirst. UnderFarEnd,specifywheretheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewill connecttoislocated. SelectIsavirtualmachineiftheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewill connecttoislocatedonanothervirtualmachineonthehost. SelectIsanapplicationiftheapplicationthatthevirtualmachinewill connecttoisrunningdirectlyonthehostmachine. 6 (Optional)SelectYieldCPUonpoll.

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Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168. 7 ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing a Serial Port from a Virtual Machine


Youcanremoveaserialportfromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwanttouseit. To remove an existing serial port 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheserialportandselect Remove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Serial Port General Usage Examples


AVMwareServervirtualmachinecanuseuptofourvirtualserialports.Youcan configurevirtualserialportsinthefollowingways: Connectavirtualserialporttoaphysicalserialportonthehostsystem Connectavirtualserialporttoafileonthehostsystem Connectavirtualmachinewithanapplicationrunningonthehostsystem Connecttwovirtualmachinesonthesamehostsystem Thissectionprovidesspecificexamplesofthelattertwoconfigurations.

Connecting a Virtual Machine with an Application on the Host System


Youcanconfigureavirtualserialporttoconnecttoanapplicationonthehostsystem. Forexample,youcancapturedebugginginformationsentfromthevirtualmachines serialporttoanapplicationonthehost.

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To connect a virtual serial port and an application on the host 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 ClickUseNamedPipe. OnthePropertiespage,enterthepathandfilenameforthepipe.Dependingonthe hostsystem,enteroneofthefollowing: OnWindowshosts:Thepipenamemustbeintheformat \\.\pipe\<namedpipe>.Thenamemustbeginwith\\.\pipe\. OnLinuxhosts:Thepipenamemustbe/tmp/<socket>oranotherUNIX socketnameofyourchoice. 4 FortheNearEnd,selectIsaserverorIsaclient. SelectIsaserverifyouplantostartthisendoftheconnectionfirst. 5 6 7 FortheFarEnd,selectIsanapplication. (Optional)Toconnecttothenamedpipewhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168. 8 ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 9 10 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard. Onyourhostsystem,configuretheapplicationthatcommunicateswiththevirtual machinetousethesamepipename(foraWindowshost)ortheUNIXsocketname (foraLinuxhost). Poweronthevirtualmachine.

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Connecting Two Virtual Machines


Youcansetupthevirtualserialportsintwovirtualmachinestoconnecttoeachother. Forexample,anapplicationinonevirtualmachine(theclient)cancapturedebugging informationsentfromtheother(theserver)virtualmachinesserialport.
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Thefollowingproceduresdescribehowtosetuptheserverandtheclienttoconnectto eachotherusingvirtualserialports. To set up the server side of the connection 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 ClickUseNamedPipe. OnthePropertiespage,enterthepathandfilenameforthepipe.Dependingonthe hostsystem,enteroneofthefollowing: OnWindowshosts:Thepipenamemustbeintheformat \\.\pipe\<namedpipe>.Thenamemustbeginwith\\.\pipe\. OnLinuxhosts:Thepipenamemustbe/tmp/<socket>oranotherUNIX socketnameofyourchoice. 4 5 6 7 SelectThisendistheserver. SelectTheotherendisavirtualmachine. (Optional)Toconnecttothenamedpipewhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168. 8 ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 9 10 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard. Poweronthevirtualmachine.

To set up the client side of the connection 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickSerialPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 ClickUseNamedPipe.

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OnthePropertiespage,enterthepathandfilenameforthepipe.Dependingonthe hostsystem,enteroneofthefollowing: OnWindowshosts:Thepipenamemustbeintheformat \\.\pipe\<namedpipe>.Thenamemustbeginwith\\.\pipe\. OnLinuxhosts:Thepipenamemustbe/tmp/<socket>oranotherUNIX socketnameofyourchoice.

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SelectThisendistheclient. SelectTheotherendisavirtualmachine. (Optional)Toconnecttothenamedpipewhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon, selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). (Optional,onWindowshostsonly)ExpandI/OModetoselectYieldCPUonpoll, whichisdeselectedbydefault. Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserialportinpolledmode, notinterruptmode.Formoreinformation,seeYieldingCPUonPolltoImprove PerformanceWhenDebugging(WindowsHostsOnly)onpage 168.

ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings.

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Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard. Poweronthevirtualmachine.

Serial Port Debugging Usage Examples


YoucanuseDebuggingToolsforWindows(WinDbg)orthecommandlineKernel Debugger(KD)todebugkernelcodeinavirtualmachineoveravirtualserialport.You candownloadDebuggingToolsforWindowsfromtheWindowsDDKWebsiteat http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/devtools/debugging/default.mspx. Thefollowingexamplesillustratehowtouseavirtualserialporttodebugkernelcode: WiththedebuggingapplicationontheVMwareServerhost(Windowshostonly) WiththedebuggingapplicationinanothervirtualmachineonthesameVMware Serverhost(LinuxorWindows) Eitherofthesemethodsenablesyoutodebugkernelcodeonasinglesystem,instead ofrequiringtwophysicalcomputers,amodem,oraserialcable.

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Debugging an Application in a Virtual Machine from the Windows or Linux Host


Inthisexample,youhavekernelcodetodebuginavirtualmachine(calledthetarget virtualmachine)andarerunningWinDbgorKDonyourWindowshost. To prepare the target virtual machine 1 FollowthestepsinConnectingaVirtualMachinewithanApplicationontheHost Systemonpage 163,andconfigurethevirtualmachinesvirtualserialportas follows: FortheNearEnd,selectIsaserver. SelectYieldCPUonpoll.Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthe virtualserialportinpolledmode,notinterruptmode. To prepare the host Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatyouhaveaversionofDebuggingToolsforWindows thatsupportsdebuggingoverapipe.Youmusthaveversion4.0.18.0orhigher. To debug an application using WinDbg or KD 1 2 3 4 Poweronthevirtualmachine. Edittheserialport. Makesurethattheserialportisconnected. Confirmthepathandfilenameforthepipe.Dependingonthehostsystem,enter oneofthefollowing: OnWindowshosts:Thepipenamemustbeintheformat \\.\pipe\<namedpipe>.Thenamemustbeginwith\\.\pipe\. OnLinuxhosts:Thepipenamemustbe/tmp/<socket>oranotherUNIX socketnameofyourchoice. 5 Atthecommandpromptonthehostsystem,dooneofthefollowing: IfyouareusingWinDbg,enterthefollowing:
windbg -k com:port=\\.\pipe\<namedpipe>,pipe

IfyouareusingKD,enterthefollowing:
kd -k com:port=\\.\pipe\<namedpipe>,pipe

PressEntertostartdebugging.

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Debugging an Application in a Virtual Machine from Another Virtual Machine


Inthisexample,youhavekernelcodetodebuginavirtualmachine(thetargetvirtual machine)andarerunningDebuggingToolsforWindows(WinDbg)orKernelDebugger (KD)inanothervirtualmachine(thedebuggervirtualmachine)onthesamehost. ThissetupisusefulifyouarerunningVMwareServeronaLinuxhost.Thedebugger virtualmachinemustberunningDebuggingToolsforWindows(WinDbg)orKernel Debugger(KD)inaWindowsguestoperatingsystem. To prepare the target virtual machine 1 2 FollowthestepsfortheservervirtualmachineinConnectingTwoVirtual Machinesonpage 164. Whenyouconfigurethetargetvirtualmachinesvirtualserialport,youmustselect YieldCPUonpoll.Thekernelinthetargetvirtualmachineusesthevirtualserial portinpolledmode,notinterruptmode.

To prepare the debugger virtual machine 1 2 MakesurethatyouhavedownloadedDebuggingToolsforWindows. FollowthestepsfortheclientvirtualmachineinConnectingTwoVirtual Machinesonpage 164.

When you are ready to continue, complete the following steps: 1 2 3 Poweronbothvirtualmachines. Makesurethattheserialportisconnected. Inthedebuggervirtualmachine,startdebuggingwithWinDbgorKD.

Advanced Options for Debugging Applications


Certainconfigurationoptionsareavailableforserialconnectionsbetweenavirtual machineandthehostorbetweentwovirtualmachines.Theseoptionsareprimarilyof interesttodeveloperswhoareusingdebuggingtoolsthatcommunicateoveraserial connection. Yielding CPU on Poll to Improve Performance When Debugging (Windows Hosts Only) WhenyouselectYieldCPUonPoll,youforcetheaffectedvirtualmachinetoyield processortimeiftheonlytaskitistryingtoperformistopollthevirtualserialport.

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Thisoptionisusefulwhentheserialportisbeingusedbytheguestoperatingsystem inpolledmodeasopposedtointerruptmode.Polledmodecausesthevirtualmachine toconsumeadisproportionateshareofCPUtime,whichcancausethehostandother guestsrunsluggishly. Changing the Input Speed of the Serial Connection Thisoptionincreasesthespeedofyourserialconnectionoverapipetothevirtual machine.Inprinciple,thereisnolimitontheoutputspeed,whichisthespeedatwhich thevirtualmachinesendsdatathroughthevirtualserialport.Inpractice,theoutput speeddependsonhowfasttheapplicationattheotherendofthepipereadsdatabeing senttoit. To change the input speed of the serial connection 1 2 3 Usetheguestoperatingsystemtoconfiguretheserialportforthehighestsetting supportedbytheapplicationyouarerunninginthevirtualmachine. Poweroffthevirtualmachine. Addtheserial<n>.pipe.charTimePercentparametertoyourvirtual machinesconfiguration(.vmx)fileasdescribedinChangingVirtualMachine AdvancedSettingsonpage 121,andsetittoapositiveintegervalue,asfollows: nisthenumberoftheserialport,startingfrom0.Sothefirstserialportis serial0. Thevalueisapositiveintegerthatspecifiesthetimetakentotransmita character,expressedasapercentageofthedefaultspeedsetfortheserialport intheguestoperatingsystem.Forexample,asettingof200forcestheportto taketwiceaslongpercharacter,orsenddataathalfthedefaultspeed.A settingof50forcestheporttotakehalfaslongpercharacter,orsenddataat twicethedefaultspeed. Tosettheserialportspeedappropriatelyintheguestoperatingsystem, experimentwiththissetting.Startwithavalueof100andgraduallydecrease ituntilyoufindthehighestspeedatwhichyourconnectionworksreliably. 4 Poweronthevirtualmachine.

Configuring Parallel Ports


Parallelportsareusedbyavarietyofdevices,includingprinters,scanners,dongles, anddiskdrives. Avirtualparallelportcanconnecttoaparallelportorafileonthehostsystem.

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Adding a Parallel Port to a Virtual Machine


Youcanaddavirtualparallelportthatconnectstoaphysicalparallelportoranoutput file. To add a physical parallel port to the virtual machine 1 FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickParallelPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 4 5 ClickUseaphysicalparallelporttoconnecttoaphysicalportonthehost machine. OnthePropertiespage,selectaphysicalportfromthedropdownmenu. (Optional)Toconnecttothehostsserialportwhenthevirtualmachineispowered on,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 6 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

To add an output file parallel port to the virtual machine 1 1 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. FromtheAddHardwareorNewVirtualMachinewizard,clickParallelPort. ForinformationabouthowtostarttheAddHardwarewizard,seeAdding HardwaretoaVirtualMachineonpage 130. 2 3 ClickOutputfile. OnthePropertiespage,typethepathandfilenamefortheoutputfileorclick Browsetonavigatetoafileinanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually, youmustusetheformat:[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename (Optional)Toconnecttothehostsserialportwhenthevirtualmachineispowered on,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepagedisplaysthehardwaresettings. 6 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

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Editing a Virtual Parallel Port


Youcaneditavirtualparallelporttochangeitsconfigurationsettings. To edit an existing parallel port 1 2 3 4 5 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheparallelporttomodify. Toconnecttotheparallelportwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredon,select Connectatpoweron. Selecttheconnectiontypeandconfigureitasfollows: PhysicalSelectthehostparallelportfromthedropdownmenu. FileEnterthepathandfilenamefortheoutputfileorclickBrowseto navigatetoafileinanexistingdatastore.Toenterthepathmanually,youmust usetheformat:[ datastore_name ] path_and_filename 6 ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Removing a Parallel Port from a Virtual Machine


Youcanremoveavirtualparallelportfromavirtualmachineifyounolongerwantto useit. To remove an existing parallel port 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheparallelporttoremoveand selectRemove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethedevice.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thedeviceisremoved.

Using Parallel Ports


Parallelportsareusedbyavarietyofdevices,includingprinters,scanners,dongles, anddiskdrives.

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Currently,VMwareServerprovidesonlypartialemulationofPS/2hardware. Interruptsrequestedbyadeviceconnectedtothephysicalportarenotpassedtothe virtualmachine.Also,theguestoperatingsystemcannotuseDMA(directmemory access)tomovedatatoorfromtheport.Forthisreason,notalldevicesthatattachto theparallelportareguaranteedtoworkcorrectly. Youcanattachuptothreeparallelportstoavirtualmachine.Thevirtualparallelport canconnecttoaparallelportorafileonthehostoperatingsystem.

Configuring a Parallel Port on a Windows Host


Ifavirtualmachineisconfiguredwithaparallelport,mostguestoperatingsystems detectitatinstallationtimeandinstalltherequireddrivers.Someoperatingsystems, includingWindowsNT,andWindows2000,automaticallydetecttheportsatboottime. Others,likeWindows95andWindows98,donot. InaWindows95orWindows98guest,afteryouaddtheport,runtheguestoperating systemsAddNewHardwarewizard(Start>Settings>ControlPanel>AddNew Hardware)soWindowscandetectthenewdevice.

Configuring a Parallel Port on a Linux Host


Fortheparallelporttoworkproperlyinaguestoperatingsystem,itmustfirstbe configuredproperlyonthehostsystem.Thissectiondiscussesissueswithparallelport functionalitythatarearesultoftheincorrectconfigurationofthefollowinghost settings: TheLinuxkernelversion Deviceaccesspermissions Requiredmodules

Parallel Ports and Linux 2.2.x Kernels


The2.2.xkernelsthatsupportparallelportsusetheparport,parport_pc,and vmppusermodules.MakesurethatPCStyleHardware(CONFIG_PARPORT_PC)is loadedasamodule.OnLinuxhosts,VMwareServerrequiresthattheparallelport PCstylehardwareoption(CONFIG_PARPORT_PC)bebuiltandloadedasakernel module(settom).VMwareServercannotuseparallelportdevicesif CONFIG_PARPORT_PCisbuiltdirectly(compiled)intothekernel.Thislimitation existsbecauseCONFIG_PARPORT_PCdoesnotcorrectlyexportitssymbols. ThevmppusermoduleissuppliedbyVMwareServertoallowvirtualmachines userlevelaccesstotheparallelport.

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To check the module configuration 1 Determinewhethertheparport,parport_pc,andvmppusermodulesare installedandrunningonyoursystembyrunningthelsmodcommandastheroot user. Allthreemodulesmustbeincludedinthelistingofrunningmodules.Youcanalso lookatthe/proc/modulesfileforthesamelist. 2 Toloadthepropermodules,runthiscommand:
insmod <modulename>

Ifnoneofthelistedparallelportmodulesisloaded,enterthiscommand:
insmod parport_pc

Thiscommandinsertsthethreemodulesneededforaparallelport. Ifyoucontinuetohaveproblems,itispossiblethatthelpmoduleisrunning.Ifit is,thevirtualmachinecannotusetheparallelportcorrectly. 4 Ifthelpmoduleisloaded,runthefollowingcommandastherootusertoremove it:


rmmod lp

Verifythatthelinereferringtothelpmoduleinthe/etc/modules.confor /etc/conf.modulesfileisremovedorcommentedoutbyinsertingahash character(#)atthebeginningoftheline.Thenameoftheconfigurationfile dependsontheLinuxdistributionyouareusing. Whenyourebootthehostafterremovingthisline,theconfigurationfilenolonger startsthelpmodule.

Toensurethatthepropermodulesfortheparallelportareloadedatboottime,add thefollowinglinetothe/etc/modules.confor/etc/conf.modulesfile:
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc

Parallel Ports and Linux 2.4.x Kernels


MakesurethatPCStyleHardware(CONFIG_PARPORT_PC)isloadedasamodule (settom).Ifyouareusinga2.4.xkernel,themodulesthatprovideparallelport functionalityareparport,parport_pc,andppdev. Alsomakesurethatyouenablesupportforuserspaceparalleldevicedrivers (CONFIG_PPDEV).

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To check the module configuration 1 Determinewhethertheparport,parport_pc,andppdevmodulesareinstalled andloadedonyoursystembyrunningthelsmodcommandastherootuser. Allthreemodulesmustbeincludedinthelistingofloadedmodules.Youcanalso lookatthe/proc/modulesfileforthesamelist. 2 Toloadthepropermodules,runthiscommand:


insmod <modulename>

Ifnoneofthelistedparallelportmodulesisloaded,usethiscommand:
insmod parport_pc

Thiscommandinsertstheparport and parport_pcmodulesneededfora parallelport. 4 Usethiscommandtoloadtheppdevmodule:


insmod ppdev

Ifyoucontinuetohaveproblems,itispossiblethatthelpmoduleisloaded.Ifit is,thevirtualmachinecannotusetheparallelportcorrectly. 5 Ifthelpmoduleisloaded,runthiscommandastherootusertoremoveit:


rmmod lp

Verifythatthelinereferringtothelpmoduleinthe/etc/modules.confor /etc/conf.modulesfileisremovedorcommentedoutbyinsertingahash character(#)atthebeginningoftheline.Thenameoftheconfigurationfile dependsontheLinuxdistributionyouareusing. Whenyourebootthehostafterremovingthisline,theconfigurationfilenolonger startsthelpmodule.

Toensurethatthepropermodulesfortheparallelportareloadedatboottime,add thislinetothe/etc/modules.confor/etc/conf.modulesfile:
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc

Linuxkernelsinthe2.4.xseriesalsouseaspecialarbitratorthatallowsaccesstothe parallelporthardware.Iftheparallelportisinusebythehost,theguestcannotuseit. Ifavirtualmachineisusingtheparallelport,thehostandanyusersaccessingthehost arenotgivenaccesstothedevice.VMwareServerputsalockonthedevice,andthis lockrestrictsaccesssothatonlythevirtualmachinecanusetheport.

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Parallel Ports and Linux 2.6.x Kernels


MakesurethatPCStyleHardware(CONFIG_PARPORT_PC)isloadedasamodule (settom).Ifyouareusinga2.6.xkernel,themodulesthatprovideparallelport functionalityare modprobe <modulename>andmodprobe parport_pc. To check the configuration 1 Determinewhetherthemodprobe <modulename>and modprobe parport_pc modulesareinstalledandloadedonyoursystembyrunningthelsmodcommand astherootuser.Youcanalsolookatthe/proc/modulesfileforthesamelist. In2.6.xkernels,loadingparport_pcdoesnotloadallmodules. 2 Ifnoneofthelistedparallelportmodulesisloaded,usethiscommand:
modprobe parport_pc && modprobe ppdev

Thiscommandinsertsthemodulesneededforaparallelport. Ifyoucontinuetohaveproblems,itispossiblethatthelpmoduleisloaded.Ifit is,thevirtualmachinecannotusetheparallelportcorrectly. 3 Ifthelpmoduleisloaded,runthiscommandastherootusertoremoveit:


rmmod lp

Verifythatthelinereferringtothelpmoduleinthe/etc/modules.confor /etc/conf.modulesfileisremovedorcommentedoutbyinsertingahash character(#)atthebeginningoftheline.Thenameoftheconfigurationfile dependsontheLinuxdistributionyouareusing. Whenyourebootthehostafterremovingthisline,theconfigurationfilenolonger startsthelpmodule.

Toensurethatthepropermodulesfortheparallelportareloadedatboottime,add thislinetothe/etc/modules.confor/etc/conf.modulesfile:
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc

Linuxkernelsinthe2.6.xseriesalsouseaspecialarbitratorthatallowsaccesstothe parallelporthardware.Iftheparallelportisinusebythehost,theguestcannotuseit. Ifavirtualmachineisusingtheparallelport,thehostandanyusersaccessingthehost arenotgivenaccesstothedevice.VMwareServerputsalockonthedevice,andthis lockrestrictsaccesssothatonlythevirtualmachinecanusetheport.

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Device Permissions
SomeLinuxdistributionsdonotgrantthevirtualmachineaccesstothelpand parportdevicesbydefault.Inmostofthesecases,theownerofthedeviceisrootand theassociatedgroupislp.ToallowtheVMwareusertoaccessthedevice,addtheuser totheassociatedgroup.Toviewtheownerandgroupofthedevice,runthiscommand:
ls la /dev/parport0

Thethirdandfourthcolumnsoftheoutputshowtheownerandgroup,respectively. Toaddtheusertothedevicegroup,editthe/etc/groupfile.Onthelinebeginning withlp,whichdefinesthelpgroup,addtheVMwareServerusersusername.You mustmakethischangeastherootuser.Thefollowinglineprovidesanexamplefora userwhoseusernameisuserj.


lp::7:daemon,lp,userj

Thenexttimetheuserlogsontothehost,thechangestakeeffect.

Notes for Using the Iomega Zip Drive


OnWindows95orWindows98guestoperatingsystems,usingolderdriversforthe IomegaZipdrivemightcausetheguesttolockupintermittentlyatboottimeorduring installationoftheguestoperatingsystem.ThenewestIomegadriversworkreliablyin VMwaretests.TheyareavailablefromtheIomegawebsite.OntheIomegawebsite www.iomega.com,clickSupport&Downloads.

Keyboard Mapping on Linux Hosts


Thissectionaddressesthefollowingissuesandprovidesadditionaldetailson keyboardmappinginLinux: SomelanguagespecifickeyboardsdonotappeartobesupportedbyVMware Server. Someofthekeysonthekeyboarddontworkcorrectlyinthevirtualmachine. Thekeyboardworksfinewhenyourunavirtualmachinelocally,butnotwhen yourunthesamevirtualmachinewitharemoteXserver. IfyourkeyboardworkscorrectlywithalocalXserver,andyouwantthesamebehavior witharemoteXserver(whichisalsoanXFree86serverrunningonaPC),first,power offthevirtualmachineandclosetheVMwareServerwindow.Addthefollowing settingtothevirtualmachineconfiguration(.vmx)fileorto~/.vmware/config:
xkeymap.usekeycodeMapIfXFree86 = "TRUE"

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Makethischangeonthehostmachine,whereyourunthevirtualmachine,notonthe machinewiththeremoteXserver. IfyouareusinganXFree86basedserverthatVMwareServerdoesnotrecognizeasan XFree86server,usethissettinginstead:


xkeymap.usekeycodeMap = "TRUE"

IfyouareusinganXFree86serverrunninglocally,andthekeyboarddoesnotwork correctly,reporttheproblemtoVMwaretechnicalsupport.

X Key Codes Compared to Keysyms


PressingakeyonthePCkeyboardgeneratesascancodebasedroughlyontheposition ofthekey.Forexample,theZkeyonaGermankeyboardgeneratesthesamecodeas theYkeyonanEnglishkeyboard,becausetheyareinthesamepositiononthe keyboard.Mostkeyshaveonebytescancodes,butsomekeyshavetwobytescan codeswithprefix0xe0. Internally,VMwareServerusesasimplifiedversionofthePCscancodethatisasingle ninebitnumericvalue,calledavscancode.Avscancodeiswrittenasathreedigit hexadecimalnumber.Thefirstdigitis0or1.Forexample,thelefthandCtrlkeyhasa onebytescancode(0x1d);itsvscancodeis0x01d.TherighthandCtrlkeyscancode istwobytes(0xe0,0x1d);itsvscancodeis0x11d. AnXserverusesatwolevelencodingofkeys.AnXkeycodeisaonebytevalue.The assignmentofkeycodestokeysdependsontheXserverimplementationandthe physicalkeyboard.Asaresult,anXapplicationcannotusekeycodesdirectly.Instead, thekeycodesaremappedintokeysymsthathavenameslikespace,escape,xand2.The mappingcanbecontrolledbyanXapplicationusingtheXChangeKeyboardMapping functionorthexmodmapprogram.Youcanusexevtoviewthekeycodesandkeysyms forkeystypedintoitswindow. Akeycodecorrespondsroughlytoaphysicalkey,whileakeysymcorrespondstothe symbolonthekeytop.Forexample,withanXFree86serverrunningonaPC,theZkey ontheGermankeyboardhasthesamekeycodeastheYkeyonanEnglishkeyboard. TheGermanZkeysym,however,isthesameastheEnglishZkeysym,anddifferent fromtheEnglishYkeysym. ForanXFree86serveronaPC,thereisaonetoonemappingfromXkeycodestoPC scancodes(orvscancodes,whichiswhatVMwareServerreallyuses).VMwareServer takesadvantageofthisfact.WhenitisusinganXFree86serveronthelocalhost,ituses thebuiltinmappingfromXkeycodestovscancodes.Thismappingiskeyboard independentandiscorrectformost,ifnotall,languages.Whenyouarenotusingan XFree86serveroralocalserver,VMwareServermustmapkeysymstovscancodesby usingasetofkeyboardspecifictables.
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Configuring How Key Codes Are Mapped


Keycodemappingissimple,automatic,andfoolproof.(Keysymmappingismore complexandisdescribedlater.)However,becausetheprogramcannottellwhethera remoteserverisrunningonaPCoronsomeotherkindofcomputer,ituseskeycode mappingonlywithlocalXservers.Thisapproachmighthaveundesirableeffects.This andotherbehaviorrelatedtokeycodemappingcanbecontrolledbypoweringoffthe virtualmachine,closingtheVMwareServerwindow,andusingatexteditortoadd configurationsettingstothevirtualmachinesconfiguration(.vmx)file.Youmight wanttousesomeofthefollowingconfigurationsettings: xkeymap.usekeycodeMapIfXFree86 = "TRUE" UsekeycodemappingifyouareusinganXFree86server,evenifitisremote. xkeymap.usekeycodeMap = "TRUE" Alwaysusekeycodemappingregardlessofservertype. xkeymap.nokeycodeMap = "TRUE" Neverusekeycodemapping. xkeymap.keycode.<code> = "<v-scan code>" Ifyouareusingkeycodemapping,mapkeycode<code>to<v-scan code>.In thisexample,<code>mustbeadecimalnumberand<v-scan code>isaCsyntax hexadecimalnumber(forexample,0x001). TheeasiestwaytofindtheXkeycodeforakeyistorunxevorxmodmap -pk.Mostof thevscancodesarecoveredinVScanCodeTableonpage 180.Thekeysym mappingtablesdescribedinthissectionarealsohelpful. Usethisfeaturetomakesmallmodificationstothemapping.Forexample,toswapleft CtrlandCapsLock,usethefollowingsettings:
xkeymap.keycode.64 = "0x01d # X Caps_Lock -> VM left ctrl" xkeymap.keycode.37 = "0x03a # X Control_L -> VM caps lock"

TheseconfigurationlinescanbeaddedtoyourpersonalVMwareServerconfiguration (~/.vmware/config),oreventothehostwide(/etc/vmware/config)or installationwide(usually/usr/lib/vmware/config)configuration.

Configuring How Keysyms Are Mapped


Whenkeycodemappingcannotbeused(orisdisabled),VMwareServermaps keysymstovscancodes.Itdoesthisusingoneofthetablesinthexkeymapdirectory intheVMwareServerinstallation(usually/usr//lib/vmware).

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Whichtableyouusedependsonthekeyboardlayout.Thenormaldistributionincludes tablesforPCkeyboardsfortheUnitedStatesandanumberofEuropeancountriesand languages.Andformostofthese,thereareboththe101key(or102key)andthe 104key(or105key)variants. VMwareServerautomaticallydetermineswhichtabletousebyexaminingthecurrent Xkeymap.However,itsmappingmightnotbecorrect.Inaddition,eachmappingis fixedandmightnotbecompletelycorrectforagivenkeyboardandXkey codetokeysymmapping.Forexample,ausermighthaveswappedCtrlandCaps Lockusingxmodmap.Thismeansthekeysareswappedinthevirtualmachinewhen usingaremoteserver(keysymmapping)butarenotswappedwhenusingalocal server(keycodemapping). Therefore,keysymmappingisnecessarilyinexact.Tomakeupforthis,youcancontrol mostofthebehaviorusingconfigurationsettings: xkeymap.language = "<keyboard-type>" UsethissettingifVMwareServerhasatableinxkeymapforyourkeyboardbut cannotdetectit.<keyboard-type>mustbeoneofthetablesinthexkeymap directory.(Seeaboveforlocation.)However,thefailuretodetectthekeyboard probablymeansthetableisnotcompletelycorrectforyou. xkeymap.keysym.<sym> = "<v-scan code>" Ifyouusekeysymmapping,mapkeysym<sym>to<v-scan code>.Whenyoudo, <sym>mustbeanXkeysymnameand<v-scan code>isaCsyntaxhexadecimal number(forexample,0x001). Theeasiestwaytofindthekeysymnameforakeyistorunxevorxmodmap -pk. TheXheaderfile/usr/include/X11/keysymdef.hhasacompletelistof keysyms.(ThenameofakeysymisthesameasitsCconstantwithouttheXK_ prefix.)MostvscancodesareinVScanCodeTableonpage 180. Thexkeymaptablesthemselvesarealsohelpful.Usethemtofixsmallerrorsinan existingmapping. xkeymap.fileName = "<file-path>" Usethekeysymmappingtablein<file-path>.Atableisasequenceof configurationlinesusingthefollowingformat:
<sym> = "<v-scan code>"

where<sym>isanXkeysymname,and<v-scan code>isaCsyntaxhexadecimal number(forexample,0x001).(Seetheexplanationofxkeymap.keysymabovefor tipsonfindingthekeysymsandvscancodesforyourkeyboard.)

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Compilingacompletekeysymmappingisdifficult.Itisbesttostartwithan existingtableandmakesmallchanges.

V-Scan Code Table


Table 81showsthevscancodesforthe104keyU.S.keyboard. Table 8-1. V-Scan Codes for the 104-Key U.S. Keyboard
Symbol Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = Backspace Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + Shifted Symbol Location V-Scan Code 0x001 0x002 0x003 0x004 0x005 0x006 0x007 0x008 0x009 0x00a 0x00b 0x00c 0x00d 0x00e 0x00f 0x010 0x011 0x012 0x013 0x014 0x015 0x016 0x017 0x018 0x019

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Table 8-1. V-Scan Codes for the 104-Key U.S. Keyboard (Continued)
Symbol [ ] Enter Ctrl A S D F G H J K L ; ` Shift \ Z X C V B N M , . / Shift < > ? right | left left Shifted Symbol { } Location V-Scan Code 0x01a 0x01b 0x01c 0x01d 0x01e 0x01f 0x020 0x021 0x022 0x023 0x024 0x025 0x026 0x027 0x028 0x029 0x02a 0x02b 0x02c 0x02d 0x02e 0x02f 0x030 0x031 0x032 0x033 0x034 0x035 0x036

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Table 8-1. V-Scan Codes for the 104-Key U.S. Keyboard (Continued)
Symbol * Alt Spacebar CapsLock F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 NumLock ScrollLock Home Uparrow PgUp Leftarrow 5 Rightarrow + End Downarrow PgDn Ins Del 1 2 3 0 6 4 7 8 9 numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad numericpad Shifted Symbol Location numericpad left V-Scan Code 0x037 0x038 0x039 0x03a 0x03b 0x03c 0x03d 0x03e 0x03f 0x040 0x041 0x042 0x043 0x044 0x045 0x046 0x047 0x048 0x049 0x04a 0x04b 0x04c 0x04d 0x04e 0x04f 0x050 0x051 0x052 0x053

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Table 8-1. V-Scan Codes for the 104-Key U.S. Keyboard (Continued)
Symbol F11 F12 Break Enter Ctrl / SysRq Alt Home Uparrow PageUp Leftarrow Rightarrow End Downarrow PageDown Insert Delete Windows Windows Menu PrintScrn right functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad functionpad left right Pause numericpad right numericpad Shifted Symbol Location V-Scan Code 0x057 0x058 0x100 0x11c 0x11d 0x135 0x137 0x138 0x147 0x148 0x149 0x14b 0x14d 0x14f 0x150 0x151 0x152 0x153 0x15b 0x15c 0x15d

The84keykeyboardhasaSysReqkeyonthenumericpad.Itsvscancodeis0x054. KeyboardsoutsidetheU.S.usuallyhaveanextrakey(often<>or<>|)nexttotheleft shiftkey.Thevscancodeforthiskeyis0x056.

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Preserving the State of a Virtual Machine

Suspendingavirtualmachineallowsyoutosavethecurrentstatesothatyoucan continueworklaterfromthesamestate.Takingasnapshotallowsyoutopreservethe stateofavirtualmachinesothatyoucanreturntothesamestaterepeatedly.Toperform suspendorsnapshotoperations,youmusthavetherequiredpermissions. Thischapterincludesthefollowingtopics: SuspendingandResumingVirtualMachinesonpage 185 UsingSnapshotsonpage 187

Suspending and Resuming Virtual Machines


Thesuspendoperationsavesthecurrentstateofthevirtualmachine.Whenyouresume asuspendedvirtualmachine,anyapplicationsthatwererunningwhenyoususpended thevirtualmachineareresumedintheirrunningstate,andtheapplicationdataisthe sameaswhenyoususpendedthevirtualmachine. Thespeedofthesuspendandresumeoperationsdependsonhowmuchdatahas changedduringthetimethatthevirtualmachinewasrunning.Thefirstsuspend operationtypicallytakeslongerthanlatersuspendoperations. Whenyouresumeanddoadditionalworkinthevirtualmachine,youcannotreturnto thestatethatthevirtualmachinewasinatthetimeitwassuspended.Topreservethe stateofthevirtualmachinesoyoucanreturntothesamestaterepeatedly,takea snapshot,asdescribedinUsingSnapshotsonpage 187.

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Configuring Hard Suspend or Soft Suspend


YoucanconfigureVMwareServertorunaVMwareToolsscriptintheguestoperating systembeforesuspendingthevirtualmachine.Thisconfigurationiscalledasoft suspend. Beforeyoubegin,makesurethatVMwareToolsisinstalledintheguestoperating system.SeeChapter 5,InstallingandUsingVMwareTools,onpage 71. OnWindowsguests,whenyoudoasoftsuspend,ascriptreleasestheIPaddressifthe guestoperatingsystemisusingDHCP.OnLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests,the scriptstopsnetworkingforthevirtualmachine.WhenyouresumeaWindowsguest,a scriptgetsanewIPaddressfromDHCP.OnLinux,FreeBSD,andSolarisguests, networkingrestarts. To configure hard suspend or soft suspend 1 2 3 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,clickConfigure VM. ClickthePowertab. InthePowerControlssection,specifyahardsuspend(Suspend),softsuspend (SuspendGuest),ordefault(SystemDefault)operation. WhenVMwareToolsisnotinstalled,theSystemDefaultactionistosuspendthe virtualmachinewithoutsuspendingtheguest.WhenVMwareToolsisinstalled, theSystemDefaultactionistosuspendtheguestbeforesuspendingthevirtual machine. 4 IntheVMwareToolsScriptssection,selectoneormorecheckboxestoruna VMwareToolsscriptbeforesuspendingorafterresumingtheguest.SeeScripts Tabonpage 91. ClickOK.

Forinformationonadditionalhardandsoftpoweroperationsandotherpowercontrol settings,seeChangingVirtualMachinePowerSettingsonpage 118.

Suspending or Resuming a Virtual Machine


Thesuspendandresumeoperationsallowyousavethecurrentstateofyourvirtual machineandcontinueworklaterfromthesamestate. Beforesuspendingavirtualmachine,configurethehardsuspendorsoftsuspend settings.SeeConfiguringHardSuspendorSoftSuspendonpage 186.

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To suspend a virtual machine 1 2 SelectthevirtualmachinethatispoweredonintheInventorypanel. ClicktheSuspendbuttononthetoolbar. Whenyoususpendavirtualmachine,afilewitha.vmssextensioniscreatedin theworkingdirectory.Thisfilecontainstheentirestateofthevirtualmachine. To resume a virtual machine that is suspended 1 2 SelectthesuspendedvirtualmachineintheInventorypanel. ClickthePlaybuttononthetoolbar. Whenyouresumethevirtualmachine,itsstateisrestoredfromthe.vmssfile.

Using Snapshots
Snapshotsallowyoutopreservethestateofthevirtualmachinesoyoucanreturnto thesamestaterepeatedly.Forexample,youmightusesnapshotstotestsoftware.You cantakeasnapshotbeforeinstallingdifferentversionsofanapplicationtoensurethat eachtestinstallationbeginsfromtheidenticalbaseline. Tosavethecurrentstateofyourvirtualmachinetemporarily,seeSuspendingand ResumingVirtualMachinesonpage 185.

What to Use Snapshots For


Thetopicsinthissectiondescribestrategiesforusingsnapshots.

Use Snapshots as Protection from Risky Changes


Ifyouplantomakeriskychangesinavirtualmachine(forexample,testingnew softwareorexaminingavirus),takeasnapshotbeforeyoubegin.Ifyouencountera problem,youcanrestorethevirtualmachinetothestatepreservedinthatsnapshot. Snapshotscanminimizelostworkifsomethinggoeswrong.Ifyourriskyactionscause noproblems,youcantakeanewsnapshotofthevirtualmachineinitsnewstate.

Start a Virtual Machine Repeatedly in the Same State


Youcanconfigureavirtualmachinetoreverttoasnapshotanytimeitispoweredoff, asdescribedinSettingSnapshotPowerOffOptionsonpage 120.Forexample,you mightusethisfeaturewhensettingupstudentvirtualmachinestostarteachnewclass atthebeginningofthelesson,discardingthepreviousstudentswork.

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What Is Captured by a Snapshot


Asnapshotcapturestheentirestateofthevirtualmachineatthetimeyoutakethe snapshot.Thisincludes: MemorystateContentsofthevirtualmachinesmemory. ConfigurationstateVirtualmachinesettings. DiskstateStateofthevirtualmachinesvirtualdisks. NOTEThestateofindependentdisksisnotpreservedwhenyoutakeasnapshot. SeeExcludingVirtualDisksfromSnapshotsonpage 189. Whenyoureverttoasnapshot,youreturnthevirtualmachinesmemory,settings,and diskstothestatetheywereinwhenyoutookthesnapshot.Ifyouwantthevirtual machinetobesuspended,poweredon,orpoweredoffwhenyoulaunchit,besureitis inthestateyouwantwhenyoutakethesnapshot.

Activities That Conflict with Snapshots


Whenyoutakeasnapshot,beawareofotheractivitygoingoninthevirtualmachine andthelikelyimpactofrevertingtothatsnapshot.Ingeneral,itisbesttotakea snapshotwhennoapplicationsinthevirtualmachinearecommunicatingwithother computers.Thepotentialforproblemsisgreatestifthevirtualmachineis communicatingwithanothercomputer,especiallyinaproductionenvironment. Consideracaseinwhichyoutakeasnapshotwhilethevirtualmachineisdownloading afilefromaserveronthenetwork.Afteryoutakethesnapshot,thevirtualmachine continuesdownloadingthefile,communicatingitsprogresstotheserver.Ifyourevert tothesnapshot,communicationsbetweenthevirtualmachineandtheserverarelost andthefiletransferfails. Orconsideracaseinwhichyoutakeasnapshotwhileanapplicationinthevirtual machineissendingatransactiontoadatabaseonaseparatemachine.Ifyourevertto thatsnapshotafterthetransactionstartsbutbeforeithasbeencommitted,thedatabase couldbeinconsistent.

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Enabling and Disabling Background Snapshots for All Virtual Machines


Takingasnapshotisnotinstantaneous.Youcaneditahostwidesettingtotake snapshotsasabackgroundactivity.Thisallowsyoutocontinueworkingwhile VMwareServerpreservesthestateofthevirtualmachine.However,enabling backgroundsnapshotsforahostwithslowharddiskscanadverselyaffect performance.Ifyouexperiencesignificantperformanceproblemswhentakingor restoringsnapshots,disablebackgroundsnapshots. Theproceduretoconfigurethehostwidesettingtoenableanddisablebackground snapshotsisdescribedinEnablingandDisablingBackgroundSnapshotson page 108.

Snapshots and a Virtual Machines Hard Disks


Whenthevirtualmachinewritesnewdatatodiskafterasnapshotiscreated,thatdata iswrittentoredologfiles.Thesefilescangrowquitelargeasnewlysaveddata continuestoaccumulateinthem,untilyoutakeanactionthataffectsthesnapshot.Be awareofhowmuchdiskspacethesefilesconsume. RemoveasnapshotWhenyouremovethesnapshot,thechangesaccumulated intheredologfilesarewrittenpermanentlytothebasevirtualdiskfiles. ReverttoasnapshotWhenyoureverttothesnapshot,thecontentsoftheredo logfilesarediscarded. TakeasnapshotIfyoutakeasnapshotwhenthevirtualmachinealreadyhasa snapshot,thechangesaccumulatedintheredologfilesarewrittenpermanentlyto thebasevirtualdiskfiles.Anysubsequentchangesaccumulateinnewredologs.

Excluding Virtual Disks from Snapshots


Incertainvirtualmachineconfigurations,youmightwanttorevertsomediskstoa snapshotwhileotherdisksretainallchanges.Forexample,youmightwantasnapshot topreserveadiskwithyouroperatingsystemandapplications,whilealwayskeeping thechangestoadiskwithyourdocumentsanddata. Whenyouaddanewvirtualdisk,settheDiskModetoIndependentModeifyoudo notwantittobeaffectedbysnapshots,asdescribedinAddingaHardDisktoaVirtual Machineonpage 138. Youcanexcludeexistingvirtualdisksfromasnapshotbychangingthediskmode.If youhaveasnapshot,youmustremoveitbeforeyoucanchangethediskmode.See EditingaVirtualHardDiskonpage 139.

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Taking a Snapshot
Youcantakeasnapshotwhileavirtualmachineispoweredon,poweredoff,or suspended.Ifyouaresuspendingavirtualmachine,waituntilthesuspendoperation hasfinishedbeforetakingasnapshot.AsdescribedinActivitiesThatConflictwith Snapshotsonpage 188,donottakeasnapshotwhenthevirtualmachineis communicatingwithanothercomputer. NOTEIfyouruseofvirtualmachinesisstronglyperformanceoriented,consider defragmentingtheguestoperatingsystemsdrivesbeforetakingasnapshot.Usethe guestoperatingsystemsdefragmentationutility.SeeVirtualDiskMaintenanceTasks onpage 140. To take a snapshot 1 2 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,expandthe Snapshotcommand(ifnotalreadyexpanded)andclickTakeSnapshot. Ifasnapshotalreadyexists,adialogboxasksyouifyouwanttooverwritethe existingsnapshot.Ifyouwanttooverwriteit,clickYes. Anewsnapshotiscreated.

Reverting to a Snapshot
Youcanrestorethevirtualmachinetothepointintimethatasnapshotwastaken.The currentdisk,settings,andmemorystatesarediscarded,andthevirtualmachinereverts tothedisk,settings,andmemorystatesofthesnapshot.SeeWhatIsCapturedbya Snapshotonpage 188. To revert to a snapshot 1 2 IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,expandthe Snapshotcommand(ifnotalreadyexpanded)andclickReverttoSnapshot. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoreverttothesnapshot.Ifyou wanttoreverttothesnapshot,clickYes.

Youcanalsoconfigureavirtualmachinetoautomaticallyreverttothesnapshot,orto askyouwhetheryouwanttoreverttothesnapshot,wheneveryoupoweroffthevirtual machine.SeeSettingSnapshotPowerOffOptionsonpage 120.

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Removing a Snapshot
Removingthesnapshotwritesthecontentsofthesnapshottothevirtualdisk.This actiondoesnotdestroyanydatainthevirtualmachine.Movingforward,anychanges youmakeasyourunthevirtualmachinearewrittentothevirtualdisk.Youcannot reverttoapreviousstatebecausethesnapshotnolongerexists. Removingasnapshotwhenthevirtualmachineispoweredoffcantakealongtime, dependingonthesizeofthesnapshotfile. To remove the snapshot 1 2 3 Poweroffthevirtualmachine. IntheCommandssectionofthevirtualmachinesSummarytab,expandthe Snapshotcommand(ifnotalreadyexpanded)andclickRemoveSnapshot. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethesnapshot.Ifyou wanttoremoveit,clickYes. Thesnapshotisremoved.

Locking a Snapshot
Lockingthecurrentsnapshotpreventsitfrombeingoverwritten.Youcanlocka snapshotafterithasbeentaken.SeeLockingtheSnapshotonpage 120.

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10

Managing Roles and Permissions

10

ThischapterdescribeshowtomanageaccesstoVMwareServerusingrolesand permissions.VMwareServerauthenticatesusersbasedontheloginusernameand passwordcombination.RolesassignedtousersonVMwareServerobjectsdetermine whatactionsuserscanperformonthoseobjects. Thischaptercontainsthefollowingtopics: AccessElementsonpage 193 ManagingUsersonpage 194 ManagingGroupsonpage 195 ManagingRolesonpage 195 ManagingPermissionsonpage 198 AccessRulesonpage 200

Access Elements
AccesstoVMwareServerobjectsandoperationsisdeterminedbasedonthefollowing: LogininformationUsernameandpassword. Usersarecreatedandmanagedusingthemechanismsprovidedbythehost operatingsystem. GroupMembershipAgroupiscollectionofusers.Ausercanbeamemberof oneormoregroups.

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Groupsprovideaconvenientwaytomanageacollectionofusers.Groupsare createdandmanagedusingthemechanismsprovidedbythehostoperating system. PrivilegesAprivilegeisarighttoperformanindividualactiononanobjector categoryofobjects. Forexample,theabilitytopoweronavirtualmachineisaprivilege,inthecategory ofinteractionswiththevirtualmachineobject.Thisprivilegeistypicallygrouped inarolewithotherpoweroperationsonvirtualmachines.Foracompletelistof availableprivileges,groupedforconveniencebycategory,seeAppendix A, DefinedPrivileges,onpage 289.Privilegescannotbemodified. RolesAroleisanamedcollectionofprivilegesthatcanbeassignedtousersand groups. Aroleisacollectionofpredefinedprivilegesthatcontrolsuserorgroupaccessto particularVMwareServerobjects.VMwareServerprovidessystemroles,listedin Table 101,SystemRoles,onpage 196.Youcanalsocreateandmanage userdefinedroles. PermissionsApermissionisarulethatdeterminesaccesscontrol.Itspecifies whichrole(setofprivileges)isgrantedtoauserorgroup. Theroleandauserorgroupnamemakeapair.ThispairisassignedtoaVMware Serverobject.Youcanchoosewhetherornotthepermissionispropagatedtothe childobjectsintheinventoryhierarchy. Figure 10-1. Permission
user group

role inventory object

Managing Users
AuserisanindividualauthorizedtologintoVMwareServer.Userscanaccess VMwareServerusingVIWebAccess,thevmruncommand,theVIXAPI,ora thirdpartyclient.

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Tocreate,remove,ormodifyusersonaVMwareServersystem,usethemechanisms providedbythehostoperatingsystem.UsersremovedfromaVMwareServerhostlose accesstoallVMwareServerobjectsandwillnotbeabletologonagain.Usersthatare loggedinwhentheyareremovedfromthehostretaintheirVMwareServer permissionsonlyuntilthenextvalidationperiod(thedefaultisevery24hours). VIWebAccessdisplaysalistofexistingusersthatyoucanselectfromwhenyou configurepermissions.

Managing Groups
Agroupisasetofusersthatyouwanttomanagethroughacommonsetofrules.You canefficientlymanageusersthatrequirethesameprivilegesbycreatinggroups.Using groupscansignificantlyreducethetimeittakestosetupyourpermissionsmodel. Tocreate,remove,ormodifygroupsonaVMwareServersystem,usethemechanisms providedbythehostoperatingsystem.Groupmembershipischeckedeachtimeauser logsin.ThegroupsareretrievedeitherfromtheWindowsdomain(forVMwareServer runningonWindows)orfromtheLinuxoperatingsystemgrouplist(forVMware ServerrunningonLinux). Whenyougrantprivilegesonanobjecttoagroup,theyapplytoalltheusersinthe group.VI WebAccessdisplaysalistofexistinggroupsthatyoucanselectfromwhen youassignpermissions.

Managing Roles
Rolesareanamedcollectionofprivileges.VMwareServergrantsaccesstoobjectsonly tousersthathavepermissionsfortheobject.Bypairingauserorgroupwitharole,you granttheuserorgroupaccessrightstotheobject. VMwareServerprovidesbuiltinsystemroles.Theprivilegesassociatedwithsystem rolescannotbechanged. Youcanalsocreateuserdefinedroles.Theserolescanbemodified,renamed,or removed. Table 101liststhepredefinedsystemroles.

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Table 10-1. System Roles


Role NoAccessUser Description of User Capabilities Cannotvieworchangetheassociatedobject. Tabsassociatedwiththeobjectdisplaywithoutcontent. Thisisthedefaultroleforallusersexceptthoseusersinthe Administratorsgroup. ReadOnlyUser Viewthestateanddetailsabouttheobject. Viewallthetabsexcepttheconsoletab. Cannotperformanyactionsthroughthemenusandtoolbars. Administrator Allprivilegesforallobjects. Add,remove,andsetaccessrightsandprivilegesforallobjectsinthe VMwareServerenvironment. ThisisthedefaultroleforallmembersoftheAdministratorsgroup.

Allrolespermittheusertoscheduletasksbydefault.Userscanscheduleonlytasks theyhavepermissiontoperformatthetimethetasksarecreated. Youcanmodifyrolestocreateprivilegesetsthatmatchyouruserneeds. Allchangestakeeffectimmediately.Usersdonotneedtologoutandloginforchanges torolestotakeeffect.

Creating Roles
Youcancreateuserdefinedrolesifyouhavesituationsthatrequireacombinationof accessprivilegesotherthanthosedefinedinthesystemroles. Youcanalsomodifyexistinguserdefinedrolestosuityourneeds.SeeEditingand RenamingRolesonpage 197. To create a role 1 2 FromtheVIWebAccessmenubar,selectAdministration>ManageRoles. EnteranamefortheroleintheNametextbox. Adescriptionfortheroleisautomaticallycreated,butitisidenticaltotherole name.Enteradescriptivenameforeachroleyoucreatetohelpidentifyit. 3 4 InthePrivilegestree,selecttheprivilegestoincludeintherole.Expandthetreeas necessarytoseetheprivilegesineachcategory. ClickOK.

Theroleiscreated.

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Managing Roles and Permissions

Editing and Renaming Roles


Whenyoueditauserdefinedrole,youcanchangeanyoralloftheprivilegesselected forthatrole.Whencompleted,thesemodifiedprivilegesareimmediatelyappliedto anyuserorgroupassignedtherole.Youcanalsorenameexistingroles. Systemrolescannotbeeditedorrenamed. To edit a role 1 2 3 4 FromtheVIWebAccessmenubar,selectAdministration>ManageRoles. IntheRoleslist,selecttheroleyouwanttomodify. ClickModify. Ifyouwanttorenametherole,enterthenewrolenameintheNametextbox. Thereisnowaytoenteradescriptionfortherole,sothedescriptionintheRoles listischangedtomatchthenewrolename.Enteradescriptivenameforeachrole youcreatetohelpidentifyit. 5 Ifyouwanttochangetheprivilegesincludedintherole,selectordeselectthe appropriateprivilegesinthePrivilegestree.Expandthetreeasnecessarytoseethe privilegesineachcategory. ClickOK.

Thechangestotherolearemade.

Removing Roles
Whenyouremoveauserdefinedrole,ifitisnotassignedtoanyusersorgroups,the definitionisremovedfromthelistofroles.Whenyouremovearolethatisassignedto anyusersorgroups,youcanremoveallassignmentsorreplacethemwithan assignmenttoanotherrole. CAUTIONBesurethatyouunderstandhowuserswillbeaffectedbeforeremovingrole assignmentsorreplacingthem. Systemrolescannotberemoved. To remove an existing role 1 2 3
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FromtheVIWebAccessmenubar,selectAdministration>ManageRoles. IntheRoleslist,selecttheroleyouwanttoremove. ClickRemove.

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4 5

Toconfirmthatyouwanttodeletetheselectedrole,clickOK. Iftheroleisassignedtooneormoreusersorgroups,awarningdialogbox appears,andyoumustselectoneoftheradiobuttonoptions: RemoveroleRemovestheroleandallassociatedpermissions.Usersand groupsthathavenootherpermissionsassignedwillnolongerhaveany privileges. ConvertroleReassignsanyassociatedpermissionstotheroleyouselect fromthedropdownlist.

ClickOK.

Theroleisremovedfromthelistandisnolongeravailabletoassigntousersorgroups.

Managing Permissions
InVMwareServer,apermissionconsistsofauserorgroupsassignedrolefora VMwareServerobject,suchasavirtualmachine. Anewpermissioniscreatedbypairingauserandaroleandassigningthispairtoan inventoryobject.Permissionsgrantuserstherighttoperformspecificactivitieson specificobjects.Forexample,toconfigurememoryforVMwareServer,youmusthave hostconfigurationpermissions. Allchangestakeeffectimmediately.Usersdonotneedtologoutandloginforchanges topermissionstotakeeffect. NOTEBydefault,alluserswhoaremembersoftheAdministratorsgroupona VMwareServerhostrunningonWindowsaregrantedthesameaccessrightsasany userassignedtotheAdministratorrole.UserswhoaremembersoftheAdministrators groupcanloginasindividualsandhavefullaccess.

Creating Permissions
YoucanassignsystemoruserdefinedrolestousersorgroupsonVMwareServer inventoryobjects.InVMwareServer,theonlyinventoryobjectsarethehostand individualvirtualmachines. To create a permission 1 2 LogintoVIWebAccessasauserwithAdministratorprivileges. Withthehostoravirtualmachineinventoryobjectselected,clickthePermissions tab.

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3 4

ClickNewPermissionintheCommandssectionofthetab. Selectauserorgrouptowhichyouwanttograntaroleonthisobject. Whenyouhavealargenumberofusersandgroups,onlysomeofthemare displayed.EnterasearchvalueintheQuickFindtextboxtoretrieveusersand groupswithnamesordescriptionsthatcontainthatvalue.

Selectaroleyouwanttograntfromthedropdownlist. Whenaroleisselected,theprivilegesassociatedwiththerolearelistedinthetree belowforyourreference.

(Optional)SelecttheGrantthissetofpermissionstochildobjectscheckbox. Ifthischeckboxisselected,theroleisalsoappliedtoallchildobjectsoftheselected inventoryobject.

ClickOK. Thepermissionisaddedtothelistofpermissionsfortheobject.Thelistof permissionsincludesallusersandgroupsthathaverolesassignedtotheobject, andindicatesthelevelatwhichthepermissionisdefined.

Editing Permissions
Whenyoueditapermission,youcanchangetheroletopairwiththeuserorgroupand whetherthepermissionispropagatedtochildobjects.Theprivilegetreeisalso displayedsoyoucanseetheprivilegesassociatedwiththeroleyouselect. To edit the permission role for a user or group 1 2 3 4 5 ClickthehostsorvirtualmachinesPermissionstab. InthePermissionslist,selectthepermissionyouwanttomodify. ClickEditPermissionintheCommandssectionofthetab. Selectauserorgrouptowhichyouwanttoassignaroleonthisobject. Selectaroletoassignfromthedropdownlist. Whenaroleisselected,theprivilegesgrantedwiththerolearelistedinthetree belowforyourreference. 6 (Optional)SelecttheGrantthissetofpermissionstochildobjectscheckbox. Ifthischeckboxisselected,theroleisalsoappliedtoallchildobjectsoftheselected inventoryobject. 7
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ClickOK.

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Thepermissionismodified.

Removing Permissions
Removingapermissionforauserorgroupdoesnotremovetheuserorgroupfromthe listofthoseavailable.Italsodoesnotremovetherolefromthelistofavailableitems.It removestheuserorgroup+rolepairfromtheselectedinventoryobject. To remove a permission role for a user or group 1 2 3 4 ClickthehostsorvirtualmachinesPermissionstab. InthePermissionslist,selectthepermissionyouwanttoremove. ClickRemovePermissionintheCommandssectionofthetab. ClickOKtoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovethepermission.

Thepermissionisremoved. UsersremovedfromaVMwareServerhostloseaccesstoallVMwareServerobjectsand willnotbeabletologonagain.Usersthatareloggedinwhentheyareremovedfrom thehostretaintheirVMwareServerpermissionsonlyuntilthenextvalidationperiod (thedefaultisevery24hours). Removingagroupdoesnotaffectthepermissionsgrantedindividuallytotheusersin thatgroup,orthosegrantedaspartofinclusioninanothergroup.

Access Rules
Thefollowingisalistofgeneralrulestoconsiderwhenconfiguringpermissions.

Hierarchical Inheritance
Propagationissetperpermission,notuniversallyapplied.Permissionsdefinedfora subobjectalwaysoverridethosepropagatedfromparentobjects. Withrespecttopermissions,therearedifferenttypesofelementsinthehierarchy.They are: ManagedentityThesecanhavepermissionsdefinedonthem. Virtualmachines Hosts GlobalentityThesealwaysgettheirpermissionsfromtherootnode.Examples include:

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Roles

Multiple Permission Settings


Objectsmighthavemultiplepermissions,butatmostoneforeachuserorgroup. Ifyouapplypermissions,theyoverrideeachotherdownthehierarchy.Ifpermissions aredefinedonthesameentity,acoupleofsituationsarepossible: Ifauserisamemberofmultiplegroupswithdifferentpermissions.Foreach objectthegrouphaspermissionson,thesamepermissionsapplyasifgrantedto theuserdirectly. Ifmultiplegrouppermissionsaredefinedonthesameobjectandtheuser belongstotwoormoreofthosegroups: Ifthereisnopermissiondefinedexplicitlyfortheuseronthatobject,theuser isassignedtheunionofprivilegesassignedtothegroupsforthatobject. Ifthereisapermissiondefinedexplicitlyfortheuseronthatobject,that permissiontakesprecedenceoverallgrouppermissions. Example1:Expandingauserspermissions Role1canpoweronvirtualmachines. Role2cantakesnapshotsofvirtualmachines. GroupAisgrantedRole1onvirtualmachineVM. GroupBisgrantedRole2onvirtualmachineVM. User1belongstogroupsAandB. User1isnotassignedindividualpermissions. User1logson.User1canbothpoweronandtakesnapshotsofvirtual machine. Example2:Limitingauserspermissionsbyoverridinggrouppermissions RolesandgroupsaredefinedasinExample1. User1ReadOnlypermissionisremovedonvirtualmachine.(ReadOnly permissionisrequiredtopoweronavirtualmachine.) User1canstilltakesnapshotsbutcannolongerpoweronvirtualmachine. Whensettingpermissions,verifythatalltheobjecttypesaresetwithappropriate privilegesforeachparticularaction.

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11

Configuring a Virtual Network

11

Thefirsttopicsinthischapterintroducethevirtualnetworkingcomponentsthat VMwareServerprovidesanddescribehowyoucanusethemwithyourvirtual machine.Therestofthechapterprovidesmoredetailonnetworkingcapabilitiesand specializedconfigurations. Thischapterincludesthefollowingtopics: NetworkBasicsonpage 203 ComponentsoftheVirtualNetworkonpage 204 CommonNetworkingConfigurationsonpage 207 CustomNetworkingConfigurationsonpage 211 ChangingtheNetworkingConfigurationonpage 215 AdvancedNetworkingTopicsonpage 222 UnderstandingNATonpage 239 UsingSambaforFileSharingonaLinuxHostonpage 249 UsingtheVirtualNetworkEditoronpage 258

Network Basics
VMwareServerprovidesmultiplewaysyoucanconfigureavirtualmachineforvirtual networking:

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BridgednetworkingConfiguresyourvirtualmachineasauniqueidentityon thenetwork,separatefromandunrelatedtoitshost.Othercomputersonthe networkcancommunicatedirectlywiththevirtualmachine.Bridgednetworking workswithEthernet,DSL,cable,wireless,andlegacyphonemodems.See BridgedNetworkingonpage 207. Networkaddresstranslation(NAT)Configuresyourvirtualmachinetoshare theIPandMACaddressesofthehost.Thevirtualmachinesharesthehostspublic networkidentity,andhasaprivateidentitythatisnotvisiblebeyondthehost.NAT canbeusefulwhenyouareallowedasingleIPaddressorMACaddressbyyour networkadministrator.YoumightalsouseNATtoconfigureseparatevirtual machinesforhandlingHTTPandFTPrequests,withbothvirtualmachines runningoffthesameIPaddressordomain. NATworkswithEthernet,DSL,andlegacyphonemodems.SeeNetwork AddressTranslation(NAT)onpage 208. HostonlynetworkingConfiguresyourvirtualmachinetoallownetwork accessonlytoaprivatenetworkonthehost.Withhostonlynetworking,the virtualmachinecancommunicateonlywiththehostandothervirtualmachinesin thehostonlynetwork.Thiscanbeusefulwhenyouwantasecurevirtualmachine thatisconnectedtothehostnetwork,butavailableonlythroughthehostmachine. Inthisconfiguration,thevirtualmachinecannotconnecttotheInternet.See HostOnlyNetworkingonpage 210. YoucansetupspecializedconfigurationsusingthevirtualnetworkeditoronWindows hostsandvmware-config.plonLinuxhosts.SeeCustomNetworking Configurationsonpage 211. OnaWindowshost,thesoftwareneededforbridged,NAT,andhostonlynetworking configurationsisinstalledwhenyouinstallVMwareServer.TheNewVirtualMachine wizardconnectsthevirtualmachinetothevirtualnetworkyouselect:thebridged VMnet0virtualnetwork(namedBridged)isthedefaultselection.Youcanlatersetup morespecializedconfigurationsbyconfiguringtheappropriatesettingsinthevirtual networkeditorandonyourhostcomputer. OnaLinuxhost,whenyouinstallandconfigureVMwareServer,youcanchooseto havebridged,hostonly,andNATnetworkingavailabletoyourvirtualmachinesby configuringeachoptionwhenyourunvmware-config.pl.Youcanlaterreconfigure networkingtoadd,delete,ormodifyvirtualnetworksbyrerunning vmware-config.pl.

Components of the Virtual Network


Thefollowingsectionsdescribethedevicesthatmakeupavirtualnetwork.
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Virtual Network Switch


Thevirtualswitchworkslikeaphysicalswitch,butitisusedbyvirtualmachines.Like aphysicalswitch,avirtualswitchletsyouconnectothernetworkingcomponents together.VirtualswitchesarecreatedasneededbyVMwareServer,uptoatotalof10 virtualswitchesonWindowsand255onLinux.Virtualswitchescanbeusedin bridged,hostonly,andNATnetworkconfigurations. Youcanconnectoneormorevirtualmachinestoaswitch.OnaWindowshost,youcan connectanunlimitednumberofportstoavirtualswitch.OnaLinuxhost,youcan connectupto32ports. Afewnetworkshavedefaultnamesandswitchesassociatedwiththem: TheBridgednetworkusesVMnet0,asdescribedinBridgedNetworkingon page 207. TheHostOnlynetworkusesVMnet1,asdescribedinHostOnlyNetworkingon page 210. TheNATnetworkusesVMnet8,asdescribedinNetworkAddressTranslation (NAT)onpage 208. TheotheravailableswitchesareVMnet2,VMnet3,VMnet4,andsoon. TofindoutwhatnetworksareconfiguredontheVMwareServerhost,selectthehostin VI WebAccess.TheNetworkssectionofthehostsSummarytabliststhename,VMnet number,andnetworktypeforeachvirtualnetwork. Tofindoutwhichnetworksavirtualmachineisusing,selectthevirtualmachine.The networknameandtypearedisplayedintheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab. Toviewormodifynetworkproperties,clicktheNetworkAdapteryouwanttomodify andselectEdit.Foradditionalinformation,seeEditingaNetworkAdapteron page 216.Toaddanotheradapter,seeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteron page 215.

Internal DHCP Server


TheVMwareinternalDHCP(dynamichostconfigurationprotocol)serverprovidesIP networkaddressestovirtualmachinesinconfigurationsthatarenotbridgedtoan externalnetwork.HostonlyandNATnetworkconfigurationsusetheDHCPserver (bridgedconfigurationsdonot).

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Virtual Network Adapter


Onevirtualnetworkadapter(alsoknownasavirtualNIC)issetupforyourvirtual machinewhenyoucreateitwiththeNewVirtualMachinewizard.Thevirtualnetwork adapterusestheBridgedvirtualnetworkunlessyouchangethedefaultselection. ThenetworkadapterappearstotheguestoperatingsystemasanAMDPCNetAdapter adapterfor32bitguestsorasanIntelPro/1000MTServerAdapterfor64bitand WindowsVistaguests.VMwareServerautomaticallyselectsthenetworkdriverbased ontheconfigurationonyourvirtualmachine. For32bitguestsystems,VMwareServersupportsnetworkadaptermorphingto dynamicallyselectthedriver.Thevlancedriverisautomaticallyinstalledwhenyou installaguestoperatingsystem.Thevmxnetdriverisautomaticallyinstalledwhenyou reboottheguestafterinstallingVMwareTools.Whenyoueditthenetworkadapter,the devicetypeisdisplayedasFlexible. For64bitandWindowsVistaguestsystems,thenetworkadapterusesthee1000 devicedriver. Youcancreateandconfigureupto10virtualnetworkadaptersinVMwareServer2and Workstation6virtualmachines.ThelimitisfouradaptersforVMwareServer1and otheroldervirtualmachineversions.Formoreinformation,seeAddingaVirtual NetworkAdapteronpage 215.

Host Virtual Adapter


Hostvirtualadaptersallowcommunicationbetweenthehostcomputerandthevirtual machinesonthehostcomputer.AhostvirtualadapterisusedinhostonlyandNAT configurations. WhenyouinstallVMwareServer,twonetworkadaptersareaddedtotheconfiguration ofyourhostoperatingsystemonethatallowsthehosttoconnecttothehostonly virtualnetworkandonethatallowsthehosttoconnecttotheNATvirtualnetwork. Thehostvirtualadapterisnotconnectedtoanyexternalnetworkunlessyousetup specialsoftwareonthehostcomputersuchasaproxyservertoconnectthe hostonlyadaptertothephysicalnetworkadapter. OnaWindowshost,thesoftwarethatcreatesthehostvirtualadapterisinstalledwhen youinstallVMwareServer.OnaLinuxhost,youmustselecthostonlynetworking whenyourunvmware-config.pltoinstallthehostvirtualadapter.

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Common Networking Configurations


Thefollowingsectionsillustratethenetworkingconfigurationsthataresetupwhen youselectoneofthestandardnetworkingoptionsintheNewVirtualMachinewizard orwhenyouaddoreditavirtualnetworkadapter.

Bridged Networking
Bridgednetworkingconnectsavirtualmachinetoanetworkbyusingthehost computersnetworkadapter.IfyourhostcomputerisonanEthernetnetwork,thisis oftentheeasiestwaytogiveyourvirtualmachineaccesstothatnetwork.Thevirtual networkadapterinthevirtualmachineconnectstothephysicalnetworkadapterin yourhostcomputer,allowingittoconnecttotheLANusedbythehostcomputer. Bridgednetworkingmakesthevirtualmachinevisibletoothercomputersonthe network,andtheycancommunicatedirectlywiththevirtualmachine.Network Basicsonpage 203 Figure 11-1. Bridged Networking Setup
virtual network adapter

virtual machine

virtual network switch (VMnet0) virtual bridge host network adapter

How to Set Up Bridged Networking


BridgednetworkingissetupautomaticallyifyouselectBridgedintheNewVirtual Machinewizard.OnLinuxhosts,thisselectionisavailableonlyifyouenablethe bridgednetworkingoptionwhenyourunvmware-config.pl.Youcansetup additionalvirtualbridgesforcustomconfigurationsthatrequireconnectionstomore thanonephysicalnetworkadapteronthehostcomputer.LinuxandWindowshosts canusebridgednetworkingtoconnecttobothwiredandwirelessnetworks.

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Requirements for IP Addresses


Ifyouusebridgednetworking,yourvirtualmachinemusthaveitsownidentityonthe network.Forexample,onaTCP/IPnetwork,thevirtualmachineneedsitsownIP address.YournetworkadministratorcantellyouwhetherIPaddressesareavailablefor yourvirtualmachineandwhichnetworkingsettingstouseintheguestoperating system.Generally,yourguestoperatingsystemcanacquireanIPaddressandother networkdetailsautomaticallyfromaDHCPserver,oryoumightneedtosettheIP addressandotherdetailsmanuallyintheguestoperatingsystem. Ifyouusebridgednetworking,thevirtualmachineisafullparticipantinthenetwork. Ithasaccesstoothermachinesonthenetworkandcanbecontactedbyothermachines onthenetworkasifitwereaphysicalcomputeronthenetwork. Beawarethatifthehostcomputerissetuptobootmultipleoperatingsystemsandyou runoneormoreoftheminvirtualmachines,youneedtoconfigureeachoperating systemwithauniquenetworkaddress.Peoplewhobootmultipleoperatingsystems oftenassignallsystemsthesameaddress,becausetheyassumeonlyoneoperating systemwillberunningatatime.Ifyouuseoneormoreoftheoperatingsystemsina virtualmachine,thisassumptionisnolongertrue.

How to Edit the Setting Later


IfyoumakeanotherselectionintheNewVirtualMachinewizardandlaterdecideyou wanttousebridgednetworking,makethatchangeasdescribedinChangingthe NetworkingConfigurationonpage 215.

Network Address Translation (NAT)


NATgivesavirtualmachineaccesstonetworkresourcesbyusingthehostcomputers IPaddress.IfyouarenotabletogiveyourvirtualmachineanIPaddressontheexternal network,youmightfindthatNATistheeasiestwaytogiveyourvirtualmachineaccess totheInternetorotherTCP/IPnetwork.NATusesthehostcomputersdialup networkingorbroadbandconnection.

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Figure 11-2. Network Address Translation Setup


virtual network adapter

virtual machine

virtual network switch (VMnet8)

DHCP server

NAT device

network

IfyouselectNAT,thevirtualmachinecanusemanystandardTCP/IPprotocolsto connecttoothermachinesontheexternalnetwork.Forexample,youcanuseHTTPto browseWebsites,FTPtotransferfiles,andTelnettologontoothercomputers.NAT alsoallowsyoutoconnecttoaTCP/IPnetworkusingaTokenRingadapteronthehost computer.NetworkBasicsonpage 203 IntheNATconfiguration,computersontheexternalnetworkcannotinitiate connectionstothevirtualmachine.Thatmeans,forexample,thatthedefault configurationdoesnotletyouusethevirtualmachineasaWebservertosendWeb pagestocomputersontheexternalnetwork.Thisconfigurationhastheadvantageof protectingtheguestoperatingsystemfrombeingcompromisedbeforeyouhavea chancetoinstallsecuritysoftware.Forexample,itisoftenrecommendedthatfor Windowsguestoperatingsystems,youuseNATuntilyouinstallantivirussoftware.

How to Set Up NAT


AnetworkaddresstranslationconnectionissetupautomaticallyifyouselectNATin theNewVirtualMachinewizard.OnLinuxhosts,thisselectionisavailableonlyifyou enabletheNAToptionwhenyourunvmware-config.pl.

Requirements for IP Addresses


IfyouuseNAT,yourvirtualmachinedoesnothaveitsownIPaddressontheexternal network.Instead,aseparateprivatenetworkissetuponthehostcomputer.Your virtualmachinegetsanaddressonthatnetworkfromtheVMwareinternalDHCP server.TheVMwareNATdevicepassesnetworkdatabetweenoneormorevirtual machinesandtheexternalnetwork,usingahostnetworkadapterthatisvisibletothe hostoperatingsystem.Itidentifiesincomingdatapacketsintendedforeachvirtual machineandsendsthemtothecorrectdestination.

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How to Edit the Setting Later


IfyoumakesomeotherselectionintheNewVirtualMachinewizardandlaterdecide youwanttouseNAT,youcanmakethatchangeasdescribedinChangingthe NetworkingConfigurationonpage 215. ForamorethoroughdiscussionofNAT,seeUnderstandingNATonpage 239.

Host-Only Networking
Hostonlynetworkingcreatesanetworkthatiscompletelycontainedwithinthehost computer.Hostonlynetworkingprovidesanetworkconnectionbetweenthevirtual machineandthehostcomputer,usingahostnetworkadapterthatisvisibletothehost operatingsystem.Thisapproachcanbeusefulifyouneedtosetupanisolatedvirtual network. Figure 11-3. Host-Only Networking Setup
virtual network adapter

virtual machine

virtual network switch (VMnet1) host network adapter

DHCP server

AhostonlynetworkissetupautomaticallyifyouselectHostOnlyintheNewVirtual Machinewizard.OnLinuxhosts,thisselectionisavailableonlyifyouenablethe hostonlynetworkingoptionwhenyourunvmware-config.pl.

Requirements for IP Addresses


Ifyouusehostonlynetworking,yourvirtualmachineandthehostnetworkadapter areconnectedtoaprivateEthernetnetwork.Addressesonthisnetworkareprovided bytheVMwareinternalDHCPserver.

How to Edit the Setting Later


IfyoumakeanotherselectionintheNewVirtualMachinewizardandlaterwanttouse hostonlynetworking,youcanmakethatchangeasdescribedinChangingthe NetworkingConfigurationonpage 215.
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Routing and Connection Sharing


Ifyouinstalltheproperroutingorproxysoftwareonyourhostcomputer,youcan establishaconnectionbetweenthevirtualnetworkadapterandaphysicalnetwork adapteronthehostcomputer.Thisallowsyou,forexample,toconnectthevirtual machinetoaTokenRingorothernonEthernetnetwork. OnaWindowshostcomputer,youcanusehostonlynetworkingincombinationwith theInternetconnectionsharingfeatureinWindowstoallowavirtualmachinetouse thehostsdialupnetworkingadapterorotherconnectiontotheInternet.Seeyour WindowsdocumentationfordetailsonconfiguringInternetconnectionsharing.

Custom Networking Configurations


ThevirtualnetworkingcomponentsprovidedbyVMwareServermakeitpossiblefor youtocreatesophisticatedvirtualnetworks.Thevirtualnetworkscanbeconnectedto oneormoreexternalnetworks,ortheycanrunentirelyonthehostcomputer. Beforeattemptingtosetupcomplexvirtualnetworks,youmusthaveagood understandingofhowtoconfigurenetworkdevicesinyourhostandguestoperating systems. Theexampledescribedinthissectionillustratesmanyofthewaysyoucancombine devicesonavirtualnetwork.OthercustomconfigurationsaredescribedinAdvanced NetworkingTopicsonpage 222andUnderstandingNATonpage 239. Inthisconfiguration,aWebserverconnectsthroughafirewalltoanexternalnetwork. AnadministratorscomputerconnectstotheWebserverthroughasecondfirewall.

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Figure 11-4. Custom Configuration That Uses Two Firewalls


host network adapter virtual bridge virtual network adapter virtual network switch (VMnet0) virtual network adapter virtual network adapter

virtual machine 2 Web server

virtual network switch (VMnet2)

virtual machine 1 firewall

virtual network adapter

virtual network adapter

virtual network switch (VMnet3)

virtual network adapter

virtual machine 3 firewall

virtual machine 4 internal PC

Inadditiontousingthedefaultbridgednetwork,VMnet0,thisconfigurationrequires youtoconfigureVMnet2andVMnet3hostonlyvirtualnetworks.Youwillalsocreate fourvirtualmachinesandinstalltheappropriateguestoperatingsystemsand applicationsoftwareineachvirtualmachineandmaketheappropriatenetworking settingschangesineachvirtualmachine. To set up a virtual network that connects to an external network 1 ConfigureVMnet2andVMnet3hostonlynetworks. OnWindows,usethevirtualnetworkeditor(fromtheWindowsStartmenu, selectPrograms>VMwareServer>ManageVirtualNetworks)toaddhost virtualadaptersforVMnet2andVMnet3. Afteryoumakechangesusingthevirtualnetworkeditor,youmustrestart yournetworkusingtheRefreshNetworkSystemcommandintheHost SummarytabofVI WebAccess.Thenyoucanaddthesenetworkstovirtual machines.

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Configuring a Virtual Network

OnLinux,runvmware-config.pltoconfigureVMnet2andVMnet3 networks.Thescriptautomaticallyrefreshesthenetworkwhenitcompletes theconfigurationchanges. 2 SetupfourvirtualmachinesusingtheNewVirtualMachinewizardasdescribed inChapter 4,CreatingandUpgradingVirtualMachines,onpage 57: a Createthefirstvirtualmachineusingthedefaultbridgednetwork(VMnet0), soitcanconnecttoanexternalnetworkwiththehostcomputersnetwork adapter.ThisvirtualmachineactsastheoutsidefirewallfortheDMZ,andis namedFW1inthisprocedure. Createtheotherthreevirtualmachineswithoutnetworking.Thevirtual machinewiththeWebServerisnamedWSinthisprocedure.Thevirtual machinethatactsasaninternalfirewallisnamedFW2inthisprocedure. Youwillsetuptheirvirtualnetworkadaptersinlatersteps. YouwillnotinstalltheoperatingsystemsuntilStep 8. 3 Configurenetworksettingsforthefirstvirtualmachine,FW1: a b SelectvirtualmachineFW1inVI WebAccess,butdonotpoweriton. UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddtheVMnet2network(HostOnly1)to thevirtualmachine. SeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215. 4 ConfigurenetworksettingsfortheWebServervirtualmachine,asfollows: a b SelectWSinVI WebAccess,butdonotpoweriton. UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddtheVMnet2(HostOnly1)network adaptertothevirtualmachine. SeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215. 5 Configurenetworksettingsfortheinsidefirewallvirtualmachine,asfollows: a b SelectFW2inVI WebAccess,butdonotpoweriton. UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddtheVMnet2(HostOnly1)network adaptertothevirtualmachine. SeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215. c UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddtheVMnet3(HostOnly2)connectionto thevirtualmachine.

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Configurenetworksettingsforthefourthvirtualmachine,asfollows: a UsetheAddHardwarewizardtoaddtheVMnet3connectiontothevirtual machine. SeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215.

DeterminethenetworkaddressesusedforVMnet2andVMnet3: OnWindowshosts,openacommandpromptandrun:
ipconfig /all

Notethenetworkaddressesusedbyeachvirtualadapter. OnLinuxhosts,openaterminalandrun:
ifconfig

Notethenetworkaddressesusedbyeachvirtualswitch. 8 Poweroneachvirtualmachineinturnandinstalltheappropriateguestoperating system. NOTEOnaWindowshost,forStep 9,youarenotrequiredtoconfigurenetwork addressesmanually.YoucaninsteaduseVMwareServersDHCPserver.Inthe virtualnetworkeditorsDHCPtab,addVMnet2andVMnet3tothelistofvirtual networksservedbytheVMwareinternalDHCPserver. 9 Configurethenetworkingineachguestoperatingsystem: Machine1Forthebridgednetworkadapterinvirtualmachine1,usethe networkingsettingsneededforaconnectiontotheexternalnetwork.Ifthe virtualmachinegetsitsIPaddressfromaDHCPserverontheexternal network,thedefaultsettingswillwork. Forthesecondnetworkadapterinvirtualmachine1,manuallyassignanIP addressintherangeyouareusingwithVMnet2. Machine2AssignanIPaddressintherangeyouareusingwithVMnet2. Machine3NetworkadaptersareconnectedtoVMnet2andVMnet3.Assign eachadapteranIPaddressintherangeyouareusingwiththevirtualnetwork towhichitisconnected. Machine4AssignanIPaddressintherangeyouareusingwithVMnet3. 10 Installthenecessaryapplicationsoftwareineachvirtualmachine.

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Configuring a Virtual Network

Changing the Networking Configuration


Thissectiondescribeshowyoucanaddvirtualnetworkadapterstoyourvirtual machineandchangetheconfigurationofexistingadapters.

Refreshing the Network


OnWindows,toconfigurecustomvirtualnetworksyoumustusethevirtualnetwork editor(fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks).Afteryoumakechangesusingthevirtualnetworkeditor,youmust updatethenetworklistinVI Web AccessusingtheRefreshNetworkListcommand. Afterrefreshingthenetwork,thechangesmadeusingthevirtualnetworkeditor appearintheNetworkssectionofthehostsSummarytab,andyoucanaddthese networkstovirtualmachines. To restart the virtual network system 1 2 SelectthehostintheInventorypanel. IntheCommandssectionofthehostSummarytab,clickRefresh Network List.

Adding a Virtual Network Adapter


Virtualnetworkadapterscanbeconnectedtoalabelednetworkinmuchthesameway thatphysicalnetworkadaptersareconnectedbycablestowalljacks.Bychoosinga labelednetworkforanadapter,youenabletheguestoperatingsystemtoreachthe resourcesofthespecifiednetwork. To add a virtual network adapter 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheCommandssectionoftheSummarytab,clickAddHardware. TheAddHardwarewizardopens. 4 5 ClickNetworkAdapter,andclickNext. Selectthenameofthevirtualnetworkadapter.SelectBridged,NAT,HostOnly,or acustomnetworkyouhaveconfiguredinthevirtualnetworkeditor(Windows)or vmware-config.pl(Linux). Ifyouselectacustomnetworkyouconfiguredinthevirtualnetworkeditor,select namethatcorrespondstotheVMnetvirtualnetworktousefromthedropdown list.

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NOTEVMnet0,VMnet1,andVMnet8arenormallyusedforbridged,hostonly, andNATconfigurations,respectively.Specialstepsarerequiredtomakethem availableforuseincustomconfigurations.Selectoneoftheotherswitches. 6 7 (Optional)Tohavethenetworkadapterconnectedtothevirtualmachinewhen youpoweriton,selectConnectatpoweron(thedefault). ClickNext. TheReadytoCompletepageappearsanddisplaysthehardwaresettings. 8 Reviewtheconfigurationsummary,andclickFinishtocompletethewizard.

Editing a Network Adapter


Virtualnetworkadapterscanbeconnectedtoalabelednetworkinmuchthesameway thatphysicalnetworkadaptersareconnectedbycablestowalljacks.Bychoosinga labelednetworkforanadapter,youenabletheguestoperatingsystemtoreachthe resourcesofthespecifiednetwork. To edit an existing network adapter 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clickthenetworkadaptertomodify andselectEdit. (Optional)Toconnectthevirtualmachinetothisnetworkwhenthevirtual machineispoweredon,selectConnectatpoweron. IntheNetworkConnectionlist,selectthevirtualnetworkname. SelectBridged,NAT,HostOnly,orthenameofyourcustomVMnetvirtual networkfromthedropdownlist. 5 (Optional)IntheMACAddresssection,thecurrentMACaddressisdisplayedin atextbox.Initially,theMACaddressisgeneratedbythehost.Youmightwantto changetheMACaddressmanuallyif,forexample: Virtualnetworkadaptersondifferentphysicalserverssharethesamesubnet andareassignedthesameMACaddress,causingaconflict. YouwanttoensurethatavirtualnetworkadapteralwayshasthesameMAC address. IfyouselectManual,youcaneditthevalueoftheMACaddressinthetextbox. Thevalueyouentermustbebetween00:50:56:00:00:00and 00:50:56:3F:FF:FF.
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SeeMaintainingandChangingtheMACAddressofaVirtualMachineon page 225. 6 7 ClickOKtosaveyourchanges. BesuretheguestoperatingsystemisconfiguredtouseanappropriateIPaddress onthenewnetwork. IftheguestisusingDHCP,releaseandrenewthelease.IftheIPaddressisset statically,besuretheguesthasanaddressonthecorrectvirtualnetwork.

Removing a Network Adapter


Ifyounolongerwanttouseanetworkadapterinavirtualmachine,youcanremoveit. To remove an existing network adapter 1 2 3 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. OntheSummarytab,clickthenetworkadaptertoremoveandselectRemove. Adialogboxasksyoutoconfirmthatyouwanttoremovetheadapter.Ifyouwant toremoveit,clickYes. Thenetworkadapterisdeleted.

Configuring Bridged Networking Options on a Windows Host


Youcanviewandchangethesettingsforbridgednetworkingonyourhost.These changesaffectallvirtualmachinesusingbridgednetworkingonthehost. Youcandecidewhichnetworkadaptersonyourhosttouseforbridgednetworking. Youcanmapspecificnetworkadapterstospecificvirtualnetworks(VMnets). To configure bridged networking options on a Windows host 1 Launchthevirtualnetworkeditor(fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms >VMwareServer>ManageVirtualNetworks). Thevirtualnetworkeditorappears,withtheSummarytabactive. 2 Bydefault,theVMnet0virtualnetworkissetupinbridgedmodeandbridgesto oneoftheactivenetworkadaptersonthehostcomputer. Thechoiceofwhichadapteritusesisarbitrary.VMwarerecommendsthatyoulet VMwareServerselectanavailablephysicalnetworkadapterforbridging,asit providesfaulttolerance.Ifanetworkadapterbecomesunavailable(forexample,if itisunpluggedorremovedfromthehost),thenetworkbridgeautomatically switchestoanothernetworkadapteronthehost.
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YoucanrestricttherangeofchoicesbyusingoptionsontheAutomaticBridging tab. (AlsoshownareVMnet1,thedefaultvirtualnetworkforhostonlynetworking, andVMnet8,thedefaultvirtualnetworkforNAT,iftheyareenabledinVMware Server.) 3 ToexcludeoneormorephysicalnetworkadaptersfromthelisttowhichVMnet0 canbebridged,clicktheAutomaticBridgingtab. Toexcludeanetworkadapter,clickAddtoaddittothelistofexcludeddevices. IntheChooseNetworkAdaptersdialogbox,selectthelistingfortheadapteryou wanttoexclude,thenclickOK. Toremoveanadapterfromthelistofexcludedadapters,selectitsnameinthelist, andclickRemove. Ifyouareusingteamednetworkadaptersonyourhost,youcanexcludethe physicalnetworkadaptersfrombridgednetworking.Forinformationabout teamednetworkadapters,seeConfiguringBridgedNetworkingWhenUsing TeamedNetworkInterfaceCardsonpage 229. 4 Todesignateaphysicalnetworkadaptertobeusedforbridgednetworkingon virtualswitchesnamedVMnet2VMnet7,clicktheHostVirtualNetwork Mappingtab. Selectanadapterfromthedropdownlistbesidethenameofthevirtualswitch youwanttouse. Ifyouareusingteamednetworkadaptersonyourhost,youcanselecttheteamed networkadapterforVMnet0. CAUTIONBecarefulwhenyouchangethebridgedadaptermappings.Ifyou reassignaphysicalnetworkadaptertoadifferentvirtualnetwork,anyvirtual machineusingtheoriginalnetworklosesitsnetworkconnectivitythroughthat network.Youmustthenchangethesettingforeachaffectedvirtualmachines networkadapterindividually.Thiscanbeespeciallytroublesomeifyourhosthas onlyonephysicalnetworkadapterandyoureassignittoaVMnetotherthan VMnet0.EventhoughtheVMnetstillappearstobebridgedtoanautomatically chosenadapter,theonlyadapteritcanusehasbeenassignedtoanotherVMnet. 5 TomakechangestothesubnetortheDHCPsettingsforavirtualnetwork,clickthe buttonontherightthatcorrespondstothevirtualnetworkyouwanttoconfigure, thenselectSubnetorDHCP. ChangingtheSubnet
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IntheSubnetdialogbox,youcanchangethesubnetsIPaddressandthesubnet mask. Theaddressmustbeavalidnetworkaddressthatissuitableforusewiththe subnetmask. Thedefaultsubnetmaskis255.255.255.0(aclassCnetwork).Typically,thismeans youshouldmodifyonlythethirdnumberintheIPaddressforexample,xin 192.168.x.0or172.16.x.0.Ingeneral,youshouldnotchangethesubnetmask. Certainvirtualnetworkservicesmightnotworkaswellwithacustomizedsubnet mask. Whenyoumodifythenetworkaddressorsubnetmask,VMwareServer automaticallyupdatestheIPaddresssettingsforothercomponentssuchas DHCP,NAT,andhostvirtualadapteronthatvirtualnetworktoreflectthenew settings.ThespecificsettingsthatareautomaticallyupdatedincludeDHCPlease range,DHCPserveraddress,NATgatewayaddress,andhostvirtualadapterIP address.However,ifyouhavechangedanyofthesesettingsfromitsdefault valueevenifyouhavelaterchangedthesettingbacktothedefaultVMware Serverdoesnotupdatethatsettingautomatically.Itpresumesthatcustomsettings arenottobemodified. ChangingDHCPSettings IntheDHCPsettingsdialogbox,youcanchangetherangeofIPaddresses providedbytheDHCPserveronaparticularvirtualnetwork.Youcanalsosetthe durationofleasesprovidedtoclientsonthevirtualnetwork. 6 WhenyouhavemadeallthechangesyouwanttomakeonalltabsoftheVMware NetworkEditor,clickOK.

Enabling, Disabling, Adding, and Removing Host Virtual Adapters


WhenyouinstallVMwareServer,twonetworkadaptersareaddedtotheconfiguration ofyourhostoperatingsystemonethatallowsthehosttoconnecttothehostonly networkandonethatallowsthehosttoconnecttotheNATnetwork. Ifyouarenotusingtheseadapters,youcanremovethem(usersonWindowshostscan disabletheadaptersinsteadofremovingthem).Thepresenceoftheseadaptershasa slightperformancecost,becausebroadcastpacketsmustgototheextraadapters.On Windowsnetworks,browsingyournetworkcanbeslowerthanusual.Andinsome cases,theseadaptersinteractwiththehostcomputersnetworkingconfigurationin undesirableways.

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To disable a host virtual adapter on a Windows host 1 Usethevirtualnetworkeditortodisableanyunwantedadapters(fromthe WindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>ManageVirtual Networks). SelecttheHostVirtualAdapterstab. Selecttheadapteryouwanttodisable. ClickDisableadapter. ClickOK.

2 3 4 5

To enable a disabled host virtual adapter on a Windows host 1 1 2 3 4 FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks ClickHostVirtualAdapters. Selectthedisabledadapteryouwanttoenable. ClickEnableadapter. ClickOK.

To add a host virtual adapter on a Windows host 1 1 2 3 4 5 FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks ClickHostVirtualAdapters. ClickAddnewadapter. SelectthevirtualnetworkonwhichyouwanttousetheadapterandclickOK. ClickApply. ClickOKtoclosethevirtualnetworkeditor.

To remove a host virtual adapter on a Windows host 1 1 2 3 FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks ClickHostVirtualAdapters. Selecttheadapteryouwanttoremove,thenclickRemoveadapter. ClickOK.

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Configuring a Virtual Network

Removing a Host Virtual Adapter from a Linux Host


FollowthesestepstoremoveahostvirtualadapterfromaLinuxhost. 1 BecomerootandruntheVMwareServerconfigurationprogram.
su vmware-config.pl

CAUTIONToconfigureVMwareServercorrectly,thevmware-config.pl configurationprogramrequiresallvirtualmachinestobeshutdown.The programshutsdownanyrunningvirtualmachinesautomatically. 2 Ifyoustillwanttouseanynetworkinginyourvirtualmachines,respondyesto thefollowingquestion:


Do you want networking for your Virtual Machines? (yes/no/help) [yes]

Otherwise,answernotoremoveallnetworking. 3 Ifyouansweryestousenetworking,thescriptpromptsyoutoselectthewizard oreditortoedityournetworkconfiguration.Selecteditor.Thisistheonlywayto deletevirtualnetworkadapterswithoutremovingallofthem.


Would you prefer to modify your existing networking configuration using the wizard or the editor? (wizard/editor/help) [wizard] editor

Youseealistofvirtualnetworksthathavebeenconfigured.Selectthenetwork correspondingtotheadapteryouwishtodisable.
The following virtual networks have been defined: . vmnet0 is bridged to eth0 . vmnet1 is a host-only network on subnet 172.16.155.0. . vmnet8 is NAT network on a private subnet 172.16.107.0. Which virtual network do you wish to configure? (0-99) 1

Youmightbepromptedtokeepthisvirtualnetwork.Ifyouaresureyouwantto removeit,answeryestothequestion.
The network vmnet1 has been reserved for a host-only network. You may change it, but it is highly recommended that you use it as a host-only network. Are you sure you want to modify it? (yes/no) [no] yes

Whenpromptedaboutthetypeofvirtualnetwork,selectnonetoremovethe virtualnetwork.
What type of virtual network do you wish to set vmnet1? (bridged,hostonly,nat,none) [hostonly] none

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Advanced Networking Topics


Thefollowingsectionsdescribeadvancednetworkingtopics.

Selecting IP Addresses on a Host-Only Network or NAT Configuration


Ahostonlynetworkusesaprivatevirtualnetwork.Thehostandallvirtualmachines configuredforhostonlynetworkingareconnectedtothenetworkthroughavirtual switch.TypicallyallthepartiesonthisprivatenetworkusetheTCP/IPprotocolsuite, althoughothercommunicationprotocolscanbeused. Anetworkaddresstranslation(NAT)configurationalsosetsupaprivatenetwork, whichmustbeaTCP/IPnetwork.ThevirtualmachinesconfiguredforNATare connectedtothatnetworkthroughavirtualswitch.Thehostcomputerisalso connectedtotheprivatenetworkusedforNATthroughahostvirtualadapter. Eachvirtualmachineandthehostmustbeassignedaddressesontheprivatenetwork. ThisistypicallydoneusingtheDHCPserverthatcomeswithVMwareServer.This serverdoesnotservicevirtual(orphysical)machinesresidingonbridgednetworks. Addressescanalsobeassignedstaticallyfromapoolofaddressesthatarenotassigned bytheDHCPserver. IfhostonlynetworkingisenabledwhenVMwareServerisinstalled,thenetwork numbertouseforthevirtualnetworkisautomaticallyselectedasanunusedprivateIP networknumber.TofindoutwhichnetworkisusedonaWindowshost,select Programs>VMwareServer>ManageVirtualNetworksandcheckthesubnetnumber associatedwiththevirtualnetwork.OnaLinuxhost,runifconfiginaterminal. ANATconfigurationalsousesanunusedprivatenetworkautomaticallyselectedwhen youinstallVMwareServer.TofindoutwhichnetworkisusedonaWindowshost, selectPrograms>VMwareServer>ManageVirtualNetworksandcheckthesubnet numberassociatedwiththevirtualnetwork.OnaLinuxhost,runifconfigina terminal. UsingDHCPtoassignIPaddressesissimplerthanstaticallyassigningthem.Most Windowsoperatingsystems,forexample,comepreconfiguredtouseDHCPatboot time,soWindowsvirtualmachinescanconnecttothenetworkthefirsttimetheyare booted,withoutadditionalconfiguration.Ifyouwantyourvirtualmachinesto communicatewitheachotherusingnamesinsteadofIPaddresses,however,youmust setupanamingconvention,anameserverontheprivatenetwork,orboth.Inthatcase itmightbesimplertousestaticIPaddresses.

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Ingeneral,ifyouhavevirtualmachinesyouintendtousefrequentlyorforextended periodsoftime,itisprobablymostconvenienttoassignthemstaticIPaddressesorto configuretheVMwareDHCPservertoalwaysassignthesameIPaddresstoeachof thesevirtualmachines. To configure the DHCP server on a Linux host 1 2 OnaLinuxhost,configurethehostonlyDHCPserverbyeditingtheDHCP configurationfileforVMnet1(/etc/vmware/vmnet1/dhcp/dhcp.conf). ToconfiguretheDHCPserverfortheNATnetwork,edittheconfigurationfilefor VMnet8(/etc/vmware/vmnet8/dhcp/dhcp.conf). EditingtheDHCPserverconfigurationfilerequiresinformationthatisbest obtaineddirectlyfromtheDHCPserverdocumentation. 3 Consultthemanualpagesdhcpd(8)anddhcpd.conf(8).

To configure the DHCP server on a Windows host 1 2 3 4 5 OnaWindowshost,youconfiguretheDHCPserverusingthevirtualnetwork editor. FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks. ClickDHCP. Selectthevirtualnetworkforwhichyouwanttochangesettingsandclick Properties. Makethedesiredchanges,thenclickOK.

Choosing the Method for Assigning IP Addresses


Forvirtualmachinesthatyoudonotexpecttokeepforlong,useDHCPandletit allocateanIPaddress. ForeachhostonlyorNATnetwork,theavailableIPaddressesaresplitupusingthe conventionsshowninthetablesbelow,where<net>isthenetworknumberassignedto yourhostonlyorNATnetwork.VMwareServeralwaysusesaClassCaddressfor hostonlyandNATnetworks. Table 11-1. Address Use on a Host-Only Network
Range <net>.1 <net>.2<net>.127 Address use Hostmachine Staticaddresses Example 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2192.168.0.127

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Table 11-1. Address Use on a Host-Only Network (Continued)


Range <net>.128<net>.253 <net>.254 <net>.255 Address use DHCPassigned DHCPserver Broadcasting Example 192.168.0.128192.168.0.253 192.168.0.254 192.168.0.255

Table 11-2. Address Use on a NAT Network


Range <net>.1 <net>.2 <net>.3<net>.127 <net>.128<net>.253 <net>.254 <net>.255 Address use Hostmachine NATdevice Staticaddresses DHCPassigned DHCPserver Broadcasting Example 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3192.168.0.127 192.168.0.128192.168.0.253 192.168.0.254 192.168.0.255

Avoiding IP Packet Leakage in a Host-Only Network


Bydesign,eachhostonlynetworkshouldbeconfinedtothehostmachineonwhichit issetup.Thatis,nopacketssentbyvirtualmachinesonthisnetworkshouldleakout toaphysicalnetworkattachedtothehost.Packetleakagecanoccuronlyifamachine activelyforwardspackets.Itispossibleforthehostmachineoranyvirtualmachine runningonthehostonlynetworktobeconfiguredinawaythatpermitspacket leakage.

Windows Hosts
SystemsusingserverversionsofWindows2000arecapableofforwardingIPpackets thatarenotaddressedtothem.Bydefault,however,thesesystemscomewithIPpacket forwardingdisabled. IfyoufindpacketsleakingoutofahostonlynetworkonaWindows2000host computer,checktoseewhetherforwardinghasbeenenabledonthehostmachine.Ifit isenabled,disableit. SelectStart>Programs>AdministrativeTools>RoutingandRemoteAccess.Anicon ontheleftislabeledwiththehostname.Ifagreendotappearsovertheicon,IP forwardingisturnedon.Toturnitoff,rightclicktheiconanddisableRoutingand RemoteAccess.Areddotappears,indicatingthatIPforwardingisdisabled.

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Linux Hosts
IfyoufindpacketsleakingoutofahostonlynetworkonaLinuxhostcomputer,check toseewhetherforwardinghasmistakenlybeenenabledonthehostmachine.Ifitis enabled,disableit. FormanyLinuxsystems,disableforwardingbywritinga0(zero)tothespecialfile /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward.Asroot,enterthiscommand:
echo 0>/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

OtherLinuxsystemshaveasystemconfigurationoptionthatyoucanset.Themethod dependsonyourLinuxdistribution.Youcanuseacontrolpanel,specifyasettingatthe timeyoucompileyourkernel,orpossiblyenteraspecificationwhenyoubootyour system.Consultyouroperatingsystemdocumentationfordetailsonthemethodtouse withyourparticulardistribution.

Using Filtering
Ifthehostcomputerhasmultiplenetworkadapters,itmightbeintentionally configuredtodoIPforwarding.Inthiscase,youdonotwanttodisableforwarding.To avoidpacketleakage,youmustenableapacketfilteringfacilityandspecifythat packetsfromthehostonlynetworkshouldnotbesentoutsidethehostcomputer. Consultyouroperatingsystemdocumentationfordetailsonhowtoconfigurepacket filtering.

Leaks from a Virtual Machine


Virtualmachinesmightleakpackets,aswell.Forexample,ifyouusedialup networkingsupportinavirtualmachineandpacketforwardingisenabled,hostonly networktrafficmightleakoutthroughthedialupconnection. Topreventtheleakage,besurepacketforwardingisdisabledinyourguestoperating system.

Maintaining and Changing the MAC Address of a Virtual Machine


Whenavirtualmachineispoweredon,VMwareServerassignseachofitsvirtual networkadaptersanEthernetmediaaccesscontrol(MAC)address.AMACaddressis theuniqueaddressassignedtoeachEthernetnetworkdevice. ThesoftwareguaranteesthatvirtualmachinesareassigneduniqueMACaddresses withinagivenhostsystem.ThevirtualmachineisassignedthesameMACaddress everytimeitispoweredonifbothofthefollowingconditionsaretrue:

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Thevirtualmachineisnotmoved.Thatis,thepathandfilenameforthevirtual machinesconfiguration(.vmx)fileremainthesame. Nochangesaremadetocertainsettingsintheconfigurationfile. However,VMwareServercannotguaranteethatitwillautomaticallyassignunique MACaddressesforvirtualmachinesthatrunonmultiplehostsystems.

Avoiding MAC Address Changes


ToavoidchangesintheMACaddressautomaticallyassignedtoavirtualmachine,do notmovethevirtualmachinesconfigurationfile.Movingittoadifferenthost computerorevenmovingittoadifferentlocationonthesamehostcomputerchanges theMACaddress. Alsodonotchangecertainsettingsinthevirtualmachinesconfigurationfile.Ifyou neveredittheconfigurationfilebyhandanddonotremovethevirtualnetwork adapter,thesesettingsremainuntouched.Ifyoudoedittheconfigurationfilebyhand, donotremoveorchangethefollowingoptions:
ethernet[n].generatedAddress ethernet[n].addressType ethernet[n].generatedAddressOffset uuid.location uuid.bios ethernet[n].present

Intheseoptions, ethernet[n] isthenumberofthevirtualnetworkadapter,for exampleethernet0. NOTETopreserveavirtualnetworkadaptersMACaddress,youalsomustbecareful nottoremovetheadapter.Ifyouremovetheadapterbutlaterrecreateit,theadapter mightreceiveadifferentMACaddress.

Assigning a Specific MAC Address Manually


AssignaspecificMACaddressusingtheproceduredescribedinEditingaNetwork Adapteronpage 216.Thisguaranteesthefollowing: ThesameMACaddressisassignedtoagivenvirtualmachineeverytimeyou poweriton,evenifthevirtualmachineismoved. AuniqueMACaddressforeachvirtualmachinewithinanetworkedenvironment. Theaddressmustbeintheformat:
00:50:56:XX:YY:ZZ

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XXmustbeavalidhexadecimalnumberbetween00hand3Fh,andYYandZZmustbe validhexadecimalnumbersbetween00handFFh.Youmustusethisformatbecause VMwareServervirtualmachinesdonotsupportarbitraryMACaddresses. AvalueforXX:YY:ZZthatisuniqueamongyourhardcodedaddressesavoidsconflicts betweentheautomaticallyassignedMACaddressesandthemanuallyassigned addresses.

Controlling Routing for a Host-Only Network on a Linux Host


Ahostonlynetworkisafullfledgednetwork.Ithasanetworkinterfaceassociated withit(VMnet1)thatismarkedupatthetimethehostoperatingsystemisbooted. Consequently,routingserverprocessesthatoperateonthehostoperatingsystem,such asroutedandgated,automaticallydiscoverthenetworkandpropagateinformation abouthowtoreachitunlessyouexplicitlyconfigurethemnottodoso. Ifeitheroftheseprocessesisbeingrunonlytoreceiveroutinginformation,theeasiest solutionistoruntheprocesswitha-qoptionsothatitdoesnotsupplyrouting information,onlyreceivesit. If,however,theprocessesarerunningbecausetheysupplyroutinginformation,you needtoconfigurethemsotheydonotadvertiseroutestothehostonlynetwork. TheversionofroutedthatcomeswithmanydistributionsofLinuxhasnosupportfor specifyingthataninterfaceshouldnotbeadvertised.Consulttherouted(8)manual pageforyoursystemincaseyouhaveamorecontemporaryversionofthesoftware. Thegatedprocessrequiressomeconfiguration.Youneedtoexplicitlyexcludethe VMnet1interfacefromanyprotocolactivity.Ifyouneedtorunvirtualmachinesona hostonlynetworkonamultihomedsystemwheregatedisusedandhaveproblems doingso,contactVMwaretechnicalsupportbysubmittingasupportrequestat www.vmware.com/requestsupport.

Issues with Host-Only Networking on a Linux Host


Thefollowingarecommonissuesyoumightencounterwhenyouareconfiguringa hostonlynetwork.

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DHCPD on the Linux Host Does Not Work After VMware Server Installation
IfyouwererunningtheDHCPserverprogramdhcpdonyourmachinebefore installingVMwareServer,itprobablywasconfiguredtorespondtoDHCPrequests fromclientsonanynetworkinterfacepresentonthemachine.Whenhostonly networkingisconfigured,anadditionalnetworkinterface,VMnet1,ismarkedup andavailableforuse,anddhcpdmightnoticethis. Insuchcases,somedhcpdimplementationsabortiftheirconfigurationfilesdonot includeasubnetspecificationfortheinterfaceevenifdhcpdisnotsupposedto respondtomessagesthatarrivethroughtheinterface. Thebestsolutiontothisproblemistoaddalineinthefollowingformattothedhcpd configurationfile:
subnet <net>.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {}

<net>isthenetworknumberassignedtoyourhostonlynetworkforexample, 192.168.0.Thisconfigurationfileentryinformsdhcpdaboutthehostonlynetworkand tellsitexplicitlynottorespondtoanyDHCPrequestsitseescomingfromit. Analternativesolutionistoexplicitlystatethesetofnetworkinterfacesthatyouwant dhcpdtolistentoeachtimeyoustarttheprogram.Forexample,ifyourmachinehas oneEthernetinterface,eth0,theneachtimeyoustartdhcpd,listitonthecommand line:


dhcpd eth0

Thiskeepsdhcpdfromprobingforallavailablenetworkinterfaces. IftheabovesolutionsdonotworkforyourDHCPserverprogram,thenitlikelyisold. YoucantryupgradingtoamorecurrentversionsuchastheDHCPsoftwareavailable fromtheISCWebsiteatwww.isc.org.

DHCP and Dynamic Domain Name Service (DDNS)


DHCPcanbeusedtohandoutIPaddressesaswellasotherinformation,suchasthe identityofahostrunninganameserverandthenearestrouterorgateway.TheDHCP serverinVMwareServerdoesnotprovideameanstodynamicallyestablisha relationshipbetweentheIPaddressitassignsandaclientsname(thatis,toupdatea DNSserverusingDDNS). Ifyouwanttousenamestocommunicatewithothervirtualmachines,youmusteither edittheDHCPconfigurationfileforVMnet1(/etc/vmware/vmnet1.conf)oruseIP addressesthatarestaticallyboundtoahostname.EditingtheDHCPserver configurationfilerequiresinformationthatisbestobtaineddirectlyfromtheDHCP serverdocumentation.Consultthemanualpagesdhcpd(8)anddhcpd.conf(8).
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Configuring a Virtual Network

Setting Up a Second Bridged Network Interface on a Linux Host


Ifyourhostcomputerhastwonetworkadaptersconnectedtotwodifferentnetworks, youcanconfigureyourvirtualmachinesonthathostcomputertobridgetoboth networkadapters.Thatway,thevirtualmachinescanaccesseitherorbothphysical networks. WhenyouinstallVMwareServeronahostcomputerwithmultiplenetworkadapters, youhavetheoptionofconfiguringmorethanonebridgednetwork.Youcanalso configureadditionalbridgednetworksatanytimebyrerunningvmware-config.pl. To set up another Bridged network interface on a Linux host 1 Onthehostcomputer,becomeroot(su -)andruntheVMwareServer configurationprogram.
vmware-config.pl

CAUTIONToconfigureVMwareServercorrectly,thevmware-config.pl configurationprogramrequiresallvirtualmachinestobeshutdown.The programshutsdownanyrunningvirtualmachinesautomatically. 2 Ifyouhavemorethanonephysicalnetworkadapter,oneofthepromptsyousee issimilartothis:


The following bridged networks have been defined: . vmnet0 is bridged to eth0 Do you wish to configure another bridged network? (yes/no) [no]

Answeryes. 3 Ifyouhaveadditionalphysicalnetworkadaptersnotyetconnectedtoabridged network,thepromptisrepeated,showinginformationaboutallcurrently configuredbridgednetworks. Whenyouhavesetupallthebridgednetworksyouwant,typeno.

Configuring Bridged Networking When Using Teamed Network Interface Cards


Networkadapterteaming(wheretwoormorenetworkinterfacecardsworkasoneand appearasasingle,separatedevice)providesaVMwareServerhostandthevirtual machinesrunningonitwithalevelofnetworkhardwarefaulttolerance.Ifonephysical networkadapterfails,thennetworktrafficforthehostandvirtualmachinescan continueusingtheremainingnetworkadaptersintheteam.

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Anothermethodforprovidingfaulttoleranceisbymakingsurethatautomatic bridgingisenabled.ThisfeatureisavailableonWindowshostsonlyandisenabledby default.Formoreinformation,seeConfiguringBridgedNetworkingOptionsona WindowsHostonpage 217.Thismethodismorelimitedthanusingnetworkadapter teaming,asitdoesnotallowforloadbalancing,switchfaulttolerance,faulttolerance toanynecessaryservicesrunningonthehost,ortheabilitytospecifyanadapterasthe primaryorsecondaryadapter. Certainnetworkadapterteamingmodesprovideloadbalancingandarediscussed below. IfyourVMwareServerhostisconfiguredtouseteamednetworkinterfacecards,and youusebridgednetworkingwithyourvirtualmachines,youneedtoadjustyour networksettings.YoudothisbybindingtheVMwareBridgeProtocoltotheteamed networkadapterandunbindingitfromeachindividual,physicalnetworkadapteron thehost.SeeSettingUptheWindowsHostonpage 231. BeforeyoustartusingteamedNICstonetworkyourvirtualmachines,youmusthave agoodunderstandingofhownetworkteamingworksinyourhostenvironment.

Support for Network Adapter Teaming


VMwaresupportsteamedNICsonWindowshostswithenterpriseclassnetwork adaptersthatcanbeconfiguredfornetworkadapterteaming.Ifthereisaspecific teamednetworkingmode(suchas802.3adDynamicor802.3adDraftStaticmode)you wanttouse,youmustuseadaptersthatsupportthatmode. NOTEYoumightbeunabletouseHostTeamedBroadcomNICsforabridgedvirtual networkifyouareusingteamedBroadcomnetworkadapterssettoSmartLoadBalance andFailOverusingBroadcomteamnetworkingsoftware,orifyouarenotrunningthe latestvirtualadapterdriver.TobridgetoateamedBroadcomdevice,makesurethat youhaveinstalledthelatestdriver,thenrecreatetheteamwithGenericTrunkingasthe TeamType. VMwarehasnottestedanddoesnotsupportnetworkadapterteamswithVMware ServeronLinuxhosts. VMwareServersupportsteamedBroadcombasednetworkadapterswhenusedwith Broadcomteamingsoftwareinthefollowingmodes: GenericTrunking(FEC/GEC/802.3adDraftStatic) LinkAggregation(802.3ad) SmartLoadBalanceandFailOver

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VMwareServersupportsteamedIntelbasednetworkadapterswhenusedwithIntel PROSetversion6.4orhigher(32bithosts)orPROSetversion10.0orhigher(64bit hosts)inthefollowingmodes: AdapterFaultTolerance AdaptiveLoadBalancing StaticLinkAggregation(64bithosts) FEC/802.3adStaticLinkAggregation(32bithosts) GEC/802.3adStaticLinkAggregation(32bithosts) IEEE802.3adDynamicLinkAggregation NOTEExpressTeamingmodeisnotsupportedwhenyouareteamingIntelbased networkadapters.

Setting Up the Windows Host


WhenusingVMwareServeronaWindowshostwithteamednetworkadaptersand bridgednetworking,theVMwareBridgeProtocolmustbeboundtotheteamed networkadapterandunboundfromtheindividualphysicalnetworkadapters. To set up bridged networking on a Windows host 1 OpentheWindowsControlPanel,andopenNetworkConnections(onaWindows Server2003host)oropenNetworkandDialupConnections(onaWindows2000 host). Rightclicktheteamednetworkadapterdevice,andselectPropertiestobindthe VMwareBridgeProtocoltotheteamednetworkadapter. CheckVMwareBridgeProtocol. ClickOKtoclosethepropertysheet. Rightclickthenetworkadapter,andselectPropertiestounbindtheVMware BridgeProtocolfromeachphysicalnetworkadapterthatisbeingusedforbridged networking. CleartheVMwareBridgeProtocolcheckbox. ClickOKtoclosethepropertysheet.

2 3 4 5

6 7

Alternately,youcanusethevirtualnetworkeditortoeithermaptheteamednetwork adaptertoVMnet0orexcludethephysicaladaptersfromanyautomaticbridgingby VMwareServer.Forinformation,seeConfiguringBridgedNetworkingOptionsona WindowsHostonpage 217.


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Changing the Teamed Networking Mode


Ifyouchangetheteamednetworkingmode,youmustdeletetheoriginalnetwork adapterteamonthehostandcreateanewteam.Donotmodifyavirtualmachines networkadapterteamingsettings. CAUTIONBeforeyoudeletetheoriginalteam,powerofforsuspendallvirtual machinesonthehosttopreventtheteamingsoftwarefromlockingup.

Setting Up Two Separate Host-Only Networks


Forsomeconfigurations,youmightneedtosetupmorethanonehostonlynetworkon thesamehostcomputer. Youmight,forexample,wanttohavetwovirtualmachinesconnectedtoonehostonly network,andatthesametimehaveothervirtualmachinesconnectedtoanother hostonlynetwork.Thissetupisolatesnetworktrafficoneachnetwork. Oryoumightwanttotestroutingbetweentwovirtualnetworks.Ortestavirtual machinewithmultiplenetworkinterfacecardswithoutusinganyphysicalnetwork adapters. OnWindowshosts,thefirsthostonlynetworkissetupautomaticallywhenyouinstall VMwareServer. OnLinuxhosts,thefirsthostonlynetworkissetupwhenyourunthe vmware-config.plprogramafteryouinstallVMwareServer(providedyouagreeto installhostonlynetworking).Ifyoudidnotagreetousehostonlynetworking,you needtorunthescriptagaintosetuphostonlynetworking. Tosetupthesecondhostonlynetwork,followthestepsoutlinedbelowforyourhost operatingsystem. To set up the second host-only interface on a Windows host 1 2 3 4 5 6 FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks. ClickHostVirtualAdapters. ClickAddnewadapter. SelectthevirtualnetworkonwhichtousetheadapterandclickOK. ClickApply. ClickOKtoclosethevirtualnetworkeditor.

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To set up the second host-only interface on a Linux host 1 Asroot(su -),runtheVMwareServerconfigurationprogram.


vmware-config.pl

CAUTIONToconfigureVMwareServercorrectly,thevmware-config.pl configurationprogramrequiresallvirtualmachinestobeshutdown.The programshutsdownanyrunningvirtualmachinesautomatically. AfteraskingaboutaNATnetwork,theprogramasks:


Do you want to be able to use host-only networking in your virtual machines?

Selectyes. Thewizardreportsonhostonlynetworksthatyouhavealreadysetuponthehost or,ifnohostonlynetworkispresent,configuresthefirstone. Thewizardasks:


Do you wish to configure another host-only network?

Selectyes. Repeatthisstepuntilyouhaveasmanyhostonlynetworksasyouwant.Then answerno.

Completetheremainingstepsinthewizard. Whenthewizardisfinished,itrestartsallservicesusedbyVMwareServer.

Runifconfig. Youshouldseeatleastfournetworkinterfaceseth0,lo,vmnet1,andvmnet2. IftheVMnetinterfacesdonotdisplayimmediately,waitforaminute,andrunthe commandagain.ThesefourinterfacesshouldhavedifferentIPaddresson separatesubnets.

Configuring the Virtual Machines


Nowyouhavetwohostonlyinterfaces(VMnet1andVMnet2).Youarereadytosetup yourvirtualmachinesforoneofthefollowingconfigurations: Thevirtualmachineisconfiguredwithonevirtualnetworkadapter,andthat virtualadapterisconnectedtothedefaulthostonlyinterface(VMnet1). Thevirtualmachineisconfiguredwithonevirtualnetworkadapter,andthat virtualadapterisconnectedtothenewlycreatedhostonlyinterface(VMnet2).

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Thevirtualmachineisconfiguredwithtwovirtualnetworkadapters.Onevirtual adapterisconnectedtothedefaulthostonlyinterface(VMnet1)andtheother virtualadapterisconnectedtothenewlycreatedhostonlyinterface(VMnet2). Configuration 1 Connect to the Default Host-Only Interface 1 2 3 4 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchVI WebAccessandselectthevirtualmachine. Launchthevirtualnetworkeditor. SelectNIC,selectCustom,andselectVMnet1(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or /dev/vmnet1(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifnonetworkadapterisshowninthelistofdevices,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter. Configuration 2 Connect to the Newly Created Host-Only Interface 1 2 3 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchVI WebAccessandselectthevirtualmachine. Edittheconfigurationusingthevirtualnetworkeditor. SelectNIC,selectCustom,andselectVMnet2(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost) or/dev/vmnet2(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifnonetworkadapterisshowninthelistofdevices,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter. Configuration 3 Connect to Two Host-Only Interfaces 1 2 3 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchVI WebAccessandselectthevirtualmachine. Edittheconfigurationusingthevirtualnetworkeditor. Selectthefirstnetworkadapterinthelistofdevices,selectCustom,andselect VMnet1(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or/dev/vmnet1(onaLinuxhost)from thedropdownlistontheright.Selectthesecondnetworkadapterinthelistof devices,selectCustom,thenselectVMnet2(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or /dev/vmnet2(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifyouneedtoaddoneormorenetworkadapters,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter.

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Atthispointyoucanpoweronthevirtualmachineandinstallyourguestoperating system.Inconfigurations1and2youseeoneAMDPCNetAdapter.Inconfiguration3 youseetwoAMDPCNetAdapterswithintheguest.Configurethenetworkadapters asyouwouldphysicaladaptersonaphysicalcomputer,givingeachadapteranIP addressontheappropriateVMnetsubnet. OnWindowshosts,youcanopenacommandpromptandrunipconfig /alltosee whatIPaddresseseachhostonlynetworkisusing. OnLinuxhosts,youcanopenaterminalandrunifconfigtoseewhatIPaddresses eachhostonlynetworkisusing.

Routing Between Two Host-Only Networks


Ifyouaresettingupacomplextestnetworkusingvirtualmachines,youmightwantto havetwoindependenthostonlynetworkswitharouterbetweenthem. Therearetwobasicapproaches.Inone,theroutersoftwarerunsonthehostcomputer. Intheother,theroutersoftwarerunsinitsownvirtualmachine.Inbothcases,youneed twohostonlyinterfaces. Theexamplesdescribedhereoutlinethesimplestcase,withonevirtualmachineon eachofthehostonlynetworks.Formorecomplexconfigurations,youcanaddmore virtualmachinesandhostonlynetworksasappropriate.

Setting Up the First Host-Only Interface


OnWindowshosts,thefirsthostonlynetworkissetupwhenyouinstallVMware Server. OnLinuxhosts,thefirsthostonlynetworkissetupwhenyourunthe vmware-config.plprogramafteryouinstallVMwareServer,providedyouagreeto installhostonlynetworking.Ifyoudidnotagreetousehostonlynetworking,you needtorunthescriptagaintosetuphostonlynetworking. To set up the second host-only interface on a Windows host 1 2 3 4 5 FromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks. ClickHostVirtualAdapters. ClickAddnewadapter. SelectthevirtualnetworkonwhichyouwanttousetheadapterandclickOK. ClickApply.

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ClickOKtoclosethevirtualnetworkeditor.

To set up the second host-only interface on a Linux host 1 Asroot(su -),runtheVMwareServerconfigurationprogram.


vmware-config.pl

CAUTIONToconfigureVMwareServercorrectly,thevmware-config.pl configurationprogramrequiresallvirtualmachinestobeshutdown.The programshutsdownanyrunningvirtualmachinesautomatically. 2 Usethewizardtomodifyyourconfiguration.AfteraskingaboutaNATnetwork, theprogramasks:


Do you want to be able to use host-only networking in your virtual machines?

Answeryes. Thewizardreportsonhostonlynetworksthatyouhavealreadysetuponthehost or,ifnoneispresent,configuresthefirsthostonlynetwork. 3 Thewizardasks:


Do you wish to configure another host-only network?

Answeryes. Repeatthisstepuntilyouhaveasmanyhostonlynetworksasyouwant.Then answerno. 4 5 Completethewizard.Whenitisfinished,itrestartsallservicesusedbyVMware Server. Runifconfig.Youshouldseeatleastfournetworkinterfaceseth0,lo, vmnet1,andvmnet2.IftheVMnetinterfacesdonotshowupimmediately,waitfor aminute,thenrunthecommandagain.Thesefourinterfacesshouldhavedifferent IPaddressonseparatesubnets.

Setting Up the Virtual Machines


Nowyouhavetwohostonlynetworkadaptersonthehostcomputer.Eachis connectedtoitsownvirtualswitch(VMnet1andVMnet2).Youarereadytocreateand configureyourvirtualmachinesandconnectthemtotheappropriatevirtualswitches.

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Virtual Machine 1 Connected to the Default Host-Only Interface 1 2 3 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchaVMwareServerConsoleandopenthevirtualmachine. Edittheconfigurationusingthevirtualnetworkeditor. SelectNIC,selectCustom,andselectVMnet1(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or /dev/vmnet1(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifnonetworkadapterisshowninthelistofdevices,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter. Virtual Machine 2 Connected to the Newly Created Host-Only Interface 1 2 3 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchaVMwareServerConsoleandopenthevirtualmachine. Edittheconfigurationusingthevirtualnetworkeditor. SelectNIC,selectCustom,andselectVMnet2(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or /dev/vmnet2(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifnonetworkadapterisshowninthelistofdevices,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter. Ifyouplantoruntheroutersoftwareonyourhostcomputer,youcanskipthenext section. Virtual Machine 3 Connected to Both Host-Only Interfaces Ifyouplantoruntheroutersoftwareonavirtualmachine,setupathirdvirtual machineforthatpurpose. 1 2 3 Createthevirtualmachineoruseanexistingvirtualmachine. LaunchaVMwareServerConsoleandopenthevirtualmachine. Edittheconfigurationusingthevirtualnetworkeditor. Selectthefirstnetworkadapterinthelistofdevices,selectCustom,andselect VMnet1(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or/dev/vmnet1(onaLinuxhost)from thedropdownlistontheright.Selectthesecondnetworkadapterinthelistof devices,thenselectCustom,selectVMnet2(Hostonly)(onaWindowshost)or /dev/vmnet2(onaLinuxhost)fromthedropdownlistontheright. Ifyouneedtoaddoneormorenetworkadapters,clickAdd,andusetheAdd Hardwarewizardtoaddanadapter.

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Nowyouneedtoconfigurethenetworkingcomponentsonthehostandinthevirtual machines.TherecommendedapproachusesstaticIPaddressesforallthevirtual machines. To configure the host and virtual machine networking components 1 StoptheVMnetDHCPserverservice. Windowshost:Fromthevirtualnetworkeditor,selectDHCPandclickStop service. Linuxhost:Stopthevmnet-dhcpdservice.
killall -TERM vmnet-dhcpd

2 3 4

Installguestoperatingsystemsineachofthevirtualmachines. Installtheroutersoftwareonthehostcomputerorinthethirdvirtualmachine, dependingontheapproachyouareusing. Configurenetworkinginthefirsttwovirtualmachinestouseaddressesonthe appropriatehostonlynetwork. OnWindowshosts,youcanopenacommandpromptandrunipconfig /allto seewhatIPaddresseseachhostonlynetworkisusing. OnLinuxhosts,youcanopenaterminalandrunifconfigtoseewhatIP addresseseachhostonlynetworkisusing.

Ifyouarerunningtherouteronthehostcomputer,assigndefaultrouteraddresses basedontheaddressesofthehostonlyadaptersonthehostcomputer.Inthefirst virtualmachinesnetworkingconfiguration,thedefaultrouteraddressshouldbe theIPaddressforthehostonlyadapterconnectedtoVMnet1.Inthesecondvirtual machinesnetworkingconfiguration,thedefaultrouteraddressshouldbetheIP addressforthehostonlyadapterconnectedtoVMnet2. Ifyouarerunningtheroutersoftwareonthethirdvirtualmachine,setthedefault routeraddressesinthefirsttwovirtualmachinesbasedonthoseusedbythethird virtualmachine.Inthefirstvirtualmachinesnetworkingconfiguration,the defaultrouteraddressshouldbetheIPaddressforthethirdvirtualmachines networkadapterconnectedtoVMnet1.Inthesecondvirtualmachinesnetworking configuration,thedefaultrouteraddressshouldbetheIPaddressforthethird virtualmachinesnetworkadapterconnectedtoVMnet2.

Atthispointyoushouldbeabletopingtheroutermachinefromvirtualmachinesone andtwo.Andiftheroutersoftwareissetupcorrectly,youshouldbeableto communicatebetweenthefirstandsecondvirtualmachines.

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Using Virtual Network Adapters in Promiscuous Mode on a Linux Host


VMwareServerdoesnotallowthevirtualnetworkadaptertogointopromiscuous modeunlesstheuserrunningVMwareServerhaspermissiontomakethatsetting.This followsthestandardLinuxpracticethatonlyrootcanputanetworkinterfaceinto promiscuousmode. WhenyouinstallandconfigureVMwareServer,youmustruntheinstallationasroot. VMwareServercreatestheVMnetdeviceswithrootownershipandrootgroup ownership,whichmeansthatonlyroothasreadandwritepermissionstothedevices. Tosetthevirtualmachinesnetworkadaptertopromiscuousmode,youmustlaunch VMwareServerasrootbecauseyoumusthavereadandwriteaccesstotheVMnet device.Forexample,ifyouareusingbridgednetworking,youmusthaveaccessto /dev/vmnet0. TograntselectedotherusersreadandwriteaccesstotheVMnetdevice,youcancreate anewgroup,addtheappropriateuserstothegroupandgrantthatgroupreadand writeaccesstotheappropriatedevice.Youmustmakethesechangesonthehost operatingsystemasroot(su -).Forexample,youcanenterthefollowingcommands:
chgrp <newgroup> /dev/vmnet0 chmod g+rw /dev/vmnet0

<newgroup>isthegroupthatshouldhavetheabilitytosetvmnet0topromiscuous mode. IfyouwantalluserstobeabletosetthevirtualnetworkAdapter(/dev/vmnet0inour example)topromiscuousmode,youcansimplyrunthefollowingcommandonthe hostoperatingsystemasroot:


chmod a+rw /dev/vmnet0

Understanding NAT
Networkaddresstranslation,orNAT,providesasimplewayforvirtualmachinesto usemostclientapplicationsoveralmostanytypeofnetworkconnectionavailableto thehost.TheonlyrequirementforNATisthatthenetworkconnectionmustsupport TCP/IP. NATisusefulwhenyouhavealimitedsupplyofIPaddressesorareconnectedtothe networkthroughanonEthernetnetworkadapter.NATworksbytranslatingaddresses ofvirtualmachinesinaprivateVMnetnetworktothatofthehostmachine.Whena virtualmachinesendsarequesttoaccessanetworkresource,itappearstothenetwork resourceasiftherequestcamefromthehostmachine.

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NATusesthehostsownnetworkresourcestoconnecttotheexternalnetwork.Thus, anyTCP/IPnetworkresourcetowhichthehosthasaccessshouldbeavailablethrough theNATconnection. ThechiefadvantageofNATisthatitprovidesatransparent,easytoconfigurewayfor virtualmachinestogainaccesstonetworkresources. ThefollowingsectionsprovidemoreinformationaboutNAT.

Using NAT
TheNATdeviceisconnectedtotheVMnet8virtualswitch.Virtualmachinesconnected totheNATnetworkalsousetheVMnet8virtualswitch. TheNATdevicewaitsforpacketscomingfromvirtualmachinesontheVMnet8virtual network.Whenapacketarrives,theNATdevicetranslatestheaddressofthevirtual machinetothatofthehostbeforeforwardingthepackettotheexternalnetwork.When dataarrivesfromtheexternalnetworkforthevirtualmachineontheprivatenetwork, theNATdevicereceivesthedata,replacesthenetworkaddresswiththatofthevirtual machineandforwardsthedatatothevirtualmachineonthevirtualnetwork.This translationoccursautomaticallyandrequiresminimalconfigurationontheguestand thehost.

The Host Computer and the NAT Network


ThehostcomputerhasahostvirtualadapterontheNATnetwork(identicaltothehost virtualadapteronthehostonlynetwork).Thisadapterallowsthehostandthevirtual machinestocommunicatewitheachotherforsuchpurposesasfilesharing.TheNAT neverforwardstrafficfromthehostvirtualadapter.

DHCP on the NAT Network


Tomakenetworkingconfigurationeasy,aDHCPserverisautomaticallyinstalledwhen youinstallVMwareServer.VirtualmachinesrunningonthenetworkwiththeNAT devicecandynamicallyobtaintheirIPaddressesbysendingoutDHCPrequests.The DHCPserverontheNATnetwork,whichisalsousedinhostonlynetworking configurations,dynamicallyallocatesIPaddressesintherangeof<net>.128through <net>.254,where<net>isthenetworknumberassignedtoyourNATnetwork.VMware ServeralwaysusesaClassCaddressforNATnetworks.IPaddresses<net>.3through <net>.127canbeusedforstaticIPaddresses.IPaddress<net>.1isreservedforthehost adapterand<net>.2isreservedfortheNATdevice.

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InadditiontotheIPaddress,theDHCPserverontheNATnetworkalsosendsout additionalconfigurationinformationthatenablesthevirtualmachinetooperate automatically.ThisinformationincludesthedefaultgatewayandtheDNSserver.Inthe DHCPresponse,theNATdeviceinstructsthevirtualmachinetousetheIPaddress <net>.2asthedefaultgatewayandDNSserver.ThiscausesallIPpacketsdestinedfor theexternalnetworkandDNSrequeststobeforwardedtotheNATdevice.

DNS on the NAT Network


TheNATdeviceactsasaDNSserverforthevirtualmachinesontheNATnetwork. Actually,theNATdeviceisaDNSproxyandmerelyforwardsDNSrequestsfromthe virtualmachinestoaDNSserverthatisknownbythehost.Responsescomebacktothe NATdevice,whichthenforwardsthemtothevirtualmachines. IftheygettheirconfigurationinformationfromDHCP,thevirtualmachinesonthe NATnetworkautomaticallyusetheNATdeviceastheDNSserver.However,the virtualmachinescanbestaticallyconfiguredtouseanotherDNSserver. ThevirtualmachinesintheprivateNATnetworkarenot,themselves,accessibleusing DNS.IfyouwantthevirtualmachinesrunningontheNATnetworktoaccesseach otherbyDNSnames,youmustsetupaprivateDNSserverconnectedtotheNAT network.

External Access from the NAT Network


Ingeneral,anyprotocolusingTCPorUDPcanbeusedautomaticallybyavirtual machineontheNATnetworksolongasthevirtualmachineinitiatesthenetwork connection.ThisistrueformostclientapplicationssuchasWebbrowsing,Telnet, passivemodeFTP,anddownloadingstreamingvideo.Additionalprotocolsupporthas beenbuiltintotheNATdevicetoallowFTPandICMPecho(ping)toworkcompletely transparentlythroughtheNAT. Ontheexternalnetworktowhichthehostisconnected,anyvirtualmachineonthe NATnetworkappearstobethehostitself,becauseitsnetworktrafficusesthehostsIP address.ItisabletosendandreceivedatausingTCP/IPtoanymachinethatis accessiblefromthehost. Beforeanysuchcommunicationcanoccur,theNATdevicemustsetupamapping betweenthevirtualmachinesaddressontheprivateNATnetworkandthehosts networkaddressontheexternalnetwork. Whenavirtualmachineinitiatesanetworkconnectionwithanothernetworkresource, thismappingiscreatedautomatically.Theoperationisperfectlytransparenttotheuser ofthevirtualmachineontheNATnetwork.Noadditionalworkneedstobedonetolet thevirtualmachineaccesstheexternalnetwork.
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Thesamecannotbesaidfornetworkconnectionsthatareinitiatedfromtheexternal networktoavirtualmachineontheNATnetwork. Whenamachineontheexternalnetworkattemptstoinitiateaconnectionwithavirtual machineontheNATnetwork,itcannotreachthevirtualmachinebecausetheNAT devicedoesnotforwardtherequest.Networkconnectionsthatareinitiatedfrom outsidetheNATnetworkarenottransparent. However,itispossibletoconfigureportforwardingmanuallyontheNATdeviceso networktrafficdestinedforacertainportcanstillbeforwardedautomaticallytoa virtualmachineontheNATnetwork.Fordetails,seeAdvancedNATConfiguration onpage 242. FilesharingofthetypeusedbyWindowsoperatingsystemsandSambaispossible amongcomputersontheNATnetworkincludingvirtualmachinesandthehost computer.IfyouareusingWINSserversonyournetwork,avirtualmachineusing NATnetworkingcanaccesssharedfilesandfoldersonthehostthatareknownbythe WINSserversolongasthosesharedfilesandfoldersareinthesameworkgroupor domain.

Advanced NAT Configuration


Readthesectionthatcorrespondstoyourhostoperatingsystemforinformationabout configuringNATforyourvirtualmachines.

Windows Hosts
ConfiguretheNATdeviceusingthevirtualnetworkeditor(fromtheWindowsStart menu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>ManageVirtualNetworks,thenselect NAT). Youcanstop,restart,andstartthevirtualNATdevicebyclickingtheappropriate button.TheVMnethostsettingletsyouselectwhichvirtualnetworkusestheNAT device.YoucanselectDisableifyoudonotwanttouseNATonanyvirtualnetwork. ToeditNATsettingsforavirtualnetwork,selectitfromthedropdownmenu,then clickEdit.TheNATSettingsdialogboxappears. YoucanchangeanyofthefollowingNATsettings: PortforwardingletsyousendincomingTCPorUDPrequeststoaspecificvirtual machineonthevirtualnetworkservedbytheNATdevice.Tosetupandconfigure forwardedports,clickPortforwarding.Adialogboxappears.

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ToaddanewportforeitherTCPorUDP,clickAdd.Ifaportisalreadylisted,you canchangeitssettings.Selectitsnameinthelist,andclickProperties.Orclick Removetoremovetheselectedport. WhenyouclickAdd,anotherdialogboxappears.IntheHostportfield,typethe numberoftheincomingTCPorUDPport.Forexample,incomingHTTPrequests areusuallyonport80.InthefirstForwardingIPaddressfield,typetheIPaddress ofthevirtualmachinetowhichyouwanttoforwardtheincomingrequests.Inthe secondfieldonthatline,typetheportnumberyouwanttouseforthoserequests onthatvirtualmachine.Youcanenterthestandardport,suchas80forHTTP,ora nonstandardportifsoftwarerunninginthevirtualmachineisconfiguredtoaccept requestsonanonstandardport.TheDescriptionfieldisoptional.Youmightuse ittoidentifytheservicebeingforwarded(forexample,HTTP).Whenyouhave madethesesettings,clickOK. YoucanspecifyDNSserverstobeusedbythevirtualNATdevice.Todoso,click DNS.Adialogboxappears.YoucanchangethePolicyforusingmultipleDNS serversifyouprefertouseRotateorBurstinsteadofthedefaultsettingofOrder. ToaddaDNSservertothelist,clickAdd.Anotherdialogboxappears.Enterthe DNSserversIPaddressintheIPaddressfield.TheDescriptionfieldisoptional. Whenyouhavemadethedesiredsettings,clickOK.Tochangethesettingsfora serveralreadyinthelist,selectitsentryintheDNSdialogbox,andclick Properties.Todeleteanentry,selecttheentry,andclickRemove.Whenyouhave madethedesiredchanges,clickOK. YoucanchangetheIPaddressfortheNATdeviceintheGatewayIPaddressfield. TochangetheNetmask,clickthebuttonontheHostVirtualNetworkMapping tabofthevirtualnetworkeditorandselectSubnet. ToallowonlypassivemodeFTPovertheNATdevice,deselecttheActiveFTP checkbox. YoucanchangethenumberofminutestokeeptheUDPmappingfortheNATin theUDPtimeoutfield. IfyouchangetheOUI(OrganizationallyUniqueIdentifier)portionoftheMAC addressforthevirtualmachineandsubsequentlycannotuseNATwiththevirtual machine,youshouldchecktheAllowAnyOUIcheckbox. IntheConfigportfield,youcanspecifyaportthatcanbeusedtoaccessstatus informationabouttheNAT.Thisoptionisusedfortroubleshootingpurposeswith VMwaretechnicalsupportonly. YoucanchangeNetBIOStimeoutandretrysettings. Whenyouhavemadeallthenetworkingchangesyouwant,clickOK.

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Linux Hosts
UsetheNATconfigurationfileonthehosttoconfiguretheNATdevice.Thisfileis /etc/vmware/vmnet8/nat/nat.conf. Theconfigurationfileisdividedintosections.EachsectionconfiguresapartoftheNAT device.Textsurroundedbysquarebracketssuchas[host]marksthebeginning ofasection.Ineachsectionisaconfigurationparameterthatcanbeset.The configurationparameterstaketheformip = 192.168.27.1/24. ForanexampleofaNATconfigurationfile,seeSampleLinuxvmnetnat.confFileon page 248.Theconfigurationfilevariablesaredescribedbelow.

The [host] Section


ip TheIPaddressthattheNATdeviceshoulduse.Itcanoptionallybefollowedbyaslash andthenumberofbitsinthesubnet. netmask ThesubnetmasktousefortheNAT.DHCPaddressesareallocatedfromthisrangeof addresses. configport AportthatcanbeusedtoaccessstatusinformationabouttheNAT. device TheVMnetdevicetouse.Linuxdevicesareoftheformat/dev/vmnet<x>.VMnet8is thedefaultNATdevice. activeFTP AflagthatindicatesifactiveFTPistobeallowed.ActiveFTPallowsincoming connectionstobeopenedbytheremoteFTPserver.Turningthisoffmeansthatonly passivemodeFTPworks.Settheflagto0toturnactiveFTPoff.

The [udp] Section


timeout ThenumberofminutestokeeptheUDPmappingfortheNAT.

The [incomingtcp] Section


UsethissectiontoconfigureTCPportforwardingforNAT.Youcanassignaport numbertoanIPaddressandportnumberonavirtualmachine. Thefollowinglineshowstheformatusedinthissection.
8887 = 192.168.27.128:21

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Thisexamplecreatesamappingfromport8887onthehosttotheIPaddress 192.168.27.128andport21.Whenthismappingissetandanexternalmachineconnects tothehostatport8887,thenetworkpacketsareautomaticallyforwardedtoport21(the standardportforFTP)onthevirtualmachinewithIPaddress192.168.27.128.

The [incomingudp] Section


UsethissectiontoconfigureUDPportforwardingforNAT.Youcanassignaport numbertoanIPaddressandportnumberonavirtualmachine. Thefollowinglineshowstheformatusedinthissection.Itillustratesawaytoforward Xservertrafficfromthehostport6000tothevirtualmachinesport6001.
6000 = 192.168.27.128:6001

Thisexamplecreatesamappingfromport6000onthehosttotheIPaddress 192.168.27.128andport6001.Whenthismappingissetandanexternalmachine connectstothehostatport6000,thenetworkpacketsareautomaticallyforwardedto port6001onthevirtualmachinewithIPaddress192.168.27.128.

Custom NAT and DHCP Configuration on a Windows Host


IfyouareanadvanceduseronaWindowshostcomputer,youcanmakecustom configurationsettingsbyeditingtheNATandDHCPconfigurationfiles.Ifyourhost operatingsystemisinstalledontheCdrive,theconfigurationfilesforNATandDHCP areinthefollowinglocations: NAT:C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\vmnetnat.conf DHCP:C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\vmnetdhcp.conf NOTEYoucanchangemanykeyNATandDCHPsettingsusingthevirtualnetwork editor(fromtheWindowsStartmenu,selectPrograms>VMwareServer>Manage VirtualNetworks).However,ifyouhavemademanualchangestotheconfiguration files,someorallofthosechangesmightbelostwhenyouusethevirtualnetworkeditor. Ifyouhavemademanualchanges,makebackupcopiesofthefilesbeforechangingany settingsinthevirtualnetworkeditor.Aftermakingchangesinthevirtualnetwork editor,youcancopyyourmanualchangesbackintotheappropriateconfigurationfiles.

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Specifying Connections from Ports Below 1024


WhenaclientmachinemakesaTCPorUDPconnectiontoaserver,theconnection comesfromaparticularportontheclient(thesourceport)andconnectstoaparticular portontheserver(thedestinationport).Forsecurityreasons,someserversaccept connectionsonlyfromsourceportsbelow1024. IfavirtualmachineusingNATattemptstoconnecttoaserverthatrequirestheclient touseasourceportbelow1024,itisimportantthattheNATdeviceforwardtherequest fromaportbelow1024.Youcanspecifythisbehaviorinthevmnetnat.conffile. Thisbehavioriscontrolledbyentriesinsectionsheaded[privilegedUDP]and [privilegedTCP].Youmighthavetoaddsettingstoormodifysettingsineitheror bothofthesesections,dependingonthekindofconnectionyouneedtomake. Youcansettwoparameters,eachofwhichappearsonaseparateline. autodetect = <n> TheautodetectsettingdetermineswhethertheVMwareNATdeviceautomatically attemptstomapvirtualmachinesourceportsbelow1024toNATsourceportsbelow 1024.Asettingof1meanstrue.Asettingof0meansfalse.OnaWindowshost,the defaultis1(true).OnaLinuxhost,thedefaultis0(false). port = <n> Theportsettingspecifiesadestinationport(<n>istheportontheserverthataccepts theconnectionfromtheclient).Wheneveravirtualmachineconnectstothespecified portonanyserver,theNATdeviceattemptstomaketheconnectionfromasourceport below1024.Youcanincludeoneormoreportsettingsinthe[privilegedUDP]or [privilegedTCP]sectionorinbothsections,asrequiredfortheconnectionsyouneed tomake.Eachportsettingmustbeenteredonaseparateline.

Considerations for Using NAT


BecauseNATrequiresthateverypacketsentandreceivedfromvirtualmachinesbein theNATnetwork,thereisanunavoidableperformancepenalty.Ourtestingshowsthat thepenaltyisminorfordialupandDSLconnections,andperformanceisadequatefor mostVMwareServeruses. NATisnotperfectlytransparent.Itdoesnotnormallyallowconnectionstobeinitiated fromoutsidethenetwork,althoughyoucansetupserverconnectionsbymanually configuringtheNATdevice.ThepracticalresultisthatsomeTCPandUDPprotocols thatrequireaconnectionbeinitiatedfromtheservermachinesomepeertopeer applications,forexampledonotworkautomatically,andsomemightnotworkatall.

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AstandardNATconfigurationprovidesbasiclevelfirewallprotectionbecausethe NATdevicecaninitiateconnectionsfromtheprivateNATnetwork,butdevicesonthe externalnetworkcannotnormallyinitiateconnectionstotheprivateNATnetwork.

Using NAT with NetLogon


WhenusingNATnetworkinginavirtualmachinewithaWindowsguestoperating systemrunningonaWindowshost,youcanuseNetLogontologontoaWindows domainfromthevirtualmachine.YoucanthenaccessfilesharesknownbytheWINS serverinthedomain. TouseNetLogon,youneedtoknowhowWINSserversandWindowsdomain controllerswork.Thissectionexplainshowtosetupthevirtualmachinetouse NetLogon.Thesetupprocessissimilartothewayyousetupaphysicalcomputeron oneLANthatisusingadomaincontrolleronanotherLAN. TologontoaWindowsdomainoutsidethevirtualNATnetwork,thevirtualmachine needsaccesstoaWINSserverforthatdomain.Therearetwowaysyoucanconnectthe virtualmachinetoaWINSserver.YoucanconnecttotheWINSserverprovidedbythe DHCPserverusedontheNATnetwork,providedthattheWINSserverisalreadyset uponthehost.IfyouwanttoconnectfromthevirtualmachinetoaWINSservernot setuponthehost,youcanmanuallyentertheIPaddressoftheWINSserver.

Using NAT to Connect to an Existing WINS Server Already Set Up on the Host
Tousethismethod,aWINSserverinthesameworkgroupordomainmustbesetup onthehost.ThesestepsuseWindows2000,WindowsXP,orWindowsServer2003asa guide.TheprocessissimilarforWindowsNT,WindowsMe,andWindows9xguests. To use NAT to connect to an existing WINS Server 1 2 3 4 5 6 Inthevirtualmachine,rightclickonMyNetworkPlacesandselectProperties. IntheNetworkConnectionswindow,rightclickthevirtualnetworkadapterand selectProperties. InthePropertiesdialogbox,selectInternetProtocol(TCP/IP),andclick Properties. IntheTCP/IPPropertiesdialogbox,clickAdvanced. ClicktheWINStab,thenunderNetBIOSsetting,selectUseNetBIOSsetting fromDHCPServer. ClickOKtwice,andclickClose.

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Manually Entering the IP Address of a WINS Server


UsethismethodtoconnecttoaWINSserverinthesameworkgroupordomainthatis notalreadysetuponthehost. To manually enter the IP address of a WINS server 1 2 3 4 5 6 Inthevirtualmachine,rightclickonMyNetworkPlacesandselectProperties. IntheNetworkConnectionswindow,rightclickthevirtualnetworkadapterand selectProperties. InthePropertiesdialogbox,selectInternetProtocol(TCP/IP),andclick Properties. IntheTCP/IPPropertiesdialogbox,clickAdvanced. ClicktheWINStab,andclickAdd. IntheTCP/IPWINSServerdialogbox,entertheIPaddressfortheWINSserverin theWINSserverfield,andclickOK.TheIPaddressoftheWINSserverappears intheWINSaddresseslistontheWINStab. Repeatsteps5and6foreachWINSservertowhichyouwanttoconnectfromthis virtualmachine. 7 ClickOKtwice,andclickClose.

NowthatthevirtualmachinehasanIPaddressforaWINSserver,youuseNetLogon inthevirtualmachinetologontoadomainandaccesssharesinthatdomain. Forexample,iftheWINSservercoversadomainwithadomaincontroller,itispossible toaccessthatdomaincontrollerfromthevirtualmachineandaddthevirtualmachine tothedomain.YouneedtoknowtheuserIDandpasswordoftheAdministratoronthe domaincontroller. NOTEYouraccessislimitedtosharesofvirtualmachinesthatareonthesameNAT networkorarebridgedonthesamedomain.

Sample Linux vmnetnat.conf File


ThefollowingisasampleLinuxvmnetnat.conffile.
# Linux NAT configuration file [host] # NAT gateway address ip = 192.168.237.2/24 hostMAC = 00:50:56:C0:00:08

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# enable configuration; disabled by default for security reasons #configport = 33445 # VMnet device if not specified on command line device = VMnet8 # Allow PORT/EPRT FTP commands (they need incoming TCP stream...) activeFTP = 1 # Allows the source to have any OUI. Enable this if you change the OUI # in the MAC address of your virtual machines. #allowAnyOUI = 1 [udp] # Timeout in seconds, 0 = no timeout, default = 60; real value might # be up to 100% longer timeout = 30 [incomingtcp] # Use these with care - anyone can enter into your virtual machine through # these... # FTP (both active and passive FTP is always enabled) # ftp localhost 8887 #8887 = 192.168.27.128:21 # WEB (make sure that if you are using named webhosting, names point to # your host, not to guest... And if you are forwarding port other # than 80 make sure that your server copes with mismatched port # number in Host: header) # lynx http://localhost:8888 #8888 = 192.168.27.128:80 # SSH # ssh -p 8889 root@localhost #8889 = 192.168.27.128:22 [incomingudp] # UDP port forwarding example #6000 = 192.168.27.128:6001

Using Samba for File Sharing on a Linux Host


OnaLinuxhostcomputer,VMwareServercanautomaticallyinstallandconfigurea SambaservertoactasafileserverforMicrosoftWindowsguestoperatingsystems.

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YoucanthenuseWindowsExplorerinthevirtualmachinetomoveandcopyfiles betweenvirtualmachineandhostorbetweenvirtualmachinesonthesamenetwork justasyouwouldwithfilesonphysicalcomputersthatshareanetworkconnection. ThelightlymodifiedSambaserverinstalledbyVMwareServerrunsovertheVMware ServervirtualEthernet,andtheSambatrafficbetweendifferentoperatingsystemsis isolatedfromactuallocalareanetworks. Thesourcecodedifferencesforthechanges(indiffformatandbasedonSamba2.0.6) areavailablefromVMware.Formoreinformation,see www.vmware.com/download/open_sources.html. IfyoualreadyhaveSambaconfiguredonyourLinuxhost,therecommendedapproach istomodifythatconfigurationsoitincludestheIPsubnetusedbytheVMwareServer virtualnetworkadapter,VMnet1. YoucanconfigureyourexistingSambaservertoworkwithahostonlynetwork.Allthe sharesyousetupinSambaandintheguestoperatingsystemnormallyappearonthe bridgednetworkaswell. Ifyouneedtobesurethesharessetupintheguestoperatingsystemareseenonlyon thehostonlynetwork,youmightfinditeasiesttoinstallandusetheSambaserver providedwithVMwareServer. Ifyoudonotneedanysharestoappearonyourbridgednetwork,youcanuseyour existingSambaserverandsetuptheconfigurationfilesoitworksonlyonthehostonly network. Sambaconfigurationscanbequitecomplex.Thissectionprovidesseveralsample configurationfiles.Ifyouneedtogobeyondtheissuescoveredhere,seethemanpage forthesmb.conffile.Toviewthismanpage,typeoneofthefollowingcommandsina terminalwindow:
man smb.conf

or
man 5 smb.conf

Payparticularattentiontothesectiononencryptedpasswords.Ifyouhaveenabled cleartextpasswordsintheguestoperatingsystem,besurethatsmb.confissetupto usecleartextpasswords.Similarly,ifyouareusingencryptedpasswords,youmust havethesamesettingintheguestoperatingsystemandinsmb.conf. NOTEUsingSambaprintersharingwithvirtualmachinesisnotsupported.Consult themanpagesforguidanceonconfiguringSambaforprinting.

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Sample smb.conf for Host-Only Networking


ThefollowingsampleSambaconfigurationfileisforusewithhostonlynetworking. Thisconfigurationisforthe2.0.6versionofSambainstalledbyVMwareServer.The configurationfilesareplacedin/etc/vmware/vmnet1/smbbydefault.
# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # This is the VMware(TM) Samba configuration file. Read the smb.conf(5) manual page to understand the options listed here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options most of which are not shown in this example Any line that starts with a ; (semicolon) or a # (hash) is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a # for commentary and a ; for parts of the config file that you might wish to enable

Configuration file for Samba 2.0.6 vmware-[sn]mbd operating on vmnet1. This file was generated by the VMware configuration program and modified for this document. If you modify it, it will be backed up the next time you run the configuration program.

# Global settings [global] # This should be polled at install time from the private subnet created by # vmware-config.pl socket address = 192.168.183.1 interfaces = vmnet1 bind interfaces only = yes workgroup = WORKGROUP netbios name = HOSTNAME server string = VMware host-only security = user encrypt passwords = yes # Note: Printers not loaded in this example. Resource definitions commented # below. ; load printers = yes socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192 # VMware extension to use a different shared memory access key on each # Samba server running on this host

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sysv shm key = /dev/vmnet1 ; ; ; ; log log max max file = /etc/vmware/vmnet1/smb/var/log.smb level = 1 log size in KB log size = 50

lock directory = /etc/vmware/vmnet1/smb/var/locks smb passwd file = /etc/vmware/vmnet1/smb/private/smbpasswd codepage dir = /usr/lib/vmware/smb/codepages dns proxy = no # Shared resources # Home directories [homes] comment = Home directories browseable = no writable = yes # Printers ;[printers] ; comment = All printers ; path = /var/lpd ; browseable = no ; guest ok = no ; writable = no ; printable = yes ;[HostFS] ; comment = VMware host filesystem ; path = / ; public = no ; writeable = yes ; printable = no

Sample smb.conf for Bridged Networking


ThefollowingsampleSambaconfigurationfileisforusewithbridgednetworking.This configurationfileisbasedonthe2.0.7versionofSambaandassumesthatyouareusing yourexistingSambaserver,asprovidedwithyourhostcomputersLinuxdistribution. Theconfigurationfileisplacedin/etcbydefault.
# # # #
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This is the main Samba configuration file. Read the smb.conf(5) manual page to understand the options listed here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options most of which are not shown in this example

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# # # # # # # # #

Any line that starts with a ; (semicolon) or a # (hash) is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a # for commentary and a ; for parts of the config file that you might wish to enable NOTE: Whenever you modify this file run the command "testparm" to check that you have not many any basic syntactic errors.

# Global Settings [global] interfaces = eth0 workgroup = WORKGROUP netbios name = HOSTNAME server string = Samba Host Box # # ; ; ; Note: Printers not loaded in this example. Resource definitions commented below. printcap name = lpstat load printers = yes printing = cups

socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192 log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m max log size = 50 security = user encrypt passwords = yes smb passwd file = /etc/smbpasswd dns proxy = no preserve case = yes short preserve case = yes default case = lower ; case sensitive = no # Shared Resources [homes] comment = Home Directories browseable = yes writable = yes ;[printers]

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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

comment = All Printers path = /var/spool/samba browseable = yes guest ok = yes writable = no printable = yes create mode = 0700 print command = lpr-cups -P %p -o raw %s -r # using client side printer drivers. print command = lpr-cups -P %p %s # using cups own drivers (use generic PostScript on clients). lpq command = lpstat -o %p lprm command = cancel %p-%j

;[system] ; comment = System share ; path = / ; valid users = username ; public = no ; browsable = yes ; writable = yes ; printable = no

Adding User Names and Passwords to the VMware Server Samba Password File
YoumustbesuretheSambapasswordfileincludesentriesforallusersofthevirtual machinewhowillaccessthehostsfilesystem.Theusernamesandpasswordsinthe Sambapasswordfilemustbethesameasthoseusedforloggingontotheguest operatingsystem. YoucanaddusernamesandpasswordstotheVMwareServerSambapasswordfileat anytimefromaterminalwindowonyourLinuxhostcomputer. To add user names and passwords to the VMware Server Samba password file 1 Logontotherootaccount.
su -

RuntheVMwareServerSambapasswordcommand.
vmware-smbpasswd vmnet1 -a <username>

<username>istheusernameyouwanttoadd.Followtheonscreeninstructions. NOTEvmware-smbpasswdisbasedonthestandardSambapasswordprogram.If youarefamiliarwiththeoptionsusedinsmbpasswd,youcanuseanyofthemin vmware-smbpasswd.

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Logoutoftherootaccount.
exit

Youmightreceiveanerrormessagethatsays
Unknown virtual interface "vmnet1"

ThisindicatesyourmachineisnotusingtheVMwareServerSambaserver. IfyourinstallationofVMwareServerdoesnotincludetheVMwareServerSamba serverandyouwanttosetitup,logontotherootaccountonyourhostcomputer(su ),thenrunvmware-config.plfromaterminalonthehost.Theconfiguration programasks


Do you want this script to automatically configure your system to allow your virtual machines to access the host file system?

Answeryes. CAUTIONToconfigureVMwareServercorrectly,thevmware-config.pl configurationprogramrequiresallvirtualmachinestobeshutdown.Theprogram shutsdownanyrunningvirtualmachinesautomatically.

If You Are Already Running Samba


IfyoualreadyhaveSambarunningonyourLinuxhost,donotinstalltheVMware ServerSambaserverwhenyouareinstallingVMwareServeronyourhost. Theconfigurationprogrampromptsyou
Do you want this script to automatically configure your system to allow your virtual machines to access the host file system?

Answerno. BesuretomodifyyourSambaconfigurationsoitincludestheIPsubnetusedbythe VMwareServervirtualnetworkadapter,VMnet1. TodeterminewhatsubnetisbeingusedbyVMnet1,run


/sbin/ifconfig vmnet1

YoumustbesuretheSambapasswordfileincludesentriesforallusersofthevirtual machinewhowillaccessthehostsfilesystem.Theusernamesandpasswordsinthe Sambapasswordfilemustbethesameasthoseusedforloggingontotheguest operatingsystem. YoucanaddusernamesandpasswordstotheSambapasswordfileatanytimefroma terminalwindowonyourLinuxhostcomputer.

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To add user names and passwords to the Samba password file from a Linux host 1 Logontotherootaccount.
su -

RuntheSambapasswordcommand.
smbpasswd -a <username>

<username>istheusernameyouwanttoadd.Followtheonscreeninstructions. 3 Logoutoftherootaccount.
exit

Using a Samba Server for Both Bridged and Host-Only Networks


YoucanusetheSambaserverofyourchoiceeithertheexistingSambaserverfrom yourhostoperatingsystemsdistributionortheoneprovidedwithVMwareServer forbothhostonlyandbridgednetworking.Todoso,youmustmodifyoneparameter inthesmb.conffile.YoucandefinetheinterfaceparametersoyourSambaserver servesmultipleinterfaces.Anexampleofthisis:
interface = eth0 vmnet1

ThisexampletellstheSambaserverthatitistolistentoanduseboththeeth0and vmnet1interfacestheinterfacesusedbybridgedandhostonlynetworking, respectively.

Using VMware Servers Samba with an Existing Installation


YoucanalsorunbothyourexistingSambaserverandtheVMwareServerSambaserver atthesametime.Todothis,yourcurrentSambaservermustbeversion2.0.6orhigher andmustbeconfiguredcorrectly.However,thisapproachisnotrecommended. TodeterminetheversionofyourSambaserver,run
smbd -V

IfyouwanttotryrunningbothSambaserversatthesametime,usethissample smb.conffileasabasisforconfiguringtheregularSambaserveronyourhost computer.

Sample smb.conf for Running Two Samba Servers at the Same Time
; ; ; ; ; This file is the recommended smb.conf file for your normal Samba server if you want to run it concurrently (which we don't advise) with the VMware Samba server. Your normal samba server should be at least v 2.0.6

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; ; You will need to insert specific information ; for your system at several points indicated in the file ; by <text in angle brackets>. ; ; -------------; ; Larmor samba server configuration ; ; Global settings [global] ; ; Identity ; ; Allow several Samba servers on the same machine interfaces = <your real subnet>/<your real netmask> bind interfaces only = yes ; Workgroup the host belongs to workgroup = VMware ; SMB name of the host (the hostname by default) netbios name = <your Windows name> ; Description of the host server string = Linux running Samba 2.0.6 ; ; Access ; ; Allow connections from ; hosts allow = <your real subnet>/<your real netmask> ; Authentication scheme security = user encrypt passwords = yes ; ; Options ; ; Automatically load the printer list (from /etc/printcap ; by default) load printers = yes ; Gives better performance socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192 ; ; Files and directories ; ; Max log size in KB max log size = 1024 ; Locks lock directory = /var/samba ; SMB passwords smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd ; ; Name browsing

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; ; Allow the host to participate in master browser ; elections local master = yes ; Force a local browser election upon startup ; We need that otherwise it takes a long time before the ; windows network is browsable preferred master = yes ; Do not try to resolve SMB names using DNS dns proxy = no ; Shared resources ; ; Home directories [homes] comment = Home directories browseable = no writable = yes ; Printers ;[printers] ; comment = All printers ; path = /var/lpd ; browseable = no ; guest ok = no ; writable = no ; printable = yes [Slash] comment = Whole filesystem path = / public = no writeable = yes printable = no

Using the Virtual Network Editor


UsingtheVirtualNetworkEditor,youcanviewandchangemanykeysettingsfor networkinginyourvirtualmachinesandcreatecustomvirtualnetworking configurations.Thesechangesaffectallvirtualmachinesonthehostcomputer. Althoughanyusercanviewnetworksettings,onlyAdministratoruserscanchange them.

Summary Tab
TheSummarytabdisplaysalistofthevirtualnetworkscurrentlyactiveonthehost.

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Bydefault,theVMnet0virtualnetworkissetupinbridgedmodeandbridgestoan activenetworkadapteronthehostcomputer.Iftherearemultipleactivenetwork adaptersonthehost,thechoiceofwhichadapteritusesisarbitrary.Torestrictthe rangeofchoices,clicktheAutomaticBridgingtabandspecifyanyadaptersyouwant toexclude.Formoreinformation,seeAutomaticBridgingTab. ClicktheHostVirtualNetworkMappingtabtospecifythenetworkadapterusedfor VMnet0andforanyothervirtualnetworksyouwanttouseforbridgednetworking. Controlsonthispanelalsoallowyoutospecifythesubnettobeusedbyanyvirtual network.Formoreinformation,seeHostVirtualNetworkMappingTab. ClicktheHostVirtualAdapterstabtospecifywhichvirtualnetworkshavehostvirtual adaptersvirtualnetworkadaptersthatallowthehostcomputertoconnecttothe network.Formoreinformation,seeHostVirtualAdaptersTab. ClicktheDHCPtabtospecifywhichvirtualnetworksusethevirtualDHCPserveror toconfigureDHCPsettingsforanyofthosenetworks.Formoreinformation,see DHCPTab. ClicktheNATtabtoconfiguresettingsforthevirtualnetworkaddresstranslation (NAT)device.Formoreinformation,seeNATTab.

Automatic Bridging Tab


Bydefault,VMwareServerautomaticallybridgesVMnet0tothefirstavailablephysical networkadapteronthehost. Todisableautomaticbridging,clearthecheckboxcalledAutomaticallychoosean availablephysicalnetworkadaptertobridgetoVMnet0.Afteryoudeselectthis option,youcanseewhichphysicaladapterisbridgedtoVMnet0ontheSummarytab andontheHostVirtualNetworkMappingtab. TopreventaspecificadapterfromautomaticallybridgingtoVMnet0,leavethecheck boxselected,andintheExcludedadapterssection,clickAddtospecifywhichphysical networkadapteryouwanttopreventfrombeingbridgedtoVMnet0. SeealsoHostVirtualNetworkMappingTab.

Host Virtual Network Mapping Tab


Fromthistab,youcan: Addnewvirtualnetworkadapters(switches). Designatephysicalnetworkadapterstobeusedforbridgednetworking. Removeanadapter.

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Changesubnetandnetmasksettingsforavirtualadapter(seeChangingSubnet andNetmaskSettings). ChangeDHCPsettings(seeChangingDHCPSettings). Becarefulwhenyouchangethebridgedadaptermappings.Ifyoureassignaphysical networkadaptertoadifferentvirtualnetwork,anyvirtualmachinethatusedthe originalnetworkisnolongerbridgedtotheexternalnetworkviathatvirtualnetwork. Youmustthenchangethesettingforeachaffectedvirtualmachinesnetworkadapter individually. Thiscanbeespeciallytroublesomeifyourhosthasonlyonephysicalnetworkadapter andyoureassignittoaVMnetotherthanVMnet0.EventhoughtheVMnetstillappears tobridgetoanautomaticallychosenadapter,theonlyadapteritcanusehasbeen assignedtoadifferentVMnet.

Changing Subnet and Netmask Settings


Tovieworchangethesubnetsettingsforavirtualnetwork,clickthe>buttonforthat virtualnetwork.Acontextmenuappears,fromwhichyoucanselectSubnet.Makeany changesyouwish,andclickOK.

Changing DHCP Settings


TovieworchangeDHCPsettingsforavirtualnetwork,clickthe>buttonforthat virtualnetwork.Acontextmenuappears,fromwhichyoucanselectDHCP.Makeany changesyouwish,andclickOK. YoucanchangeDHCPsettingsonlyifthevirtualnetworkadapterisbridged.For example,ifthesettingforVMnet3isNotbridged,thecontextmenudisplaysonly Subnet,andthereisnooptionforchangingDHCPsettings. SeealsoDHCPTab.

Host Virtual Adapters Tab


Thelistonthispanelshowswhichvirtualnetworkshavehostvirtualadapters virtualnetworkadaptersthatallowthehostcomputertoconnecttothenetwork. Ifyouinstalltheproperroutingorproxysoftwareonyourhostcomputer,youcan establishaconnectionbetweenthehostvirtualnetworkadapterandaphysical networkadapteronthehostcomputer.Thisallowsyou,forexample,toconnectthe virtualmachinetoaTokenRingorothernonEthernetnetwork. Usethistabtoenable,disable,add,andremoveahostvirtualadapter.Youcanenable anddisableadapterswhileavirtualmachineisrunning.

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Thepresenceofvirtualnetworkadaptershasaslightperformancecost,because broadcastpacketsmustgototheextraadapters.OnWindowsnetworks,browsingyour networkmightbeslowerthanusual.Andinsomecases,theseadaptersinteractwith thehostcomputersnetworkingconfigurationinundesirableways.Ifyouarenotusing avirtualnetworkadapter,youcanremoveordisableit.

DHCP Tab
YouneedtoconfigurethevirtualDHCPserverifyouwanttoassignIPaddressesto eachvirtualmachineandthehostontheprivatenetwork(thatis,ifyouwanttouse hostonlyorNATnetworking).UsingDHCPtoassignIPaddressesissimplerandmore automaticthanstaticallyassigningthem. Toaddanewvirtualnetworktothelist,clickAdd.Inthedialogboxthatappears,select thenetworkyouwanttoaddfromthedropdownlist,andclickOK.(Atthispoint,you cannotchangeanyoftheothersettingsintheDHCPSettingsdialogbox.)OntheDHCP tab,clickApplytoactivatethenewnetwork.Youcannowselectthenewlyadded networkandchangethesettings,asfollows. TochangeDHCPsettingsforavirtualnetwork,selectitinthelist,andclickProperties. IntheDHCPSettingsdialogboxthatappears,youcanchangetherangeofIPaddresses providedbytheVMwareServerDHCPserveronaparticularvirtualnetwork.Youcan alsochangethedurationofDHCPleasesprovidedtoclientsonthevirtualnetwork.(If youwanttochangethesubnetsettings,youneedtousetheHostVirtualnetwork Mappingtab.) YoucancompletelystoptheDHCPserviceforallvirtualnetworksbyclickingStop, andthenclickingApply.Iftheserviceisstopped,youcanstartitbyclickingStartand thenApply. (YoucanalsomodifyDHCPsettingsbychoosingEdit>VirtualNetworkSettings> HostVirtualNetworkMapping,selectingaspecificbridgedadapter,thenclickingthe >buttonforthatvirtualnetwork.)

NAT Tab
OptionsontheNATtabletyoudeterminewhichvirtualnetworkisusingthevirtual NATdevice,stopandstarttheNATservice,andconfigureavarietyofsettingsforthe NATdevice. Youcanstop,restart,andstartthevirtualNATdevicebyclickingtheappropriate button.TheVMnethostsettingletsyouselectwhichvirtualnetworkusestheNAT device.YoucanselectDisableifyoudonotwanttouseNATonanyvirtualnetwork. YoucanchangeanyofthefollowingNATsettingswhenyouclickEdit:

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GatewayIPaddressUsethisfieldtochangetheIPaddressfortheNATdevice. Ifyouneedtochangethenetmask,clickthe<buttonontheHostVirtualNetwork MappingtaboftheVirtualNetworkEditorandselectSubnet. UDPtimeoutUsethisfieldtochangethenumberofminutestokeeptheUDP mappingfortheNA. ConfigportfieldUsethisfieldfortroubleshootingpurposeswithVMware technicalsupportonly.Youwillbedirectedtospecifyaportthatcanbeusedto accessstatusinformationabouttheNAT. PortforwardingPortforwardingletsyousendincomingTCPorUDPrequests toaspecificvirtualmachineonthevirtualnetworkservedbytheNATdevice.To setupandconfigureforwardedports,clickPortForwarding,andcompletethe dialogboxthatappears,asfollows: ToaddanewportforeitherTCPorUDP,clickAddintheappropriatesection, andcompletethedialogboxthatappears,asfollows: HostportSpecifythenumberoftheincomingTCPorUDPport.For example,incomingHTTPrequestsareusuallyonport80. VirtualMachineIPaddressfieldSpecifytheIPaddressofthevirtual machinetowhichyouwanttoforwardtheincomingrequests. PortfieldonthatlineSpecifytheportnumberyouwanttousefor thoserequestsonthatvirtualmachine.Thismaybethestandardport, suchas80forHTTP,oranonstandardportifsoftwarerunninginthe virtualmachineisconfiguredtoacceptrequestsonanonstandardport. Description(optional)SpecifyYoumightusethisfieldtoidentifythe servicebeingforwarded,forexample,HTTP. Tochangesettingsforaportalreadylisted,selectitsnameinthelist,andclick Properties. DNSThisbuttonletsyouspecifyserverstobeusedbythevirtualNATdevice. Youcanchangethefollowingsettings: PolicyIfyouusemultipleDNSservers,specifythestrategytousefor choosingwhichservertosendarequestto: OrderSendoneDNSrequestatatimeinorderofthenameservers. RotateSendoneDNSrequestatatimeandrotatethroughtheDNS servers. BurstSendtothreeserversandwaitforthefirstonetorespond.

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AutodetectSelectthischeckboxtohaveVMwareServerautomatically detectavailableDNSservers. TimeoutSpecifythenumberofminutestokeeptrying,iftheNATisunable toconnecttotheDNSserver. RetriesSpecifythenumberoftimestheNATshouldtrytoconnecttothe DNSserver. ToaddaDNSservertothelist,clickAddandentertheDNSserversIP addressintheIPaddressfield.TheDescriptionfieldisoptional. Tochangesettingsforaserveralreadylisted,selectitsnameinthelist,and clickProperties. ActiveFTPClearthischeckboxifyouwanttoallowonlypassivemodeFTP overtheNATdevice. AllowanyOUIIfyouchangetheOUI(organizationallyuniqueidentifier) portionoftheMACaddressforthevirtualmachineandsubsequentlycannotuse NATwiththevirtualmachine,youshouldselectthischeckbox. NetBIOSsectionUsethissectiontospecifyNBNS(NetBIOSNameService)and (NetBIOSDatagramService)timeoutsandretrysettings.

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Performance Tuning for VMware Server

12

ThischapterdescribeshowtooptimizeVMwareServerperformancebycorrectly configuringVMwareServerhostsystems,hostwideVMwareServersettings,and virtualmachines.Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics: ConfiguringandMaintainingtheHostSystemonpage 265 AllocatingMemorytoaVirtualMachineonpage 268 EditingVirtualMachineMemoryonpage 269 EditingVirtualProcessorsonpage 270 UsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetricMultiprocessingonpage 270 ConfiguringandMaintainingGuestOperatingSystemsonpage 271

Configuring and Maintaining the Host System


Thissectiondescribeshowtoconfigureandmaintainhostsystemstooptimize VMwareServerperformance.ItalsodescribeshostwideVMwareServersettingsthat impactVMwareServerperformance.

Defragmenting Hard Disks


Diskaccessperformanceisdegradedwhenthephysicaldiskthatstoresthevirtual machinediskfilesandworkingdirectoryisfragmented.Fragmentationofthehosthard diskcandegradetheaccessperformanceofanyorallofthefollowing: Thefilesthatmakeupavirtualdisk Thefilesthatstorenewlysaveddatawhenyoutakeasnapshot

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Thefilesthatholdinformationusedwhensuspendingandresumingavirtual machine Ifyouareexperiencingslowdiskperformanceinthevirtualmachine,orifyouwantto improvethespeedofsuspendandresumeoperations,makesurethatthehostphysical diskthatstoresthevirtualmachinediskfilesandworkingdirectoryisnotfragmented. Ifthehostdiskisfragmented,youcanimproveperformancebyrunninga defragmentationutilityonthathostdisk.

Maintaining Adequate Free Disk Space


Foroptimalperformance,keepadequatefreediskspaceonthehostphysicaldisk. PerformancecandegradeconsiderablywhenVMwareServerisusingahostdiskwith littlefreespacetowritegrowablevirtualdisk,snapshot,andredofiles.

Enabling Disk Write Caching on Windows Hosts


OnWindowshosts,youcanenableanddisablewritecachingforeachharddiskfrom thePoliciestabofthedisksHardwarePropertiesdialogbox.Insomecases,youcan alsoenableadvancedperformanceforthedisk.Enablingoneorbothofthesesettings canimprovehostdiskperformanceingeneral.Enablingthesesettingsonthehostdisk thatcontainsthevirtualmachinediskfilescanimprovevirtualdiskperformance, especiallywhenVMwareServerismakingheavyuseofthedisk.

Configuring Swap Space on Linux Hosts


OnLinuxhosts,theamountofswapspaceandthesizeofthe/tmpdirectoryaffect performance.Makesurethatsizeofthe/tmpdirectoryisatleast1.5timestheamount ofmemoryonthehost.Forexample,ifthehostsystemhas1GBofmemory,makesure thatthehosts/tmpdirectoryisatleast1.5GBinsize. Formoreinformationaboutconfiguringswapspaceandthe/tmpdirectory,see VMwareknowledgebasearticle844: http://www.vmware.com/support/kb/enduser/std_adp.php?p_faqid=844.

Increasing NIC Interrupt Coalescing


InterruptcoalescingisaconfigurablefeatureinhighperformanceNICs.Interrupt coalescingprovidesnotificationofthereceptionofagroupofnetworkframestothe operatingsystemkernelthroughhardwareinterrupts.Increasinginterruptcoalescing onhostNICscanimproveperformanceforworkloadsinvolvingheavynetworktraffic totheguestsystem.

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Calculating Memory Requirements to Allow for Virtual Machine Overhead


Virtualmachinesrequirerelativelylargeamountsofmemorytoperformwell.Each virtualmachinecanusememoryuptoitsallocationlimit,plussomeoverhead.The amountofoverheadneededdependsonthesizeofthevirtualdisks,theamountof memoryallocatedtothevirtualmachine,andguestsystembehavior. Table 121liststheadditionalamountofmemoryneededforoverhead,basedonthe amountofmemoryallocatedtothevirtualmachine. Table 12-1. Virtual Machine Allocated Memory and Additional Memory Overhead
Virtual Machine Memory Allocated Upto512MB Upto1000MB Upto2000MB Upto3600MB Additional Memory Overhead Needed Upto54MB Upto62MB Upto79MB Upto105MB

Donotallowtotalmemoryallocatedforallrunningvirtualmachinesplustheoverhead forVMwareServerprocessestoexceedtheamountofphysicalmemoryonthehost. Alsokeepsomememoryavailableforotherapplicationsonthehost.

Configuring Host-Wide Virtual Machine Memory Usage


Inadditiontoconfiguringthememorycapacityforeachvirtualmachine(see AllocatingMemorytoaVirtualMachineonpage 268),youcanspecifythefollowing hostwideVMwareServermemorysettings: Howmuchofthehostsystemsmemorycanbeusedforallrunningvirtual machines Theextenttowhichthehostsystemsmemorymanagercanswapvirtualmachines outofphysicalRAM Thesesettingsaffectbothvirtualmachineandoverallsystemperformance.

Reserving Host Memory for Virtual Machine Use


YoucanlimittheamountofhostmemorythatVMwareServerisallowedtoconsume forallrunningvirtualmachines.Thisisthereservedmemorylimit,configuredas describedinReservingHostMemoryforAllVirtualMachinesonpage 107.

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Ifyousetthisvaluetoohigh,thehostmightperformpoorlywhenotherapplications arerunningonthehost.Ifyousetthisvaluetoolow,virtualmachinesmightperform poorlyandfewervirtualmachinescanrunsimultaneously. Reservedmemoryisallocatedasneeded,andtheamountinusevarieswhilevirtual machinesarerunning.Ifmultiplevirtualmachinesarerunningsimultaneously,they managethememorybetweeneachother. Evenwhenmultiplevirtualmachinesarerunningsimultaneously,VMwareServer mightbeusingonlyafractionofthereservedmemorylimit.Unusedhostmemoryis availableforusebyotherapplications.However,ifallthereservedhostmemoryisin usebyoneormorevirtualmachines,thehostandotherhostapplicationscannot operateproperly.Theamountofmemorythatmustremainallocatedtothehostand otherhostapplicationsdependsonthehostoperatingsystemandthetotalhost memorysize.

Configuring Host Memory for Swapping


Topreventvirtualmachinesfromaffectingeachothersperformance,VMwareServer limitsthenumberofvirtualmachinesthatcanrunsimultaneouslybasedontheamount ofmemoryreservedforallrunningvirtualmachines.Toadjustthenumberofvirtual machinesthatcanrunsimultaneouslyortheirtotalmemoryusage,specifytheamount ofvirtualmachinememorythatthehostoperatingsystemcanswaptodisk. YoucanallowvirtualmachinememorytobeswappedinandoutofhostRAM,oryou canrequirethatallvirtualmachinememoryfitinreservedRAM.Thesettingthat determineshowmuchmemorycanbeswappedisconfiguredasdescribedin ConfiguringAdditionalMemoryforSwappingonpage 107. Ifyoutrytopoweronavirtualmachinewheninsufficientmemoryisavailable, VMwareServerdisplaysawarningdialogbox.Themessageindicateshowmuch memorythevirtualmachineisconfiguredtouseandhowmuchmemoryisavailable. Toattempttopoweronthevirtualmachineusingtheavailablememory,clickOK. Otherwise,clickCancel.

Allocating Memory to a Virtual Machine


Youspecifythememorycapacityforeachvirtualmachinewhenyoucreateit.TheNew VirtualMachinewizarddisplaysareasonabledefaultvaluebasedontheguest operatingsystemtypeandthetotalamountofhostmemory.However,youmightbe abletoimproveperformancebyadjustingthesettingwhenyoucreatethevirtual machine,orbylatereditingthememorysetting.SeeEditingVirtualMachine Memoryonpage 269.

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Mostmodernoperatingsystemsusesignificantamountsofmemory,soallowinga generousvirtualmachinememorycapacityisbeneficialforoptimalperformance.The optimalsettingdependsonthefollowingconsiderations: Therecommendationsoftheoperatingsystemvendor. Thetypesofapplicationsthatareruninthevirtualmachine. Whethermultiplevirtualmachinesarecontendingformemoryresources.Ifyou plantorunonevirtualmachineatatimemostofthetime,agoodstartingpointis togivethevirtualmachinehalfoftheavailablehostmemory. Whatapplicationsarerunonthehostatthesametimeasthevirtualmachine. Thetotalamountofhostmemorythatallrunningvirtualmachinescanuse.See ReservingHostMemoryforVirtualMachineUseonpage 267. Thefilesystemwherethevirtualmachineisstored.Youcannotallocatemorethan 2GBofmemorytoavirtualmachineifitisstoredonafilesystemthatdoesnot supportfileslargerthan2GB,suchasFAT16.Ifyoudo,thevirtualmachinewillnot boot. Forinformationabouthostwidememorysettings,seeConfiguringHostWide VirtualMachineMemoryUsageonpage 267.

Editing Virtual Machine Memory


Youcanchangetheamountofmemoryallocatedtoavirtualmachine. To edit memory allocation 1 2 3 4 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheMemoryiconandselect Edit. EntertheamountofmemoryinMBorGB,inmultiplesoffour. NOTETomakesurethatthevirtualmachinecanboot,allocateatleastthe RecommendedMinimumamountofmemory. 5 ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

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Using Two-Way Virtual Symmetric Multiprocessing


Forallsupportedconfigurationsof32bitand64bithostandguestoperatingsystems runningonmultiprocessorhostmachines,VMwareServerprovidessupportfor twowayVirtualSMP.VirtualSMPenablesyoutoassigntwovirtualprocessorstoa virtualmachineonanyhostmachinethathasatleasttwologicalprocessors. Thefollowingareallconsideredtohavetwoormorelogicalprocessors: AmultiprocessorhostwithtwoormorephysicalCPUs AsingleprocessorhostwithamulticoreCPU Asingleprocessorhostwithhyperthreadingenabled NOTEOnhyperthreadeduniprocessorhosts,performanceofvirtualmachineswith VirtualSMPmightbesubpar. GuestswithmorethantwovirtualprocessorsarenotsupportedinVMwareServer. However,youcanpoweronandrunmultipledualprocessorvirtualmachines concurrently. NOTEPerformancemightdegradesignificantlyinanovercommittedVirtualSMP environment,ifthetotalnumberofvirtualCPUsinallrunningvirtualmachines exceedsthenumberofphysicalCPUsoradditionalapplicationsonthehostare competingwithVMwareServerforCPUresources. Forinformationabouthowtosetthenumberofprocessorsforthevirtualmachine,see EditingVirtualProcessorsonpage 270.ThevirtualmachineSummarytabalso displaysthenumberofvirtualprocessorscurrentlyconfiguredforthevirtualmachine. Ifthehostisauniprocessormachineandisnothyperthreaded,assigningtwo processorsisneithersupportednorrecommended.Awarningmessageappearswhen youcreatethevirtualmachine.Youcandisregardthewarningandassigntwo processorstothevirtualmachine,butafteryoufinishcreatingthevirtualmachine,you willnotbeabletopoweritonunlessyoumoveittoahostmachinewithatleasttwo logicalprocessors.

Editing Virtual Processors


Youcanchangethenumberofvirtualprocessorsusedinavirtualmachine. Configuringthevirtualmachinetohavetwoprocessorsissupportedonlyforhost machineswithatleasttwologicalprocessors. ForinformationaboutVMwareServersupportforvirtualSymmetricMultiprocessing (VirtualSMP),seeUsingTwoWayVirtualSymmetricMultiprocessingonpage 270.
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To change the number of processors in a virtual machine 1 2 3 4 5 SelectthevirtualmachinetomodifyfromtheInventorypanel. Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. IntheHardwaresectionoftheSummarytab,clicktheProcessorsiconandselect Edit. SelectthenumberofprocessorsfromtheProcessorCountdropdownmenu. ClickOKtosaveyourchanges.

Configuring and Maintaining Guest Operating Systems


Thissectionincludesrecommendationsforguestoperatingsystemconfigurationand maintenancetooptimizeVMwareServerperformance.

Installing Linux Guest Operating Systems in Text Mode


WhenyouareinstallingaLinuxguestoperatingsystem,usethetextmodeinstaller insteadofthegraphicalinstallerifpossible.Thismakestheinstallationprocessfaster.

Selecting the Correct Guest Operating System


Makesurethatyouselectthecorrectguestoperatingsystemforeachofyourvirtual machines.Forinformationabouthowtoverifyorchangetheguestoperatingsystem type,seeChangingVirtualMachineNameandGuestSystemSettingsonpage 117. VMwareServeroptimizescertaininternalconfigurationsbasedonthissetting.These optimizationscangreatlyaidtheoperatingsystemtheytarget,buttheycancause significantperformancedegradationifthereisamismatchbetweenthesettingandthe operatingsystemactuallyrunninginthevirtualmachine.(Althoughselectingthe wrongguestoperatingsystemmightdegradethevirtualmachinesperformance,itis notlikelytocauseavirtualmachinetorunincorrectly.)

Installing VMware Tools


AlwaysinstallVMwareToolsinanyguestoperatingsystemforwhichaVMwareTools packageexists.VMwareToolssetsuptheVMwareToolsservicetorunautomatically whenthesystemstarts. VMwareToolsprovidesimprovedvideoandmouseperformanceandgreatly improvestheusabilityofthevirtualmachine.VMwareToolsalsoallowsyouto synchronizethevirtualmachinesclockwiththehostcomputersclock,whichcan improveperformanceforsomefunctions.Formoreinformation,seeRunning VMwareToolsonpage 116.
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Installing or Running Applications in a Guest Operating System


Itissometimesnecessarytotemporarilydisableaccelerationinavirtualmachineto resolveproblemswithaguestoperatingsystemapplicationthatcrashesorseemsto hangorreportsthatitisrunningunderadebugger.Usuallyitispossibletoreenable accelerationafterinstallingorstartingtheapplication. Disablingaccelerationdegradesvirtualmachineperformance.Iftheproblemoccurs onlyduringapplicationinstallationorstartup,youcanimproveperformanceby resumingacceleratedoperationaftertheapplicationthatwasencounteringproblems isinstalledorrunning.Forinformationabouthowtoenableanddisableacceleration, seeChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121.

Avoiding Remote Disk Access


Avoidconfiguringvirtualdisksthatareaccessedoverthenetworkunlessyouhavea veryfastnetwork.

Managing Snapshots and Virtual Disks


Ifyoudonotneedsnapshots,runyourvirtualmachinewithoutthemforbest performance.Forinformationabouthowtoremoveanexistingsnapshot,see RemovingaSnapshotonpage 191. Whennosnapshotexists,accessperformancetotheflatfilesthatmakeupa preallocatedvirtualdiskiscomparabletothesequentialandrandomaccess performanceoftheunderlyingphysicaldisk. Whenasnapshotexistsandyouhavemadechangestoapreallocatedvirtualdisk, accessperformanceforthechangeddiskfilesissomewhatslower,andcomparableto thatofagrowablevirtualdisk(whichdoesnothavespaceallocatedinadvance).Ifyou removethesnapshot,performanceagainreflectsthatoftheunderlyingdisk. Whenasnapshotexists,virtualdisksoftenhaveverygoodperformanceforrandomor nonsequentialaccess.Buttheycanpotentiallybecomesofragmentedthatperformance isaffected.Youcanimproveperformanceforthesedisksbydefragmentingthem,as describedinDefragmentingVirtualDisksonpage 141.Beforeyoudefragmentthedisk, youmustfirstremovethesnapshot. NOTEAfterasnapshotistaken,youcannolongerdefragmenttheoriginaldisk.Ifyou runadefragmentationutilityintheguestsystemwhenasnapshotexists,VMware Servermakesallitschangestotheredologratherthantheoriginaldisk.Everysector thatchangesiscopiedtothevirtualmachineredolog.Theredologbecomesextremely largewhenthediskisheavilyfragmentedandyouattempttodefragmentthediskafter takingasnapshot.

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Disabling Debugging Mode


Youcanconfigurevirtualmachinestorecorddebuggingorstatisticsinformation. However,recordingdebugginginformationdegradesperformancesignificantly. Duringnormaluse,makesurethatthevirtualmachineisnotrecordingdebugging information.Forinformationabouthowtoenableanddisabletherecordingofruntime information,seeChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121.

Disabling CD/DVD Drive Polling


ManyWindowsoperatingsystemspolltheCD/DVDdriveapproximatelyevery secondtoseewhetheradiscispresent,allowingthemtorunautorunprograms.When thispollingoccurs,thevirtualmachinemighttoappeartopausewhileVMwareServer connectstothehostCD/DVDdriveandthehostdrivespinsup. IfyouhaveaCD/DVDdrivethattakesalongtimetospinup,youcaneliminatethese pausesusingeitherofthefollowingmethods: Disablepollinginyourguestoperatingsystem.Specificinstructionsdependonthe operatingsystem. ConfigureyourvirtualCD/DVDdrivesothatitisnotconnectedwhenthevirtual machinepowerson.Onlyconnecttothevirtualdrivewhenyouwanttouseitin thevirtualmachine.

Disabling Fade Effects in Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003
ThefadeeffectsusedbyWindows2000,WindowsXP,andWindowsServer2003to displaymenuscanmakethevirtualmachineseemlessresponsive. To disable fade effects 1 RightclicktheguestoperatingsystemdesktopandselectProperties> Appearance>Effects(onWindowsXPorWindowsServer2003)or Properties > Effects(onWindows2000). DeselecttheUsetransitioneffectsformenusandtooltipscheckbox.

Disabling Visual Effects in Windows 98


Windows98visualeffectsplaceunnecessarydemandsongraphicsemulationin VMwareServer.Youmightseeperformanceimprovementsifyouturnofftheseeffects.

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To disable visual effects 1 2 3 4 Rightclicktheguestoperatingsystemdesktop,andselectProperties. ClicktheEffectstab. DeselecttheAnimatewindows,menus,andlistscheckbox. (Optional)IfShowwindowcontentswhiledraggingisselected,deselectit.

Configuring Swap File Usage in Windows 95 and Windows 98


YoucanconfigureWindows95andWindows98systemsnottouseswapfilesuntil thereisnomoreavailableRAM. Inyoursystem.inifile,inthe[386enh]section,addthefollowingline:
ConservativeSwapFileUsage=1

Enabling Hardware Acceleration in Windows Server 2003


WindowsServer2003disableshardwareaccelerationbydefault.Thisslowsdown graphicsperformanceandmouseresponsivenessintheguestoperatingsystem. WhenyouinstallVMwareToolsinaWindowsServer2003guest,youarepromptedto enablethehardwareaccelerationsetting.VMwarerecommendsthatyouenable hardwareaccelerationfully. To enable hardware acceleration after installing VMware Tools 1 2 3 FromtheWindowscontrolpanel,selectDisplay. ClicktheSettingstab,andclickAdvanced. ClicktheTroubleshoottab,anddragtheHardwareaccelerationslideralltheway toFull.

Configuring Direct Memory Access (DMA) Disk Settings


SCSCIphysicaldisksareusuallyfasterthanIDEdisksthatuseDMA.However,in certainsituations,suchassinglethreadeddiskaccess,anIDEdiskthatusesDMAisas fastasaSCSIdisk. Inavirtualmachine,SCSIdisksandIDEdisksthatuseDMAhavesimilarperformance. IDEdisksmightbeveryslowinaguestoperatingsystemthatisnotconfiguredtouse DMA.Ifsupported,alsoenableDMAinSCSIdisks. TheeasiestwaytoconfigureaLinuxguesttouseDMAforvirtualIDEdrivesisto installVMwareTools.DuringVMwareToolsinstallation,IDEvirtualdrivesare automaticallyconfiguredtouseDMA.
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InWindowsServer2003,WindowsXP,andWindows2000,DMAisenabledbydefault. Windows95OSR2andWindows98canuseDMAforfasterIDEharddiskaccess,but DMAmightnotbeenabledbydefault. To enable DMA access using the Device Manager in Windows 95 and Windows 98 1 2 3 4 5 RightclickMyComputerandselectProperties. Clicktheplus(+)signnexttoDiskDrivestodisplaythevirtualmachines individualdrives. RightclicktheentryforeachIDEdrivetoopenitsPropertiesdialogbox. UnderSettings,selectDMAandacceptanywarningsthatWindowsdisplays. RestarttheWindowsguestsystem.

ThemethodforchangingthesettingvariesforotherWindowsoperatingsystems.

Using DMA in Windows NT Guests on Multiprocessor Host Systems


YoumightexperienceslowerthanexpecteddiskI/OperformanceinWindowsNT guestoperatingsystemswhenusingIDEvirtualdisksonmultiprocessorhost computers.TheI/Olimitationisespeciallynoticeablewhenthevirtualmachineis booting.YoucanincreaseperformancebyenablingDMAonthevirtualdisksIDE channel. IfyouhaveavirtualdiskandaCD/DVDattachedasmasterandslavetotheprimary IDEcontroller(channel0)andyouwanttoenableDMA,poweroffthevirtualmachine andedittheCD/DVDdrivetomoveittothesecondaryIDEcontroller(channel1)at IDE1:0. YoucanenableDMAafterinstallingWindowsNTServicePack3orhigher.Inthe WindowsNTguest,insertanSP3orSP4CDinthedriveandrunDMACHECK.EXEfrom the\SUPPORT\UTILS\I386folderontheCD.Alternatively,downloadDMACHECK.EXE fromtheMicrosoftWebsite:http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q191774/ ClicktheEnabledoptionfortheIDEcontrollerandchannelconfiguredforthevirtual disk.Typically,thisischannel0only,unlessyouhavethevirtualmachineconfigured withmultiplevirtualdisksandnovirtualCD/DVDdrive. DonotenableDMAonanIDEchannelwithavirtualCD/DVDdriveattached.

Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance on Windows Hosts


VMwareServerprovidesasetofcountersthattheMicrosoftPerformanceconsolecan usetocollectperformancedatafromrunningvirtualmachines.

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ThePerformanceconsoleisavailableonlyonWindowshosts.However,youcan monitortheperformanceofanytypeofguestoperatingsystem,includingLinux guests. TheVMwareServerperformancecounterscanmonitorthefollowingdatafroma runningvirtualmachine: Readsandwritestovirtualdisks Memoryusage Virtualnetworktraffic Youcantrackvirtualmachineperformanceonlywhenavirtualmachineisrunning. Theperformancecountersreflectthestateofthevirtualmachine,nottheguest operatingsystem.Forexample,thecounterscandeterminehowoftentheguestreads fromavirtualdisk,butcannotdeterminehowmanyprocessesarerunningintheguest. To add counters to track virtual machine performance using the Windows Performance console 1 2 SelectStart>Programs>AdministrativeTools>Performanceorenter perfmon.mscattheWindowscommandprompt. InthePerformanceconsole,selectSystemMonitor,andclicktheplus(+)signon thetoolbar. TheAddCountersdialogboxisdisplayed. 3 4 InthePerformanceobjectlist,selectVMware. Selectwhichcounterstomonitor: AllCountersMonitorallcounters SelectcountersfromlistMonitorthecountersyouselectfromthelist Todisplaythedescriptionofacounter,selectthecounterandclickExplain. 5 Selectwhichvirtualmachinestomonitor: AllinstancesMonitorallrunningvirtualmachines SelectinstancesfromlistMonitorthevirtualmachinesyouselectfromthe list 6 ClickAddtoaddthecounterstothePerformanceconsole.

FormoreinformationaboutusingthePerformanceconsole,usetheconsoleinproduct helporvisittheMicrosoftWebsite.

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13

Configuring Clustering on Windows Hosts

13

ThischapterdescribeshowtocreateclusterconfigurationsusingVMwareServeron Windowshosts.Thischaptercoversthefollowingtopics: OverviewofClusteringwithVMwareServeronpage 277 UsingSCSIReservationtoShareVirtualSCSIDisksonpage 278 CreatingaClusterinaBoxonpage 281

Overview of Clustering with VMware Server


Clusteringenablesagroupofcomputerstoachievehighavailability,scalability,or both.Tousers,theclusterappearstobeasinglesystem. Forexample,toprovidehighavailability,aclustercouldhaveasinglenodeservingas adatabaseduringnormaloperation,whiletheothernodesrunotherapplications.Ifthe databasenodecrashes,thedatabaseapplicationcanrecoverbyrestartingthedatabase onanothernode. VMwareServerclusteringcapabilitiesareideallysuitedfordevelopment,testing,and trainingapplications. Inatypicalvirtualmachinecluster: Eachvirtualmachineisonenodeinthecluster. Disksaresharedbetweennodes. Shareddisksarerequiredwhentheapplicationusesdynamicdata,suchasmail serversanddatabaseservers.Sharedvirtualdisksmustbepreallocated,not growable.

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Extranetworkconnectionsbetweennodescanmonitorheartbeatstatus. Amethodforredirectingincomingrequestsisavailable. NOTEAlwaysrigorouslytestandreviewyourclusterbeforedeployingitina productionenvironment.

Clustering Software Requirements


TheonlysupportedclusteringsoftwareisMicrosoftClusteringService.InWindows 2000,MicrosoftClusteringServiceprovidesfailoversupportfortwotofournode clustersforapplicationssuchasdatabases,fileservers,andmailservers.InWindows Server2003,MicrosoftClusteringServiceprovidesfailoversupportfortwoto eightnodeclusters. NOTEVMwaredoesnotsupportclusteringinWindowsServer2008guestsystems.

Applications That Can Use Clustering


Totakeadvantageofclusteringservices,applicationsmustbeclusteraware.Such applicationscanbestateless,suchasWebserversandVPNservers.Clusteraware applicationstypicallyincludebuiltinrecoveryfeatures,likethoseindatabaseservers, mailservers,fileservers,andprintservers.

Using SCSI Reservation to Share Virtual SCSI Disks


YoucansharepreallocatedvirtualSCSIdisksamongmultiplevirtualmachines runningonthesamehost.Whenavirtualdiskisshared,allvirtualmachinesusingthe diskmustusetheSCSIreservationprotocolsotheycanwritetothediskconcurrently. NOTEOnlyuseSCSIreservationifyouarefamiliarwithSCSIingeneralandtheSCSI reservationprotocolinparticular. YoumustinstallclusteringsoftwareoneachvirtualmachinethatsharesaSCSIdisk. EnablingSCSIreservationdoesnotautomaticallymakethevirtualmachinea participantintheSCSIreservationprotocol. ThefollowingsectionsdescribehowtouseSCSIreservationtosharevirtualdisks amongmultiplevirtualmachines.

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SCSI Reservation Prerequisites and Restrictions


TheuseofSCSIreservationisrestrictedasfollows: YoucanenableSCSIreservationonlyforvirtualSCSIdisks.Youcannotenable SCSIreservationforadiskthatisconfiguredasapassthrough(generic)SCSI device. VMwareServersupportsSCSIreservationonlywithpreallocatedvirtualdisks. Whenyoucreateanewvirtualmachine,oraddanewvirtualdisktoanexisting virtualmachine,configureapreallocatedvirtualdiskwhenusingSCSI reservation.SupportforSCSIreservationwithgrowablevirtualdisksisnot supported. DisksusingSCSIreservationcanbesharedonlyamongvirtualmachinesrunning onthesameVMwareServerhost.Ifyoutrytoshareadiskamongvirtualmachines locatedondifferenthosts,datalossorcorruptionislikely.Theshareddiskordisks canbelocatedinanyvaliddatastore. Donotshareadiskonthebootdisk,typicallySCSIbus0.Instead,useSCSI reservationonadatadisklocatedonadifferentbus.Ifyousharethebootdisk,you runtheriskofcorruptingit,becausethebootprogramisnotawarethatthediskis beingsharedandcanwritetothediskregardlessofwhetherornotitisbeing shared. AvirtualSCSIdiskcanbestoredonanytypeofphysicalharddisk,includingIDE, SCSI,andSATAphysicaldisks. IfonevirtualmachinedoesnothaveSCSIreservationenabledforitsvirtualdisk, butanothervirtualmachinedoeshaveSCSIreservationenabledforthesame virtualdisk,VMwareServerstillallowsthedisktobeshared.However,thevirtual machinethatisnotconfiguredforSCSIreservationcanaccesstheshareddisk concurrently,potentiallycausingdatalossorcorruption. VMwareServervirtualmachinescurrentlysupportonlytheSCSI2disk reservationprotocol,andnotapplicationsusingSCSI3diskreservations.

Enabling SCSI Reservation


SCSIreservationmustbeenabledineachvirtualmachinebeforeyoucansharevirtual disks. VMwarerecommendsthatyouconfiguresharedvirtualdisksonthesameSCSIbus, whichmustbeadifferentbusfromtheonethattheguestoperatingsystemuses.For example,ifyourguestoperatingsystemisonthescsi0bus,configuretheshareddisks onthenextavailablebus,typicallythescsi1bus.

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To enable SCSI reservation in a virtual machine 1 2 Makesurethatthevirtualmachineispoweredoff. Setthescsi<x>.sharedBus parameter(where<x>isthenumberoftheSCSIbus beingshared)tovirtualinthevirtualmachineconfigurationfile,asdescribedin ChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121. Forexample,toenableSCSIreservationfordevicesonthescsi1bus,set scsi1.sharedBustovirtual.Thisallowsthewholebustobeshared. Ifyoudonotwanttosharethewholebus,youcanselectivelyallowSCSI reservationforaspecificSCSIdiskonthesharedbus.Forexample,ifyouwantto shareaSCSIdisklocatedatscsi1:1,setscsi1:1.sharedtotrue.Youmust specifythesameSCSItarget(inthisexample,scsi1:1)intheconfigurationfilefor eachvirtualmachinethatsharesthedisk.IfSCSIreservationisenabledforthe wholebus(thatis,scsi1.sharedBusissettovirtual),thissettingisignored. NOTEDonotshareresourcesusingtwoseparatebuses(forexample,dataon SCSI1:0andquorumonSCSI2:0).Thiscausestheconfigurationfiletobecome invalid.Iftheconfigurationfileisnotvalid,youcannotbootthevirtualmachine. 3 Setthedisk.lockingparametertofalseinthevirtualmachineconfiguration file. NOTEThissettingappliestoalldisksinthevirtualmachine. Becausedisklockingisdisabled,multiplevirtualmachinescanaccesstheshared diskconcurrently. CAUTIONIfanyvirtualmachinethatisnotconfiguredforSCSIreservationattemptsto accessthediskconcurrently,theshareddiskisvulnerabletodatalossorcorruption.

Naming Reservation Lock Files


WhenSCSIreservationisenabled,VMwareServercreatesareservationlockfilethat containsthesharedstateofthereservationforthegivendisk.Thenameofthisfile consistsoftheSCSIdiskfilenameappendedwiththe.RESLCKextension. Forexample,ifthediskscsi1:0.filenameisdefinedintheconfigurationfileas /<path_to_config>/vmSCSI.vmdk,thereservationlockfileforthisdiskhasthe defaultname/<path_to_config>/vmSCSI.vmdk.RESLCK. Youcanprovideyourownlockfilenamebysettingscsi1:0.reslcknameinthe configurationfile.Forexample,ifyousetscsi1:0.reslcknameto

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/tmp/scsi1-0.reslockintheconfigurationfile,thisnameoverridesthedefaultlock filename. CAUTIONYoumustusethesamelockfilename(forexample, /tmp/scsi1-0.reslock)foreachvirtualmachineinthecluster.Youmustalsousethe sameSCSItargetforeachvirtualmachinewhenyoudefinescsi1:0.reslckname. However,theSCSIbus(scsi1inthiscase)doesnotneedtobethesame. AfterSCSIreservationisenabledforadisk,youmustconfigureeachvirtualmachine tousethisdisk.SeeConfiguringHardDisksonpage 135.

Event Logging When Virtual Disks Are Shared


SomediskerrorsarerecordedintheWindowseventloginthenormaloperationofa Windowsvirtualmachine.Anexampleerrormessageis:
The driver detected a controller error on \Device\Scsi\BusLogic3

Theerrorsmightappearinthelogperiodicallyonthepassivenodeofthecluster,and whenthepassivenodeistakingoverduringafailover.Theerrorsareloggedbecause theactivenodeoftheclusterhasreservedthesharedvirtualdisk.Thepassivenode periodicallyprobestheshareddiskandreceivesaSCSIreservationconflicterror.

Creating a Cluster in a Box


WithVMwareServer,youcancreateasimpleclusterinaboxtoprovidehigh availability. NOTETheabilitytotakesnapshotsisdisabledinaclusteringconfiguration. Theclusterinaboxconfigurationhasthefollowingfeatures: Consistsofmultiplevirtualmachines(nodes)onasinglephysicalmachine. SupportsshareddiskswithoutsharedSCSIhardware. Supportsaheartbeatnetworkwithoutanextraphysicalnetworkadapter.

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Figure 13-1. Two-Node Cluster on a Single Physical Machine

Thefollowingsectionsdescribehowtoconfigureaclusterinabox.

Configuring Virtual Machines for Cluster in a Box


Tocreateasetofclusteredvirtualmachines(aclusterinabox),configureeachofthem withthefollowing: AprimaryvirtualSCSIhostadapterwithonevirtualSCSIdisk. Twovirtualnetworkadapters: ApublicnetworkadapterbridgedtoaphysicaladaptereitherusingVMnet0 orVMnet2throughVMnet8. AprivatenetworkadapterconnectedtoVMnet1(hostonly)oranother physicaladapter(VMnet2throughVMnet8).Thisisthenetworkadapterthat theclusteringserviceusestomonitortheheartbeatbetweennodes. Thenetworkselectionmustmatchinallvirtualmachinesinacluster. Anyotherrequiredvirtualmachinehardware. Inadditiontotheprecedingsettings,thefollowingarerequiredtosharedisks:
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AsecondaryvirtualSCSIhostadapter. Oneormorepreallocatedvirtualdisksthataresharedandareattachedtothe secondarySCSIhostadapter. NotethefollowingaboutvirtualPCIslotsinthevirtualmachines: EachvirtualmachinebydefaulthassixPCIslotsavailable. Thisconfiguration(twonetworkadaptersandtwoSCSIhostbusadapters)uses fouroftheseslots. OnemorePCIslotisavailableforathirdnetworkadapterifneeded.(Thesixthslot isusedbythevirtualdisplayadapter.) IfthevirtualmachinesbootpartitionisonanIDEvirtualdisk,thepartition occupiesoneofthePCIslots.

Creating a Two-Node Cluster with Microsoft Clustering Services


ThissectiondescribeshowtocreateatwonodeclusterusingMicrosoftClustering ServicesonasingleVMwareServerhostusingthefollowing: SQL1=hostnameofnode1ofthecluster SQL2=hostnameofnode2ofthecluster SQLCLUSTER=publichostnameofthecluster Theprocedurestocreateatwonodeclusterincludesthefollowinghighlevelsteps: Createthebasevirtualmachinewithtwovirtualdisksthataresharedbetweenthe virtualmachinesinthecluster.Thisvirtualmachineservesasatemplateforthe secondnode. Clonethebasenodeanduseitcreatethesecondnode. Installclusteringsoftwareonbothnodes. NOTEThevirtualdisksusedtostoretheoperatingsystemandclusteringsoftwarefor thevirtualmachines(nodes)intheclusterdonothavetobepreallocatedvirtualdisks. To create the base virtual machine that serves as the first node in the cluster 1 2 LogintoyourVMwareServerhostasanAdministratoruser. CreateanewvirtualmachineasdescribedinChapter 4,CreatingandUpgrading VirtualMachines,onpage 57.Choosethesettingsyouwant,suchasthesizeof thevirtualdiskandthevirtualmemorylimit,butmakesurethatyouspecify:

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Windows2000AdvancedServerorWindowsServer2003EnterpriseEdition astheguestoperatingsystem. SQL1asthevirtualmachinename. Thecorrectdatastore. Bridgednetworkingforthevirtualmachine. 3 Addanewnetworkadapterthatuseseitheranotherexternaladapterorthe VMnet1hostonlyadapter.(Forcompleteisolationfromthehost,youcanalsouse anyunusedvirtualEthernetswitch,typicallyVMnet2throughVMnet7.)For information,seeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215. ThisadapterisusedasthevirtualprivateEthernetconnectionforheartbeat monitoring. 4 Addthetwosharedvirtualdisks: Ashareddatadisk,forexample,data.vmdk Asharedquorumdisktostoretransactionsbeforetheyarecommittedtothe datadisk,forexample,quorum.vmdk Forinformation,seeAddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachineonpage 138. 5 Addthefollowingparameterstothevirtualmachineconfigurationfile (SQL1.vmx)asdescribedinChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingson page 121: Setscsi1.sharedBustovirtual Setdisk.lockingtofalse ThisenablesSCSIreservation,whichisdescribedinmoredetailinthesection UsingSCSIReservationtoShareVirtualSCSIDisksonpage 278. Youarefinishedcreatingthevirtualmachineforthefirstnodeinyourcluster. Thenextstepistoinstallaguestoperatingsysteminthevirtualmachine. 6 InstalltheWindows2000AdvancedServerorWindowsServer2003Enterprise EditionguestoperatingsystemasdescribedinInstallingaGuestOperating Systemonpage 66. NOTEDonotinstalltheclusteringservicesduringtheinstallationoftheguest operatingsystem. Forinformationaboutyourguestoperatingsystem,seetheVMwareGuest OperatingSystemInstallationGuide,availablefromtheVMwareWebsite.
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InstallVMwareToolsintheguestoperatingsystem.SeeInstallingVMware Toolsonpage 73.

To clone the first virtual machine node 1 Runsysprep.exe,whichisavailableontheWindowsCDinthefile \support\tools\deploy.caborfromtheMicrosoftWebsite. Thesysprep.exeutilityremovesthesecurityIDassignedtotheguestoperating system,resetsthemachineinformation,andresetstheTCP/IPnetwork configuration. 2 3 4 5 Shutdowntheguestoperatingsystemandpoweroffthevirtualmachine. CreateavirtualmachinedirectorynamedSQL2inthesamedatastoreasSQL1. CopytheSQL1*.vmdkfilestothisdirectory. UsetheVMwareVirtualDiskManagertochangethenameofthevirtualdiskto SQL2*.vmdk.Atacommandprompt,type:
vmware-vdiskmanager -n SQL1.vmdk SQL2.vmdk

Formoreinformationaboutthevirtualdiskmanager,seeUsingVMwareVirtual DiskManageronpage 142. Youarefinishedcloningthefirstnode. Next,createthesecondnodeintheclusterusingtheclone. To create the second node in the cluster from the clone of the first node 1 2 LogintoyourVMwareServerhostasanAdministratoruser. CreateanewvirtualmachineasdescribedinChapter 4,CreatingandUpgrading VirtualMachines,onpage 57.Choosethesettingsyouwant,suchasthesizeof thevirtualdiskandthevirtualmemorylimit,butmakesurethatyouspecify: Windows2000AdvancedServerorWindowsServer2003EnterpriseEdition astheguestoperatingsystem. SQL2asthevirtualmachinename. Thecorrectdatastore. Tousetheexistingvirtualdisk,clickBrowseandselectSQL2.vmdk. Bridgednetworkingforthevirtualmachine. 3 Addanewnetworkadapterthatuseseitheranotherexternaladapterorthe VMnet1hostonlyadapter.SeeAddingaVirtualNetworkAdapteronpage 215.

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Addthetwovirtualdisks(quorum.vmdkanddata.vmdk)youpreviouslycreated. SeeAddingaHardDisktoaVirtualMachineonpage 138. YoumustselectUseanExistingVirtualDiskandbrowsetoquorum.vmdkand data.vmdk.

Addthefollowingparameterstothevirtualmachineconfigurationfile (SQL2.vmx)asdescribedinChangingVirtualMachineAdvancedSettingson page 121: Setscsi1.sharedBustovirtual Setdisk.lockingtofalse ThisenablesSCSIreservation,whichisdescribedinmoredetailinUsingSCSI ReservationtoShareVirtualSCSIDisksonpage 278.

Youarefinishedcreatingthesecondnode. Nowthatyouhavevirtualmachinesforbothnodesinyourtwonodecluster,youcan installtheclusteringservicessoftware. To install Microsoft Clustering Services on the first node 1 2 Poweronthenode1virtualmachine. AttheWindowssetupprompts,enterthefollowing: TheWindowsserialnumber Thehostname(SQL1) TheIPaddressesofthepublicandprivatenetworkadapters NOTEForthepublicnetworkadapter,enteranIPaddressthatbelongstothe physicalnetwork.FortheprivateIPaddress,youcanuseanaddresslike 192.168.x.xwithaclassCsubnetmask(255.255.255.0). Attheendoftheprocess,Windowsreboots. 3 4 5 StarttheDiskManagementutilityandchangebothshareddiskstoBasicdisks. FormatbothsharedvirtualdiskswithNTFSiftheyarenotalreadyformatted. AssignthefirstshareddisktoQ:(quorum)andtheseconddisktoR:(data). IfyouhavejoinedthisvirtualmachinetoanexistingActiveDirectorydomain,skip toStep 10. 6 Rundcpromo.exefromthecommandprompttostarttheActiveDirectorywizard.

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Setupthecurrentmachineasadomaincontroller.Forthedomainname,use somethingsimilarto<vmcluster>.<domain.com>where<domain.com>isyour DNSdomainand<vmcluster>isyourActiveDirectorydomain. Youcansetupthisnodeasanewdomaintreeoranewdomainforest,orjoinitto anexistingdomaintreeorforest.

8 9 10 11

MakesurethattheDNSserverisinstalled. Setthedomainpermissionsasmixedmodeunlessyouhaveotherrequirements. Toaddaclusterservicesaccountinthedomain,choosePrograms> AdministrativeTools>ActiveDirectoryUsersandComputers. Addaclusterserviceaccountnamedcluster,andspecifythefollowing: Theuserspassword. SelecttheUsercannotchangepasswordcheckbox. SelectthePasswordneverexpirescheckbox.

12 13 14 15 16 17

InserttheWindowsCDintheCDROMdrive. ChooseControlPanel>Add/RemovePrograms. SelectAdd/RemoveWindowsComponents. SelecttheClusterServicecomponent. ClickNextandfollowthepromptstoinstalltheservice. Toconfiguretheclusterservice,chooseFormaNewClusterandspecifythe following: SQLCLUSTERastheclustername. TheclusterserviceaccountcreatedinStep 11. Bothshareddisksaremanagedbytheclusterservice. Theshareddisk(Q:)isthequorumdisk. Indicatewhichnetworkadapterispublicandwhichisprivate. TheclusterIPaddress.Thisistheaddressthatrepresentsthecluster.Itmust beonthesamenetworkasthephysicalEthernetdevice.

18

Tostoptheclusterserviceonthelocalnode(node1)sothatthesecondvirtual machine(node2)canaccesstheshareddisks,rightclickthenodenamefrom ClusterManager,andselectStopClusterService.

YouarefinishedinstallingMicrosoftClusteringServicesonthefirstnode.
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To install Microsoft Clustering Services on the second node 1 2 3 4 Startthenode2virtualmachine. RepeatStep 2andStep 3intheprocedureforthefirstnode. StarttheDiskManagementtoolandassignthefirstshareddisktoQ:(quorum) andtheseconddisktoR:(data). Startdcpromo.exeandaddthisvirtualmachineasadomaincontrollerinthe samedomaincreatedinStep 7forthefirstnode,oraddittoanexistingdomain. NOTEThesetupinnode2mustmatchthesetupinnode1,whichyouspecifiedin Step 7fornode1. 5 6 Tostarttheclusterserviceinthenode1virtualmachine,rightclickthenodename fromClusterManager,andselectStartClusterService. Inthenode2virtualmachine,repeatStep 13throughStep 17inToinstall MicrosoftClusteringServicesonthefirstnodeonpage 286,withoneexception: inStep 17,selectJoinaCluster.

Youarenowfinishedconfiguringthecluster.

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Thefollowingtableslistthedefaultprivilegesthat,whenselectedforarole,canbe pairedwithauserandassignedtoanobject.ThefollowingtablesuseVCtoindicate VirtualCenterServerandHCtoindicatehostclient,astandaloneESX/ESXiorVMware Serverhost. Whensettingpermissions,verifyalltheobjecttypesaresetwithappropriateprivileges foreachparticularaction.Someoperationsrequireaccesspermissionattherootfolder orparentfolderinadditiontoaccesstotheobjectbeingmanipulated.Someoperations requireaccessorperformancepermissionataparentfolderandarelatedobject.See Chapter 10,ManagingRolesandPermissions,onpage 193forinformationabout applyingrolestoinventoryobjects. SeeTable 101,SystemRoles,onpage 196foralistofpredefinedgroupedprivileges. Thisappendixcontainsthefollowingtopics: Alarmsonpage 290 Datacenteronpage 291 Datastoreonpage 291 Extensionsonpage 292 Foldersonpage 293 Globalonpage 293 HostCIMonpage 295 HostConfigurationonpage 296 HostInventoryonpage 298

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HostLocalOperationsonpage 299 Networkonpage 300 Performanceonpage 300 Permissionsonpage 301 Resourceonpage 301 ScheduledTaskonpage 303 Sessionsonpage 303 Tasksonpage 304 VirtualMachineConfigurationonpage 304 VirtualMachineInteractiononpage 307 VirtualMachineInventoryonpage 309 VirtualMachineProvisioningonpage 309 VirtualMachineStateonpage 311

Alarms
Table A-1. Alarms Privileges
Privilege Name CreateAlarm1 Description Createsanewalarm. UserinterfaceelementAlarmstab contextmenu,File>New>Alarm DeleteAlarm Deletesanexistingalarm. UserinterfaceelementAlarmstab contextmenu ModifyAlarm Changesthepropertiesofanexisting alarm. UserinterfaceelementAlarmstab contextmenu VConly VConly Used VConly Pair with Object Alarm object parent Alarm object parent Alarm object parent Effective on Object All inventory objects All inventory objects All inventory objects

1. Whencreatingalarmswithacustomaction,privilegetoperformtheactionisverifiedwhentheusecreates thealarm.

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Datacenter
Table A-2. Datacenter Privileges
Privilege Name Create Datacenter Description Createsanewdatacenter. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,toolbarbutton,andFile> NewDatacenter Removesadatacenter. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,Inventory>Datacenter> Remove,Edit>Remove Movesadatacenter. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory draganddrop Rename Datacenter Changesthenameofadatacenter. UserinterfaceelementInventory object,Inventorycontextmenu,Edit> Rename,Inventory>Datacenter> Rename VConly Datacenter Datacenters VConly VConly Datacenter plusparent object Datacenter, sourceand destination Affects VConly Pair with Object Datacenter Effective on Object Datacenter folders

Delete Datacenter

Datacenters

Move Datacenter

Datacenters, Datacenter folders

Datastore
Table A-3. Datastore Privileges
Privilege Name Browse Datastore Description Browsesfilesonadatastore. UserinterfaceelementAddexisting disk,browseforCDROMorFloppy media,serialorparallelportfiles Removesadatastore. UserinterfaceelementInventory datastorecontextmenu,Inventory> Datastore>Remove Deletesafileinthedatastore. UserinterfaceelementDatastore BrowsertoolbarbuttonandDatastore contextmenu HCandVC Datastores HCandVC Datastores Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Datastores Effective on Object Datastores, Datastore folders Datastores, Datastore folders Datastores

Delete Datastore

Delete DatastoreFile

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Table A-3. Datastore Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Move Datastore Description Movesadatastorebetweenfolders. Privilegesmustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory draganddrop Rename Datastore Renamesadatastore. UserinterfaceelementDatastore PropertiesdialogChangebutton,host Summarytabcontextmenu Carriesoutfileoperationsinthe datastorebrowser. Allocatesspaceonadatastorefora virtualmachine,snapshot,orclone. HCandVC HCandVC Datastores Datastores Datastores Datastores HCandVC Datastores Datastores Affects VConly Pair with Object Datastore, sourceand destination Effective on Object Datastores, Datastore folders

File Management AllocateSpace

Extensions
Table A-4.
Privilege Name Register Extension Unregister Extension Update Extension Description Registersanextension(plugin) Unregistersanextension(plugin) Updatesanextension(plugin) Affects VConly VConly VConly Pair with Object Root Folder Root Folder Root Folder Effective on Object RootFolder RootFolder RootFolder

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Folders
Table A-5. Folder Privileges
Privilege Name CreateFolder Description Createsanewfolder. UserinterfaceelementTaskbar button,Filemenu,contextmenu DeleteFolder Deletesafolder. UserinterfaceelementFilemenu, contextmenu MoveFolder Movesafolder. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory draganddrop RenameFolder Changesthenameofafolder. UserinterfaceelementInventory paneobjecttextfield,contextmenu, Filemenu VConly Folders Folders VConly VConly Foldersplus parentobject Folders, sourceand destination Folders Affects VConly Pair with Object Folders Effective on Object Folders

Folders

Global
Table A-6. Global Privileges
Privilege Name CancelTask Description Cancelsarunningorqueuedtask. UserinterfaceelementRecenttasks panecontextmenu,Tasks&Events contextmenu.Cancurrentlycancel cloneandclonetotemplate. Capacity Planning Enablestheuseofcapacityplanningfor planningconsolidationofphysical machinestovirtualmachines. UserinterfaceelementConsolidation buttonintoolbar. Diagnostics Getslistofdiagnosticfiles,logheader, binaryfiles,ordiagnosticbundle. UserinterfaceelementFile>Export> ExportDiagnosticData,Admin SystemLogstab VConly Anyobject Rootfolder VConly Anyobject Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Anyobject Effective on Object Inventory object relatedtothe task Rootfolder

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Table A-6. Global Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Disable Methods Description AllowsserversforVirtualCenter extensionstodisablecertainoperations onobjectsmanagedbyVirtualCenter. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. Enable Methods AllowsserversforVirtualCenter extensionstoenablecertainoperations onobjectsmanagedbyVirtualCenter. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. Licenses Seeswhatlicensesareinstalledand addsorremoveslicenses. UserinterfaceelementLicensestab, Configuration>LicensedFeatures LogEvent Logsauserdefinedeventagainsta particularmanagedentity. UserinterfaceelementShouldaskfor areasonwhenshuttingdownor rebootingahost. Manage Custom Attributes Proxy Adds,removes,renamescustom attributesforamanagedentity. Userinterfaceelement Administration>CustomAttributes Allowsaccesstoaninternalinterface foraddingorremovingendpointstoor fromtheproxy. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. ScriptAction Schedulesascriptedactionin conjunctionwithanalarm. UserinterfaceelementAlarm Settingsdialogbox Service Managers Allowsuseoftheresxtopcommandin theRemoteCLI. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. HCandVC VConly All inventory objects Hosts All inventory objects Hosts VConly Allobjects Rootfolder VConly Allobjects HCandVC Allobjects All inventory objects HCandVC Anyobject Rootfolder VConly Anyobject Rootfolder Affects VConly Pair with Object Anyobject Effective on Object Rootfolder

Rootfolder

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Table A-6. Global Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name SetCustom Attributes Description Views,creates,andremovescustom attributefields. UserinterfaceelementAnylistview showsthefieldsdefinedandallows settingthem Settings ReadsandmodifiesruntimeVC configurationsettings. Userinterfaceelement Administration>VirtualCenter ManagementServerConfiguration VCServer PreparesorinitiatesaVMotionsend operationoraVMotionreceive operation. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. VConly Allobjects Rootfolder VConly Allobjects Affects VConly Pair with Object Allobjects Effective on Object All inventory objects

Rootfolder

Host CIM
Table A-7. Host CIM Privileges
Privilege Name CIM Interaction Description Allowsaclienttoobtainatickettouse forCIMservices. Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Hosts Effective on Object Hosts

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Host Configuration
Table A-8. Host Configuration Privileges
Privilege Name Advanced Configuration Description Setsadvancedoptionsinhost configuration. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Advanced Settings,Inventoryhierarchycontext menu ChangeDate TimeSettings Setstimeanddatesettingsonthehost. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Time Configuration Allowsenablinganddisablingof backgroundsnapshotsandsettingof lockdownmode. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>SecurityProfile> LockdownMode>Edit ChangeSNMP Settings Connection Edits,restarts,andstopsSNMPagent. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. Changestheconnectionstatusofahost (connectedordisconnected). UserinterfaceelementRightclick Host Firmware Allowsupdatestothehostfirmwareon ESXihosts. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. Hyper Threading Enablesanddisableshyperthreadingin thehostCPUscheduler. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Processors Maintenance Putsthehostinandoutofmaintenance mode,shutsdownandrestartsthehost. UserinterfaceelementHostcontext menu,Inventory>Host>Enter MaintenanceMode HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts(ESXi only) VConly Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Hosts Effective on Object Hosts

Change Settings

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Table A-8. Host Configuration Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Memory Configuration Description Setsconfiguredserviceconsolememory reservation.Thissettingisapplicable onlyonESXhosts. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Memory Network Configuration Configuresnetwork,firewall,and VMotionnetwork. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Networking, NetworkAdapter,DNSandRouting QueryPatch Security Profileand Firewall System Management Allowsqueryingforinstallablepatches andinstallationofpatchesonthehost. Configuresinternetservices,suchas SSH,Telnet,SNMP,andhostfirewall. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>SecurityProfile Allowsextensionstomanipulatethefile systemonthehost. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. System Resource Settings Updatestheconfigurationofthesystem resourcehierarchy. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>SystemResource Allocation ManagesVMFSdatastoreand diagnosticpartitions.Scansfornew storagedevices.ManagesiSCSI. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>Storage,Storage Adapters,HostConfigurationtab datastorecontextmenu Virtual Machine Autostart Configuration Changesautostartandautostoporder ofvirtualmachinesonasinglehost. UserinterfaceelementHost Configurationtab>VirtualMachine StartuporShutdown HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts HCandVC HCandVC Hosts Hosts Hosts Hosts HCandVC Hosts Hosts Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Hosts Effective on Object Hosts

Storage Partition Configuration

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Host Inventory
Table A-9. Host Inventory Privileges
Privilege Name AddHostTo Cluster Add Standalone Host Description Addsahosttoanexistingcluster. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,File>New>AddHost Addsastandalonehost. UserinterfaceelementToolbar button,Inventorycontextmenu, Inventory>Datacenter>AddHost, File>New>AddHost,Hoststab contextmenu Createsanewcluster. UserinterfaceelementsToolbar button,inventorycontextmenu, Inventory>Datacenter>NewCluster, File>New>Cluster Modify Cluster Changesthepropertiesofacluster. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,Inventory>Cluster> EditSettings,Summarytab Movesaclusterorstandalonehost betweenfolders. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory hierarchy MoveHost Movesasetofexistinghostsintoa cluster. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory hierarchydraganddrop Remove Cluster Deletesaclusterorstandalonehost. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,Edit>Remove, Inventory>Cluster>Remove VConly Clustersplus parentobject Clusters, Hosts VConly Hosts,source and destination Clusters, Hostfolders VConly Clusters, sourceand destination Clusters, Hostfolders VConly Clusters VConly Clusters VConly Hosts Datacenters, Hostfolders Affects VConly Pair with Object Hosts Effective on Object Clusters

CreateCluster

Datacenters, Hostfolders

Clusters

Move Cluster/Standa loneHost

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Table A-9. Host Inventory Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name RemoveHost FromCluster Description Removesahostinaclusteror standalonehost. UserinterfaceelementInventory draganddropoutofcluster,context menu,Inventory>Host>Remove Rename Cluster Renamesacluster. UserinterfaceelementInventory singleclick,inventoryhierarchycontext menu,Inventory>Cluster>Rename VConly Clusters Clusters Affects VConly Pair with Object Clustersplus parentobject Effective on Object Clusters, Hostfolders

Host Local Operations


Table A-10. Host Local Operations Privileges
Privilege Name AddHostto VirtualCenter Description Installsanduninstallsvariousagentson ahost,forexample,vpxaandaam. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. CreateVirtual Machine Createsanewvirtualmachinefrom scratchonadiskwithoutregisteringit onthehost. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. DeleteVirtual Machine Deletesavirtualmachineondisk, whetherregisteredornot. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. ManageUser Groups Manageslocalaccountsonahost. UserinterfaceelementUsers& Groupstab(onlypresentiftheVIClient logsontothehostdirectly) HConly Rootfolder Rootfolder HConly Rootfolder Rootfolder HConly Rootfolder Rootfolder Affects HConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder

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Network
Table A-11. Network Privileges
Privilege Name Assign Network MoveNetwork Description Assignsanetworktoavirtualmachine. Affects VConly Pair with Object Virtual Machine Network, sourceand destination Effective on Object Networks, Virtual Machines Networks

Movesanetworkbetweenfolders. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory draganddrop

HCandVC

Delete Network

Removesanetwork. UserinterfaceelementInventory networkcontextmenu,Edit>Remove, Inventory>Network>Remove

HCandVC

Datacenter

Datacenters

Performance
Table A-12. Performance Privileges
Privilege Name Modify Intervals Description Creates,removes,andupdates performancedatacollectionintervals. Userinterfaceelement Administration>VirtualCenter ManagementServerConfiguration> Statistics Affects VConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder

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Permissions
Table A-13. Permissions Privileges
Privilege Name Modify Permission Description Definesoneormorepermissionrules onanentity,orupdatesrulesifalready presentforthegivenuserorgroupon theentity. UserinterfaceelementPermissions tabcontextmenu,Inventory> Permissionsmenu ModifyRole Updatesarolesnameandthe privileges. UserinterfaceelementRolestab contextmenu,toolbarbutton,File menu ReassignRole Permissions Reassignsallpermissionsofaroleto anotherrole. UserinterfaceelementDeleteRole dialogboxradiobuttonandassociated menu HCandVC Anyobject Rootfolder HCandVC Anyobject Rootfolder Used HCandVC Pair with Object Anyobject plusparent object Effective on Object All inventory items

Resource
Table A-14. Resource Privileges
Privilege Name Apply Recommenda tion AssignVirtual MachineTo Pool CreatePool Description Askstheservertogoaheadwitha suggestedVMotion. UserinterfaceelementClusterDRS tab Assignsvirtualmachinestoaresource pool. UserinterfaceelementNewVirtual Machinewizard Createsanewresourcepool. UserinterfaceelementFilemenu, contextmenu,Summarytab,Resources tab HCandVC Resource pools, clusters Resource pools, clusters HCandVC Resource pools Resource pools Affects VConly Pair with Object Clusters Effective on Object Clusters

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Table A-14. Resource Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Migrate Description Migratesavirtualmachinesexecution toaspecificresourcepoolorhost. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,VirtualMachine Summarytab,Inventory>Virtual Machine>Migrate,draganddrop ModifyPool Changestheallocationsofaresource pool. UserinterfaceelementInventory> ResourcePool>Remove,Resources tab MovePool Movesaresourcepool. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. Userinterfaceelement Draganddrop Query VMotion InvestigatesthegeneralVMotion compatibilityofavirtualmachinewith asetofhosts. UserinterfaceelementRequired whendisplayingthemigrationwizard forapoweredonVM,tocheck compatibility Relocate Coldmigratesavirtualmachines executiontoaspecificresourcepoolor host. UserinterfaceelementInventory contextmenu,VirtualMachine Summarytab,Inventory>Virtual Machine>Migrate,draganddrop RemovePool Deletesaresourcepool. UserinterfaceelementEdit> Remove,Inventory>ResourcePool> Remove,inventorycontextmenu, Resourcestab RenamePool Renamesaresourcepool. UserinterfaceelementEdit> Rename,Inventory>ResourcePool> Rename,contextmenu HCandVC HCandVC Resource poolsplus parent object Resource pools Resource pools VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly HCandVC HCandVC Resource poolsplus parent object Resource pools, sourceand destination Resource pools Affects VConly Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

Resource pools

Rootfolder

Rootfolder

Resource pools

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Scheduled Task
Table A-15. Scheduled Task Privileges
Privilege Name CreateTasks1 Description Schedulesatask.Requiresthe privilegestoperformthescheduled actionatthetimeofscheduling. UserinterfaceelementScheduled Taskstoolbarbuttonandcontextmenu ModifyTask Reconfiguresthescheduledtask properties. UserinterfaceelementInventory> ScheduledTasks>Edit,Scheduled Taskstabcontextmenu RemoveTask Removesascheduledtaskfromthe queue. UserinterfaceelementScheduled Taskscontextmenu,Inventory> ScheduledTask>Remove,Edit> Remove RunTask Runsthescheduledtaskimmediately. UserinterfaceelementScheduled Taskscontextmenu,Inventory> ScheduledTask>Run VConly Allinventory objects Allinventory objects VConly Allinventory objects Allinventory objects VConly Allinventory objects Allinventory objects Affects VConly Pair with Object Allinventory objects Effective on Object Allinventory objects

1. Creatingandrunningatask(ondemand)requirespermissiontoinvoketheassociatedaction.

Sessions
Table A-16. Session Privileges
Privilege Name Global Message Description Setsthegloballoginmessage. UserinterfaceelementSessionstab, Administration>EditMessageofthe Day Impersonatesanotheruser.This capabilityisusedbyextensions. VConly Rootfolder Rootfolder Affects VConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder

Impersonate User

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Table A-16. Session Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Validate Session Viewand Terminate Sessions Description Verifiessessionvalidity. Allowsviewingofsession.Forceslog outofoneormoreloggedonusers. UserinterfaceelementSessionstab Affects VConly VConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder Rootfolder

Tasks
Table A-17. Tasks Privileges
Privilege Name Create Update Description Allowsanextensiontocreatea userdefinedtask. Allowsanextensiontoupdatesa userdefinedtask. Affects VConly VConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder Rootfolder

Virtual Machine Configuration


Table A-18. Virtual Machine Privileges
Privilege Name AddExisting Disk Description Addsavirtualdiskthatreferstoan existingvirtualdisk. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox AddNewDisk Addsavirtualdiskthatcreatesanew virtualdisk. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox Addor Remove Device Addsorremovesanynondiskdevice. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

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Table A-18. Virtual Machine Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Advanced Description ChangesvaluesinextraConfig. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox> Optionstab>AdvancedGeneral option>ConfigurationParameters button ChangeCPU Count Change Resource DiskExtend DiskLease ChangesthenumberofvirtualCPUs. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox Changesresourceconfigurationofaset ofVMnodesinagivenresourcepool. Expandsthesizeofavirtualdisk. LeasesdisksforVMwareConsolidated Backup. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. HostUSB Device AttachesahostbasedUSBdevicetoa virtualmachine. Userinterfaceelement>Virtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox Memory Changestheamountofmemory allocatedtotheVM. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox> Memory ModifyDevice Settings Changesthepropertiesofanexisting device. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox> SCSI/IDEnodeselection RawDevice1 Addsorremovesarawdiskmapping orSCSIpassthroughdevice. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachineProperties>Add/Removeraw diskmapping HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC HCandVC HCandVC HCandVC Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines

Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines

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Table A-18. Virtual Machine Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name RemoveDisk Description Removesavirtualdiskdevice. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox>Hard Disk(butnotarawdiskmapping) Rename Renamesavirtualmachineormodifies theassociatednotesofavirtual machine. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox, inventory,inventorycontextmenu,File menu,Inventorymenu ResetGuest Information Settings Clearsguestinfovariables. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. ChangesgeneralVMsettings. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox> Optionstab Swap Placement Upgrade Virtual Hardware Changestheswapfileplacementpolicy foravirtualmachine. Upgradesthevirtualmachinesvirtual hardwareversionfromaprevious versionofVMware. Userinterfaceelementcontextmenu, Filemenu(appearsonlyifvmxfile showsalowerconfigurationnumber)
1. Settingthisparameteroverridesanyotherprivilegeformodifyingrawdevices,includingconnectionstates.

Affects HCandVC

Pair with Object Virtual machines

Effective on Object Virtual machines

HCandVC

Virtual machines

Virtual machines

HCandVC

Virtual machines Virtual machines

Virtual machines Virtual machines

HCandVC

HCandVC HCandVC

Virtual machines Virtual machines

Virtual machines Virtual machines

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Virtual Machine Interaction


Table A-19. Virtual Machine Interaction
Privilege Name Answer Question Description ResolvesissueswithVMstate transitionsorruntimeerrors. UserinterfaceelementSummarytab, Inventorymenu,contextmenu ConfigureCD Media ChangesthebackingofaCDROM device. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox> DVD/CDROM Configure FloppyMedia Changesthebackingofafloppydevice. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox, SummarytabEditSettings Interactswiththevirtualmachines virtualmouse,keyboard,andscreen; getsscreenshotinformation. UserinterfaceelementConsoletab, toolbarbutton,Inventory>Virtual Machine>OpenConsole,inventory contextmenu Defragment AllDisks Device Connection Defragmentsalldisksonthevirtual machine. Changestheconnectedstateofavirtual machinesdisconnectablevirtual devices. UserinterfaceelementVirtual MachinePropertiesdialogbox, SummarytabEditSettings PowerOff Powersoffapoweredonvirtual machine,shutsdownguest. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Power>PowerOff, Summarytab,toolbarbutton,virtual machinecontextmenu HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC. HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

Console Interaction

Virtual machines

Virtual machines

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Table A-19. Virtual Machine Interaction (Continued)


Privilege Name PowerOn Description Powersonapoweredoffvirtual machine,resumesasuspendedvirtual machine. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Power>PowerOn, Summarytab,toolbarbutton,virtual machinecontextmenu Reset Resetsvirtualmachineandrebootsthe guestoperatingsystem. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Power>Reset, Summarytab,toolbarbutton,virtual machinecontextmenu Suspend Suspendsapoweredonvirtual machine,putsguestinstandbymode. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Power>Suspend, Summarytab,toolbarbutton,virtual machinecontextmenu ToolsInstall MountsandunmountstheVMware ToolsCDinstallerasaCDROMforthe guestoperatingsystem. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Guest> Install/UpgradeVMwareTools, virtualmachinecontextmenu HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

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Virtual Machine Inventory


Table A-20. Virtual Machine Inventory Privileges
Privilege Name Create Description Createsanewvirtualmachineand allocatesresourcesforitsexecution. UserinterfaceelementFilemenu, contextmenu,SummarytabNew VirtualMachinelinks Move Relocatesavirtualmachineinthe hierarchy. Privilegemustbepresentatboththe sourceanddestination. UserinterfaceelementInventory hierarchydraganddropinVirtual Machines&Templatesview Remove Deletesavirtualmachine,optionally removesunderlyingfilesfromdisk. UserinterfaceelementFilemenu, contextmenu,Summarytab HCandVC Virtual machines plusparent folders VConly Virtual machines, parent folders Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Parent folders Effective on Object Virtual machine folders

Virtual machines, virtual machine folders

Virtual machines

Virtual Machine Provisioning


Table A-21. Virtual Machine Provisioning Privileges
Privilege Name AllowDisk Access Description Opensadiskonavirtualmachinefor randomreadandwriteaccess.Used mostlyforremotediskmounting. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. AllowReadOnly DiskAccess Opensadiskonavirtualmachinefor randomreadaccess.Usedmostlyfor remotediskmounting. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. AllowVirtual Machine Download Readsfilesassociatedwithavirtual machine,includingvmx,disks,logs, andnvram. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. HCand VC Virtual machines Rootfolders n/a Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects n/a Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

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Table A-21. Virtual Machine Provisioning Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name AllowVirtual MachineFiles Upload Description Writesfilesassociatedwithavirtual machine,includingvmx,disks,logs, andnvram. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. Clone Clonesanexistingvirtualmachineand allocatesresources. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Clone,context menu,Summarytab CloneTemplate Clonesatemplate. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Template>Clone, contextmenu,VirtualMachinestab CreateTemplate FromVirtual Machine Createsanewtemplatefromavirtual machine. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Template>Cloneto Template,contextmenu,Summarytab items Customizesavirtualmachinesguest operatingsystemwithoutmovingthe virtualmachine. UserinterfaceelementCloneVirtual Machinewizard:GuestCustomization DeployTemplate Createsanewvirtualmachinefroma template. UserinterfaceelementDeployto templateFilemenu,contextmenu items,VirtualMachinestab MarkAs Template Marksanexisting,poweredoffvirtual machineasatemplate. UserinterfaceelementInventory> VirtualMachine>Template>Convert toTemplate,contextmenuitems, VirtualMachinestab,Summarytab MarkAsVirtual Machine MarksanexistingtemplateasaVM. UserinterfaceelementConvertto VirtualMachine...contextmenuitems, VirtualMachinestab VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines VConly Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects HCand VC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Rootfolders

Virtual machines

Virtual machines

Customize

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Defined Privileges

Table A-21. Virtual Machine Provisioning Privileges (Continued)


Privilege Name Modify Customization Specs Read Customization Specs Description Creates,modifies,ordeletes customizationspecifications. Userinterfaceelement CustomizationSpecificationsManager Viewsthecustomizationspecifications definedonthesystem. UserinterfaceelementEdit> CustomizationSpecifications VConly Rootfolder Rootfolder Affects VConly Pair with Object Rootfolder Effective on Object Rootfolder

Virtual Machine State


Table A-22. Virtual Machine State Privileges
Privilege Name TakeSnapshot Description Createsanewsnapshotfromthevirtual machinescurrentstate. Userinterfaceelementvirtual machinecontextmenu,toolbarbutton, Inventory>VirtualMachine> Snapshot>TakeSnapshot Remove Snapshot Removesasnapshotfromthesnapshot history. Userinterfaceelementvirtual machinecontextmenu,toolbarbutton, Inventorymenu Rename Snapshot Renamesthissnapshotwitheithera newnameoranewdescriptionorboth. NouserVIClientinterfaceelementsare associatedwiththisprivilege. RevertTo Snapshot SetstheVMtothestateitwasinata givensnapshot. Userinterfaceelementvirtual machinecontextmenu,toolbarbutton, Inventory>VirtualMachine> Snapshot>ReverttoSnapshot,Virtual Machinestab HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines HCandVC Virtual machines Virtual machines Affects HCandVC Pair with Object Virtual machines Effective on Object Virtual machines

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Files That Make Up a Virtual Machine

Thisappendixcontainsreferenceinformationaboutvirtualmachinefilemanagement, andisnotrequiredtouseVMwareServer.Becausevirtualmachinefilemanagementis performedautomaticallybyVMwareServer,youmightneverneedtoknowthenames orlocationsofyourvirtualmachinefiles.Thisappendixcontainsthefollowingtopic: FilesThatMakeUpaVirtualMachineonpage 313

Files That Make Up a Virtual Machine


Avirtualmachineistypicallystoredonthehostcomputerinasetoffiles,intheworking directorycreatedbyVMwareServerforthatspecificvirtualmachine.TheGeneraltabof theConfigureVMdialogboxinthevirtualmachineSummarytabdisplaysthelocation ofthevirtualmachineworkingdirectoryandthevirtualmachineconfigurationfile. Table B1listsvirtualmachinefiletypes,byfileextension.Intheseexamples, <vm_name>isthenameofthevirtualmachine. Table B-1. Virtual Machine Files
Extension .log File Name vmware.log vmware-<#>.log .nvram <vm_name>.nvram Description Logfilescontaindetailedinformationaboutactions performedinthevirtualmachine.Logfilesareuseful fortroubleshooting. TheNVRAMfilestoresthevirtualmachinesBIOS settings.

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Table B-1. Virtual Machine Files (Continued)


Extension .vmdk File Name Description Virtualdiskfilesstoretheinformationwrittentoa virtualmachinesharddisk,includingtheoperating system,programfiles,anddatafiles.Avirtualdiskis madeupofoneormore.vmdkfiles. Ifyoucreatemorethanonevirtualdisk,the correspondingdiskfilesincludeanumberinthe filenamefollowingthevirtualmachinename. <vm_name>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>.vmdk <vm_name>.vmdk <vm_name>-flat.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>-flat.vmdk <vm_name>.vmdk <vm_name>-f<###>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>-f<###>.vmdk <vm_name>.vmdk <vm_name>-s<###>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>-s<###>.vmdk <vm_name>-<######>.vmdk <vm_name>_<#>-<######>.vmdk Redologfilesstorechangestodisksthatare includedinsnapshots.Theseredofilesaresaved whenthevirtualmachineispoweredofforreset. Growablevirtualdiskfilessplitinto2GBchunks. Thenumberoffilesdependsonthetotalsizeofthe virtualdisk.Asdataisaddedtoavirtualdisk,the .vmdk filesgrow,toamaximumof2GBeach. Growabledisksincreaseinsizeasdataisadded. Growablediskfilesuseasmallamountofspaceat thebeginningofthefileforvirtualmachine overhead. Preallocateddisksarecreatedattheirmaximumsize anddonotgrow. Twofilesarecreatedforeachpreallocatedvirtual disk.Thefilewithoutflatinthenamecontains metadataaboutthecorrespondingdiskfile. Preallocatedvirtualdiskfilessplitinto2GBchunks. Thenumberoffilesdependsonthetotalsizeofthe virtualdisk.Asdataisaddedtoavirtualdisk,the .vmdk filesgrow,toamaximumof2GBeach.

Whenyoureverttothesnapshot,thecontents oftheredologarediscarded.Anyadditional changesare,onceagain,accumulatedinanew redolog.


Redologfilesthatstorechangestononpersistent disksarepresentwhilethevirtualmachineis running,andarediscardedwhenthevirtual machineispoweredofforreset.

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Files That Make Up a Virtual Machine

Table B-1. Virtual Machine Files (Continued)


Extension .vmem File Name <vm_name>.vmem Description Thevirtualmemorypagingfilebacksuptheguest mainmemoryonthehostfilesystem.(Thevirtual machineusesthephysicalmemoryonthehost.)The pagingfileispresentwhileavirtualmachineis running,andisdeletedwhenavirtualmachineis poweredoffnormally. Thesnapshotmemoryfilestoresthestateofthe virtualmachinesmemoryforasnapshottakenwhen avirtualmachineispoweredon. Storesmetadataandinformationaboutsnapshots. Storesthestateofavirtualmachineatthetimeyou takethesnapshot. Storesthestateofasuspendedvirtualmachine. Theprimaryvirtualmachineconfigurationfile storessettingschosenintheNewVirtualMachine wizardandtheConfigureVMdialogbox. Donoteditthevirtualmachineconfigurationfile directly.Instead,usetheAdvancedtabofthe ConfigureVMdialogbox.SeeChangingVirtual MachineAdvancedSettingsonpage 121. .vmxf .lck <vm_name>.vmxf <paging_file>.vmem.lck <redo_file>.vmdk.lck <disk_file>.vmdk.lck Supplementaryvirtualmachineconfigurationfile. Lockfilespreventdataconsistencyproblemson virtualdisks.Lockfilesarepresentwhileavirtual machineisrunning,andaredeletedwhenavirtual machineispoweredoffnormally. Ifthehostsystemcrasheswhileavirtualmachineis running,astalelockoftenremains.Whenthevirtual machineisstartedagain,itattemptstoremovethe stalelock.Toverifythatthelockfileisstale,VMware Serverconfirmsthat:

<vm_name>-Snapshot<#>.vmem

.vmsd .vmsn .vmss .vmx

<vm_name>.vmsd <vm_name>-Snapshot<#>.vmsn <vm_name>.vmss <vm_name>.vmx

Thelockwascreatedonthesamehost wherethevirtualmachineisrunning. Theprocessthatcreatedthelockisnot running.


Ifeitherofthoseconditionsisnottrue,awarning messageappears,indicatingthatthevirtualmachine cannotbepoweredon.Ifyouaresureitissafetodo so,youcandeletethelockfilesmanually.

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Glossary

alarm Anentitythatmonitorsoneormorepropertiesofavirtualmachine,suchasCPU load.Alarmsissuenotificationsasdirectedbytheconfigurablealarmdefinition. authorizationrole Asetofprivilegesgroupedforconvenientidentificationundernamessuchas Administrator.

BIOS(basicinput/outputsystem) Firmwarethatcontrolsmachinestartupandmanagescommunicationbetweenthe CPUandotherdevices,suchasthekeyboard,monitor,printers,anddiskdrives. bridgednetworking Inhostedproducts,atypeofnetworkconnectionbetweenavirtualmachineand thehostsphysicalnetwork.Withbridgednetworking,avirtualmachineappears tobeanadditionalcomputeronthesamephysicalEthernetnetworkasthehost. Seealsocustomnetworking,hostonlynetworking,NAT(networkaddress translation).

child Amanagedentitygroupedbyafolderobjectoranothermanagedentity.Seealso folder. cluster Aservergroupinthevirtualenvironment.Clustersenableahighavailability solution.

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console SeeVIWebAccess(VMwareInfrastructureWebAccess),VMwareRemote Console. customnetworking Anytypeofnetworkconnectionbetweenvirtualmachinesandthehostthatdoes notusethedefaultbridged,hostonly,ornetworkaddresstranslation(NAT) configurations.Forinstance,differentvirtualmachinescanbeconnectedtothe hostbyseparatenetworksorconnectedtoeachotherandnottothehost.Any networktopologyispossible.Seealsobridgednetworking,hostonlynetworking, NAT(networkaddresstranslation).

DE

datastore Virtualrepresentationsofcombinationsofunderlyingphysicalstorageresources. Adatastoreisthestoragelocationforvirtualmachinefiles.Thestoragelocation canbethelocalfilesystem,aCIFSstore(Windowsonly),oranNFSmountedfile system(Linuxonly). diskmode Apropertyofavirtualdiskthatdefinesitsexternalbehavior(howthe virtualizationlayertreatsitsdata)butiscompletelyinvisibletotheguestoperating system.Availablemodesvarybyproductandincludepersistentmode(changesto thediskarealwayspreservedacrosssessions)andnonpersistentmode(changes areneverpreserved).

folder Amanagedentityusedtogroupothermanagedentities.Foldertypesare determinedbythekindsofchildentitiestheycontain.Seealsochild. FQDN(fullyqualifieddomainname) Thenameofahost,includingboththehostnameandthedomainname.For example,theFQDNofahostnamedesx1inthedomainvmware.comis esx1.vmware.com. fullscreenmode Adisplaymodeinwhichthevirtualmachinesdisplayfillstheentirescreen.

group Asetofusersassignedacommonsetofprivileges.Agroupmaycontainother groups.

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growabledisk Atypeofvirtualdiskinwhichthediskspaceisnotpreallocatedtoitsfullsize.Its filesstartoutsmallinsizeandgrowasdataiswrittentothedisk.Seealso preallocateddisk. guestoperatingsystem Anoperatingsystemthatrunsinsideavirtualmachine.Seealsohostoperating system.

host ThephysicalcomputeronwhichtheVMwareServersoftwareisinstalled. hostagent Softwarethat,wheninstalledonavirtualmachinehost,performsactionsonbehalf ofaremoteclient. hostedproducts VMwareproducts(includingWorkstation,VMwarePlayer,VMwareServer, VMwareACE,andLabManager)thatrunasapplicationsonphysicalmachines withoperatingsystemssuchasMicrosoftWindowsorLinux.Bycomparison,ESX Serverisabaremetalproduct,whichprovidesathinsoftwarelayer(the hypervisor)thatenablesittorundirectlyonthephysicalmachine. hostonlynetworking Atypeofnetworkconnectionbetweenavirtualmachineandthehost.With hostonlynetworking,avirtualmachineisconnectedtothehostonaprivate network,whichnormallyisnotvisibleoutsidethehost.Multiplevirtualmachines configuredwithhostonlynetworkingonthesamehostareonthesamenetwork. Seealsobridgednetworking,customnetworking,NAT(networkaddress translation). hostoperatingsystem Anoperatingsystemthatrunsonthehostmachine.Seealsoguestoperating system.

I-L

IDE Acronymforintegrateddriveelectronics,astandardelectronicinterfaceusedto connectmassstoragedevicestoacomputer.TheANSInameforIDEisAdvanced TechnologyAttachment(ATA).

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independentdisk Atypeofvirtualdiskthatisnotaffectedbysnapshots.Youcanconfigure independentdisksinpersistentandnonpersistentmodes.Seealsononpersistent mode,persistentmode,snapshot. inventory AhierarchicalstructureusedbyVMwareServertoorganizemanagedentities. Thishierarchyispresentedasalistthatprovidesaviewofallthemonitored objects.

MN

managedentity Amanagedobjectthatispresentintheinventory.Seealsoinventory. MKS(mouse,keyboard,screen) Asetofbasicinputoutputservicesforuserinteractionwithavirtualmachine. MSCS(MicrosoftClusterService) Softwarethatdistributesdataamongthenodesofthecluster.Ifonenodefails, othernodesprovidefailoversupportforapplicationssuchasdatabases,file servers,andmailservers.

NAT(networkaddresstranslation) Inhostednetworking,atypeofnetworkconnectionthatenablesyoutoconnect yourvirtualmachinestoanexternalnetworkwhenyouhaveonlyoneIPnetwork addressandthataddressisusedbythehostcomputer.IfyouuseNAT,yourvirtual machinedoesnothaveitsownIPaddressontheexternalnetwork.Instead,a separateprivatenetworkissetuponthehostcomputer.Yourvirtualmachinegets anaddressonthatnetworkfromtheVMwarevirtualDHCPserver.TheVMware NATdevicepassesnetworkdatabetweenoneormorevirtualmachinesandthe externalnetwork.Itidentifiesincomingdatapacketsintendedforeachvirtual machineandsendsthemtothecorrectdestination.Seealsobridgednetworking, customnetworking,hostonlynetworking. NetBIOS(networkbasicinput/outputsystem) AnAPIthatenablesapplicationsondifferentcomputerstocommunicateacrossa LAN.NetBIOSprovidesthenameserviceandofferstwocommunicationmodes: sessionserviceforconnectionorientedcommunicationanddatagramdistribution serviceforconnectionlesscommunication. NIC(networkinterfacecard) Anexpansionboardthatprovidesadedicatedconnectionbetweenacomputer andanetwork.Alsocalledanetworkadapter.

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Glossary

nonpersistentmode Adiskmodeinwhichalldiskwritesissuedbysoftwarerunninginsideavirtual machineappeartobewrittentotheindependentdiskbutareinfactdiscarded afterthevirtualmachineispoweredoff.Asaresult,avirtualdiskorphysicaldisk inindependentnonpersistentmodeisnotmodifiedbyactivityinthevirtual machine.Seealsodiskmode,persistentmode.

O-P

permission Adataobjectconsistingofanauthorizationrole,auserorgroupname,anda managedentityreference.Apermissionallowsaspecifiedusertoaccesstheentity (suchasavirtualmachine)withanyoftheprivilegespertainingtotherole. persistentmode Adiskmodeinwhichalldiskwritesissuedbysoftwarerunninginsideavirtual machineareimmediatelyandpermanentlywrittentoavirtualdiskthathasbeen configuredasanindependentdisk.Asaresult,avirtualdiskorphysicaldiskin independentpersistentmodebehaveslikeaconventionaldiskdriveonaphysical computer.Seealsodiskmode,nonpersistentmode. preallocateddisk Atypeofvirtualdiskwherealldiskspaceforthevirtualmachineisallocatedat thetimethediskiscreated.Seealsogrowabledisk. privilege Authorizationtoperformaspecificactionorsetofactionsonamanagedobjector groupofmanagedobjects.

Q-R

readonlyuser Aroleinwhichtheuserisallowedtoviewtheinventorybutnotallowedto performanytasks. remoteconsole Aninterfacetoavirtualmachinethatprovidesnonexclusiveaccesstoavirtual machinefromtheserveronwhichthevirtualmachineisrunningandfrom workstationsconnectedtothatserver.SeealsoVMwareRemoteConsole. resume Toreturnavirtualmachinetooperationfromitssuspendedstate.Whenyou resumeasuspendedvirtualmachine,allapplicationsareinthesamestatethey werewhenthevirtualmachinewassuspended.Seealsosuspend.

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role Adefinedsetofprivilegesthatcanbeassignedtousersandgroupstocontrol accesstoVMwareServerobjects.

shrink Toreclaimunusedspaceinavirtualdisk.Ifadiskhasemptyspace,shrinking reducestheamountofspacethevirtualdiskoccupiesonthehostdrive.Youcannot shrinkpreallocatedvirtualdisks. snapshot Areproductionofthevirtualmachinejustasitwaswhenyoutookthesnapshot, includingthevirtualmachinespowerstate(on,off,orsuspended).Ifthevirtual harddisksarenotsettoindependentmode,asnapshotalsoincludesthestateof thedataonallthevirtualmachinesdisks.Youcantakeasnapshotwhenavirtual machineispoweredon,poweredoff,orsuspended.Seealsoindependentdisk. suspend Tosavethecurrentstateofarunningvirtualmachine.Toreturnasuspended virtualmachinetooperation,usetheresumefeature.Seealsoresume.

TU

user Auserisaprincipalknowntothesystem.

VX

virtualdisk Afileorsetoffilesthatappearsasaphysicaldiskdrivetoaguestoperating system.Thesefilescanbeonthehostmachineoronaremotefilesystem.Seealso growabledisk,preallocateddisk. virtualhardware Thedevicesthatmakeupavirtualmachine.Thevirtualhardwareincludesthe virtualdisk,removabledevicessuchastheCD/DVDandfloppydrives,andthe virtualEthernetadapter. virtualmachine Avirtualizedx86PCenvironmentinwhichaguestoperatingsystemand associatedapplicationsoftwarecanrun.Multiplevirtualmachinescanoperateon thesamehostmachineconcurrently. virtualmachineadministrator Aroleinwhichtheuserisallowedtoperformallthevirtualmachinemanagement functions.

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virtualmachineconfiguration Thespecificationofwhichvirtualdevices,suchasdisksandmemory,arepresent inavirtualmachineandhowtheyaremappedtohostfilesanddevices. virtualmachineconfigurationfile Afilecontainingavirtualmachineconfiguration.This.vmxfileiscreatedwhen youcreatethevirtualmachine.Itisusedtoidentifyandrunaspecificvirtual machine. virtualmachineuser Aroleinwhichtheuserisallowedtoperformpoweroperationsonvirtual machines. virtualnetwork Anetworkconnectingvirtualmachinesthatdoesnotdependonphysical hardwareconnections.Forexample,youcancreateavirtualnetworkbetweena virtualmachineandahostthathasnoexternalnetworkconnections. virtualnetworkeditor Aneditorthatrunsonthehostandisusedtoviewandmodifythenetworking settingsforthevirtualnetworkscreatedbyVMwareServer. VirtualSMP Thetechnologythatenablesavirtualmachinetodosymmetricmultiprocessing. VirtualSMPenablesyoutoassigntwovirtualprocessorstoavirtualmachineon anyhostmachinethathasatleasttwologicalprocessors. VIWebAccess(VMwareInfrastructureWebAccess) AuserinterfacethatrunsinaWebbrowserandprovidesasimpleandflexibletool toperformallVMwareServermanagementtasks.VI WebAccessandVMware RemoteConsolereplacetheVMwareManagementInterfaceandVMwareServer Console.SeealsoVMwareRemoteConsole. VMwareauthorizationservice TheservicethatVMwareServeremploystoauthenticateusers.Theprocessis calledvmwareauthdonLinuxhosts. VMwarePlayer FreesoftwarethatenablesPCuserstoeasilyrunanyvirtualmachineona WindowsorLinuxPC.VMwarePlayerrunsvirtualmachinescreatedbyVMware Workstation,VMwareServer,orESXServerandalsosupportsMicrosoftvirtual machinesandSymantecBackupExecSystemRecoverydiskformats.

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VMwareRemoteConsole VMwareRemoteConsoleenablesyoutointeractwiththeguestoperatingsystem runninginavirtualmachinefromthehostoraremoteclientsystem. VMware RemoteConsolealsoallowsyoutoconnectanddisconnectclient CD/DVDandfloppydevices.SeealsoVIWebAccess(VMwareInfrastructureWeb Access). VMwareTools Asuiteofutilitiesanddriversthatenhancestheperformanceandfunctionalityof yourguestoperatingsystem.KeyfeaturesofVMwareToolsincludesomeorallof thefollowing,dependingonyourguestoperatingsystem:anSVGAdriver,a mousedriver,theVMwareToolscontrolpanelandsupportforsuchfeaturesas shrinkingvirtualdisks,timesynchronizationwiththehost,VMwareToolsscripts, andconnectinganddisconnectingdeviceswhilethevirtualmachineisrunning.

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Index

A
About menu option VI Web Access 53 About tab VMware Tools 92 acceleration enabling and disabling in guest 121, 272 hardware in Windows Server 2003 274 access inventory objects 193 permissions 198 privileges 289 rules for inheritance 200 rules for propagation 200 Add Hardware wizard adding CD/DVD drives 144 adding floppy drives 147 adding generic SCSI devices 150 adding hard disks 138 adding network adapters 215 adding parallel ports 170 adding passthrough SCSI devices 150 adding serial ports 159 adding sound adapters 158 adding USB controllers 152 using the wizard 130 virtual machine power state 130 adding CD/DVD drives 144

datastores 104 floppy drives 147 generic SCSI devices 150 hard disks 138 host virtual adapters 219 network adapters 215 parallel ports 170 passthrough SCSI devices 150 permissions 198 roles 196 serial ports 159 sound adapters 158 USB controllers 152 virtual machine to inventory 102 add-on VMware Remote Console 51 addresses assigning IP 223 assigning MAC 225 assigning MAC manually 226 IP on virtual network 222 network address translation 239 using DHCP to assign on virtual network 222 Advanced tab VI Web Access 121 alarms privileges 290 assigning IP addresses 222 MAC addresses 225 ATAPI emulation 144

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audio in virtual machines 31, 158 AudioPCI sound adapter 158 automatic bridging 218, 259

B
background snapshots enabling and disabling 108 backups restoring from snapshot 113 restoring quiesced 113 taking quiesced 111 taking using VSS 111 BIOS NVRAM file in virtual machine 313 provided in virtual machine 28 setup when virtual machine boots 119 bridged networking configuring 217 explained 204 Bridging tab in virtual network editor 259 BusLogic SCSI driver 29, 61, 152

C
CD/DVD drives accessing directly 144 adding 144 autorun polling in virtual machines 273 connecting and disconnecting 125 editing 146 IDE system requirements 29 removing 147 SCSI system requirements 29 using ATAPI emulation 144 CIFS datastores 104 client devices connecting and disconnecting 125

clock real-time on Linux host 41 synchronize guest and host 89, 119 clustering applications 278 cluster in a box 281 configuring virtual machines 282 overview 277 software requirements 278 two-node cluster 283 command-line interface for VIX API 132 for VMware Tools 99 configuring advanced virtual machine options 121 automatic bridging 218, 259 bridged networking 217 CD/DVD drives 143 custom virtual networks 211 DHCP on Linux host 223 DHCP on Windows host 223 DHCP settings 218, 261 floppy drives 147 groups 195 hard disks 135 host virtual network mapping 218 memory size in virtual machines 269 NAT 242 NAT on Linux host 248 NAT settings 261 network adapters 215 parallel ports 169 processors in virtual machines 270 SCSI controllers 152 SCSI devices 150 second bridged network on a Linux host 229

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Index

serial ports 159 sound adapters 157 USB controllers 152 users 194 virtual machine file settings 122 virtual network subnet settings 218 virtual networking settings 258 virtual networks 203, 207, 215 VMware Tools scripts 119 connecting CD/DVD drives 125 floppy drives 125 floppy image files 125 ISO image files 125 USB devices 153 Console tab VI Web Access 51 console, virtual machine 51, 53 core files 16 CPU host requirement 24 provided in virtual machines 28 See also processors 270 creating CD/DVD drives 144 datastores 104 floppy drives 147 generic SCSI devices 150 hard disks 138 network adapters 215 parallel ports 170 passthrough SCSI devices 150 permissions 198 roles 196 serial ports 159 sound adapters 158 USB controllers 152 virtual machines 57 VMware Remote Console
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shortcuts 128 Web shortcuts for virtual machines 127 Creative Labs 31, 158

D
datacenters privileges 291 datastores adding 104 managing 103 removing 106 renaming 105 DDNS 228 debugging effect on performance 273 enabling and disabling virtual machine 121 default scripts for VMware Tools 93 defragmenting physical host disks 265 virtual disks 140, 272 deleting CD/DVD drives 147 datastores 106 floppy drives 150 hard disks 140 network adapters 217 parallel ports 171 permissions 200 roles 197 serial ports 163 sound adapters 159 USB controllers 153 virtual machines 102, 123 desktop shortcut for VMware Server 39 device drivers BusLogic SCSI 61 LSI Logic SCSI 61

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VMware Tools 72 devices configuring SCSI in virtual machines 150 connecting and disconnecting in VMware Remote Console 125 connecting and disconnecting in VMware Tools 90 disconnecting USB 157 using USB in virtual machines 154 Devices menu VMware Remote Console 125 Devices tab VMware Tools 90 DHCP assigning IP addresses on a virtual network 222 changing settings 218 configuring in virtual network editor 261 configuring on a Linux host 223 configuring on a Windows host 223 on a virtual network with NAT 240 server on virtual network 209, 210 servers 205 troubleshooting on a Linux host 228 DHCP tab in virtual network editor 261 dhcpd 228 dial-up connections 225 direct memory access See DMA disconnecting CD/DVD drives 125 floppy drives 125 floppy image files 125 ISO image files 125 USB devices 157 disk space
328

required on host computer 24 disks defragmenting 140 DMA and performance 274 growable 60, 136 IDE drives in virtual machines 29 IDE drives supported in host 24 preallocated 60, 136 SCSI drives in virtual machines 29 SCSI drives supported in host 24 shrinking 140 types supported in host 24 DMA and disk performance 274, 275 DNS 241 drivers BusLogic SCSI 61 LSI Logic SCSI 61 video, in older versions of Windows 75 DVD drives optical drives supported in host 25 supported in virtual machines 144 See also CD/DVD drives dynamic domain name service 228

E
editing CD/DVD drives 146 floppy drives 149 generic SCSI devices 151 hard disks 139 network adapters 216 parallel ports 171 passthrough SCSI devices 151 permissions 199 roles 197 SCSI controllers 152 serial ports 162 sound adapters 158
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EHCI controller 154 Ethernet adapters See network adapters events virtual machine 56 VMware Server 56 Events tab VI Web Access 56 exiting VMware Remote Console 126 extensions privileges 292

F
fault tolerance in networks 217 files BIOS in virtual machines 313 redo log 314 sharing on a Linux host using Samba 249 snapshot 315 suspended state 315 used by a virtual machine 313 virtual disk 314 virtual machine configuration 315 virtual machine locking 315 virtual machine log 313 Firefox requirements for VI Web Access 27 requirements for VMware Remote Console 27 using VMware Remote Console 51 firewall 247 floppy drives adding 147 connecting and disconnecting 125 editing 149 removing 150 supported in virtual machines 30 floppy images

adding 147 connecting and disconnecting 125 editing 149 removing 150 supported in virtual machines 30 folders privileges 293 FreeBSD VMware Tools for 82 FTP 241 full screen mode entering 124 leaving 124

G
gated server processes 227 General tab VI Web Access 118 generating VMware Remote Console shortcuts 128 Web shortcuts for virtual machines 127 generic SCSI devices 150 adding 150 editing 151 removing 151 global privileges 293 graphics support in virtual machine 29 groups 193 managing 195 growable virtual disks 60, 136 guest operating system defined 23 installing 66 interacting with 124 pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del 124 supported 31

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upgrading 68

I
ICMP 241 IDE drives in virtual machines 29 drives supported in host 24 importing virtual machines 102 independent virtual disks 61 installing disk space requirements 24 guest operating system 66 Linux guests in text mode 271 on Linux host 41 on Windows host 37 software in a virtual machine 131 VMware Remote Console addon 51 VMware Server 35 VMware Server silently on Windows hosts 39 VMware Tools 73 VMware Tools silently on Windows guests 75 Internet Explorer requirements for VI Web Access 27 requirements for VMware Remote Console 27 using VMware Remote Console 51 inventory access to objects 193 inventory panel VI Web Access 48 Iomega zip drives and parallel ports 176 IP address assigning 223 IP forwarding 224, 225 ISO images connecting and disconnecting 125

H
hard disks adding 138 editing 139 removing 140 hardware version of virtual machines 59, 69 heartbeat and clustering virtual machines 282 host computer disk space required 24 system requirements 23 host operating system defined 23 supported Linux 26 supported Windows 25 host virtual adapters adding 219 disabling 219 enabling 219 removing 219 Host Virtual Adapters tab in virtual network editor 260 Host Virtual Mapping tab in virtual network editor 259 host virtual network mapping 218, 259 host-only networking basic configuration 210 selecting IP addresses 222 hosts CIM privileges 295 configuration privileges 296 inventory privileges 298 local operations privileges 299 host-wide settings 106, 109

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Index

K
kernel upgrades and VMware Server 43 key code mappings 178 keyboards mapping on a Linux host 176 keysym defined 177 mapping 179

enabling and disabling 121 logging in access permissions 193 to VI Web Access 47 logging out VI Web Access 56 LSI Logic SCSI devices 29 LSI Logic SCSI driver 61, 152

L
leaking IP packets in host-only network 224 IP packets in virtual machine 225 licensing, serial number and 39 Linux guests performance 271 VMware Tools for 78, 79 Linux hosts installing VMware Server 41 performance 266 supported operating systems 26 uninstalling VMware Server on 44 location virtual machine configuration file 118, 313 working directory 118, 313 .lck file 315 locking snapshots 120 .log file 313 log files authorization service 16 host agent 16 VI Web Access 17 virtual machine 16 VMware Authorization Service 16 VMware host agent 16 VMware Remote Console 17 logging
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M
MAC addresses 225, 226 managing datastores 103 groups 195 users 194 mappings key code 178 keyboard 176 keysym 179 memory amount required on host 24 available in virtual machine 29 choosing for best performance 268 configuring 269 editing 269 host-wide settings 106, 267 reserving for virtual machines 107 setting when creating virtual machine 59 swapping in host 107 virtual machine memory size 268 menu options VI Web Access 53 virtual machine 53 message log viewing VMware Remote Console 126 MIDI 157 MMU 122

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modifying CD/DVD drives 146 floppy drives 149 hard disks 139 network adapters 216 parallel ports 171 permissions 199 SCSI controllers 152 serial ports 162 sound adapters 158 mouse driver installed by VMware Tools 72 MP3 157 Mylex SCSI adapter 29

N
named pipe 161, 164, 165, 167 NAT advanced configuration 242 and DHCP 240 and DNS 241 and the host computer 240 configuring 261 external access from a NAT network 241 on virtual networks 208, 239 sample configuration file for Linux host 248 selecting IP addresses 222 NAT tab in virtual network editor 261 nat.conf 244, 248 NetWare, Novell 92 network adapters adding virtual 215 editing virtual 216 removing virtual 217 teaming 218, 229 networks

automatic bridging 218 changing DHCP settings 218 changing subnet settings 218 changing the configuration 215 common configurations 207 components 204 configuring 203 configuring automatic bridging 259 configuring bridged 217 configuring DHCP 261 configuring NAT 261 configuring options 258 custom configurations 211 DHCP 222 DHCP server 205 dial-up connections 225 dynamic domain name service 228 fault tolerance 217 hardware addresses 225 host virtual network mapping 218 host-only 210 host-only subnet 222 IP forwarding 224, 225 IP packet leaks 224, 225 MAC addresses 225 managing host virtual adapters 260 mapping bridged adapters 259 NAT 208, 239 NAT as firewall 247 NAT subnet 222 overview of virtual network options 203 packet filtering 225 privileges 300 promiscuous mode on a Linux host 239 refreshing virtual 215 routing between two host-only networks 235

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Index

routing on a Linux host 227 Samba 249 second bridged network on a Linux host 229 switches 205 teamed NICs 218, 229 token ring 209 troubleshooting DHCP on a Linux host 228 two host-only networks 232 virtual adapters 206 virtual DHCP server 209, 210 Virtual Network Editor 217, 220, 223 virtual switches 205 NFS datastores 104 NFS root squash option 104 NICS See network adapters nonpersistent virtual disks 61 NTBackup 112 NVRAM file for BIOS settings 313

O
operating system installing guest 66 supported guest 31 supported Linux host 26 supported Windows host 25 Options tab VMware Tools 89 overview VI Web Access 48

P
packets filtering 225 leaks in host-only network 224 leaks in virtual machine 225 parallel ports

adding 170 and Iomega zip drives 176 and the Linux kernel 172 configuring on a Linux host 172 editing 171 in a virtual machine 171 removing 171 paravirtualization 122 passthrough SCSI devices 150 adding 150 editing 151 removing 151 passwords in Samba password file 254 PCI slots in virtual machine 29 limits 29 performance CD/DVD drive autorun polling 273 debugging mode 273 disk options 274 DMA and disks 274 eliminating snapshots 272 installing applications in a guest 272 Linux guests 271 memory settings 268 memory usage 267, 268 privileges 300 remote disk access 272 Windows 2000 guest 273 Windows 95 and Windows 98 guests 275 permissions 193, 198 access 198 creating 198 editing 199 hierarchy of 201 privileges 301 removing 200 settings, multiple 201
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persistent virtual disks 61 physical disks storing virtual disks on 61, 137 ping 241 pipe, named 161, 164, 165, 167 plug-in VMware Remote Console 51 power off snapshot options 120, 190 power state changing virtual machine 116 current virtual machine 50 Power tab VI Web Access 118 preallocated virtual disks 60, 136 privileges 193, 289 alarms 290 configuration 296 datacenter 291 extension 292 folders 293 global 293 host CIM 295 host inventory 298 host local operations 299 network 300 performance 300 permission 301 resource 301 scheduled tasks 303 sessions 303 tasks 304 virtual machine 309 virtual machine configuration 304 virtual machine interaction 307 virtual machine provisioning 309 virtual machine state 311 processor count configuring 270
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maximum in virtual machine 270 setting when creating virtual machine 59 processors host requirement 24 provided in virtual machines 28 product compatibility 59 product registration 15 promiscuous mode 239 PXE image file 36, 60

Q
quiesced backups 111 quiet mode, install VMware Tools 75 quitting VMware Remote Console 126

R
RAM amount required on host 24 available in virtual machine 29 Real Media 157 real-time clock requirement on Linux host 41 redo-log files 314 refreshing virtual network 215 registration 15 Remote Console See VMware Remote Console removing CD/DVD drives 147 datastores 106 floppy drives 150 generic SCSI devices 151 hard disks 140 host virtual adapters 219 network adapters 217 parallel ports 171 passthrough SCSI devices 151

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Index

permissions 200 roles 197 serial ports 163 sound adapters 159 USB controllers 153 USB devices 157 virtual machines from inventory 102, 123 renaming datastores 105 roles 197 repairing VMware Tools installations 88 reporting problems 15 resources privileges 301 resuming virtual machines 185 roles 193 configuring 195 creating 196 default 196 editing 197 managing 195 privileges, lists of 289 removing 197 renaming 197 routed server processes 227 routing between two host-only networks 235 for a host-only network on a Linux host 227 RPM installer for VMware Server 42 for VMware Tools 78, 79 running suspended virtual machines 185

S
Samba already running on a Linux host 255 and file sharing on a Linux host 249 and printer sharing 250 CIFS datastores 104 on both bridged and host-only networks 256 password file 254 running two Samba servers 256 sample configuration file 251, 252, 256 saving virtual machine state 185, 187 scan code 177 scheduled tasks privileges 303 scripts creating custom VMware Tools 94 enabling, disabling, and running 91 running and disabling 96 running during power state changes 93 VMware Tools 119 Scripts tab VMware Tools 91 SCSI controller 152 SCSI devices adding 150 editing 151 generic 150 host requirement 24 in virtual machine 29 passthrough 150 removing 151 SCSI reservation and clustering 278 enabling 279 issues to consider 281 preallocated virtual disks 278
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sharing SCSI disks 278 support 279 serial connections between host application and virtual machine 163 between two virtual machines 164 changing input speed 169 to a serial port on the host 163 yielding CPU on poll 168 serial number 15, 36, 39, 53 serial ports adding 159 configuring 163 editing 162 example usage 163 removing 163 using 163 servers DHCP 205, 219, 223, 228, 240, 247 DNS 228, 241, 243, 262 Samba 249 WINS 242, 247 service VSS Writer 111 sessions privileges 303 Shared Folders tab VMware Tools 91 sharing files on a Linux host with Samba 249 shortcut, desktop, for VMware Server 39 Shrink tab VMware Tools 91 shrinking virtual disks 91, 140 virtual disks in Netware 92 shutting down host-wide virtual machine
336

settings 109 order of virtual machines 110 smb.conf file 251, 252, 256 Snapshot tab VI Web Access 119 snapshots as background activity 108, 189 eliminating for performance 272 excluding virtual disks from 189 files for storing 315 host-wide settings 108 locking 120 power-off options 120, 190 removing 191 reverting to 190 taking 190 using with VSS backups 112 virtual machine 187 Solaris VMware Tools for 81 sound configuring in virtual machines 157 Sound Blaster 158 support in guest 31 sound adapters adding 158 device compatibility 157 drivers for Windows guests 158 editing 158 removing 159 sound drivers 158 specifications for virtual machines 28 starting suspended virtual machines 185 virtual machines automatically 109 startup host-wide virtual machine settings 109 order of virtual machines 110
VMware, Inc.

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Index

startup commands used by VMware Tools 98 startup scripts using VMware Tools 97 statistics enabling and disabling 121 stopping order of virtual machines 110 subnet changing settings 218 in NAT configuration 222 on host-only networks 222 Summary tab 50 in virtual network editor 258 VI Web Access 50 supported guest operating systems 31 supported host operating systems Linux 26 Windows 25 suspending virtual machine files storing state 315 virtual machines 185 SVGA drivers installing in Windows guests 75 SVGA graphics support 29 swap space on a Linux host 266 switches virtual networks 205 system requirements 23 memory 24 processors 24 remote client 27 VI Web Access 27 VMware Remote Console 27

in VMware Tools control panel 88 tar installer for VMware Server 41 for VMware Tools 79 tasks privileges 304 virtual machine 55 VMware Server 55 Tasks tab VI Web Access 55 teamed network interface cards 218, 229 telnet 241 time synchronization, between guest and host 89, 119 time.synchronize options for VMware Tools 90 token ring networks 209 toolbar power operations 116 USB controller 153 tools See VMware Tools

U
UHCI controller 154 uninstalling host virtual adapters 219 VMware Server on Linux host 44 VMware Server on Windows host 41 VMware Tools 87 unplugging USB devices 157 updating guest operating system 68 virtual machine hardware version 69 upgrading guest operating system 68 Linux kernel, reconfiguring VMware
337

T
tabs in VI Web Access 48
VMware, Inc.

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VMware Server Users Guide

Server after 43 virtual machine hardware version 69 USB connecting devices 153 control of devices by host and guest 156 devices in a virtual machine 154 disconnecting devices 157 enabling and disabling the controller 152 on a Linux host 156 on a Windows host 155 port specifications 30 supported device types 155 USB 1.1 154 USB 2.0 154 USB controllers adding 152 removing 153 users configuring 194 managing 194

V
VGA graphics support 29 VI Web Access changing guest operating system 118 changing virtual machine name 118 changing virtual machine power settings 103, 118 configuring VMware Tools scripts 119 Events tab 56 General tab 118 inventory panel 48 log files 17 logging in 47 logging out 56
338

managing virtual machine inventory 101 menu options 53 overview 48 Power tab 118 setting guest operating system 118 setting snapshot options 119 setting virtual machine name 118 setting virtual machine power options 118 Snapshot tab 119 Summary tab 50 Tasks tab 55 Virtual Machines tab 103 workspace 48 Virtual Appliance Marketplace 36, 54 Virtual Disk Manager 142 virtual disks adding 138 allocating space 136 caching 61 constituent files 314 defragmenting 140, 272 editing 139 growable 60, 136 independent mode 61 nonpersistent 61 persistent 61 preallocated 60, 136 removing 140 SCSI drivers 61 setting maximum size 136 shrinking 91, 140 shrinking in Netware 92 size 29 storing on physical disks 61, 137 Virtual Disk Manager 142 Virtual Machine Communication Interface (VMCI) 72

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VMware, Inc.

Index

virtual machines adding CD/DVD drives 144 adding floppy drives 147 adding hard disks 138 adding parallel ports 170 adding serial ports 159 adding sound adapters 158 adding to inventory 102 adding USB controllers 152 and SMP 270 changing guest operating system 117 changing power settings 103, 118 changing snapshot settings 119 changing the name of 117 choosing datastore location 57 configuration file 315 configuration file location 118, 313 configuration file parameters 122 configuration privileges 304 configuring memory 269 configuring processor count 270 configuring SCSI controllers 152 configuring sound 158 configuring sound adapters 157 console to interact with guest 51, 53 constituent files 313 creating 57 creating virtual disks 60 creating VMware Remote Console shortcuts 128 creating Web shortcuts 127 default location 57 deleting 102, 123 deleting floppy drives 150 editing CD/DVD drives 146 editing floppy drives 149 editing hard disks 139 editing parallel ports 171
VMware, Inc.

editing serial ports 162 editing sound adapters 158 entering BIOS setup at boot 119 events 56 generating VMware Remote Console shortcuts 128 generating Web shortcuts 127 hardware specifications 28 hardware version 59, 69 host-wide settings 109 IDE drives in 29 importing 102 installing software in 131 interaction privileges 307 inventory of 101 inventory privileges 309 location 57 log files 313 managing inventory 101 memory settings 59 menu options 53 performing disk maintenance 140 platform specifications 28 power operations 116 processor settings 59 product compatibility 59 provisioning privileges 309 removing CD/DVD drives 147 removing floppy drives 150 removing from inventory 102, 123 removing hard disks 140 removing parallel ports 171 removing serial ports 163 removing sound adapters 159 removing USB controllers 153 resuming 185 setting guest operating system 117 setting power options 118 setting shutdown order 110
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setting snapshot options 119 setting startup order 110 setting the name of 117 starting automatically 109 state privileges 311 status information 50 summary information 50 summary view 50 suspending 185 tasks 55 working directory location 118, 313 Virtual Machines tab VI Web Access 103 virtual network adapters 206 Virtual Network Editor 258 virtual networks adding adapters 215 changing the configuration 215 components 204 configuring 203 configuring in virtual network editor 258 DHCP server 210 editing adapters 216 refreshing 215 removing adapters 217 teamed NICs 218 Virtual SMP 270 virtual switches 205 VIX API 23, 132 VMCI Sockets interface 132 .vmdk file 314 .vmem file 315 VMI (Virtual Machine Interface) 122 vmnet1.conf 228 VMnet8 240 vmrun 132 .vmsd file 315 .vmsn file 315
340

.vmss file 315 vmvsswriter.cfg file 112 VMware Authorization Service default port 44 log 16 vmware-config.pl 43 VMware host agent log 16 VMware Remote Console 17 desktop shortcuts 128 full screen mode 124 installing Web browser add-on 51 interacting with guest 124 powering off 126 quitting 126 resetting 126 shortcuts 128 starting 53 viewing message log 126 VMware Remote Console shortcuts 128 VMware Server host-wide settings 106 logging in 47 logging out 56 serial number for 39 VMware Tools 119 About tab 92 automated install 75 command-line interface 99 configuring 88 configuring in a Netware virtual machine 92 control panel 88 device drivers 72 Devices tab 90 for FreeBSD guests 82 for Linux guests 78, 79 for Solaris guests 81 installing 73
VMware, Inc.

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Index

installing from the command line with the RPM installer 79 installing from the command line with the tar installer 79 installing in Windows guests 74 interacting with VSS 111 modifying installation 88 Options tab 89 repairing installation 88 running 116 running scripts during power state changes 93 Scripts tab 91 Shared Folders tab 91 Shrink tab 91 silent install 75 taskbar icon, displaying 89 uninstalling 87 using from command line 92 VMware user process 73 vmwtool commands 92 VMware Tools scripts 119 VMware Tools service executing commands on halt or reboot 96 overview of 72 passing strings from the host 97 VMware user process, in VMware Tools 73 vmware-user, starting manually 86 vmware-config.pl file 43 vmwtool program 92 .vmx file 315 .vmxf file 315 Volume Shadow Copy Service 111 v-scan code defined 177 table of codes 180 VSS 111

W
.wav file 157 Web shortcuts creating 127 generating 127 Windows Backup 112 Windows credential manager 105 Windows hosts installing VMware Server 37 uninstalling VMware Server 41 working directory 118, 313 workspace in VI Web Access 48

X
X server and keyboard mapping 177 xFree86 and keyboard mapping 177

Z
zip drives on a parallel port 176

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