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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS:

Conservation Issues

Exam. number: Y2265156

MA in CONSERVATION STUDIES The University of York


Department of Archaeology

February 2009

Tomyparents whohavetaughtmethatknowledgeispower butalsohowtodanceoverdifficulties

(..our best folk songs were danced on terrazzo floored houses )


Nikolakopoulou,L.

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Abstract 5. Discussion

Abstract
L.M.T. MAinConservationStudies,DepartmentofArchaeology,theUniversityofYork Dissertation Title: Terrazzo and Mosaic floors in Interwar Buildings in Athens: ConservationIssues The present research explores the use of terrazzo and mosaic floors in the InterwarbuildingsofGreece,particularlyinitscapitalAthens.Themainobjective is to demonstrate that floors are a highly important element of architectural expressionandthereforeworthpreserving.Thepapersaimistohighlighthow theseancienttechniques,whileremainingunalteredintime,werealsousedina modern architectural context. The architectural and social context related to these floor finishes will be examined in order to understand their use and subsequently how location and use affected their preservation status. Finally, going through an analysis of how classic conservation principles should be modified,someproposalsfortheirtheoreticalandpracticalconservationissues willbeformulated. Numberofpages:xxi+91 Numberofillustrations:79inthechaptersand252inthecasestudycards Numberofcasestudiescards:58(45inchapter3and13intheappendix) Appendices:2(13cards) This dissertation contains secondary resources: bibliographic, unpublished and web,andprimaryresources:archives,interviews. February2009
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Table of Contents List of Images

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Table of contents 5. Discussion

TableofContents
Abstract TableofContentsi ListofFiguresv Prefaceix Acknowledgmentsx Introductionxi Literaturereviewxvi

Chapter1
1.1Pavements1 1.2FromBattutotoTerrazzo2 1.2.1ContemporaryTerrazzo4 1.3FromBattutotoMosaics6 1.3.1PebbleMosaics7 1.3.2TesseraeMosaics8 Mosaic9 1.3.3ModernMosaictechniques10 1.4TerrazzoandMosaicsimilarities12 1.5Mosaicandterrazzodifferences12 1.6.Conclusion13

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Table of contents 5. Discussion

Chapter2
2.InterwarsocialimpactandArchitectureinAthens14 2.1InterwarnewsocialconditionsinGreece14 2.1.1Emigration15 2.1.2Economy15 2.1.3Socialbalances17 2.2UrbanizationofAthens17 2.2.1Statemeasures18 2.2.2ModifiedCenterandnewsuburbs19 2.2.3Legislationforhorizontalproperty21 2.3Architecturaltypologies22 2.3.1Neoacademism24 2.3.2Popularstyle25 2.3.3Modernist26 2.3.4ModernMovement27 2.4Conclusion28

Chapter3
3.CaseStudies30 3.1Methodology30 3.1.1BuildingData30 3.1.2FloorData31 3.2Casestudies32

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Table of contents 5. Discussion

3.2.1Neoacademicbuildings32 3.2Casestudies33 3.2.2Popularstylebuildings 33 3.2Casestudies34 3.2.3Modernistbuildings34 3.2Casestudies35 3.2.3ModernMovementBuildings35 3.3TypeofArchitectureandchoiceoffloorfinish36 3.3.1SimpleTerrazzo37 3.3.2Terrazzowithdecorativepatterns38 3.3.3Mosaic40 3.4Choiceoffloorfinishandpreservationstatus42 3.4.1Simpleterrazzo42 3.4.2Terrazzowithdecorativepatterns43 3.4.3Mosaic44 3.5Conclusion46

Chapter4
4.ContemporaryConservationapproachtoRecentArchitecture48 4.1HistoricaloverviewofArchitecturalConservationinEurope 48 4.2Conservationoftherecentarchitecturalpast50 4.2.1AuthenticityinconservingourRecentArchitecturalPast53 4.2.2MinimuminterventioninconservingourRecentArchitecturalPast54

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4.3ConservationapproachontheArchitecturalHeritageinGreece55 4.3.1ConservationoftherecentarchitecturalpastinGreece57 4.5Conclusion58

Chapter5
5.Discussion60 5.1Interwararchitecturesconservationissues60 5.2.Economicsandconservation:aproposal62 5.3Publicawareness64 5.4Guidelinesforrestorationproblems65 5.4.1DepositsCleaning67 5.4.2CracksMortarFilling68 5.4.3LacunaeIntegration69 5.4.4ErosionConsolidation71 5.4.5Extremelydecayedfloors72 5.4.6Documentationoftheinterventions 72 5.5Conclusion73

Chapter6
6.Conclusion74

Appendix
Appendix1(casestudies)75 Appendix2(ellinikietairiaresearch)76

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Resources
PrimaryResources77 Archives77 Interviews77 Secondaryresources78 Bibliograpic77 Unpublished88 Webresources90

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues List of images 5. Discussion

Listoffigures
I.Introduction
I.1GoogleEarth

Chapter1
1.1AssimakopoulouAtzaka,P(2003):page13 1.2Author 1.3FiorentiniRoncuzzi,IandFiorentini,E(2001):page106 1.4Author 1.5DeChiara,JPanero,JandMartin,Z(2001),page826 1.6Author 1.7Fiori,C,Tolis,NandCanestrino,C(2003),page145 1.8Bertelli,C(1988),page17 1.9Author 1.10Tosi,M(2004b):page128 1.11 Getty Conservation Institute (2003):Illustrated Glossary: Mosaics In Situ Project. 1.12Lavagne,H(1987),nopage,image15 1.1316Author

Chapter2
2.1Veremis,T(2008),page184 2.2http://www.fhw.gr/chronos/14/gr/1923_1940/civilization/choros/02.html, PhotoarchivesE.L.I.A.HellenicLiteratureandHistoricalarchive 2.3Arseni,K(2004),page168 2.4Arseni,K(2004),page169 2.5Arseni,K(2004),page264

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2.6http://www.fhw.gr/chronos/14/gr/1923_1940/civilization/choros/02.html ,Photoarchives,1732Nelly's,BenakiMuseum 2.7Arseni,K(2004),page80 2.8Koumanoudis,I(2001),page25 2.9Koumanoudis,I(2001),page47 2.10Chatzifotiou,Z(2003),page69,archiveofGeortgantasfamily 2.11ArchivesofBankofGreece 2.12Vatopoulos,N(2002),page97 2.132.17Author

Chapter3
Casestudies Case studies figures numbered as c.s. 1 to 252 are photos made by the author exceptfor: c.s.3c.s.4http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/Gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=250 c.s.13Kotsaki,A(2005),page143fig82 c.s.23http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=214 c.s.34c.s.35Karakostaspersonalfamilyarchive c.s44http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=184 c.s.4550BankofGreeceArchives c.s.5960FessaEmmanouil,EandMarmaras,V(2005)page22 c.s.70c.s.71ByzantineandChristianMuseumarchives c.s82c.s.83ByzantineandChristianMuseumarchives c.s.84NeoHellenicArchivesofArchitecture,BenakiMuseum c.s.102Malliarisfamilypersonalarchive c.s.113FessaEmmanouil,EandMaramaras,V(2005,)page203 c.s.136http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=165
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c.s. 143. Courtesy of FlengaKouremenou Marina: photographer Nikolaidou Louiza c.s.144Vatopoulos(2002),page117 c.s.177FessaEmmanouil,EandMaramaras,V(2005,)page189 c.s.179c.s180FessaEmmanouil,EandMaramaras,V(2005,)page189 c.s.190courtesyofTzartzanisNikos c.s.201http://www.agsavvas hosp.gr/site/main/details.php?type=1&catID=52&lang=el 3.13.7Author 3.8EllinikiEtairiaunpublishedresearch 3.93.17Author 3.183.22BankofGreecearchives(unpublished) 3.233.26Author

Chapter4
4.1 Frerigang, C Kremier J (2003), page 349 from: p.202 of Dictionaire raisonne delarchitecturefrancaiseduXIauXVIsiecleIVvolume 4.2Ruhl,C(2003),page466from:tab.4,TheSevenlampsofArchitecture,IVed. 4.3Arseni,k(2004)page89 4.4Author

Chapter5
5.1http://areopagitou17.blogspot.com/ 5.25.3 http://www.monumenta.org/article.php?IssueID=4&perm=1&ArticleID=316&Cate goryID=23&lang=gr 5.45.12Author

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Preface Aknowledgments

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Preface 5. Discussion

Preface
MyfirstcontactwiththehistoricalprofileofcontemporaryAthenswasin1999, readinganarticlebyNikosVatopoulos(1999)entitledMultistoreybuildingsare becoming classical. I was then completing my undergraduate studies in RestorationofAntiquitiesandwasatfirstshockedbythewriterspositions.He claimed that some of these multistorey concrete buildings have a strong historical value portraying, an interesting architectural history thatdid not stop eitherin1930orin1960,notevennowadays,reflectingthecityscontemporary history. It arose many questions in my mind and awakened my interest for conservation of recent architecture, leading me to study Conservation of HistoricalBuildingsattheUniversityofYork. ThereforeIlookedforasubjectformyresearchthatwouldfulfillmydesiretogo deep into studying issues related to recent architectural conservation and the architecturalevolutionofmycityaswell.OnceIrealizedthestrictrelationshipof terrazzoandmosaicstotheirancientpredecessors,thesubjectbecameclearto me. I wanted to study how, in one of the considered birth places of artificially made floors, the technique was still in use in more recent constructions. The Interwar years, being an extremely interesting time range for Greece and the architectureofAthens,gavemetheopportunitytolimitmyresearchinterestto a specific period of twenty years. In short, contrasting classical conservation knowledge and onsite experience on ancient floors to the different needs of conservingafloorinarecentbuilding,gavemefertilegroundforresearch.The resultsofthisresearch,forme,introduceasubjectworthconsideringandalso studiedfurtherinthefuture.

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Acknowledgments
Iwouldliketothankallthosewhohelpedmeduringthisresearchwithoutwhom thecompletionofthispaperwouldhavebeenimpossible: DrPeterGouldsborough,whohavingdirectedtwoyearsofwhatIwouldliketo call the York experience rather than the MA, was an extraordinary supervisor forme.Hisveryclarifyingguidelinesonhowtosetupanykindofresearchand hisaccuratesupervisionobservationsmademe,totheverylastmoment,think, reflectanddevelopmyinitialquestionsandobservations; The staff of the consulted archives of: the NeoHellenic Architecture Archive of theBenakiMuseumwithspecialmentiontotheirverykindsecretary;theBank of Greece; the Byzantine and Christian Museum and the archeologist Nikos Konstantios; the Ellliniki Etairia SAK (Council for Conservation of Architectural Heritage) and the architect Katerina Chatzikonstantinou; the officers of the ArmedForcesOfficersClub; the owners that warmly allowed me into their houses to study and made photographs also giving me some of their time for an interview: Margo Chatzinikoli, Nikos Georgiadis, dr Athanasios Kardaras, Marina Flenga Kouremenou, the Karakostas Family, Eleni and Panagiotis Malliaris, Ina Meleggoglou, Admiral Moralis , Stathis Perdikis, Nikos Tartzanis Marina and GeorgeZombanakis; the architects Efi Kalliga, Christos Deligiannis and Ioanni Koumanoudis for their personalcommentsonmysubject; my friends and colleagues: Antonis Bekiaris, Maria Krini and Michalis Bardanis, whoalwayshadtheireyesopentofindandproposebuildingsthatcouldbeof interestforthisresearch. allmyfamilyandfriendswhostoodbyme,remindingmethatthereisalifealso aftertheinterwar,helpingmekeepthebalancebetweenstudyandreallife. andaboveall,myfantastic,extrapatientproofreader,whosurvivedthroughmy ItalianpointofviewabouttheEnglishlanguage.

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Introduction

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues I. Introduction

I.Introduction
The present research aims at analyzing and understanding the use of terrazzo and mosaic floorsof Interwar buildings in the Greek capital, Athens, and issues ontheirconservation. Mosaics and Terrazzo are ancient arts used in different architectural contexts since they offer both excellent mechanical characteristics and possibilities for artisticcreativity. Floors,asunderlinedinarecentstudybyBucci,Farioli,andGuarieri,(2006,85) areoneofthemajorwitnessesofthecultureofhabitationthroughthecenturies, buthaveoftenbeenundervaluedorevendestroyed.Themainobjectiveofthis study is therefore to underline the importance of this ancient artistic form in a moderncontextandwhyitisasvaluableastobeworthpreserving. Tryingtocollectasmanyrelevantdataforasubject,towhichunfortunatelynot enoughattentionhasyetbeengiven,thefollowingmainquestionswillbedealt with.First,therelationbetweenterrazzoandmosaicwillbeexaminedthrougha historic overview of the evolution and fabrication of these artifacts. Then, an analysisofthesocialchangesofInterwarandthenewarchitecturalprofileofthe city, as well as questions on the relation between social classes and choice of architecture will be presented. Once the social significance of these changes is clarified case studies of the various architectural styles will be examined, in searchforarelationbetweensocialclassandchoiceoffloorsandalsohowthe various techniques and uses have influenced their preservation status. Subsequently and before proposing any solutions, the different applications of conservationtheorieswhenitcomestoconservationofrecentarchitecturewill be investigated. In conclusion, after integrating the observations of the issues, someproposalswillbepresentedonwhythesefloorsshouldbeconservedand how,bothfromatheoreticalandapracticalpointofview.

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I.iLimitationsoftheresearch
Before dealing with the research, a short presentation of the geographical and chronologicallimitsofthesubjectwillbebrieflypresented.

I.i.iGeographicalspan:Greece,Athens
Already from the times of Plinius, as reported by Bertelli (1988, 10), there are studies that relate to the birth of artificial pavements in the Hellenic area. I thereforefounditextremelyinterestingtoanalyzetheuseofthisartandcraftin thissameareayetinthemoderncontextofcontemporaryGreece. AsthesubjecthasenormouspossibilitiesofanalysisIdecidedtoconcentratemy research on the capital of Greece, Athens, because contemporary Athens accurately represents, socially, artistically and financially, what is happening in thecountryasawhole. ThecapitalofGreeceissituatedinthesoutheasternpartofthemainlandofthe Hellenicpeninsula(fig.I.1).ThereisadeeprelationshipbetweenAthensandits monumentalandhistoricalprofile.Thisisanaturalconsequenceforacitywhere, as PantelidouGkofa (1997, 23) explains, continuous forms of habitation are presentfromca40004500a.C.untiltoday.

FigureI.1: Locationof Athens Source:Google Earth


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Whatpeopletendtoundervalueisthatthereisastartingpointforthemodern newcapital.AftertheestablishmentofthenewfreestateofGreecein1830,the cityofAthensbecameitscapitalin1833.Eventhoughinthoseyearsaccordingto travelers reviews reported by Iliopoulos (2000, 69), Biris (1996,9) and Travlos (1967,9),thecitylookedverydamagedandmiserable;itwasselected,ecauseof its long and glorious past (Koutsoukos 1984, 13) underlines, due to the long glorioushistoryoftheplace. Pantelodimou(1997,136)notes,thatfromthatdayonacontinuousdevelopment of the city with new buildings was taking place for almost a century. Koumantaropoulou and Michailidis (1994) state that this development was relatedprincipallytotheStateandtheKingdom,dependingatthesametimeon sponsorshipsofexpatriatedGreeksand,onasmallerscale,onprivateinitiatives. The flow of constant development was interrupted at the beginning of the twentieth century. The First World War and the Balkan wars related thereto, exhaustedGreecemorallyandfinancially.Theendofthewariscloselyrelatedto thefirstpopulationexplosioninAthens,asJohns(2007,88),Tsounis(2004,14) andClogg(2002,125)describe.Yet,andinspiteoftheunstablepoliticalsituation, aftertheinitialshock,theInterwarperiod,representsforAthensafertileground of redevelopment visibly manifested through architectural creations. Only recently has this period been evaluated as a milestone in contemporary Greek Architecture.

I.iiTimespan:Interwar
Tapini (2007, 1) defines that historians specify Interwar as the time period between 19181939, beginning with the peace treaties at the conclusion of the GreatWarlatercalledWorldWarIandendingwiththeoutbreakofWorldWar inSeptember1939. Greece, as the rest of Europe at that time, was characterized by fluidity and instability. To understand the political and social situation in Greece and its
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effectsonArchitectureweneedtorunthroughashortoverviewofthegeneral conditionsoftheInterwarperiodworldwide. I.ii.iInterwarworldwide TheInterwarperiodpresentsgreatinterestforstudyindifferentsectors,asitis the starting point for a social, economic and artistic transformation that characterizedthecenturytofollow. Tobeginwith,asFisher(1957,1221)explains,thegreatestfutureofthatperiodis that all previous political balances ceased to exist. The Great War was fought betweenthemostcivilizedcountriesinEurope;theAustroHungarianEmpire, KaisersGermany,theOttomanEmpireandTsaristRussia;byitsendtheempires collapsedandthereforeEuropehadtoberedefined. Markezinis (1968, 262) underlines that during the new redefinition of Europe, America comes on the scene as a key factor in international politics. This accelerated general social reforms at the same time incising global economy. Therefore,whentherapidgrowthofAmericaseconomyviolentlycollapsedthe 1929 Wall Street Great Crashmore than twenty million people worldwide werecondemnedtodeepunemployment.Thatcreatednewpoliticalinstabilities andawidemistrusttowardspoliticalsystemsandsocialvalues. Ontheotherhandandontheoppositesideoftheglobe,Russias1917Bolshevik revolution was proposing a different solution to capitalism. The revolution, followed by the growth of Stalinism was, as per Kosmidis (1997, 254), another shockandathreattothepoliticalandsocialequilibriumthroughoutEurope. ForallthisuncertaintyOvery(1999,76)explainsthat,eventhoughin1920most European countries followed some kind of democracy, they gradually became dictatorships. Interwar, as per Keynes (1974, 360) was the period of history conductedbyideologiesandnotbyhumaneverydayneeds.

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I.ii.iiInterwarinGreece FollowingtheinternationalpoliticalsituationGreecefacesanextremelyunstable period. Kassimatis (1992, 439) excellently defines the Interwar years for Greece as the most tragic and anomalous times which bear their mark on the modern statesbalancesuntiltoday. Numeroussignificantpoliticalchangesoccurredinlessthan20years.Kyriakidis (2001,205)synthesizesthisinstability;theabolishmentofmonarchy,thereturn todemocracyandviceversa,aswellastheestablishmentoftwodictatorships; alltheseshapetheGreekpoliticalsituationoftheInterwar. ThemostincisiveresultofaseriesoferroneouspoliticaldecisionsforGreecewas definitelytheAsiaMinorcatastrophein1922.Fromthenonandallthroughthe Interwar years what characterizes all the Greek social and economical transformations in the country are related to the huge problem of sudden overpopulation. Themostinterestingfactofthisperiodisthat,asRigos(1992,405)describes,at a time of tremendous economical problems, ideological disorientation, and full socialredefinition,ideologistofthetimefaceditasanopportunityfortherebirth of the country. The starting point was Athens, the capital that would be transformed into a Metropolis. There, through continuous battle between the old and conservative and the new and modern, innovative and interesting experimentationsoccurredinallthearts,butespeciallyinArchitecture. Having introduced the main subject of this paper and located it in time and space,wewillnowproceedtoabriefanalysisofwhatliteraturehasbeenalready published. This literature review will be a preamble to the topic before the systematicpresentationoftheresultsofthisstudyintherelativechapters.

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Literature Review

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues II. Literature review

II.Literaturereview
The main scope of this research is to understand and evaluate terrazzo and mosaicfloors.InthemodernapproachtowardsInterwarbuildingsthesefloors, eventhoughrelatedwithalonghistoryandtradition,areoftennotconsidered worthpreserving. Tocomprehendmysubjectthefirststepofmyresearchwastofindbibliography resources.Beforepresentingmypointofviewonthesubjectoftheresearchthe mainsourceswillbereviewed,commentedonandrelatedseparatelyeachtothe centralsubjectoftherespondingchapter.

II.iMosaicsandTerrazzo
Guarinos(2004)observationonthevagueandconfusinguseofthetermmosaic isthecoreofthefirstchapter,wherethebirthandevolutionoftheseartsand craftsareanalyzedhistoricallyandtechnically. Tobeginwith,thedefinitionforartificialfloorfinishesisgivenaspresentedbyOrsini (2004a)andMarini(2003).Therearetoofewspecificstudiesorreferencestothebirth ofconstructedpavements.Theonlyvaluablesourceforthespecificareaofmystudy, theHellenicarea,waspublishedbyOrlandos(1989). Moving from the general definition of pavements to the study of terrazzo and mosaics several publications are available, from which the most significant will nowbepresented,subdividedintothreemaincategories. Firstarethehistoricalstudiesthatanalyzethehistoryofthebirthandevolution ofthisart.Therearecompletebooksdedicatedtothesubjectofmosaicsbutitis quite interesting that different studies have different approaches, not so much asregardstheevolutionbutastothetimeandplaceoftheirbirth. For example the analysis of the history and evolution of this art by Lavagne (1988),leavesopenthequestionofwhereandhowmanytimesthisarthasbeen reinvented in the Mediterranean area in the antiquity. Bertelli (1988) is of the
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sameopinion,yethedoesmentiontheancientsourceofPlinius,whoattributes the invention of mosaic to the Greeks. The opinion of these two scholars is contradicted by AsimakopoulouAtzaka (2003), Chatzidakis (2003), Dunabin (1999) and Ling (1998), who place the birth of this art definitely in the ancient Greek world. The texts of Lavagne and Bertelli have been very helpful as they extend the overview till the present days; however, the positions on the origin queryintheotherpublicationshavebeenconsideredmoreaccurateastheyare derivedfromspecificarcheologicalstudiesonancientmosaics. Theintroductorytextsofexhibitioncataloguesonthebirthandevolutionofthe art have been very useful for crossreferencing of the consulted books. Bucci, Farioli,Guarieri,(2006);Raimondi(2004);andParis(1999)forinstanceanalyzein theirarticlesthesocialmeaningsrelatedtothedifferingchoicesfromthevariety of artificial pavement types. Finally, Orsini (2004b) wrote an excellent article linkingthehistoricalreviewtotheevolutionofthetechniquesofthisart. The more thorough analyses of specifications and differences between the varioustechniquesalwaysbeginbyreferringtotheancientsources.Theancient recipesreportedbyVitruvius,apartfromthetranslationbyMorgan,(1960),have remained mainly unaltered in time and are the starting point for the studies of Marini(2003),FiorentiniRoncuzzi,Fiorentini(2001),Galli,(1989)Kolefas,(1983). Thelatterareextendedstudiesontechniques,technologyandevolutionofthe art,andmoreorlessreportsimilarfabricationmethodologies. Havingcomprehendedthehistoricalandtechnicalevolutionoftheartthestudy hasfinallybeenfocusedontheliteraturerelatingtothesocalledcontemporary techniques.GoingbacktoLavagnestext(1988)thereisagoodintroductionon modern mosaic and terrazzo techniques and particularly on the transformation oftheartduringtheindustrialrevolutionathemefurtheranalyzedinthearticle by Bosia (2002). Extended descriptions of the technique of modern mosaics fabricationwerefoundinthetwopublicationsbyTosi(2004a,2004b),whoalso reports observations by De Luca (1989). Finally, the most accurate recipe and description on terrazzo was published by Marini (2003) in the volume on the

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Mosaics of Aquileia, where she explains the evolution of the different flooring techniquesintheareaofFriuli. FocusingonmysubjectImustunderlinethefactthatallhistoricalandtechnical studies classify terrazzo and mosaic in the category of mosaics. However, terrazzobatuttoinantiquitywhenevercomparedtomosaichasalwaysbeen undervalued and regarded as poor craftsmanship and not an art. As a result terrazzoisusuallynotgivenanyattentionandthereisagapofmissingaccurate information in mosaic literature about it, both as a historical study and as a reportonconservationandrepairmatters.

II.iiInterwarsocialimpactandarchitectureinAthens
ChaptertwoisdedicatedtostudyingthesocioeconomicbackgroundofGreece duringtheInterwaryearsanditseffectonarchitecture. TotraceanoutlineoftheformationofthenewsocialfabricintheInterwarcity of Athens, its new economy and the new social balances brought about by the sudden overpopulation, different historical texts have been consulted. Wide differenceswerenotedintheobservationsofGreekandforeignscholars.Texts ofGreekwritersingeneral,likeKyriakidis(2001)andVournas(1997),givemore detailed data on the period but unfortunately their points of view bear strong tracesoftheirpersonalpoliticalviews.However,anotherGreekscholar,Veremis (2008) gave an impartial study of the period under observation. The data was further cross checked with very useful and more objective sources, i.e. the studiesofforeignerslikeJohn(2007),Clogg(2002)andKaplan(2002). All the texts emphasized that the greatest effect of these fast changes in the socialtextureofthebuiltenvironmentwastheexpansionofthecityofAthens, whichfinallyacquiredanurbanprofile.FirstTournikiotis(1991)andGalani(1997) notetheimportantstatemeasures,verydetaileddataonwhicharereportedin theunpublishedthesisofKosmaki(1991).Stateandprivatesconstructedallover theregionofAttica,asreportedbyKairofillas(1988),Giacumacatos(1999)and Kaukala (1999). But it is only Biris (2003) who makes an important note on the

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illegality of many of those constructions. Finally a very important source of informationregardingthisurbanevolutionweretwospecialpublicationsonthe birth and evolution of the multistorey building: one by Marmaras (1991) with legal and technical specifications and another by Constantopoulos (1999) who focusedonitssocialprojections. Asaresultofthesenewsocioeconomicfactorsdifferentarchitecturaltypologies were developed. The approach to recent architecture is mutable in time. It is thereforecharacteristicthatthefirstpublicationonthatperiod,writtenin1966 byBiris(1996),isverycriticalandspeaksofadevaluationofarchitecture. Nowadays the approach has changed and has become favourable, with more studiesandtextsdealingwiththearchitectureofthattime.Evenso,writersdo not seem to agree on what the prevalent typologies are. Vatopoulos (2002, 2000) speaks of eclecticism and neoclassicism, art nouveau and art deco, and modern movement but does not mention anything about popular architecture. Onthecontrary,Cholevas(1998,1994)whobasedhisstudyonthearchitectsof thattime,dedicatesalargepartofhisstudytoPopularstyle.Throughthisstudy, concentrating on architects inventing or using different styles, I perceived the experimentation character of the time, a combination of many different influences.Biris(2003)research,eventhoughfocusedonneoclassicism,astyle thatdisappearedintheInterwar,isavaluableclarificationofwhatismodernist and its distinction from the modern movement. Finally, the most detailed publications on the modern movement are those by Tournikiotis (2000) and Giacumacatos (2004). However these two do not agree on the diffusion of the modern movement; Tournikiotis maintains that it was also very much used by thestatewhereasGiacumacatosthatithadflourishedmoreintheprivatesector. Havinglookedatthevariouspointsofview,thearticleofGiacumacatos(1999) and the publications by FessaEmmanouil and Marmara (2005) and Kolonas (2006) were selected for the creation of a basis for the classification in the presentstudy.Thisselectionwasbasedonthefactthatthesethreesummarized theinformationoftherestofthepublicationsinalogicalmanner.
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II.iiiCasestudiesandConservation
The third chapter is entirely concentrated on the collection of data. This procedurestartedwiththephotographsthephotographsinthepublicationsby FessaEmmanouil and Marmara (2005), Vatopoulos (2002) and Fillippids (2001) whichservedasguidesinthesearchforexamplebuildingsthatmighthavefloors interestingforthisstudy.

II.ivContemporaryConservationapproachtoModernArchitecture
Once the various cases and their particular traits were sorted out and before discussinganysolutionsachapteronthetransformationofearlierphilosophical issuesandpracticalapproacheswasdeemednecessary.Conservationofrecent architecture is quite a modern issue but it is the offspring of two centuries debatesamongconservationscientistsandpractitioners. The history of conservation has been written through the ideas and distinctive personalitiesofdifferentscholars,eachoftheminfluencingtheformationofthe philosophical background of the science. Valuable and detailed observations about them were found in dedicated monographs (Curuni 2005, 1996; Esposito 2005;LaRegina2005;Napoleone2005c;Carbonara1996;deMartinoG.1996;de MartinoR.1996;DiBiase1996;MarmottiPoliti1996;Pretelli1996;Vassalo1996). Ceschi in 1970, followed on the same grounds by Sette (2001), presented a combinedanalysisofpersonalitiesandmovementswhichwasquiteelucidating. FurthermoreHistorybyJokilehto(2005)linkedamoreuniversalapproachtothe previousdataintroducingatthesametimethenonEurocentrictheoriesandalso issuedrelatedtotheconservationofmorerecentconstructions.Amoredetailed treatiseonthecontemporaryapproachtoconservationisfoundintheTheoryby Munoz Vinas (2005) with a critical and also realistic approach, yet confronting theorists and maximum conservation axioms like authenticity and minimum intervention. Focusingonthemainsubjectofthe chapter,thatis,whichofthesocalledclassical conservationprinciplesisalsoapplicabletotheconservationofourrecentarchitectural
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past, important data were traced in many articles of the DOCOMOMO conference proceedings(1989,1997,1998,2006).Withthepassageoftimetheinterestinmodern architecture brought about the assembling of case studies in specific volumes like ConservationofModernArchitecture'(2007)presentingdifferentinterestingviewsby thevariouswriters.Finally,lastyearavolumebyPrudon(2008)waspublishedinthe UnitedStates,whichIconsideranexcellentstudybothonphilosophicalandpractical issuesaswellasontheirinterrelationship. All the above mentioned texts coincide in concluding that classical approach is not applicabletorecentarchitecturesconservation.Theonlyexceptionisthetextbythe Italian Bardeschi (2004), where he strongly criticizes the mutated approach and divulgedreconstructioninmodernbuildings.Formethough,hispointisincorrectand verydistantfromtherealproblemsaconservationspecialisthastodealwithincasesof recentarchitectureandthereforehispointwasnotincludedinthechapter. Lastly, studies on the conservation of the recent architectural past in Greece, the geographicalareaofthestudy,wereconsulted.Concerninglegalmattersmyreferences werederivedfromthespecializedtextbyPapapetropoulos(2006)whoanalyzesthe various points of the latest law on Heritage protection and from Ergolavous (2007) unpublishedresearch.Asforthematterofsafeguardingrecentarchitecturalheritage, veryinterestingviewswerefoundinvariousjournals.(Giacumacatos2003;Rigopoulos 2005 & 2008; Papakonstantinou 2008), For me this demonstrates the beginning of a growinginterestforsafeguardingrecentarchitecturalpastinGreece. Inconclusion,threemainresourceareaswerecoveredfrombibliographysources: Theintroductiontofloortechniques,fromahistoricalandtechnicalpoint; The Interwar social reflections on architecture through historical, social and architecturalstudies TheevolutionofConservationTheory Havingreviewedthemainbibliographicsourceswewillproceedwiththeobservations derived from the comparison of these data and on site research, presented in the followingchapters.

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1
Pavements,Terrazzo, Mosaics,

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.Pavements,Terrazzo,Mosaics
Asastartforthistextitisusefultomakeanoverviewofthebirthandevolution ofthetwotechniquesforartificiallymadefloors,whicharethemainsubjectsof this research: Terrazzo and Mosaics. This chapter clarifies the correlation between these two techniques and their main differences; it also elucidates terminologyconfusions. The problem of terminology exists because, as Guarino (2004, 13) explains, the term mosaics is used to describe floor finishes made in very different techniques. In Greece there is an even deeper confusion because the term (mosaic) is used for floors made by terrazzo technique while mosaics areusuallycalled(tessellated). Toclearthematterabriefhistoricalandtechnologicalreviewofthefabrication techniquesofthesefloorsandpavementsisthereforepresented.

1.1Pavements
ThedefinitionofapavementfromanarchitecturalpointofviewisasperCurls dictionary(2006,564): Pathsurfacedwithstonesorothermaterials,includingcement,cobbles,flags,rag stones,squaresetts,tarmacadam,etc. Orsini(2004a,27)explainsthatthebirthofartificiallymadepavementswasdue totheneedforfloorsresistanttouseandenviromentalagents.Whenanalyzing the history of pavements it is worth understanding the root of the word pavement. Marini (2003, 172) in his latest study notes that the word pavement derivesfromtheGreekverb(paio)andlaterfromtheLatinverbpave.Paio meant to beat or hit and the Latin pave to beat and level the ground. This illustrateshowthefirstformsofpavementswerecreatedbylevelingtheground bybeatingit,sometimesaftermixingitwithpebbles,rocksanddifferentwaste

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

materialsofconstruction.Laterthematerialsstartedtobemixedwiththelime mortarforhigherresistance,sothefirstbattutofloorswereborn.

1.2FromBattutotoTerrazzo
Orlandos (1994, 50) sustains that the in the Hellenic area use of limemortar beaten floors, the socalled battuto, is prehistoric, that means before 800 b.C. More specifically Asimakopoulou Atzaka (2003, 11) dates some of the first battuto floors back to the Minoan and Mycenaean eras with testimonials from thepalacesofthetimes(fig.1.1). Thebattutofloor(fig.1.2)Latintermusedinternationallyinscientificstudiesof mosaic floors has been translated in English, according to Farnetis glossary (1993,131),ascementpavement,limemortarorbeatenfloorandstandsfor: Generaltermforallconcretelikefloorsmadeoflimemixedwithsand,andbeaten down with rammers. Depending on the type of filler used i.e. powdered marble, crushed brick or charcoal, the floor took on a white, red or black color. A few limestone tesserae or marble chips were often inserted in a simple geometric pattern
Fig.1.2Battuto floor,Morgantina, Sicily,Italy Source:Author Fig.1.1Early testimonialsof battutofloor, Mallia,Crete, Greece Source: Assimakopoulou Atzaka(2003,13)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

Thefirstnotesonthemanufactureofthistypeoffloorfinishesinantiquitycome fromVitruvius(1960,203),consideringthiskindoffoorsasveryimportant.The constructionstepsforVitruviusare: First,rammingdowntheearthtocreateasolidsoilandlevelingit; next,layingthelevelbrokenstones,firstthelargeronesandthenthe smallerones; followsalayerofamixtureofstonesandlime; thefinallayer,thenucleus,iscomposedoflimeandpoundedtile; tofinish,thesurfacemustbeflattenedandleveledwiththehelpofa ruler. Movingontimewehavedetailsonthebattutotechniques,(Lavagne1985,26), fromthecraftsmenoftheregionofFriuliinItaly,wherethistypeoffloorfinishes wasproducedintheXVIIcent.Thetechnique,appliedonbeatenearthgrounds orwoodenslabs(fig1.3),consistedin: 3layersoflimemortarwithaggregates,stonesandpottery,ofdifferent sizes. flatteningofthesurfacewithabigruler. compressingthefloorbybeating.
Fig.1.3Battutoproductionin Friuli,Italy Source:FiorentiniRoncuzziand Fiorentini(2001,106)

Itisobviousthatthebasictechniqueswerethoseoftheromantimes.Depicting this flooring technique, Fiorentini (2001,105) describes how the Friulians have developed the final treatment of the surface of the battuto floors to reach a more compact and brilliant surface. This consisted in smoothing and polishing thefinallayerwhenset.Fromthenonthesekindsoffloorfinisheswillbecalled terrazzo.
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

InFarnettis(1993,155)glossarywefindthedefinitionofterrazzoas: Flooring in which chips of marble are scattered at random or arranged to form simplelinearpatternsonacementmatrix.Onsetting,thesurfaceisgroundsmooth toshowacrosssectionofchipsthroughthemixture. 1.2.1ContemporaryTerrazzo From the definition itself it becomes obvious that the terrazzo pavement is a modern version of the battuto pavements of antiquity. The real changes came about with the substitution of lime mortar for concrete. This, as Marini (2003, 175) underlines, provided the manufacturers with quicker results and harder flooringfinishes. Therearevarioustechniquesforcreatingaconcretebasedterrazzofloor.Oneis very similar to the lime based floor practiced in the Friuli region, described by Marini(2003,175)as:

Fig.1.4Concreteterrazzo, AthensUniversityStudents club,buildin1926,Athens Source:Author

layingonefoundationlayerofarmedconcrete; thesecondlayer(covering)consistsofaggregatesofdifferentcolours andsizesmixedwithcement; thethirdlayer(setting)isadrylayingofmarblepowdermixedwith cement,graduallywettedafterwards; then,andwhilethethirdlayerisstillwet,themarblechipsarespreadon it; aspracticedinthetraditionalbattuto,thefinalphasesconsistinrolling, beating,smoothingandpolishingthesurface.


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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

There are infinite other variations thanks to the possibilities offered by the concrete mix and its potentialities. De Chiara, Panero, J and Martin, Z report a characteristicrecipe(2001,826),whereaverythinandlightbutalwaysresistant floor(fig.1.5)iscreated: onelayerofconcreteslab; thesecondlayerwhichisamixtureofdifferentcolorandsizeaggregates andconcrete; alsointhiscasethefinalphasesconsistinrolling,beating,smoothingand polishing. FromanonsiteanalysisinanInterwarbuildinginAthens,thelayersinsection,as demonstrated in figure 1.6, appear to follow this scheme of thinnest terrazzo (figure1.4)withthefinallayerlaiddirectlyontheconcreteslab.Onthebasisof thiscaseonemaypresumethatInterwarterrazzoinAthenswasconstructedin thismethod. Having analyzed the techniques of manufacturing battuto and terrazzo pavementsonecandefinitelyclassifytheterrazzoasthenaturalsuccessorofthe primitive types of pavements. Although the technique survived with small transformationsforcenturies,anothersimilarandmoreartisticdevelopmentof thecraftcameabout;Mosaics.
Fig.1.5Modernterrazzowiththinlayers Source:DeChiara,JPanero,JandMartin,Z(2001,826) Fig.1.6Interwar terrazzosection (casestudy21) Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.3FromBattutotoMosaics
Theinsertionofpebbles,chips,orlimestonetesseraeinpatternscharacterizeda development in the floor finishes techniques and a passage from the battuto floorstomosaics.Thispassage,asperDunabin(1999,18),cannotbedefinedas anordinarytransition.Mosaicandbattutofloorshavebeenusedalongsideinthe same houses according to the significance and the importance of the rooms (Orsini2004b,Ling1998,Dunabin1999);sometimeseveninthesamefloor,asin someexamplesofthehousesontheislandofDelos(fig.1.7).
Fig.1.7Samplefrom theislandofDelos, withtwotechniques onthesamefloor Source:Fiori,Tolis,and Canestrino(2003,145)

Mosaicsliterallyrepresent,asTorloexplains(2005,7),thepatientworkofthe Muses.Theterminologyofthenamemanifestsacertainrespectonthepartof the ancients for their decorated pavements. Even so, Kolefas (1983,10) and Chatzidakis(2003,51)sustainthatthesefloorfinisheswereused,otherthanfor their strong resistance, because they offered lovely aesthetic results at a low cost.Thiswasbecauseintheearlydaysofthisart,cheapmaterialsofwastefrom construction were used, and that was definitely cheaper than a marble pavement.

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.3.1PebbleMosaics The earliest testimonies of creating patterns on the battuto floors have been discovered, as Assimakopoulou Atzaka (2003, 11) reports, at Mallia in Crete inside a Minoan house from the Neolithic ages. This pavement has simple geometricpatternsmadeoutofsmallpebbles(fig.1.1).YetintheHellenicarea, therearestillnoarcheologicalevidencesthatmaylinktheseearlyfloorswiththe famouspebblemosaicsofPellainMacedoniaoftheclassicaltimes(fig.1.8).The pebblemosaicsoftheendofthefifthtothethirdcenturyb.C.havegivenusrich testimonials of figurative and geometric decorations of floors in different archeological sites, and are in extensive use till today all over Greece and the Mediterranean(fig.1.9).

Fig.1.8PebbleMosaicfloordetail, AncientPella,Macedonia,Greece Source:Beretlli(1988,17)

Fig.1.9PebbleMosaicfloorofcentral squarewithinscription1889,Spetses island,Greece,Source:Author

AssimakopoulouAtzaka(2003,17)furtherontomentionsthatthefirstimportant transitioninthehistoryofthemosaicartoccurredduringthethirdandsecond centuries b.C.. In experimenting new techniques for more realistic representations the use of cut stones or marbles, the tesserae, has been
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

introducedstartingwithmixedtechniquesofpebblesandtesserae.Thecreation ofthetesseraeconsistedincuttingthestonesorthepebblesbyhandwiththe help of a hammer and a hardy (fig.1.10) into parallelepipeds. In fact the Latin wordtesseraederivesfromtheGreekwordfornumberfour,(tessera), referringtoeitherthefouranglesorthefoursidesoftheirexternalsurfaces.A tesseraisthesmallestunitofanymosaicandthetermisinusefromthenonuntil today.
Fig.1.10Creation oftesserae throughstone cutting Source:Tosi,M (2004b,128)

1.3.2TesseraeMosaics The tesserae are the most significant factor in characterizing a mosaic. Many changes of the tesserae, both in their forms and their uses, occurred from the ancienttimesuntiltoday.Thisgavebirthtodifferentformsofmosaicsandthe artmovedonfromfloortowalldecorationandtoworkofart.Thesetransitions are widely analyzed in different studies (Atzaka 2003; Bertelli 1988; Fiorentini 2001; Kolefas 1983; Lavagne 1988; Raimondi 2004), but are not relative to this study. The important question for the present paper is how the tesserae characterizesmosaicfloorfinishes.TheanswercanagainbefoundinFarnettis glossary(1993,140),wherethedefinitionofmosaicfloorsis: Mosaic executed on the floor and consisting of stone tesserae for greater wear resistance..Inantiquityfloormosaicswereexecutedinsituusingthedirectmethod afterprovidingasuitablefoundation.Nowadays,mosaicsectionsaresetintheworkshop using the indirect method and then assembled in situ. The surface of floor mosaics is usuallypolishedtoasmoothfinishtowithstandwearandtearofeverydayuse.
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

Mosaic Basically a mosaic pavement consists of the tesserae and the binder. To understand the fabrication of a mosaic floor we have to recall Vituvius description, which has been schematically reported by Farneti (1993, 128), Fiorentini(2001,130)andLoukianos(2003,43)(fig.1.11): layingofstatumen,thepreparatorylevelmadeofbigstones; followedbyrudus,secondpreparatoryleveloflimemortarwithlarge aggregates; onceitdries,followsthenucleus,athinnerpreparatorylayeroflime mortarandthinneraggregates; finallyabeddinglayeroflimemortarisspread,wheretesseraeare insertedbeforeitsets; themosaicsurfacewasalsoflattenedwithabigrulerandthefloorwas compressedbybeating. This technique, called direct method, remained unaltered until the 19th century. Cangemi (2001, 85) explains that even when modern materials are used, which means less layers are required, the execution of mosaics by insertion of the tesseraedirectlyontothepermanentbinderiscalleddirectmethod.
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Fig.1.11 Mosaic stratigraphy accordingto Vitruvious: 1:Statumen 2:Rudus 3:Nucleus 4:Bedding layer 5:Tesserae Source:Getty (2003, unpublished)

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.3.3ModernMosaictechniques TherearetwosignificantevolutionsinthehistoryofmanufacturingMosaics.The first appeared again in Friuli in Italy and relates to the posing techniques. Tosi (2004a,86)mentionsthatthemosaicartisanGianDomenicoFacchinainvented theindirectmethodaround186974.AsLavagne(1988,134)noteshemusthave definitely been influenced by the method of detaching and transporting the ancient mosaics from situ to museums. The indirect method consisted of the followingsteps: thedesignisrevolvedonpaper; thetesseraearegluedontothepaper; panelsnotlargerthan50x50cmwerecreatedinthelaboratory; onceinsituthepanelsinsertedonacementmortar; whenthecementwasset=theglueandthewaterwerewashedaway. The advantages of this method stand in time saving and in the fact that the mosaic, as it is created on an even surface it is already flat and needs no flatteningandsmoothing.
Fig.1.12Mosaic createdwith theindirect techniquefrom precast porcelaintiles in1907by E.Grasset showingthe fabrication method. Source: Lavagne (1987,img15)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

The second major change occurred at the beginning of the XX century and influenced the tesserae production. Up until that time all floor mosaics were made out of stone tesserae for resistance to use. The fabrication of the stone tesserae has been the same for centuries, i.e. always by hand cutting by the traditionalhammerandhardy. At the beginning of the new century and amidst the industrial revolution the precasttesseraewereinvented.Thesewerenowmadeoutofvitreousglasstiles, suitableforoutsidespacesandpavementsoroutofporcelaintiles.AsLavagne (1988,139)notes,thisofferedmosaicsnewprospects(fig.1.12).Thecolorrange wasnowunlimitedandcombiningtheprecasttesseraewiththeindirectmethod markedthepassageofmosaicsfromasolelyartisticexpressiontoanindustrial product. Onefinalnotionshouldbemadeonthesubstitutionoflimeforconcretemortar where,thankstothestrongadhesionpowerofconcrete,tesseraedonotneedto beplanteddeepintothemortar.Thisallowedforthinnertesserae.Theprecast producedtesserae,thinnerthanthehandcutones,reducedthetotalweightand facilitatedthetransportationofmosaicscreatedinalaboratorywiththeindirect technique.Infigures1.13and1.14thereisapracticaldemonstrationfoundinthe ZillerLoverdoubuildinginAthens.

Fig.1.13Tesserainsection. (casestudy8) Source:Author

Fig.1.14Sectionoflacuna(casestudy8) Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.4TerrazzoandMosaicsimilarities
In conclusion, from antiquity on till nowadays, when analyzing terrazzo and mosaicfloorfinishesonecanobservelotsofsimilarities.Tobeginwith,wehave similarconstitutionmaterials,basicallytwo:stonesorotherhardmaterialsanda beddingmortar.ThenasperTosi(2004b,17),whenstudyingthefabrication,the battuto mortar can actually be incorporated in the preparatory laying layers of themosaic.ItissignificantthatforVitruvius,inhisTenthbookofarchitecture,in thechapteronfloors,thereisnocleardistinctionbetweenbattutoandmosaic fabrication.Heonlynotesadifferenceinthephraseonthetopofthenucleus, thefloormadeoutofslipsorcubes.So,ifthestructuralpartandelementsare verysimilar,wehavetosearchforthedifferencesinthecommunicativeesthetic part.

1.5Mosaicandterrazzodifferences
In both cases of these floor finishes we can observe an optic illusion of small piecesorganizedinauniformopticunity.Intryingtodefinewhatdifferentiatesa mosaic from a terrazzo, it depends as per De Luca (1989, 12), on whether rules are followed or not. For a mosaic to be characterized as such it should contain organized patterns formed by tesserae and characterized by their shape, size, and arrangement as well as the interstices of mortar between them (fig. 1.15). Wheretheserulesarenotfollowedwehaveterrazzofloors(fig.1.16).
Fig.1.15 Mosaic particular from Asaroton, Aquileia, Italy Source: Author

Fig.1.16 Terrazzo particular Petralona, Athens, Greece Source: Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 1. Pavements; Mosaics and Terrazzo

1.6.Conclusion
After this small overview of the history of terrazzo and mosaic floors we can acceptsurethatwearedealingwithanartistictechnique,unalteredintimeeven intheexistenceofstylisticvariationsrelativetotimeandplace(Raimondi,2004; Galli,1989;Bertelli,1988).Bosia(2002,379)reflectsthatthetraditionaltechnique has never been entirely repudiated not even by the modern culture of construction. The most significant alteration has been the substitution of lime mortar for a cement based mix. This, as per Locktov and Mastandrea (2003, 18), provided durableandwaterresistantfloorsinquickermanufacturetimes.Ithinkthatitis thisslightmodernizationinthemanufacturingthatallowedtheincorporationof terrazzoandmosaicsinthebuildingsoftheinterwarperiodinGreece.Aswewill further analyze Interwar constructions in Greece were mainly concrete based, there is therefore a concordance of materials of the main building with the terrazzoandmosaicfloors. Having clarified the correlation and the differences between terrazzo and mosaic, the next chapter will be dealing with the connection between architecturestyleofthebuildingscontainingterrazzoandmosaicsandthenew socialtextureoftheGreekcapitalduringtheInterwaryears.

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2
Interwar social impact and Architecture in Athens

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.InterwarsocialimpactandArchitectureinAthens
As already mentioned in the Introduction, the Interwar years, 19191940, were characterized by instability and continuous political and social movements. The purposeofthischapteristotraceanoutlineofhowthesecontinuouschanges influencedsocialconditionsinGreeceandinterferedwiththenewarchitectural profile of the city. Social position was decisive in determining the choice between the different architectural styles and only when the background of thesechoicesiscomprehendedcouldonefocusonthesubjectoffloorfinishesin thesebuildingsandunderstandtheirsocialreflection.

2.1InterwarnewsocialconditionsinGreece
It would be impossible to understand the social conditions of the Greek capital during those years without briefly mentioning the results of the different wars the country had gone through. The Interwar period for the rest of Europe correspondedwiththestartingpointofyearsofpeace.ThecaseforGreecewas quitedifferent. Greece, at the end of the First World War, differently from the rest of Europe, wascomingoutofatotalof8yearsofcontinuouswars,asbeforeWorldWarI thecountryhadbeenentangledinthefirstandsecondBalkanWars.Contraryto theEuropeanstateforpeace,Greecein1919continuedlaunchedatwarsinceit began the campaign in Asia Minor. That campaign, as Vournas (1997, 211) explains, was veiled behind imperialistic motives, a dream of recreating the Byzantine Empire. The conclusion was written three years later, in 1922, by the Asia Minor catastrophe, where thousands of people were killed, and the survivorsbecamerefugeesontheGreekterritory. This dramatic conclusion marked the belated beginning of the Interwar period for Greece. The decades spent in wars and the Asia Minor catastrophe, as Veremis (2008, 45) explains, assigned huge economical and social problems to thecountry.Defeatedwereactuallythepoliticsofwar,asdefinedbyLadogianni

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

(1989, 8) and the beginning of that era was marked by the need for reconstructionandmodernizationofthecountry. 2.1.1Emigration During the 1922 Asia Minor catastrophe, as Kaplan reports (2002, 442), in less than10daysmorethanonemillionrefugees,mostlywomenandorphans,moved from the Turkish territory to Greece (fig 2.1). This fact was followed by the definitely largest population exchange in history between Greeks and Turks, decideduponbytheTreatyofSevres(Veremis2008;John2007). Kaplan(2002,442)estimatesthatemigratesinstantlyaugmentedthepopulation ofGreecebyalmost20%andparticularlythatofAthensbythreetimes.Therefore thefirstcasetoberesolvedwasthehousingproblemofthesepeople,followed bytheirsocialintegration.
Fig.2.1 Thousandsof refugeeswaiting toembarkfor Greeceduring theSmyrni catastrophe, 1922 Source:Veremis (2008,184)

2.1.2Economy The beginning of the Interwar found Greece in a terribly unstable economic situation, with huge debts to foreign countries. Within the general effort for recovery and modernization of the country and its economy, the continuously alternating governments tried to create an independent economy of internal market. To achieve this, the creation and development of industries near the big cities was encouraged (fig. 2.2). There is a strict correlation between the overpopulation factor and industrialization with two sides. First of all, as Clogg (2002, 129) notes, the large number of unemployed refugees offered cheap craftsmanship making for a fast development of the newborn industry. At the
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

sametimesomeoftherefugeesmanagedtobringinsomekindofcapitaland, mostimportant,theirenterprisingspirit(Demathas2005;Veremis2008).These twocomplementaryfactorsgaveatremendousboosttothesufferingeconomy.


Fig.2.2 Women workersin textile industry Source: www.fhw.gr, E.L.I.A photo archives

Once the countrys economy started healing, the state, apart from sustaining industry, made tremendous efforts to ensure economic stability. Raptis (1997, 304)explainsthatthenucleusforstabilitywassearchedforinincreasinginternal productionwiththecontinuousrealizationoflargepublicworks(fig.2.3,2.4). Through these actions, the economy of Greece managed to survive during the Interwar years and to even balance the dramatic consequences of the Great Crash of 1929. All the activities of those years marked the birth of the contemporary capitalistic economy of the country creating a new equilibrium betweenthevarioussocialclasses.
Fig.2.3 Largepublic works: The creationof astaircase onMarasli street, Kolonaki Source: Arseni,K (2004,168)

Fig.2.4 Stepson Marasli street works completed, Kolonaki Source: Arseni,K (2004,169)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.1.3Socialbalances Bigcities,includingAthens,werenowthecenterofamulticulturalconcentration ofpopulationsofdifferentbackgrounds,whichledtothechangeofethicsand balances. This gave fertile ground for innovation in manners and customs, bringingaboutshockingreactionstotheexistingconsolidatedsocialbalances. BecauseofthiseconomicgrowththeInterwarperiod, asMantouvalou(2005, 86) explains, became the triumphof the middle class, which was from then on mainly divided into commercial and industrial. Yet, at the same time, as Ladogianni (1989, 86) underlines, due to the fact that the financial boom was basedontheexploitationofcheapcraftsmanshipahugeclassdiscriminationhad begun. The various governments, wishing to soften these social unbalances, tried to promote a series of social measures. The most significant one was once again related to the growth of population and the consequent growth of analphabetism. As Raptis (2007, 109) explains, the big educational reform was madebetween1929and1932,thefirstcompleteoneforcontemporaryGreece. Thesemeasureswerenecessaryforthereconstructionandmodernizationofthe society,amutatingsocietyofacitymovingonwithfastrhythmsofurbanization.

2.2UrbanizationofAthens
Vasenhofen (2000, unpublished) clarifies that what is intended as urbanization internationallygoestogetherwiththetransitionofEconomyfromagriculturalto industrial and later to the economy of services. In the case of Greece, and particularlythecityofAthens,thistransitionwassuddenlyacceleratedin1922by the arrival of the emigrants of the Asia Minor Catastrophe. Considering that before1922theurbanpopulationofthecountrywasonly23%,thearrivalofthe emigrants,outofwhich42%originatedfromurbanareas,createdanewurban profileforthecities(Veremis2008,17).

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Aftertheinitialcrisisofoverpopulation,thisnewacceleratedurbanizationfinally transformed the peasant town of Athens into a metropolis, (Iliopoulos 2000, 306). On the other hand, Biris (2000, 396) notes that the expansion of the city took place through completely anarchic procedures, creating a chaotic new urbantissue. BeforeanalyzingthearchitecturalstylesofthistransformationphaseofAthens, we need to briefly consider the three main elements that marked this process: thestatemeasures,thenewsuburbsandthelegislationofhorizontalproperty. 2.2.1Statemeasures Even if socially and economically the Interwar was mainly characterized by private initiatives, the state played a key role, as Galani (1997, 173) underlines, withpublicworksandmeasuresthatmodifiedtheprofileofthecity. As already mentioned, the main axis of politics in those years was modernization and especially social regeneration. Tournikiotis (2000, 447) further emphasizes that for these purposes large scale programmes and big importantpublicworkswerecarriedout;e.g.creationofnewschools(fig.2.5), hospitalsandinstitutionsofsocialcare.

Fig.2.5 Exampleofthebig educationalreform, Newschoolunder construction Source:Arseni,K(2004,264)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

In 1923 the need for housing was the first problem to be resolved; the governments therefore took a series of measures to facilitate this procedure. Kosmaki (1991, 207) emphasizes that these measures were consolidated by decrees and laws relative to: expropriation of buildings and lands; obligatory extension of leases for professional use properties; creation of social housing and the creation of private building cooperatives. Some years later, in 1929, thelawforhorizontalpropertywasdecreed. Thesemeasuresbroughtabouttheacceleratedcreationofnewsuburbsandwill be further analyzed as they were the crucial factor for the urbanization of the cityofAthens. 2.2.2.ModifiedCenterandnewsuburbs Therefugeesfilledthecitycenterinachaoticway,creating,asdescribedbyBiris (1996,205),hugeproblemsofcleanlinessandsanitation(fig.2.62.7). Three kinds of development occurred at that time, characterizing the very distinctive social classes too. In the center of Athens we get two different phenomena:evaluationanddevaluationofzones.Biris(2003,30)saysthat,while the main high class neighborhoods remainedin the area surrounding the Royal Palace transforming it into a modern urban zone, some other zones, especially around the Museum and Omonoia square, which used to be high class areas, becamemixedcommercial/housingzones,downgradingtheirvalue. Fig.2.6Childreninrefugees

camps Source::www.fhw.gr,Benaki Museumphotoarchives Fig.2.7TemporaryrefugeestenthousesInAtheniasquare Source:Arseni,K(2004,264)


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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

To deal with the quantity of refugees the city had to be expanded. That was accomplished by creating land for sale out of private properties in the rest of Attica and facilitated by organizing private cooperatives, as explained by Giacumacatos (1999, 96) and Kaukala (1999, 188) and slightly criticized by Biris (2003, 30). We have more than 19 such suburbs, the nucleus of which concentratedexpatriatedpopulation;someofthemwereevennamedaftertheir cityoforigininAnatoliawiththeadditionofN(new)(e.g.New Smyrna,NewIonia). Ontheotherhandwealsohavethebirthofnewhighclasssuburbs,distantfrom thecenteranddifferentiatedfromtheemigrantssuburbs.Kairofillas(1988,126) andBiris(2003,30)explainthatthenewsuburbsoccurredbothasaresponsefor a healthy environment and as an aesthetically distinctive answer to the chaotic situationprevailinginthecentralareas.FollowingtheEuropeanexamplesofthe gardencity the decrees that founded Psychiko in 1923 and Ekali in 1924 included, as Kaukala(1999, 183) analyzes, an urban plan, guidelines of high standard building methods and regulations on very restricted commercial activities(fig.2.62.7).Thesetwomodelgardencitiesinspiredthegenesisof14 otherruralsuburbswithsimilarbutnotsostrictregulations.
Fig.2.8 Originalplan byAgapitos Ekaligarden city,1925 Source: Koumanoudis (2002,25) Fig.2.9 Viewof Ekaligarden city,1927 Source: Koumanoudis (2002,47)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.2.3Legislationforhorizontalproperty The final solution to the housing problem, that in any case characterized the wholeInterwarperiod,wasgivenbyLaw3741of1929forpropertyonstorey. ItsanalysisbyZepos(1931,citedbyMarmaras(1991,16))is: Asforthelegalmeaningoftheterm,propertyonstoreyorhorizontalproperty, definestheownershipofabuildingbymorethanonephysicalpersons,whereeach of them is in full possession of one storey of that building or just a flat in that building In this manner the state found a legal solution for the creation of multistorey buildings. This law certainly provided a quick solution to the problem of accommodationbutwhatmustbeunderlinedisthatatthesametimeitdenoted the dramatic transformation of the social tissue and habits of the citizens of Athens. As Constantopoulos (1999, 79) etymologically analyzes excellently, we haveatransitionfromtheGreekwordkatoikia,meaninghousetodwelland representing qualitative values, to diamerisma, meaning sharing part of a buildingwithclearquantitativevalues.
Fig.2.10 Single family house,with the inscription, becauseof demolition buildings materials forsale, 1935 Source: Chatzifotiou (2003,69)
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

Modernization became for Athens almost a synonym for the multistorey buildings.Thesebegantogrowwheretraditionalandpopularhousesaswellas forestsusedtostanduntilthen.Theregenerationandexpansionofthecityhad begun with lots of benefits but with some losses too; the annihilation of traditionalarchitectureandtheirresponsibleeliminationofnaturalenvironment (fig.2.8). Amidst an uncertain political situation these changes, starting from the new financial and social balances, brought about the urbanization of the city and madetheInterwaryearstheeraof,therebirthofanewGreekcapital.Finallythe orientationofthecrossroadbetweenOrientandOccidentturnedclearlytowards Europe. All these ideological movements, social debates and evolution are portrayedinthebuiltenvironmentindifferentarchitecturaltypologies.

2.3Architecturaltypologies
Thearchitectureoftransition;thisisthedefinitiongivenbyCholevas(1994,144) for this architectural period of continuous development. The delayed arrival of theindustrialrevolutionandthenewsocialandfinancialsituationofthecountry createdneedsforanewarchitecturallanguage. Inthe1920sAthensslowlystartedtobecomemoreopentowardsinternational architectural trends, a fact that as Vatopoulos (2002, 107)observes, maturedin the 30s giving way to the most creative and experimental decade of contemporary Greek architecture. The two main characteristics of this architectural experimentation are for Cholevas (1998, 12) the elimination of academismandspecificarchitecturalrhythms,andtheuseofnewmaterialsasan expressionofthenewstyleofurbanlife. ThenewarchitecturallanguagewasinventedinGreecebyagenerationofnew architects. These new architects as Cholevas (1998, 11) classifies, can be subdividedintotwodistinctivecategories.ThoseeducatedinConstantinopleand the great European Architectural schools of Germany and France, and the first generationofarchitectsfromtheTechnicalUniversityofAthens,inthenewborn
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Architectural faculty founded only in 1917. Furthermore, as Biris (1996, 292) observes the various styles invented and followed by architects, have been copied and repeated by technicians, who offered the various styles in a more economicalway. Regardingtheuseofnewmaterials,especiallyconcrete,Vatopoulos(2000,503) specifies that although the first concrete building in Athens was constructed in 1907, its extended use occurred only in the Interwar years. Although, as Biris (1996, 290) explains, this new material was initially used only for finishes, it passedfromfloorstowallsandtoconstructionsfullymadeofarmedconcrete. Armedconcrete,evennotyetpossessingthequalityandtechnologyoftherest of the European countries, from this point onwards it characterizes Greek buildingtechnologytilltoday(FessaEmmanouilandMarmara2005,xxvii). Generally,duringtheInterwaryearstheAthenianBuiltEnvironmentiscreatedin awaveringclimate.Therewasspaceandneedforarchitecturalexperimentation with various styles, without always keeping a clear distinction between these differentstyles.Wethereforefindworksofdistinguishedarchitectswhoeither create in completely different styles during their evolution in time or mix differentstylesandinfluencesinonebuilding.Evenso,themainstylesfoundin that period are: neoacademic, popular, modernist and modern movement architecture,thatwearenowgoingtobrieflyintroduce.
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Fig.2.11 Moment fromthe constructio nofthe buildingof theCentral Bankof Greecein armed concrete Source: Archivesof Bankof Greece

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.3.1Neoacademism In order to understand the various architectural styles of the time and their interactionwehavetostepbackinthearchitecturalhistoryonemomentbefore the Interwar. From the moment of its foundation, the new free Greek state based the idea of the National State on the idea of Classicism, expressed in architecturebythesocalledNeoclassicalstyle.Therefore,asVatopoulos(2002, 93)observes,althoughtheInterwaryearsmarkedthechronologicaldeathofthe NeoclassicalstyleitgavebirthtothesocalledNeoacademism,drawingonthe ideaoftheimportanceofnationalidentity. Neoacademism embraces for Giacumacatos (1999, 31) different styles, as German Classicism, Eclecticism and the Beaux Art tradition. The architects that followedit,mainlyforpublicbuildingsinthecitycenter,wantedtocreate,even if only in ornamentation, a uniform shape of urban architecture for a Greek capitalworthyofbeingconsideredEuropean. The Neoacademism used older motives and created, with modern materials, constructions of a nostalgic aspect. Socially the use of neoacademism in architecturehasbeen,throughalltheInterwaryears,relatedtotheconservative thinkingandtheoppositiontoanyinnovationorchange.
Fig.2.12Neoacademicbuildingdetail BenizelouandApollonos,CityCenterAthens Source:Vatopoulos(2002,97)
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Fig.2.13Neoacademicbuilding RuralBank,Stadiou,CityCenterAthens Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.3.2Popularstyle Another architectural style, founded earlier due to an article titled Popular ArchitecturepublishedbyAristotelesZachosin1911,foundfertilegroundforits development in the Interwar years. As Giacumacatos (2004, 31) underlines, the text of this article was a courageous act of self consciousness because it connected the importance of popular tradition to Byzantine culture. The basic slogan of the popular style movement was return to the roots and it emphasized a strong need for a new real national identity in architecture (Kolonas2006;Cholevas1994). Thepopularstylespoliticalandsocialaspectisverysignificantasitwentagainst theimposedvisionofthecountryasaprojectionofitsancientgloriouspast.The Byzantine years (those are the Balkan mediaeval years) had a more direct influenceonthehabitsandcostumesofthepopulation,afactsuppressedbythe CentralEuropeancountriesviewofmodernGreece. Therefore,ashighlightedbyFessaEmmanouilandMarmara(2005,xxi),afterthe humiliation of the Asia Minor catastrophe also very much blamed on the betrayal by the great Central European powers this movement expressed oppositionbyreturningtothenaturalrootsofpopulartradition. What must be underlined though is that the byzantine and the rich popular traditionwereconsideredfirstasaninspirationforthearchitectsofthesocalled popularstylesince,asCholevas(1998,28)explains,theyshouldcreatemodern art and architecture, that is, constructions using modern materials and techniques.
Fig.2.14 Popularstyle buildingdetail, A.Chatzimichali house,City Center,Athens Source:Author
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.3.3Modernist ModernistarchitectureforGreekconstructionsoftheInterwarrepresentedthe othertrend:thatofoppositiontoNeoacademism.Biris(2003,176)explainshow this movement, mainly followed in the twenties, opposed conservatism by proposingmodelsthatincorporatedArtNouveauandArtDecoelements. Vatopoulos (2002, 107) explains that Art Nouveau appeared so late in Greece because it is strictly related to the Industrial Revolution which, as already mentioned,occurredinthiscountryonlyafterthesecondBalkanWar.Another social factor that supported the diffusion of Modernist is related once again to the refugees of Asia Minor, who either as simple people or as specialized architectswerealreadyfamiliarwithandlovedtheformsofthismovement. Even though the modernist movement imported Art Nouveau in Athens, Vatopoulos (2000, 504) underlines the obstacle of the craftsmens very limited knowledge of ironwork at that time. Therefore what was actually created in InterwarAthensweredifferentplainbuildingsofArtNouveauaspirations,simply ornamentedwithArtDecoelements(fig.2.15,2.16).
Fig.2.16 detailof decorationin artdeco motive Source:Author Fig.2.15 Modernist building, Sourri,City Center, Athens Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 2. Interwar social impact and architecture in Athens

2.3.4ModernMovement Following all this architectural research of the twenties, Athens in the thirties wasreadytoembraceandexperimentontheModernMovement.Theprevailing favourableatmosphereisalsounderlinedbythehostinginAthensin1933ofthe IV CIAM Congress, which for many scholars was the last real conference on ModernArchitecture. Athens, Tournikiotis (2000, 440) explains, not yet a metropolis, emerged in its urbanization procedure after studying the European Modern Movement and expressing it in its own particular language. The Modern Movements theories reflectedthewilltotransformArchitectureintoasymbolofsocial,constructive andaestheticimprovement. ThegrowthoftheModernMovementinAthens,asintherestofEurope,came outasanaturalconsequenceofthediffuseduseofmodernmaterials,especially of reinforced concrete. New materials gave new structure solutions and promotedtheverticaldevelopmentofconstructions. For the State the acceptance of Modern Movement was related to the two problemspreviouslyanalyzed,whichare,theneedforimmediatehousingofthe refugeesandtheneedforanewsocialfaceoftheregeneratedsociety.Forthis purpose, Tournikiotis (2000, 440) summarizes, Modern architecture was the solution for the three main state construction programmes; the new school buildingsprogramme,thehospitals,andthesocialhousing.Forallthoseurgent needs, that also included limited funds and time problems, the Modern Movement and particularly the principles of rationalism, gave valuable answers asperGiacumacatos(2004,43). The theories of the Modern Movement in the private sector were warmly welcomed by the newly formed urban middle class. Those private investors identifiedintheModernMovement,withthemodernizationofthesocietyand therefore the evaluation of their importance in the system and the social balancesasFessaEmanouil&Marmara(2005,xxii)analyze.

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The Modern Movements acceptance by the middle class, due to the law for horizontal property, gave birth to the multistorey buildings, from then on the mostcommondwellingconstructionsuntiltodayinAthens(2.17).Thenewmulti storey building represented the ideal housing solution, turning into a MediterraneanversionofBauhausornamentedwithArtDecoelements,aproof ofthenonexclusiveuseofarchitecturalstyles.

Fig.2.17 Modern movement multistorey building attachedto neoclassical building, Patssion,City Center, Athens Source:Author

2.4Conclusion
The different consequences of the various political choices brought a wind of changeinGreeceduringtheInterwaryears.Theinstantoverpopulationcreateda new social texture that forced the regeneration and modernization of the city. Almost one hundred years after the foundation of the Greek capital its urbanizationfinallycameaboutthankstotheseforcedchanges. Athensneededaproperarchitecturallanguageforitsnewmetropolitanaspect. As a consequence those years allowed various new architects to research into and promote different architectural styles. Each style, even if not completely detachedfromtheothers,supportedandexpresseddifferentpoliticalandsocial tendencies.Thesocalledarchitectureoftransition,incorporatingallthosestyles
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andtheirinterminglingduringthemostcreativeandinterestingtwentyyearsof contemporary architecture, left us a with a large amount of examples of architecturalheritage. Interwar architecture is very significant not only as a pioneering leap in design but also as a starting point for construction innovations, particularly the experimentation with new materials. This is when traditional floor finishing techniquesliketerrazzoandmosaicevolvedaccordingtothenewtechnologies. AndthatiswhyIconsideritveryimportantforthesefloors,oftenundervalued anddestroyed,toberecognisedasuniqueforthisperiodandconserved. TheconservationofInterwararchitectureasasignificantmarkoftheeconomic andsocialevolutionofthecountry,afteryearsofadventures,islatelyfindingits way,aswillbeanalyzedthoroughlyinchapters4and5. Beforethat,examplesofthedifferentarchitecturaltypologieswillbeelaborated in such a way as to analyze the specific use of terrazzo and mosaic floors in AthenianInterwararchitecture.Thechoiceoffloors,thesocialsignificanceand theissuesontheirconservationwillbeanalyzedwithintheframeworkofsome significantcasestudies.

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Case Studies

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.CaseStudies
Initially we have seen what terrazzo and mosaic floors are, their similar constitutionmaterialsandtheirmajordifferencesastotheirexecutionmethod. WethenmovedontothevariousarchitecturalexpressionsofInterwarinGreece and their different social reflections. At this point we will try to trace a connection between these data. Is there a crucial connection between the different architectural types and the choice of a floor finish? And if yes, does it affecttheirpreservationstatus?

3.1Methodology
Unfortunatelyfloorfinishesareusuallynotconsideredasimportantarchitectural elements.Thus,intheflourishingbibliographyonInterwararchitecture,Ifound only one mention on the use of terrazzo in the urban multi dwelling, by PapadamRiza (2002, 172). For this reason, this part of my research has been conductedwithonsitevisitsforthecollectionofdata,byobservingthebuilding, thetypesoffloorfinishesandtheirpositionwithinthebuildingaswellastheir actual preservation status. The buildings that were chosen for observation are mainlylocatedinthecenterofAthensbutalsoinsomeofitssuburbs. A total of 25 buildings were studied but, to keep a balance between the examples, only 20 are presented in paragraph 3.3, five for each architectural style. The remaining five, all from the modern movement, are attached in the appendixasaproofoftheabundanceofmodernmovementexamplesbutnot countedinthequantitativedataanalysis.Theobservation,andresultshavebeen organizedinthematiccards,twoforeverycase:buildingdataandfloordata. 3.1.1BuildingData In each case thefirst card is anintroductionto the building. It includes general data; name of the building, location, year of construction, architect and listing number. In case of unknown data, this is marked with a question mark in parenthesis. These are completed by a short description of the building, 30

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presentingits original and its actual use, a notion on the architectural typology and the type and location of the floor under observation. To complete the overview of the building there is a picture of its external view and, where available,theplanswiththelocationofthefloorfinishesunderobservationor,in somecases,ahistoricalphotograph. 3.1.2FloorData The second card relates to the floor under observation. In cases where more thanoneareaofthesamebuildinghasbeenobservedtherewillbewillbemore than one floor data card, one for each particular area. These cards contain specific data on the floor finish, starting with the type terrazzo, or mosaic movingontothemaincoloursandthentosomeobservations,usuallyregarding particularitiesofthecase.Finallytherearenotesonthepreservationstatusanda short list of the main deterioration forms. In order to better understand the describedfieldsthereisalwaysapicturewithadetailofthefloor,twoorthree others with a general view of its location and finally some particulars of the floorsdecay. We are now ready to go through the completed case study cards. Their comparison will lead us first to paragraph 3.3 with observations on the relationship between architectural style and the type and location of the floor finishandtoparagraph3.4withanoverviewofthemainconservationproblems ofmosaicsandterrazzothatwerefoundinthecasestudiesofthisresearch.
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3.2Casestudies
3.2.1Neoacademicbuildings

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

GiannarouBuilding Filellinon&Othonosstr,SyntagmaCityCenter 1917original,burnt,newcompletedin1927 FirstbuildingGiannaros,N.newMetaxas,A. 241/08.05.1991 The neoacademic building is a seven floor apartment building, originallyresidences,nowadaysusedasofficesuntilthe5thfloor andresidencesinthelasttwo. Itisoneofthefirstbuildingscompletelymadeofconcrete.Atthetimeofits constructionitwashighlycriticizedduetoitsexaggeratedheight(Marmaras; 1991,44). The floors terrazzo floors under observation are in the sixth and seventh storey,asinalltheotherfloorstheyhavebeenreplacedwithwhitemarble.

Externalview
c.s.2View from Fillelinon& Othonosstr, Source: Author

c.s.1detail ofneo academic decoration Source: Author

CaseStudy1GeneralData

Originalviewofthebuilding:
c.s.3Viewduring construction,Source: www.eie.gr

c.s.4original view, Source: www.eie.gr

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Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Red Theterrazzoisstillinplaceatthe landingofthestaircases,inavery narrowspaceofthesixthand seventhfloor. Mediocre Deteriorationform: Cracks,Lacunae,Erosion,Stains

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.5Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.6 6thfloor Source: author

c.s.7 6thfloor Source: author

CaseStudy16thfloorFloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.8FilledLacuna Source:author

c.s.9Crack Source:author

c.s.10Deposits/stains Source:author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

SarogleioArmedForcesOfficersClub PavlosMelasSquare&Rigillisstr 19241932 Nikoloudis,N Notlisted The neoacademic building is a two floor building constructed as theArmedForcesOfficersclub,andisstillusedassuch. Alltheareasofthebuildinghaveterrazzofloors,withacleardistinctionof simple terrazzo in corridors and offices, and terrazzo with decorative pattern in the main entrance hallway and reception areas. The terrazzo floorsunderobservationareinthegroundfloor.

Externalview

CaseStudy2GeneralData

c.s.11detailofneoacademic decoration,Source:Author

c.s.12ViewfromPavlosMelassquare,Source:Author

Plan:

c.s.13Plan;notinscale, northpointunknown Simpleterrazzo Terrazzowithdecorative pattern Source:Kotsaki(2005,143) Elaboration:Author

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TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolou urs Observatio ons

Ter rrazzo Ora ange,black Cre eation of ge eometrical forms with h var riationofter rrazzocolou urs. Int thecorridors sandoffices ssimple ora angeterrazzo. Ver rygoodcond dition. Det teriorationf forms: Cra acks Few cracks, probably created by w c y han nd,forelectricalinstallations.

Floordeta ail

Preservatio on status

c.s.1415T Terrazzodeta ail, Source:a author

Generalvie ew

CaseStudy2FloorData

c.s.16Rec ceptionHall Source:A Author

c.s. .17Mainentra ancehallway Sou urce:Author

c.s.18L Lateralhall Source e:Author

Floordecay yparticulars s

c.s.19Fille edLacuna Source:A Author

c.s.20F FilledLacunaa along electric calinstallation ns trace,S Source:Autho or

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

A.S.O.E.E(UniversityofEconomicsandBusiness) Patission76strCityCenter 19261930 Metaxas,A Notlisted This is a neoacademic building; designed to host the first Economicsschool,later Universityandstillinuseassuch.Itwas internallymodifiedin195657andexpandedwithanewbuildingin 1991. The floors of the main entrance and the corridors of the ground floorareallmadeinterrazzo.
c.s.22detailofneo academicmain entrance,Source: Author

Externalview

c.s.21ViewfromPatissionstr,Source:Author CaseStudy3GeneralData

OriginalDrawings:

c.s.23 original view, Source: www.eie.gr


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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey,Yellow Creation of geometrical forms with alternatedcolorsofterrazzo. Thefloorofthemainentranceisgrey withbigaggregatesandblackwith smallaggregatesandthatofthe corridorsyellowandblackwithsmall aggregates. Grey:Mediocrepreservationstatus Deteriorationforms: Cracks,Lacunae,Stains,Erosion Yellow:Generallygoodcondition.

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.2425Terrazzodetail, Source:author

Generalview

CaseStudy3FloorData

c.s.26Corridor,Source:author

c.s.27Mainentrancehallway,Source:author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.28Deposits/stains Source:author

c.s.29Crack Source:author

c.s.30Erosionofmortar, c.s.31Lacuna Source:author Source:author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

GENKAA.E. Kleisthenous9str,OmoniaCityCenter 19211930 Unknown 241/08.05.1991 The neoacademic building is a four floor apartment building; originally had a shop in the ground floor and residences above; nowadays it still has shops in the ground floor while the other 3 floors,plusmezzanineaddedlateronareusedasoffices. Theterrazzofloorsunderobservationareinthefourthfloor.
c.s.33Viewfrom Kleisthenousstr, Source:Author

Externalview

c.s.32detail ofneo academic decoration, Source: Author

CaseStudy4GeneralData

Originalandpresentplanofthefourthfloor:

c.s.34 Original Plan, 1939, not in scale,northpointunknown Source:Karakostas

c.s.35Plan;notinscale,northpointunknown Terrazzowithdecorativepattern Source:Karakostas Elaboration:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey,red,black Creationofgeometricalformswith alternatedcolorsofterrazzo, probablyachievedbydifferent grouting. Generallygoodcondition. Deteriorationforms: CracksandLacunae

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.36Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.37 4thfloor Source: Author

c.s.38 4thfloor Source: Author

CaseStudy4FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.39Lacunafromloss ofaggregates Source:Author

c.s.40Crack Source:Author

c.s.41Lacunaepainted filling,Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

BankofGreece Panepistimiou21strCityCenter 193338 Laskaris,K.,Ppadakis,K.,Zouboulidis,N. 503/07.10.1983 The building is the headquarters of the central bank of the country,establishedin1927. Itisaneoacademicbuildingwithstrongneoclassicalinfluences. The main hall has two floor mosaics, inserted in a marble floor, while the corridors of the offices and library in the third storey areterrazzo. Thefloorsunderobservationhereare:themosaicsoftheground floorandtheterrazzoofthethirdfloor

Externalview
c.s.42Viewfrom Panepistimioustr, Source:Author

c.s.43detailofneoacademic mainentrance,Source:Author

CaseStudy5GeneralData

OriginalviewoftheBuilding

c.s.44 original view, Source: www.eie.gr

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TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolou urs Observatio ons

Mo osaic Yellow, red, b blue green varieties of f reoustesser rae. vitr The erearetwo mosaicpane elsinthe maintransactio onhall,locat ted sym mmetricallyi inthetwosi idesofthe roo om.Thereis aninscriptio onthat identifiesthem masmanufac cturedin nice,intheG Gianeselabo oratory. Ven Me ediocre. Det teriorationf form:Lacuna ae,cracks, ero osion.

Floordeta ail

Preservatio on status

c.s.45Mo osaicdetail, Source:B BankofGreec ce

Generalvie ew

c.s.46Mo osaicI, Source:B BankofGreec ce

c.s.47MosaicII, Source:BankofGreece

CaseStudy5aFloorData

Floordecay yparticulars s

c.s.48Lacu una Source:Ba ankofGreece e

c.s.49Crack c Source:Bank S ofGreece

c.s.50 0Erosion Sourc ce:BankofGr reece

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009 y n

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey Allthecorridorsofthethirdfloor leadingtoofficesandthelibraryof thebankaremadeingreyterrazzo, surroundedbywhitemarble. Generallygoodcondition. Deteriorationforms: Deposits,Notches

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.51Terrazzodetail, Source:author

Generalview

c.s.52Corridor,thirdfloor, Source:author

c.s.53Entranceoflibrary, thirdfloor,Source:author

c.s.54Corridor,thirdfloor, Source:author

CaseStudy5bThirdfloorFloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.55Notches, Source:author

c.s.56SuperficialErosion, Source:author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.2Casestudies
3.2.2Popularstylebuildings

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

33

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

AngelikiChatzimichalisHouse A.Chatzimichali18str,PlakaCityCenter 192430 A.Zachos Notlisted The building is one of the most characteristic examples of popular architecture;originallyaresidence,nowadaystheMuseumofFolkArt. Theapartmentshavewoodenfloorsexceptforthebalconiesand the service rooms (kitchen, floor and servants rooms) that have terrazzo.Theterrazzofloorsunderobservationareinthemainfloor, intheserviceareas,andoutsideinthegardenstaircase.
c.s.57detail ofpopular style decoration Source: Author

Externalview

CaseStudy6GeneralData

c.s.58Viewfrom Chatzimichalistr, Source:Author

Plans:

c.s.135960Plan,Groundandfirstfloor;notinscale,northpointunknown Simpleterrazzo(in) Terrazzowithdecorativepattern(out) Source:FessaEmanouil,Marmaras(2005,22),Elaboration:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues I. Case studies 3.Introduction

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Red,servicerooms Grey,out Useofterrazzoinkitchen,corridor, bathroomandsecondaryentrance. Deteriorationforms: Service areas: good condition, only someCracksandLacunae. Open air: very poor condition: cracks lacunaeandbiologicalattack

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.6162Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview

c.s.63Corridor Source:Author

c.s.64Kitchen Source:Author

c.s.65Secondaryentrance Source:Author

CaseStudy6FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.66Erosion Source:Author

c.s.67Crack Source:Author

c.s.68biologicalattack Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

ByzantineMuseum(exVillaIllissia) Vas.Sofias22,Citycenter Orginalbuilding1840,renovation19261930 OriginalBuildingKleantis,renovationZachos,A 74280/4154/21.06.1993 The building was originally the residence of the Duchesse de Plaisance; afterwardsarmybarracks.IntheInterwaryears,afterrenovation,themain buildingbecamethefirstnationalByzantineandChristianMuseum.Zachos createdonthegroundfloortworoomsimitatingtheinsideofbyzantine churches.Alltheroomsareterrazzofloored,insomecasesalternatingwith whitemarble. Until2004ithostedthepermanentexhibitionoftheMuseum,andisnow temporary hosting the offices of the museum. In the future the ground floorwillbecometheMainEntrance,withtheticketoffice,whilethefirst floorwillbecomeanareaoftemporaryexhibitions.

Externalview
c.s.69 Central entrance, Source: Author

CaseStudy7GeneralData

Plans:

c.s.7071Plan:Groundandfirstfloor;notinscale,northpointunknown SimpleterrazzoTerrazzowithdecorativepatternRestorationinterventionwithterrazzo Source:ByzantineandChristianMuseumElaboration:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey, Red, Black mortar with small mediumandlargewhiteaggregates. Terrazzofloorscreatingdecorative formsbyvariationsofterrazzo coloursand/orinsertionofwhite marbles.Extremelyinterestingisthe useofthistechniqueforintegration ofanancienttarsiafloorelement. Deteriorationforms: Inner:Heavyerosionlocatedinblack mortar,stains,notches Balcony: Grouting erosion and few lacunae

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.727374Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview

CaseStudy7FloorData

c.s.75Corridor,1stfloor Source:Author

c.s.76Groundfloor Source:Author

c.s.77Groundfloor Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.78Erosion Source:Author

c.s.79Notching Source:Author

c.s.78Lacuna Source:Author

c.s.78Groutingerosion Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

D.LoverdouMuseum(exZillerhouse) Mavromihali6str,ExarheiaCityCenter Orginalbuilding1882,renovation1930 OriginalBuildingZiller,ErenovationZachos,A Notlisted ThebuildingwasoriginallytheresidenceoftheGermanarchitectZiller. In the Interwar years it was bought by the banker Loverdos, who commissioned Zachos with the renovation and extension of the building, turning part of its garden and the old storerooms in a ByzantineMuseum.Theseroomsweremosaicfloored. Later it was used as storage room for the costumes of the NationalOpera,atwhichtimeitcaughtfire. Presently it belongs to the Byzantine and Christian Museum, whichisschedulingitsrestoration.

Externalview Source:ByzantineandChristianMuseum CaseStudy8GeneralData


c.s.8283DetailsoftheEntrances

Plans:

c.s.84OrginalplanbyZiller, whentheareasunder observationstillstoreroomsand garden; notinscalewithunknownnorth point Mosaics Source:BenakiMuseum

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Mosaic Yellow,red,grey,black,blue Mosaic floors made of porcelain tile tesserae, imitating common mosaic motivesofearlybyzantinechurches. Deteriorationforms: Verygoodconservationofthefloors. Main deteriorations due to external factors:fire,stains,cementsdeposits. Lacunae:onlyfewontheboarders.

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.8586Mosaicdetail, Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.89Mainentrance hallway,whileMuseum stillinuse,Source: www.iranon.gr

CaseStudy8FloorData

c.s.87Chapel Source:Author

c.s.88Mainentrancehallway Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.90Lacunae Source:Author

c.s.91Concrete deposit Source:Author

c.s.92Stain Source:Author

c.s.93FireStain Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Moralishouse Yasemion8str,Psychico(gardencitysuburb) 1932 (?) Notlisted Thebuilding isanexamplearchitectureinspiredbypopularstyle inoneofthegardencitysuburbscreatedintheInterwar. Originallyaresidence,extendedinthe60sandnowadaysstillusedassuch. The original building had wooden floors in the bedrooms and reception room, while the main entrance and the bathroom are terrazzofloored. Thefloorunderobservationisinthemainentrance.
c.s.95View from Yasemionstr, Source: Author

Externalview

c.s.94Detail ofpopular style decoration, Source: Author

CaseStudy9GeneralData

Plans: Noplanavailable

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolou urs Observatio ons

Ter rrazzo Gre eyandblack k Ter rrazzowith decorativel linecreated d byv variationsof fterrazzoco olours. Int thegreyterr razzouseof fbothwhite e and dblacklarge esizeaggreg gates. exc cellentcondition Det teriorationf forms: Onlyfewsurfac ceerosion

Floordeta ail

Preservatio on status

c.s.96te errazzodetail, Source:A Author

Generalvie ew

CaseStudy9FloorData

c.s.97Ma ainEntrance Source:A Author

c.s s.98MainEnt trance Source:Author

Floordecay yparticulars s

c.s.99Er rosion Source:A Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009 y n

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Malliarishouse Thrasyvoulou14str,Chalandri(ruralsuburb) 1939 (?) Notlisted Thebuilding isanexamplearchitectureinspiredbypopularstyle inoneoftheruralsuburbscreatedintheInterwar. Originallyaresidence,extendedinthe1981andnowadaysstillusedassuch. Theoriginalbuildinghadwoodenfloorsonlyinthebedroomsand reception room, while main kitchen and bathroom had simple terrazzo,destroyedfortheextension. Terrazzowithsimplegeometricalpatternsarefoundinthemain hall and the corridor and also in the open air areas: the street entranceandtheveranda.

Externalview
c.s.100Detailofpopular styledecoration, Source:Author

c.s.101View from Thrasyvoulou str,Source: Author

CaseStudy10GeneralData

Plans:
c.s.102Originalplanofthe house,1939; notinscale,northpoint unknown Demolishedpart Terrazzowithdecorative pattern(in) Simpleterrazzo Terrazzowithdecorative pattern(out) Source:Malliaris Elaboration:Author


The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues I. Case studies 3.Introduction

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Red,Orange,Black,hall Yellow,Black,Grey:openair Terrazzo with decorative patterns in themainhallandmaincorridormade byvariationsofterrazzocolours. Deteriorationforms: In:excellentcondition Openair:Fewlacunaeandabigcrack inthecentralpanelduetotheweight of the tracks that passed for the renovationin1981.

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.103104105Terrazzo detail,Source:Author

Generalview

CaseStudy10FloorData

c.s.106StreetEntrance Source:Author

c.s.107MainEntrance Source:Author

c.s.108MainEntrance Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.109Crack Source:Author

c.s.110MainEntrance Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.2Casestudies
3.2.3Modernistbuildings

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

34

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

ArmyShareFundBuilding Stadiou&Amerikis&Panepistimiou&Voukourestiou,Syntagma strCityCenter 19281940 Bonis,L.&Kassandris,V. 464/31.08.1981 Thiscomplexisamodernistfivestoreybuilding;originallyusedas officesinthefloors,entertainmentareaswiththeaterononeside and stores and restaurants in the ground floor. It has been restoredinyear2007creatinganewshoppingcenterAttikaand restoringthetheaterandeatingareas. Thefloorsunderobservationare:someinthelandingofthestaircasesin the main building, nowadays a shopping center; some in the Cafes Zonars and Brazilian (today Clemente) of the Ground Floor; and someinthefoyerofPallastheatre

Externalview
c.s.111Detail modernistdecoration, Source:Author

CaseStudy11GeneralData

c.s.112View from Stadioustr, Source:

OriginalDrawings:
c.s.113First prize winning drawings, 1926 Source: Fessa Emmanouil, Maramaras (2005,203)

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

TerrazzoandMarble White,Pink Therearetwopartsofthecafeteria wheretheterrazzofloordecoration hasbeenmaintained;themain entranceandthesurroundingareaof theelevatedlevel. Inbothcasespinkandwhiteterrazzo quadrantsandtriangles,alternate withwhitemarbleformgeometric designs. Excellent,novisibleformofdecay

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.119120Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview CaseStudy11bZonarscafeFloorData
c.s.120121Zonarscafemainentranceandcentral hall,Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars Novisibledecay

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Redandblack Inthecentralcorridorofthecafeteria theoriginalfloorhasbeen maintained.Itisaterrazzowiththe logoandadecorationmadebyblack terrazzo. Good Formsofdeterioration: Onelongcrack,depositsandsome lacunae

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.123Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.125 Viewof Cafs outdoor gallery, Source: Author

c.s.124 Terrazzo with original logo, Source: Author

CaseStudy11cBraziliancafeFloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.126SurfaceErosion, Source:Author

c.s.127Crack, Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolou urs Observatio ons

Ter rrazzo Yellow,black,r red,purple, pink,white


t In the entrance of the theater (1st floo or),mosaico ofpurple,re ed,pinkand d yell low porcelain tessera forming ae g geo ometricalpa atterns. Int theentrance eofthefoye nd er(2 floo or),samepa atternplusa asmaller por rtionofyello owandblack kmeanders mo osaic. Goo od For rmsofdeter rioration: Sta ainsandsom meexfoliation

Floordeta ail

Preservatio on status

c.s.124M MosaicDeatail, Source: Author

Generalvie ew CaseStudy11dPallastheatreFloorData
c.s.124 Foyer e, Entrance Source: Author

c. .s.124 The eatre entra ance, So ource: Au uthor

Floordecay yparticulars s

c.s.132Ex xfoliation, Source:A Author

c.s.13 33Erosionof fglazingands stains, Sour rce:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009 y n

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Athens26thHighSchool SouidiasandMaraslistr,KolonakiCityCenter 1929 Mitsakis,N.incollaborationwitharch.Antoniadis,A. Notlisted The building was constructed as part of the new school programme,andwastheGirlsHighSchoolAristotelis.Presently stillusedasaschoolbuilding. It is a modern movement building combined with classical decorativeelements. Itwasalteredin1958bytheadditionofonemorestorey. All the floors are made of colored terrazzo which creates geometricpatterns.

Externalview CaseStudy12GeneralData
c.s.135View from Souidiasstr, Source: Author

OriginalviewoftheBuilding

c.s.136 original view, Source: www.eie.gr

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey,red,yellow Creationofgeometricalformsby variationofterrazzocolours, probablyachievedbydifferent groutingincorridorsandmainhalls whilemonochromegreyterrazzoin theclassrooms. Deteriorationforms: Groutingerosion, FewCracksandLacunae

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.136Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.137Main entrance Hall, Source: Author

CaseStudy12FloorData

c.s.138 Corridor, Source: Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.139SurfaceErosion, Source:Author

c.s.140Filledlacunae, Source:Author

c.s.141Crack, Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

D.Areopagitou17str,MakrygianniCityCenter 1930 Kouremenos,V. 405/09.08.1978 The building is a modernist fourstorey apartment building, originallyresidences,nowadaysstillusedassuch. It is considered as the most characteristic example of artdeco buildinginInterwarAthens.Unfortunatelytodayacaseispending foritsdemolitionforthesakeoftheNewMuseumsofAcropolis cafeteriaview. The terrazzo floor under observation is in an apartment of the thirdfloor.

Externalview
c.s.143View from Areopagitou str Source: Flenga Kouremenou (phot. Nikolaidou)

CaseStudy13GeneralData

c.s.144main entrance, artdeco detail Source: Author

Plans: Noplanavailable

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours

Terrazzo MainHall:Yellow,green,red Corridor:Grey Balconies:greyred Terrazzo with decorative patterns in theentranceandmainhall. Internalverygoodcondition. Deteriorationforms: External:mediocrecondition Elevatederosion

Floordetail

Observations Preservation status

c.s.144145146Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview CaseStudy13ThirdfloorFloorData

c.s.147balcony, Source:Author

c.s.148mainentrance Source:Author

c.s.149mainentrance Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.150Surfaceerosion Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Vas.Sofias57str,KolonakiCityCenter 1928 (?)Prezanis,F.orKriezis,K.orKitsikis,K. Notlisted The building is a modernist fivestorey apartment building, originallyresidences,nowadaysoffices. Thefloorunderobservationisinthebuildingsentrance;noentry totheapartmentswaspossible. Themainentranceiscoveredbygreyterrazzo.
c.s.152 View fromvas. Sofias, str Source: Author

Externalview

c.s.151main entranceart decodetail Source: Vatopoulos (2002,117)

CaseStudy14GeneralData

Plans: Noplanavailable

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations Preservation status

Terrazzo

Floordetail

Grey Useofterrazzointhemainentrances floor. Very good condition, only some erosionandlacunaeintheproximities tothemarble. c.s.153terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.154 main entrance Source: Author

c.s.155 main entrance Source: Author

CaseStudy14FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.156lacuna Source:Author

c.s.157surfaceerosion Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Skoufa59str,KolonakiCityCenter 19291930 Kitsikis,K. Notlisted The building is a modernist fourstorey apartment building, originallyresidences,nowadaysoffices. Thefloorunderobservationisinthebuildingsentrance;noentry totheapartmentswaspossible. Incontrasttothewhitemarbledentrance,thecorridorthatleads to the back is terrazzo floored and was probably the service entrance.
c.s.158 viewfrom Skoufastr, Source: Author

Externalview

c.s.159 detailof modernist entrance, Source: Author

CaseStudy15GeneralData

Plans: Noplanavailable

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations Preservation status

Terrazzo

Floordetail

Grey Use of terrazzo in the secondary entrancesfloor. Verygoodcondition,onlysomeblack signs probably residues of previously gluedcarpet(fig). c.s.160Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.162 secondary entrance, Source: Author

c.s.161 secondary entrance, Source: Author

CaseStudy15FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.163stains,Source: Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.2Casestudies
3.2.3ModernMovementBuildings

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

35

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Solonos74str,Kolonaki/ExarcheiaCityCenter 1934 Unknown Notlisted The building is a modern movement threestorey apartment building,originallyresidences,nowadaysoffices. The floors under observation are: some in the ground floor and someinanapartmentofthesecondfloor. Theapartmentshavewoodenfloorsexceptforthebalconiesand theservicerooms(kitchen,floorandservantsrooms)thathave terrazzo.

Externalview CaseStudy16GeneralData

c.s.164Viewfrom Solonosstr Source:Author

Plans: Noplanavailable

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations Preservation status

Terrazzo Grey,balconies andservicerooms Useofterrazzoinusageareas. Balcony:excellentstatusbutdirty. Service areas: good condition, only someCracksandsmallLacunae.

Floordetail

c.s.165Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.166 Kitchen, Source: Author

CaseStudy16aGroundfloorFloorData

c.s.167 Kitchen, Source: Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.168cracks, Source:Author

c.s.169deposits/stains, Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations Preservation status

Terrazzo Grey,balconies Yellow,servicerooms Useofterrazzoinusageareas. Balcony:excellentstatusbutdirty. Service areas: good condition, only some Cracks and Lacunae mainly in thekitchennearthesink. Thebathroomfloorhasbeencovered withmoderntiles.

Floordetail

c.s.171Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.172 Kitchen Source: Author

c.s.173 Balcony Source: Author

CaseStudy16b1stfloorFloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.174Kitchen Source:Author

c.s.175Kitchen Source:Author

c.s.176Bathroom coveredwithnewtiles Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

DanceAcademy Omirou55KolonakiCityCenter 1934 Kontoleon,G. Notlisted Thebuildingisamodernmovementbuilding,originallyschooland residence,nowadaysusedastheNationalDanceAcademy. Theclassroomshavewoodenfloors.Corridors,serviceareasandlanding ofthestaircasesaremadeinterrazzo.

Externalview c.s.177originalview, Marmaras(2005,189)


Source:FessaEmanouil, c.s.178View fromOmirou, Source: Author

CaseStudy17GeneralData

OriginalviewandPlan:
c.s.179original3DModel, Source:FessaEmanouil, Marmaras(2005,189) c.s.180Plan;notinscale,northpointunknown Simpleterrazzo Source:idem Elaboration:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Grey The terrazzo is still in place on the corridorsatthelandingofthestaircases, andalltheserviceareas. Except from the entrance corridor, heavily decayed, some deterioration is present in the humid areas of kitchen and bathroom, mainly near edgesandbathtubs. Deteriorationform: Cracks,Lacunae,Stains

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.181Terrazzodetail, Source:Author

Generalview

c.s.182MainEntrance, Source:Author

c.s.183Staircaseslanding, Source:Author

c.s.184Bathrooms, Source:Author

CaseStudy17FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.185Erosion,Source: Author

c.s.186Stains, Source:Author

c.s.187Cracks, Source:Author

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Orestou20str,PetralonaCityCenter 1936 (?) Notlisted Thebuildingwasamodernmovementtwostoreyresidencehouse, andisstillusedassuch. The terrazzo floors under observation are in ground floor of the original building in all the rooms, apart from the bathroom that has been covered with tiles and from one room covered with laminatedwood. Thereisalsoasmallpartinthebeginningofthestaircase,allthe restoftheyardhasbeencoveredwithtiles.

Externalview CaseStudy18GeneralData

c.s.189Viewfrom Orestoustr, Source:Author

Plans:

c.s.190Plan, notinscale,northpoint unknown Terrazzo Source:Tzartzanis,N

The University of York MA in Conservation Studies, 2009

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours

Terrazzo Green, Yellow Red Greenwithlargewhitemarbles Alltheroomswereflooredn terrazzo,eachoneinadifferent color. Goodcondition. Deterioration forms only in the kitchen: Lacunae

Floordetail

Observations

Preservation status

c.s.20191192193194Terrazzo detail,Source:Author

Generalview CaseStudy18FloorData

c.s.195Bedroom, Source:Author

c.s.196Mainhall, Source:Author

c.s.197Courtyard, Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.198Lacunae, Source:Author

c.s.199filledlacunae, Source:Author

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

AgiosSavvasGreekAnticancerInstitute Alexandrasav171.AmbelokipiCityCenter 1936 Tsagris,B Notlisted The building was constructed as the first hospital in Greece dedicated to cancer treatments and is still used for the same purpose. Itisamodernmovementbuilding It has received various extension and modernization of its structurein1942,1960,1979and198089. Probably all its floors were in terrazzo, but many of them are todaycoveredwithplastictiles.

Externalview CaseStudy19GeneralData

c.s.200 Viewfrom Alexandrasstr, Source:Author

OriginalviewoftheBuilding

c.s.201Originalview,Source:http://www.agsavvashosp.gr

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Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo Green,yellow Grey Entrance:Creationofgeometrical formswithalternatedcolorsof terrazzo Corridors:Simplegreyterrazzo Generallygoodcondition. Deterioration forms: Erosion, Cracks andLacunae

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.202203Terrazzo detail,Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.204Corridor, Source:Author

CaseStudy19FloorData

c.s.205Main Entrance, Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.206Aggregateserosionlacunae, Source:Author

c.s.207Cracks,Source:Author

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Georgiadishouse AgiouAndrea3str,N.Smyrni(refugeesuburb) 1938 (?) Notlisted Thebuildingwasamodernmovementonestoreyrefugehouse. Lateronemorefloorwasaddedontopoftheoriginalbuilding. Theterrazzofloorsunderobservationareintheoriginalbuilding ofthegroundfloorinalltherooms,apartfrombedrooms.

Externalview

c.s.208Viewfrom AgiouAndreastr; originalhouse Source:Author

CaseStudy20GeneralData

Plans: Noplanavailable

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Type Maincolours

Terrazzo Green,entrance Yellow,mainHallandcorridor LightGreen,Kitchenandbalcony Red,kitchenserviceentrance Terrazzoinalltherooms,partofthe bedrooms,andtheexternalspaces. Mediocrecondition. Deteriorationforms: Lacunae mainly found in the open areasgreenterrazzoandtheinternal greenandredterrazzo.

Floordetail

Observations Preservation status

c.s209,210,211,212Terrazzo detail,Source:Author

Generalview CaseStudy20FloorData

c.s.213MainEntrance, Source:Author

c.s.214MainHall, Source:Author

c.s.215Balcony Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.216Aggregates erosionlacunae, Source:Author

c.s.217Mortaerosion lacunae,Source: Author

c.s.218Aggregates erosionlacunae, Source:Author

c.s.219Aggregates erosionlacunae, Source:Author

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3.3Typeo ofArchitec ctureandc choiceoff floorfinish h


The 20 ca studies demonst ase s trated that the use o mosaic floor finish in the t of h Interwarb buildingso ofAthensw wasverylim mitedwhere eastheuse eofterrazz zofloors was wide espread (fig 3.1). The compariso of these results leads the subject of g. on e this resea arch into a new divi a ision: simp Terrazzo, Terrazzo with decorative ple Patterns, Mosaics.
10%

Fl loorfinishes
Mosaic Terrazzo o
48%


Fig.3.1 1Graphic representation ofpercentageof floortype esinthis example research r Sourc ce:Author

42%

Terrazzo owith dec.patt tern

oor There is s some indica ative data as to the use of thes three flo finishe in the se es different architectural styles o the nte of erwar (fig.3 3.2). Mosai was com ic mpletely ignored b the mod by dern movement. Terr razzo was used by all styles yet with a t distinctive predomin e nance of te errazzo wit decorative pattern in popular style th ns andmode ernistbuildings.Theo oppositeoccursinmod dernmovem mentbuildings.At this point more sp pecific observations related to choice of floor finish and f architectu ural style, location in the build n ding and s symbolic si ignificance will be made.
Fig.3.2Graphic 5 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0

Mosaic Terrazzo Terrazzowith ttern dec.pat

represen ntation
ofpercenta ageof floo ortype examplesinthis researchre elating toarchite ectural style Source:A Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.3.1SimpleTerrazzo Simple or monochrome terrazzo was met in fourteen of the case studies, demonstrating the extended use of this technique in a large variety of mortar andaggregates,colorandgranularsize,inallfourarchitecturalstyles(fig.3.3). Yet,thechoiceoflocationforthesefloorswithinabuildingisdirectlyaffectedby thesocialreflectionofthebuildingitself,inotherwordswhetheritwasapooror aprestigiousconstruction. In the case of poor constructions, mainly the houses of refugees, terrazzo was used in all the areas of the house and the courtyard, varying in colors and aggregatessoastodefinethedifferentrooms(casestudies17,19andappendix). Terrazzofloorsofferedhygienicambientinverymodestpricesandthepossibility ofaprimarydecoration. On the other hand, in the urban constructions of the center and some public buildingswefindterrazzomostlyinthesecondaryand/orserviceareas:kitchen, bathrooms, corridors, servant rooms, balconies and auxiliary entrances (case studies1,2,5, 6,7,12, 13,1415ab).Therestofthehousewascoveredwiththe moreprestigiousandexpensivewoodenfloors.Inthesecases,particularlyinthe housingcase,thereisanevenclearersocialdiscrimination.Thenewbornurban classwishedtodivergefromthehousesofthepoorbut,asterrazzowasneeded for its high resistance and its hygienic qualities, it was only used wherever necessary,meaninginthesecondaryandtheutilityzones.
Fig.3.4 Distinction betweenusage andprestigious areas Urbanmodern movement apartment Source:Author Fig.3.3Typical simplegrey terrazzo Source:Author

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3.3.2Terrazzowithdecorativepatterns Terrazzo with decorative patterns can be classified as an intermediate solution between Mosaics and simple Terrazzo. The reason is that these terrazzo types proposed decorative motives of ancient mosaics but with terrazzo technique, either by altering terrazzo colours or by inserting marble pieces geometrically distributed(fig.3.5).Theyarelocatedinimportantpartsofthebuildings,suchas entrances,mainhalls,maincorridorsetc.,afactwhichdemonstratesthatwere madesoastoattractattention. This shows that architects of the time found a strong ally in concrete terrazzo. Theycouldcreateresistingfloorscompatiblewiththeconcretestructureofthe building,atthesametimeornamentingthefloorsthusaddingdecorativevalue totheirbuilding. Twelveexamplesofsuchterrazzowerefoundinallarchitecturaltypes.Though expressedindifferentarchitecturallanguagesallthebuildingsthathaveterrazzo with decorative patterns were initially designed for the newborn urban class housing(casestudies4,9,10,11)orforsignificantpublicbuildings(casestudies2, 3, 7, 11abc, 12, 18) Therefore, we have again a symbolic distinction; applying a techniqueusedbythelowerclassesbutinamoreprestigiousmanner.
Fig.3.5Terrazzowithdecorativepattern,Source:Author
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Beforemovingontomosaicsspecialmentionshouldbemadetotwomorefacts about terrazzo. First, the extended use of terrazzo in public buildings, like hospitals, schools, and universities, either simple or with decorative patterns, whichdemonstratesthatarchitectsofthetimefoundaverycheapandresistant solution for large areas harmoniously integrating with all the different architectural languages (fig. 3.6). Second, the diffused use of terrazzo in the entrance halls of multistorey buildings, an important area of these constructions,asexplainedbyMoiras(2001,43).Thisisevenmorewidespreadin the modern movement as demonstrated in case studies 21, 23, 24, (appendix I) andthe24photoexamples(appendixII)ofterrazzoflooredentrancesfromthe ongoing research of Elliniki Etairia (fig. 3.7). This latter research includes a sectiononentranceswith157photographs,andthe24selectedforthepresent study are 15% of the total. I believe that these data indicate that terrazzo was particularly appreciated by architects of the experimental modern movement andshouldbeconsideredaninseparableelementofthatarchitecturallanguage oftheInterwar.
Fig.3.7Landingofstaircasesinpublic

school,Kolonaki,CityCenter,Athens
Source:Author

Fig.3.8EntranceinModernmovement building,CityCenter,Athens Source:EllinikiEtairia(unpublished)

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3.3.3Mosaic Of the 20 buildings included in the case studies chapter only three contained mosaics floor (fig. 3.9). A fourth example was mentioned (architect Efi Kalliga, pers. comm. January 2009) the Kanellopoulos villa, with a courtyard full of mosaics; an edifice which has unfortunately been demolished. Apart from the verylimitedusewhatisalsoverysignificantisthekindofbuildingsthesefloors werefoundin. ThebuildingoftheBankofGreece,aMuseum,thebiggestatthetimeTheatreof theBalkansandarichprivateVillagiveproofthatmosaicswereveryexpensive atthattimetoo.Allthesebuildingswereexclusiveconstructionsandweresome ofthefewtheownerswhichcouldaffordsuchaluxuryinaverytighteconomic periodforthecountry.Thisagainhasastrongsymbolicvalue,asitdistinguishes those that had the power to significantly differ from decorative elements used bycommonpeople. Source:Author
Fig.3.9DetailofMosaicfloor,LoverdosMuseum,CityCenter,Athens

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TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Summingup,wehaveseenthatinallarc chitectural stylesofth hattimeex xamples mainly of terrazzo a some o mosaics can be fo f and of s ound. This proves onc more ce that architectural st tyles of the time wer interacting and so were the flooring e re es.Whatis moresignificantthan nthearchite ecturalstyl leforthechoiceof technique floorfinish,wasitstypeandloc cationinth hebuildings s,reflecting gastrongs symbolic value.Thi issymbolism mcanbes summarized dintheexa ampleofth heBankof Greece, where th mosaics imported from Italy are locat he y ted in the central an most nd important hall of th building while the third floor which was designe to be t he r, ed seenonly ybyemploy yees,hassimpleterraz zzofloors( (fig.3.10,3. .11).Whatw wemust examinen nowishow wdothese varietiesof fpavement tsweather randifther reisany relationsh hipbetweentype,loca ationandp preservation nstatus.


Fig.3.11 Mosaic floor, Mainhall, Bankof Greece Center Source: Author Fig g.3.10 Mo osaic floor, ainhall, Ma Bankof eece Gre Center urce: Sou Aut thor

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.4Choiceoffloorfinishandpreservationstatus
Allthefloorfinishesobservedaremanufacturesthathaveundergoneoverseven decades of use. As already introduced by the case study cards, they have suffered different decay forms. The main deterioration forms occurring in the threeabovementionedcategorieswillbenowsummarized. 3.4.1Simpleterrazzo The deterioration of the simple terrazzo, as the case studies demonstrated, is strictly related to its location. The most severely decayed terrazzo are those in openairareas,especiallywhentheywerenotcovered(casestudies6,10,13,20). In the inner spaces the severest deterioration occurred in humid environments (kitchensandbathrooms)(casestudies16ab,17).Thisisnosurprise,asbothfor theweatheringofstones(theaggregates)(Schaffer,2004,42)andofconcrete (the mortar) (Papadopoulou, 2008, 1617), the most damaging factors are the presenceofwaterandthevariationsintemperature. Intotal,fivearethemaindeteriorationformsobservedinterrazzo(3.123.17): Cracks: linear breaks of the floor, few millimetres large. Foundindifferentareasofthefloor.
Fig.3.12Source:Author

Erosion: abraded surface that has lost its superficial compatibility and integrity, increasing its porosity and diminishing the glow. Usually found in the main walking pathsofeachfloor.
Fig.3.13Source:Author

Erosion of final grouting: when the last grouting is of a different colour the erosion of the final grouting appears likeadiscolorationofthesurface.Fromavisualinspection itseemsthatitaffectsneitheritsporositynoritslucidity.It
Fig.3.14Source:Author

isalsofoundinthemainwalkingpathsofeachfloor. 42

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Lacunae:anirregularpartofthefloorthatismissing;this can be due either to heavy erosion of the aggregates (most common) (fig. 3.15) or to erosion of the concrete
Fig.3.15Source:Author

(fig. 3.16). Small superficial lacunae can be found on the entiresurface,whileusuallydeeperlacunae,whichinvolve alsooneofthebeddinglayers,arefoundinthecorners.

Fig.3.16Source:Author

Stains: various types of deposit that have imprinted the floor; for example oily or glue residues. They are mainly foundintheedgesofthefloors.

Fig.3.17Source:Author

3.4.2Terrazzowithdecorativepatterns Terrazzowithdecorativepatternspresentsthesamedeteriorationformsofthe simple terrazzo. The above described deteriorations have been found in many cases but are less intense and evident. I believe that this is due to three main reasons. One can first of all suppose that more attention was given at the momentoftheirfabrication.Then,thattheareaswiththedecorativepatterns are not in humid areasof frequent use, like bathrooms and kitchens. And last, due to their decorative motives, owners could have more easily appreciated valuablemanufacturesandsoeagerlycaredfortheireverydaymaintenance. 43

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TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

3.4.3Mos saic The deter rioration of mosaics is quite diff f ferent due to the par rticularitiesin their creation. Mosaicfloorsaresur rfacesmadebysingle etesseraet thatis,sing gleunits creatingo onesurface e,whichme eansthatth heresultisanoncomp pactsurfac ce. Thethree ecasestake enunderco onsideration,present differentd deterioratio onforms duetothe eirdifferentconstitutionmateria als. Inthecas seoftheBa ankofGree ece,wherev vitreousgla asstileswe ereused,w wefound variousex xtendedde eterioration nforms(3.183.21). Cracks:linearbreak ksofthefloorbetweenand/orc crossing thetesse erae.
Fig.3.18Sourc ce:B.o.G.archive es

Erosion: abraded tesserae surface, d due to th poor he resistanc ceofvitreo ousglasstile estowalkin ngoverthe em.
Fig.3.19Source e:B.o.G.archives s

e tesserae an nd/or the bedding b Lacunae: complete loss of t mortar.U Usuallyfollowstheou utlineofthe etesserae.

Fig.3.21Sourc ce:B.o.G.archive es

Stains: v various typ of depo that a attache to or pes osit are ed imprinte edontheflo oor.
Fig.3.3.22Sou urce:B.o.Garchiv ves

Inthecas seoftheL LoverdouZi illerbuildin ng,wherep porcelainti ileswereused,we foundthe efloorinan nexcellent tpreservati ionstatus; noerosion n,nocracks s,onlya fewlacun naeinthep proximities softhewa all.Theonly yimportantdecaywa asstains bymisuse esandbad maintenan nceoftheb buildingan ndnotdue topoorresistance ofthema aterials.
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TERRA AZZO AND MO OSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Con S R N nservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

In the cas of the P se Pallas theat were used also po tre orcelain we used ti very ere iles similar to colour and dimensio to those in the Lo on e overdou Zil building which ller dicate sam manuf me facture. These floors are ge enerally in good n could ind preservat tion status but man of the yellow an some o the bla s; ny nd of ack tiles presented dtwodecay yforms(fig g.3.23,3.24 4): Erosiono oftheglazing:found wherestai inshaveim mprinted thetesse erae
Fig.3.23Sou urce:Author

Exfoliati ion:comple etelossof thetessera aelayerpa arallelto thesurfa ace,usually yontheedg gesofthet tesserae.
Fig.3.24So ource:Author

Thereare enocracks, ,andhave beenfound donlyafew wlacunaef filledproba ablyina laterresto orationinte ervention. Thediffer renceinthe eresistanceofthesa amematerial,porcelaintilesbothatthe PallasThe eatreandth heLoverdo ouZillerM Museum,isd definitelyduetothed different frequency yofuse.Whilethousa andsofvisit torshavew walkedont thetheatresfoyer, theLover rdouZiller rMuseumw wasforon nlyfewyearsofintensivelyused d,andin anycasew wouldbele essfrequen ntedthanth hetheatre.

Summing up, all t the main decay for rms of te errazzo and mosaics under s observation can be divided into three main cate e egories: de eposits and stains; d cracks; erosion, inc cluding sup perficial, grouting er g rosion, ma aterial eros sion for vitreous tesserae a and exfolia ation for porcelain t p tile tessera ae; and lacunae, l including lossoftess seraeoraggregate,lo ossofmorta arandnotc ching(fig.3. .25).

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 3. Case studies 3. Case studies

Deposits/Stains

Cracks

Erosion

Lacunae

Fig.3.25Cummulativetableofthemaindecayformsinterrazzoandmosaics,Source:

3.5Conclusion
In conclusion, the study of the floors of 20 buildings of the Interwar in Athens highlighted the widespread use of terrazzo compared to mosaic floors. Regarding the connection between different architectural types and choice of flooring finish, one could notice a significant difference only in the modern movement,whichdidnotusemosaicatallandembracedterrazzofloorfinishes. Apartfromthatthereisnostrongconnectionbetweenarchitectureandchoice of floor finish. In all other types of architecture either one of them or a combination of the two is present with variations in technique, colour and location. There is however a relation between location and value attributed to eachfloortypeandthesignificanceofthebuilding.
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Locationandchoiceoffloortypearealsoeasilytranslatedintoanexpressionof socialdistinction.Accordingtotheeconomicprofileoftheowner,moreorless expensive flooring techniques were used. Mosaics were located in important areas of the building and the same happened with terrazzo with decorative patterns(fig.3.26,3.27).Ontheotherhand,inrichconstructions,terrazzowas usedinsecondaryandutilityzoneswhileinlowerclassconstructionsitisfound inalltheinnerandtheouterspaces.
Fig.3.26 Terrazzo with decorative patternsin themain entrance hallway, Neo academic building, CityCenter, Athens, Source: Author

Fig.3.27 Same building as3.26; simple terrazzo inthe corridors, Athens Source: Author

Locationandtheinitialfabricationmethodshaveastronginfluenceonthekind andextensionofdecayofthefloors.Dependingonthedifferentfloortypology, deterioration forms can be similar but may also have differences due to their fabrication techniques, location and whether or not their artistic value is recognized.Furthermore,samematerialscanalsoweatherdifferentlyduetothe frequencyofuseoftheroomthefloorisplacedin. Having identified the main deterioration forms, we should now propose some solutions. As conservation is an art with theoretical bases, we will analyze the conservationapproachtowardstherecentarchitecturalpast.Thiswillthencertainly resultintheformulationofavaluablediscussionwithproposalsfortheconservation problemsofthesefloors.

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Contemporary Conservation approach to Recent Architecture

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues 4. Contemporary Conservation approach to Recent Architecture

4.ContemporaryConservationapproachtoRecentArchitecture
Conservation of artifacts and buildings is nowadays considered a science with different philosophical backgrounds. I therefore think, before coming to the discussionandproposalsfortheconservationproblemsofInterwarterrazzoand mosaics,abriefoverviewoftheprincipalschoolsofthoughtandtheevolutionof thisscienceshouldbedonethroughthepositionsofitsmainrepresentatives. It is important to do so in order to mark the limits of traditional conservation philosophywhenappliedtomorerecentbuildings. Thuswecananalyzewhich of the traditional axioms are applicable to conservation of recent architecture andalsohowandwhenamutatedapproachmightbenecessary.

4.1HistoricaloverviewofArchitecturalConservationinEurope
We define conservation as all those actions that aim at preserving valuable testimonies of the past. More than two centuries have elapsed from the day Pietro Edwards in 1977 published his Capitolato, a text which as Munoz Vinaz (2005,3)defines,canbeconsideredthefirstwrittenguidelinesforarchitectural conservation. During the nineteenth century, in Europe several theorists and practitioners have attempted to leave their mark on what should be correct conservation. Twoweredefinitelythemostsignificantpersonalitiesofthenineteenthcentury with worldwide influence. The French Eugene Viollet le Duc (18141879) who identified conservation as a completion in style, imitating and inventing missingpartsofthebuilding(fig4.1).andhisextremeopposite,theEnglishman JohnRuskin(18191900)who,witharomanticapproachtothecharmoftheruin, sustained that conservation must be the nonalteration of that charm (fig. 4.2) (Munoz Vinas 2005; Jokilehto 2005; Sette 2001; Napoleone 2005c; La Regina 2005;Vassalo1996;MarmottiPoliti1996;deMartinoG.1996;Ceschi1970).
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Fig.4.1DrawingbyViolletleDucforthe reconstructionofSaintNazairea Carcassone,France Source:Frerigang,CKremierJ(2003,349) Fig.4.2DrawingbyRuskin,with allthedetailsofthedecay.San Michele,Luca,Italy Source:Ruhl,C(2003,466)

All other theories have been influenced by these two opposite theses, either rejectingorcombiningtheirideas.InItaly,CamilloBoito(18361914)wasoneof themostimportantfiguresindefiningthemonumentasahistoricaldocument. He insisted on the necessity of a philological approach, proposing the simplificationofformsandmaterialsintheinterventions.Hewasfollowedbyhis studentGustavoGiovannoni(18731947)whogaveamoremodernandscientific approachtothesubject(MunozVinas2005;Jokilehto2005;Grissoni2005;Sette 2001;Curuni2005,1996;DiBiase1996;Ceschi1970). Atthesametime,inBritain,WilliamMorris(18341896)foundedtheSocietyfor the Protection of Ancient Buildings and published the Manifestoagainst destructiverestoration,underliningthenecessityforeffectiveandhonestrepairs andexcludinganykindofimitation(MunozVinas2005;Jokilehto2005;Esposito 2005;Sette200;deMartinoR.1996;Ceschi1970). Some years later, at the beginning of the twentieth century, one of the most significant theorists for the development of architectural conservation was the Austrian Alois Riegl (18581905). He introduced the concept of the monument 49

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bothasintendedmonumentatthetimeofitsconstruction,butalsoforedifices which were later attributed the value of monument that is, architectural works initially not intended to be monumental but evaluated as such at a later time.. Through this theory value was introduced in conservation (Napoleone 2005b; MunozVinas2005;Jokilehto2005;Sette2001;Pretelli1996;Ceschi1970). Half a century later Cesare Brandi (19061988) in Italy reexamines the issue of value.In1963hepublishedtheTeoriadelRestauro,principallyrelativetoworks of art, but also to architectural conservation. His theory was based on the coexistingdoublevalueoftheworks:historicalandaesthetic(Napoleone2005; MunozVinas2005;Jokilehto2005;Sette2001;Carbonara1996;Ceschi1970). Duringthetwentiethcenturydifferentattemptsweremadefortheorganization of all these schools of thought. As a result, Konsola (1995, 61) summarizes, national and international charters (key examples: Athens 1931, Venice 1964, Burra 1979, ICOMOS 2003,) and declarations (key examples: Amsterdam 1975, Strasbourg 1985, Nara 1994 etc.) were issued and Heritage conservation organizations, such as UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS and lately the DOCOMOMO, werefounded.Theeffortsareincessant,reelaboratingtheprincipaltheoriesand previous conclusions, to demonstrate that conservation is a science in continuousevolution.

4.2Conservationoftherecentarchitecturalpast
We have gone briefly over the main philosophical trends that formed the conservation science of Historical Buildings in Europe. The question to be answered now is whether these principles are just as valuable regarding the conservationofourrecentBuiltHeritage. The first attempt towards an accurate study on the conservation of the closer architectural past was in 1989 by the foundation of the DOCOMOMO (DOcumentationandCOnservationofbuildings,sitesandneighborhoodsofthe MOdern MOvement). Next came the foundation of ICOMOS 20th Century HeritageInternationalScientificCommittee(Prudon2008;Burke2007;Casciato

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1998).Thepublicationsandactivitiesoftheseinstitutionsarefocusedmainlyon the buildings of the Modern Movement. Even so, I personally think that considerations regarding the conservation of early Modern Movements heritage,bornduringtheInterwaryears,canbeapplicabletootherbuildingsof thatperiodtoo. Unfortunately,asIamandis(1989,183)underlines,thereisnoclearphilosophical or methodological approach regarding our recent architectural Heritage. The problems arise with relation to perceived values, as reflected in earlier conservation debates by Riegl and Brandi,. In the case of recent Built Heritage the most puzzling values are related to time and intention, intensified by the constructionmethods. It is imprinted in the western societies that Time/Age affords value to objects, therefore to buildings as well. The main problem in the conservation of our recentarchitecturalpastisthereforetheshorttimeelapsedfromtheircreation (Burke 2007; Guillet 2007; Philippot 2005; Maxwell 1997;) which gives Interwar architectureakindoffamiliarity.Thisiswhyitalwaysbecomesverydifficultboth for individuals and for state organizations to consider these innovative constructions as part of our architectural Heritage and subsequently care for theirsafeguarding. Initial intention is the second important issue in the evaluation process. Quite often buildings of the time, considered today worthy of conservation, were private constructions not intended to be monuments. They were actually not constructedtolastbutonlytobeuseful.Maxwell(1998,xiv)furtheranalyzes, that in some cases, buildings of that time were erected as a declaration of oppositiontotradition,tocontinuity.Thisbringsaboutseriousdifficultiesinthe processoftheirevaluationandeventualconservation. Additional questions to the philosophical value issues arise from the fact that materialsthenconsideredtobeinnovativeandextraordinaryaretodaycommon and widespread (e.g. concrete.). Moreover, ignorance of the proper use of the newmaterialsatthattimecausedapoorresistanceofthematerialsintime,thus
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diminishingthelaterrecognizedvalueofthebuildingsevenmore.Forthosethat look down upon the architecture of that time, material failure represents the symbolicfailureofinnovation,thereforearchitecturewhichdoesnotdeserveto besaved(4.34.4).
Fig.4.4 Same buildings today, listed Source: Author Fig.4.3 Refugee modern movement buildingsin 1929 Source: Arseni (20024,89)

Limitedtimedistance,initialintentionandmaterialchoicemakestheevaluating process of our recent Built Heritage complicated. Even so, we have nowadays slowly managed to start recognizing that the buildings of the Interwar years representanimportantmomentofthearchitecturalandsocialhistory.Whenit comes to their conservation, how does this different evaluation process influence major conservation considerations like authenticity and minimum intervention?

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4.2.1AuthenticityinconservingourRecentArchitecturalPast Authenticity has right from the start been one of the foremost debates in the history of architectural conservation. In the Venice Charter, considered as the main document for contemporary architectural conservation, the closing sentenceofthefirstparagraphofitspreambleunderlines: Itisourdutytohandthemoninthefullrichnessoftheirauthenticity. Afterthis,theargumentastowhatthetermauthenticityreferredto,cameback onthetable.IntheEurocentricculturesauthenticityhasbeenusuallyidentified with material authenticity (Munoz Vinas 2005; Jokilehto 2005; Ceschi 1970). In the years to follow and as the term Heritage kept widening the concept of authenticity had to be reexamined. Finally, in 1994, at the Nara meeting and in article13,awidenedrangeofauthenticvaluewasexpressed: Depending on the nature of the cultural heritage, its cultural context, and its evolution through time, authenticity judgments may be linked to the worth of a great variety of sources of information. Aspects of the sources may include form and design, materials and substance, use and function, traditions and techniques, locationandsetting,andspiritandfeeling,andotherinternalandexternalfactors. Theuseofthesesourcespermitselaborationofthespecificartistic,historic,social, andscientificdimensionsoftheculturalheritagebeingexamined.1

Fromthisdocumentonwardswemovedtowardsincludingthespiritualvalueof a monument as authentic. As Petzet (2004, 29) accentuates, material authenticitybecomessubjectiveaccordingtothedifferentspiritualvaluesgiven bytheobserver.Thisfactwillbecomethekeyforunderstandingthequestionof authenticityregardingrecentarchitecture. TheconstructionsoftheInterwaryearsportraythetransformationofthesociety and the will for innovation. Their main value is purely symbolic and therefore
1

FulltextintheInternationalCouncilonMonumentsandSiteswebsite:

http://www.international.icomos.org/naradoc_eng.htm

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whatmustbeconservedandreadbyfuturegenerationsistheirspirit,theidea (Prudon2008;Iamandi1999;Henket1996).Contrarytothetrendforthecharm ofruinedantiquities,modernarchitectureneedstolooknewinordertotransmit this concept (Allan: 2007, 16). Therefore authenticity in the conservation of recentconstructionshaslessofamaterialandmoreofaspiritualvalue.Asthe materials of that time weather very badly, they must be repaired. Hence, integrationof missingparts or replacementof failed materialis acceptable and usually preferable as it aims at preserving the authentic spirit of recent architecture. By evaluating spiritual as an authentic value for the recent Built Heritage, integrationandreconstructioncanbeavaluableconservationsolution.Thereis, however,anotherissuetobedealtwith;theshortlifetimeofthesebuildings.If themonumentalvalueofaconstructionhasnotbeenrecognized,replacement andreconstructionactionscanendupannihilatinginsteadofconserving,.Where important elements of the architectural expression are substituted by modern elements, the authentic spirit of the construction is slowly but constantly depleted. When dealing with conservation of our recent architectural past, authenticity expressesthepredominanceofspiritualvalueoftheoriginalideaovermaterial value. Even so, there is always the problem of how much integration and replacementallowsustostillspeakofanauthenticbuilding.Istheprincipleof theminimuminterventionapplicableandnecessaryalsoinconservingourrecent architecturalpast? 4.2.2MinimuminterventioninconservingourRecentArchitecturalPast The principle of minimum intervention is another debate, as old as the conservation science, born as an opposition to the falsification of history by stylisticreconstruction.Themainideaistopromotehowlittleratherthanhow much one should do to respect authenticity when intervening in a historical building.

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As MunozVinas (2005, 1889) underlines, minimum intervention makes once again evident the relativity of philosophical questions. He clarifies that a more coherentthesisinconservationtreatmentsshouldbeminimuminterventionto achieve its goals. The main goal in conserving recent architecture, as we have previouslyexplained,istokeepalivetheoriginalconceptofthebuilding.Inthat sense no extended additions or reconstructions should be accepted as they couldeasilycompromisetheoriginalarchitecture. On the other hand, minimum intervention regarding materials should be reconsidered, as Macdonald (1997, 181) emphasizes. Problems are once again relatedtomaterialswhichwereusedwithenthusiasmbutwithouttherequired technical knowledge, often ending up in severe deterioration. (Guillet 2007; Christ2001;Arnold1982).Thesedeteriorations,otherthantheaestheticproblem previouslyexplained,canbethebeginningofaprofounddecompositionofthe structureandcouldcauseseriousproblems,problemsofstability.Sinceweare dealingwithbuildings,safetyshouldalwaysbeapriority;therefore,ifwewantto keep using these buildings, a maximum intervention in their constitution materialsmustbemade. Tobeabletokeeptheauthenticspiritualvaluesofrecentarchitecture,onemust onceagainbearinmindthatwecommonlydealwithbuildingsstillinuseyetwith a given value as monument. The concept therefore of minimum intervention, regardingmaterials,hasbeentransformedintomaximumintervention.Evenso, spiritual value still requires a minimum intervention approach that acts as a barrier to unjustified large scale interventions. Summing up, to keep the authentic spirit of constructions, massive interventions in the materials should onlybemadeincasesofnecessityandonlyinthosepartsofthestructurethat reallyrequireit.

4.3ConservationapproachontheArchitecturalHeritageinGreece
Focusing on the geographical area our research we shall now examine the approachtoconservingarchitecturalHeritageinGreece.Itisnecessarytoreport firstthemainstepsinrecognizingarchitectureasHeritagelegallyandthenthe
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contemporary approach that follows international standards towards recent architecture. The establishment of the new Greek state took place at the beginning of the nineteenth century, in 1830. That was the time of the conclusion of the era of Enlightenment,markedbythereevaluationofhistoricityandalsothetimewhen the main conservation science debates were born. It is therefore easy to understand how European sensitivity towards the testimonies of the past immediatelyinfluencedthelegislationofthenewstatewhich,asPapateropoulos (2006,1)reports,hadpassedhadalawontheprotectionofantiquitiesasearly as1834. The term antiquities is the only one used in the Greek heritage legislation until 1950, until law 1469/19502 finally extended the protection of antiquities to monumentsaswell.Atthesametimeasteadilyprogressiveincorporationofthe above mentioned international charters and regulations and joining specialized organizations is observed, constantly giving more significance to architectural heritage. PresentlyarchitecturalheritageinGreeceisprotectedbythenewarcheological law 3028 /20023: On the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage in General. Ergolavou (2007, 12) explains that the new law gave a broader definitiontothemeaningofHeritageanditssafeguardinginGreece.Regarding BuiltHeritage,thisbecomesclearinchaptertwo,article6,entitledDistinction of immovable MonumentsClassification. In paragraph 1 it introduces a large timescaleclassificationofthemonumentsin: antiquitiescreatedbeforeuntil1830; recentconstructions,after1830andmorethan100yearsold;

FulltextintheHellenicMinistryofCulturewebsite:http://www.yppo.gr/5/51/neot/n1469.jsp FulltextintheHellenicSocietyforLawandAntiquitywebsite:http://www.law

archaeology.gr/Index.asp?C=136

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recent cultural objects less than 100 years old which are classified as monumentsduetotheirparticulararchitectural,urban,social,ethnological, folk, technical, industrial or in general historic, artistic or scientific significance4. Fromalegislativepointofviewthesubjectofourresearchislocatedinthelast categoryofmonuments,thatis,therecentconstructionsthatarelessthan100 yearsold.Thequestioniswhethertheinfluenceofthislawissignificantforthe protectionoftherecentarchitecturalpast.

4.3.1ConservationoftherecentarchitecturalpastinGreece

Let us first look at Charkiolakis (2007, unpublished) observation which highlights the main problem of bringing once again the protection of architectural heritage under a law composed basically for antiquities, always leaving architectural Heritage in their shadow of antiquity. This creates continuousconflictsbothinethicalchoicesandinfundingmatters. Furthermore,regardingthesocalledrecentculturalobjects,meaninginourcase the buildings of the Interwar years, they suffer a further distinction in the classification of priorities due to the addition of the word particular in the definition.Giacumacatos(2003,B44)notesthatthiskindofdistinctionisdouble edged. On the one hand it provides the opportunity to list and save recent constructions too, but on the other it introduces subjectivity in safeguarding some very important buildings of the thirties onwards as their particular significanceneedstobeproven. The problem of subjectivity is a major one as the buildings of the twentieth century, contrary to earlier constructions, do not enjoy acceptance by their obvious ally, public opinion, nor that of the state (Rigopoulos 2005 & 2008; Tournikiotis1989).
4

Idem

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Fortunatelyduringthelastdecadesmanyspecialistshavebeenworkingonthe revaluation of this periods architecture. The foundation of the Greek DOCOMOMOin1990,presentlyhostedintheNeoHellenicArchitecturalArchives of the Benaki Museum, was a significant start followed by the birth of a systematicprogramofdocumentationofthisarchitecturebytheHellenicSociety fortheProtectionoftheEnvironmentandtheCulturalHeritagein2001.Finally, last year a similar new program was promoted by the Municipality of Athens (KontaratouRassia2008;Papakonstantinou2008;Tournikiotis1998).Allthese initiatives, by organizing conferences, exhibitions and publications, contribute positivelytoagreaterawarenessandappreciationofrecentarchitecture. InconclusiononecouldsaythatGreeklawdoesprovideprotectiontoourrecent architecture.However,theproblemcomesbackonceagainonthediscussionof values, as there is quite a skeptical approach towards recent constructions in Greece too, yet specialists and organizations are working towards finding the rightsolutions. I would like to close this analysis with an observation by Giacumacatos (2003; 2006). He suggests that special legal provision should be dedicated to the twentieth century architectural heritage. Once again he emphasizes that a general guideline for conservation cannot be easily applied because the conservation of recent architectural past has different thoughts and philosophicalissuestodealwith.

4.5Conclusion
In a science like conservation, with a strong philosophical background, any absolute position is to be excluded a priori. We have seen that even if a conservationapproachhasalternatedseveraltimesinthelasttwocenturies,the generally accepted solutions are not fully applicable when it comes to recent architecture. The relativity of the conservation approach is a direct consequence of the differentvalueswerecognizeintheconstructionstoconserve.Whenitcomesto

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recentarchitecture,themostimportantvaluetoconserveistheidea,theinitial concept. As we come to deal with serious material failures, it is necessary to intervenesoastorestoretheintegrityofdesignanditssymbolicandeducative value. Onecouldatthispointarguethatconservationofrecentarchitecturereturnsto oneofthe18thcenturyprincipaltrendsofrestoration,thestylisticinterventions promoted by Viollet le Duc. Clearly there is a strong correlation, but we should not underestimate that theories and declarations through the centuries have giventherecentarchitecturesconservationinterventionamoremoderateand limitedprofile,excludingarbitrarycreativeinterventions. WhenitcomestothecaseofconservingrecentarchitectureinGreece,onecan fortunatelyobservethatinternationalstandardsareadoptedandfollowed.Even more, the latest law on the protection of Greek Heritage gives a wider span to the protection of the recent architectural past. The problem once again is ignoranceorlackofinformationonthevalueofthesebuildings,aproblemthatis beginning to be seriously dealt with by different organizations and private initiatives. As Allan (2007, 15) summarizes, solutions for safeguarding our recent architectural history stand in repair, improvement and reformation. So, we are now going to discuss how conservation problems with terrazzo and mosaics, presentedinthecasestudychapter,canbeapproachedthroughthisparticular philosophicalapproachoftheconservationofrecentarchitecture.


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5.Discussion
The analysis of location and types of floor in a building and their main preservation forms left open questions. Combining these problems with the axiomsofthecontemporaryapproacht0conservationinrecentarchitecturewe now have enough elements to conduct a relative discussion. Its main aim is to present solutions for the conservation of terrazzo and mosaics of Interwar buildings in Athens. Thus, questions related to what we preserve and why, economicsandconservationbutalsotosomepracticalinterventionresponsesto earlierpreservationproblemswillnowbehighlighted.

5.1Interwararchitecturesconservationissues
Architecture incorporates and expresses the history of every city and its inhabitants(Zivas1991,162).Therefore,everyattempttopreserveandsafeguard architectural past is an act of respect towards history. I strongly believe that safeguarding the architecture of the years that marked the formation of the modern urban society of Athens is of crucial importance. There are serious problems regarding Interwar architecture and although more attention is nowadays drawn to the great blow on modern movement, a brief explanation willbemadeofhowalmostallInterwararchitecturalstylescanbeatrisk. Unfortunately in Greece, as Lavvas (1983, 28) emphasizes, from the foundation of the new country in 1833 until today, architectural historical continuity has repeatedlybeendisrupted,sacrificingtherecenttestimoniesfortheadorationof the glorious ancient past. At this point the relation between architectural style and safeguarding an Interwar building in Greece will be highlighted. Out of the four main architectural styles of the Athenian Interwar, the only ones easily salvaged, since they are obviously perceived as monumental, are the neo academicconstructions. Themodernistedificesareusuallyconsideredbythepublicasworthsavingbut can still be undervalued by the state. A good example is the unlisting and the
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proposeddemolitionofoneofthefinestmodernist,artdecobuildingsofAthens onD.Areopagitou17str(casestudy13)forthesakeoftheviewfromtheNew Acropolis Museum. The ancient adoration position of the state has been protested against by newspapers, organisations and the web community, with worldwideparticipation,finallybringingthecasetotheSupremeCourt.
5.1Oneofthemostintensivepublic protestsontheweb,collectingtill today32610signaturesagainstthe demolitionofAreopagitou17str building Source: http://areopagitou17.blogspot.com/

The buildings of both popular and modern architecture are in an even less privileged position. Popular architecture and its influences has often been ignoredevenbyspecialistwriters,andmoresobycommonpeople.Ontheother handModernmovementarchitectureisneitherwidelyunderstoodnoraccepted and is often accused of being the cause of concretization and the multistorey profile of Athens that occurred later, in the 60s and 70s. Absurd demolition decisionsarecontinuouslytakentheselastyears(Tournikiotis2009,unpulished) andactualdemolitionsofmodernmovementbuildings(KontaratouRassia2008, 43)arecarriedout(5.25.3).
5.2Ravinestr,Kolonaki,City center,beforethedemolition Source:www.monumenta.org 5.3The20.01.2009 decisionofthe courtforbidding thedemolitionof thisbuilding unfortunately cametoolatefor thebuildings characteristic entrance, Source: www.monumenta .org

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RealizingthatInterwarbuildingsareworthconservingoneshouldthinkofhow they should be conserved. The different constitution elements of the buildings mustbepreserved,avoidinganyattemptatfacadism,wheretheouteraspectis conserved while the inner is completely demolished. As Earl (1996, 59) emphasizes, a building expresses its documentary value only when it is not treated as an accidental collection of elements but when the materials, decorationandtasteoftheperiodaremaintained.Inthisrespectthechoiceof floor finishes should be conserved as an inseparable part of the architectural expressionwithstrongsymbolisms,.

5.2.Economicsandconservation:aproposal
Conservation is strictly related to financing, like everything in contemporary society.Apartfromhistoricissues,asEarl(1996,11)emphasizes,usuallybuildings arepreservedasavaluablesourceofincome,servingcontemporaryneeds. ThecaseofInterwararchitectureinAthensisquitecomplexfromaneconomic pointofview.Thiswasaveryfertileconstructionperiodwithbuildingsthatwere not designed to be monumental; so a large quantity of everyday constructions has to be dealt with. Such a huge amount of Built Heritage to be preserved createsseriousfundingproblemsasthereisagrowingamountofsuchbuildings butthefundsforcultureremainthesame.Therefore,asthenumberofbuildings toconserveincreases,theproportionoffundsforeachdiminishesaccordingly. As a solution to the huge amount of recent architecture and its conservation, Henket (1998, 14) proposes an accurate selective process. I would agree with Henket that it is neither possible nor desirable to preserve all the works of our recentpast.YetIdisagreewiththeproposalforselectionandaneventuallisting as being very risky. Selectivity is very subjective and could bring about the demolition of masterpieces just because of differing tastes or conflicting

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interests.Moreover,listinginGreeceisseenascondemningthebuildingtodeath sincetheownerusuallydoesnothavethefundsforaconservationintervention. IstronglybelievethatthesafeguardingofInterwararchitecture,consequentlyof recenthistory,standswithinaprocessofevaluatingthefamiliarity.Buildingsof those years stand in an ambiguous time distance from today. People perceive themsimplyasoldbutatthesametimefamiliarbecausetheirgrandparentsmay have constructed them and their own parents may also have lived there; it is difficult as such to understand that these buildings could be valuable and importanttestimoniesofthepast.Theanswertofundingproblemscouldbein convincing people of the value of their ownership. Well informed private individuals may willingly care for and maintain the buildings as something extraordinary,respectingtheiroriginalarchitecturallanguage. Evaluating recent architecture also increases the commercial value of these constructions.Thisisanotherkeyfactorfortheirsafeguardingbecauseifowners canseethemasavaluableincomeresourcetheywillcarefortheirconservation. Forthismodeltosucceeditshouldbemadeclearthatwhatmustbepreservedis the authentic spirit and the architectural language of the building. This, with relation to the specific subject of our study, could act favorably and result in caringandsavingtheoriginalchoiceofflooringtechnique. As analyzed, the answers to economic matters can be found in the private initiatives.Understandingthegivenmonumentalvalueandkeepingabuildingin usecanbeagoodsolution.Inaddition,ordinarymaintenanceisalwaysthemost economicalanswertotheexpensiveandextremeactofrestoration.Ifweaccept that private initiative is a very important factor, then public awareness will become the key for preserving Interwar architecture and its constitutional elements.

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5.3Publicawareness
Before moving on to specific preservation problems the significant difference between terrazzo and mosaics in relation to public awareness must be underlined. InAthenianInterwararchitecturemosaicswerelocatedinbuildingsintendedto be monumental (case studies 5, 8, 11d ). Furthermore, in Greece mosaics are easily perceived as an artistic expression, therefore precious, due to their continuous use through the centuries in mural decorations of Greekorthodox churches (fig 5.4). Because of these two characteristics, public awareness of their value and consequently of the necessity for their conservation, is a spontaneousreactionlikeinthecaseofthefloorsoftherecentlyrestoredPallas theatre(casestudy11d)andtheprotectionofthefloorsfromwalkersintheBank ofGreece,automaticallyturningthemintomuseumpieces.(casestudy5).
5.4OsiosLoukas church,detail fromthearches Mosaicbyzantine decoration Source:Author

Ontheotherhand,sincehistorycontinuouslyrepeatsitself,terrazzojustlikeits ancientexpressionbattuto(Maioli,M.G.pers.comm.2002),hasforlongbeen undervaluedandoftendestroyedasinthecaseoftheinternalyardofthehouse inPetralona(casestudy18)andthebathroomofthesecondfloorinthemodern buildingofcasestudy16b.Theundervaluationofterrazzo,seenasaverypoor andinsignificantconstructiveelementandonlyrelatedtothesecondaryareasof thebuilding,wasobviouswhiletalkingaboutthesubjectofmydissertationto


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various owners (Chatzinikoli M, Georgiadis N, Malliaris E, Meleggoglou I, Nikos Tartzanis, N; pers.communication January 2009); its artistic expression possibilitieswerecompletelyignored. Yet, while visiting to take photographs of the floors, some of these owners were becoming curious of the fact that I was interested in this kind of flooring (case studies 2, 4, 7, 10, 16a). After some chatting, explaining the relation between terrazzo and mosaic and the historical continuity of this kind of technique,thingssometimeschanged;indifferenceturnedtopleasureandpride fortheirfloorsandbuildings,withafeelingofowningasymbolicpieceofhistory. Inconclusion,incasesofmosaicspeoplearealreadyawareoftheimportanceof thatflooringtechnique,whileregardingterrazzo,widerinformationmuststillbe given. To save the terrazzo technique it is urgent to divulge its historical, symbolicandaestheticvalues.

5.4Guidelinesforrestorationproblems
HavingunderstoodtheimportanceofsafeguardingInterwararchitecturewithall its elements, in our case the original floorings, the cases where more than ordinarymaintenanceisrequiredwillnowbeconsidered. As already explained, conservation of recent architecture must safeguard the authentic,symbolicpoweroftheoriginalarchitecturallanguageofthetime.In our cases, floor finishes must also look integral, therefore often invasive restorationinterventionsmustbemade. Certainly, in restoration interventions there is not one solution that fits all. For anykindofinterventiontobesuccessfulithastopreviouslybecarefullystudied and planned. To find the correct solutions the constituent materials must be analyzedinordertocreateavisiblyharmoniousandatthesametimematerially compatibleintervention.Evenso,afteryearsofpersonalhandsonexperiencein therestorationfieldofancientmosaicsIhavenoticedthattherearesomequite standardized and common restoration procedures that give valuable solution.

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Even if cement replaced lime mortars fabrication techniques are similar to the ancient, so I believe these standard procedures could also be applied on modernterrazzoandmosaics. In the case studies I came across very few interventions, mainly failed filling of the lacunae (case studies 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 18, 21) (fig. 5.4). Combining satisfactory solutions from my craft experiences with the observations in chapter 3 for the main decay forms, I would like to propose some general guidelines, subdivided accordingtodecayandflooringtechnique.
5.4Examplesofvariousfailedlacunaerepairs,Source:Author

Asseeninourcasestudies,therearesomepredominantdecayforms(fig.3.25): deposits, cracks, lacunae and erosion. For these main decay forms of terrazzo and mosaic the most common interventions, presented in their typical applicationsequence,arethefollowing(fig.5.5):
Decayform Deposits(attachedornot) Cracks Lacunae Erosion RestorationIntervention Dry,wet,chemicalormechanicalcleaning Mortarfilling Integration Consolidation

5.5Tableofthemaindecayformsandrelativetreatments,Source:Author Beyondpreservation,thefollowingguidelinesaimatfulfillingconservationissues relating to the coexisting values of every artifact, aesthetic and material, as introducedbyBrandi(1977,6).Materialintegrityandaestheticcompatibilitymust

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beensuredrespectingthearchitecturallanguageoftheoriginalarchitecture.The nextparagraphswillgiveabriefoverviewofhowtoachievethisresult. 5.4.1DepositsCleaning Theimportanceofcleaningthesurfacesbeforeanyconservationtreatmentmust neverbeenundervaluedfortworeasons:First,becauseonlywhenthesurfaceis clean the real preservation status can be comprehended. Second, if the dirt is notremoveditcouldbepushedintothestructureandconsolidatedwithsomeof thefollowingrestorationtreatments. All these floors have survived ordinary housekeeping for decades. This proves thatanykindofwaterand/orsoapcleaningcanbesafelyapplied.Thereareonly twosuggestionstobetakenintoconsideration: Chemicallyaggressiveproducts,likethosebasedonammoniumorchlorideacids, as well as abrasive techniques should generally be avoided as they could augmentporosityandaccelerateotherdecayprocesses. In addition, for the specific case of the mosaic in the Bank of Greece, where fragilevitreoustesseraehavebeenused,onlysoftanddrycleaningissuggested.
5.7Wet cleaningwith softbrushes, Source: Author 5.6Dry cleaning, Source: Author

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5.4.2CracksMortarFilling The crack decay form is very common to terrazzo and was also present in a mosaicinoneofourcasestudies.Therestorationinterventionbymortarfillingis usuallyalocalizedsmallscaleoperationinthesecases. Beforeintegratingacrackitisstronglyrecommendedtomonitorit.Ifaftersome time the crack does not grow, then one could fill it with compatible mortar. Otherwise, if the crack is still active, the filling will be expelled on the first thermalvariation. Theprocedurestartswithisdrycleaningbyaspiration.Itisfollowedbywetting withwater,whichensurestheupcomingadhesionofthemortartothesurface (fig. 5.7). Again, if the crack is very deep, it is a good practice to inject some mortarmixinaveryliquidstate(fig.5.6).Afterwettingit,eitherwithwateror liquid mortar, the crack will be filled with a both chromatically and materially compatiblemortar,usuallywithaspatula.Thefinalstepconsistsineliminating anyexcessmortarwithawetandcarefullystrainedsponge.
5.8 Injection with liquid mortar Source: Author 5.7Injection forwetting Source: Author

5.9Fillingwithmortarbyspatula Source:Author

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5.4.3LacunaeIntegration
5.4.3.1Mosaic

Integrating a lacuna in a mosaic is of crucial importance as, due to the discontinuity in the structure of mosaics, lacunae create the broken necklace effect (fig. 5.9). That is, if one tessera is missing, the adjacent ones will easily follow and so on. Different techniques have been developed for integrating lacunae in mosaics in a more or less traceable manner. As has already been explained integrity in recent architecture conservation is of fundamental importance,bothvisualandmaterial.Thereforeoutofthenumeroustechniques, twoarebrieflypresentedhereasvaluablesolutionstotheneedforintegrity. Integrationwithsameorsimilarmaterial. As in cases (case studies 5, 11d) of mosaics floors made out of ceramic tile tesserae, still in use, resisting and aesthetically accepted solutions have to be found. The mosaic can be reproduced either by the same material i.e. new ceramic tiles, or by other resisting materials, like stones of the same chromatic quality, cut in the same dimension of the original mosaic and following the originalmosaicpattern.Thekeyforasuccessfulinterventionstandsindeepening the lacuna so as to have the necessary space to apply preparatory and laying mortar,thetesseraetooonthecorrectlevel(fig.5.10).
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5.10 Integration withsimilar material, Pallas theater, Athens Source: Author

5.9The broken necklace effect Source: Author

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Integrationwithincisedmortar. This technique can be applied only in cases where the mosaic is exhibited as a museum object, meaning mosaics not stepped on (case study 5a). In this techniquethereisnoneedtodeepenthelacuna;thevoidisfilledwithamortar atthelevelofthesurface.Momentsafterandwhilethemortardriesbutisstill workable, the surface is incised with the help of a small spatula or a lancet simulatingthetesseraeform(fig.5.11).Theintegrationiscompletedbycolouring thesurface(fig.5.12).Thistechnique,widespreadinancientmosaicrestoration, givesexcellentresultsataverylowcostyetthecolourisnotresistibleincaseof ordinaryuseofamosaic.
5.4.3.2Terrazzo
5.11Incised mortar formedto imitate tessera Source: 5.12 Author Colouring Incised tessera Source: Author

In terrazzo, when the lacunae are formed from the erosion of aggregates then they should be repaired with a plastic material imitating their colour and form. First, the lacuna must be cleaned, eliminating the rest of the aggregate that wouldotherwisekeepdecayingundertheintegration.Then,integrationcanbe madewithcolouredconcretemortarorsyntheticresins.Thesubstitutionofthe missing aggregate with original material would not be a good practice as the aggregateshaveirregularformsandarenotreproducible.Byinsertingasmaller aggregate,thefillingofthesurroundinggapwouldbeattractingattentiondue toitsdifferentcolourtone,thusspottingtheinterventionarea(fig.5.13).

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When the lacunae are larger zones, a new layer of terrazzo mixture can be appliedafteranaccuratestudyofthesizeandcolourofaggregatesandbinders. It is quite difficult to succeed in such an intervention; therefore different tests mustbemadeonaseparatesurfaces(likeonawoodentable)beforechoosing thecorrectproportionofmaterials. Inbothcases,therestorationinterventionwillbecompletedwithgroutingand polishing. 5.13
Markedinterventionarea bysurroundingvoid Source:Author

5.14 Quite well done Lacunae filling Source: Author

5.4.4ErosionConsolidation The cases of erosion and their following treatment are strictly related to the constitution material of the floor. The extension of the intervention will be relatedtotheextensionoftheerosion.
5.4.4.1Mosaics

In the case of vitreous tesserae, the intervention must be focused on a surface treatment which will consolidate the glass vitreous structure. In the case of porcelain tile tesserae, where erosion usually destroys the glazing, a non restorable situation, the tiles must be consolidated to increase their resisting characteristics.Inbothcasesthetreatmentisgivenbysprayingorbrushingthe surfaceuntilrejection.
5.4.4.2Terrazzo

Erosion in our terrazzo case studies has been observed as the most common decay form. To recreate a compact surface the grouting procedure must be
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repeated all over the surface. This operation consists in applying by spatula a mortarofcookedlinseedoraglue,cementandlime.Themixshouldbeleftto dry for about a week, then the surface should be polished it with a grouting stonemachine.AshighlightedbyCrovato(2002,75)foragoodmaintenanceof anyterrazzo,thisoperationshouldberepeatedperiodicallyevery5to10years. 5.4.5Extremelydecayedfloors Inourcaseswefoundheavilydecayedfloorsonlyinterrazzoofsecondaryand openairareas(casestudies6,10,13,).Ifthenumberoflacunaeandcracksistoo large, apart from the fact that the integrations would create an aesthetically confusing patchwork, they would also end up in an extremely expensive operation. For these reasons and as in recent architecture the material value is less important than the aesthetic authentic value, these floors should be replacedinsteadofrestored.Evenso,thereplacementmustbemadeinsucha way as to recreate a terrazzo floor respecting the authentic architectural language. Therewerenocasesofextremedecayinmosaics,butifthatoccurred,itwould beverydifficultandexpensivetoproposeareplicaoftheoriginalflooragainin mosaic. 5.4.6Documentationoftheinterventions All the above described operations must definitely be accompanied by an accurate documentation. The documentation process, photos, mapping graphs andobservationreports,mustbemadebefore,during,andaftertheoperation. Onceagain,whatshouldneverbeforgottenisthatcollectinginfinitedatashould not be an end in itself; it must be a procedure focused on organizing a consultablesystemforthefuture. Inthecaseofconservationofrecentarchitecturedocumentationplaysacrucial rolefortwomorereasons.First,duetothechoiceofintegratingwithoutleaving any visible traces so as to reinstate the authentic aspect to the building, documentationwillbetheonlyevidenceoftheseactions.Then,documentation
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canbeavaluablefutureresourceforthecreationofadatabaseontheagingof thesematerialsandalsoontheirbehaviourinrelationtocontemporarymaterials usedintheintervention.

5.5Conclusion
Summing up, the discussion started by emphasizing the importance of safeguarding our architectural past as a testimony to our history. For Interwar architecture and its floors conservation is usually problematic not due to the young age of the buildings but mainly with relation to the evaluation or non evaluationofthedifferentarchitecturaltypologies. Examining economics and conservation one faces another serious matter; the largequantityofInterwarbuildingsinAthens.Atthispointthesuggestionisto avoidahistoricalmummifyingapproachandtrygivingvaluetofamiliarity. Peopleandpublicawarenessarethekeyforsafeguardingmosaicbutespecially the undervalued terrazzo floors of the Athenian Interwar. Once the public realizes the historic and financial value of these constructions and their constituentelements,itwillactivelyparticipateintheirconservationthroughthe economicalsolutionofordinarymaintenance. Toconcludethediscussionaboutterrazzoandmosaicsaswellastheissueson their conservation, a final overview of solutions for decay has been made. Guidelines have been given for cases where deterioration is evident, and according to the theories of conservation for recent architecture, maximum materialinterventionsarerequired. Havingcompletedthestudyandobservationsofthisresearchwewillnowmove ontothefinalconclusions.

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Appendix

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Alppendix -I 5. Discussion

AppendixI:Casestudies
5extracasestudiesofModernMovementBuildings

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THE CONSERVATION OF TERRAZZO & MOSAICS OF INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS Appendix I

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Likavittou5&Solonosstr,KolonakiCityCenter 1934 Sgoutas,K. Notlisted Thebuildingisamodernmovementfivestoreyapartmentbuilding,originally residences,nowadaysusedasresidencesandoffices. The terrazzo floors under observation are: one in the lateral externalentranceofthebuildingandsomeonthelandingofthe staircasesandthebuildingssecondaryentrance;noentrytothe apartmentswaspossible.

Externalview CaseStudy21GeneralData
c.s.221View fromSolonos &Lykavittou strSource: Author

c.s.220View fromSolonos Source: Author

Plans: Noplanavailable

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Type Maincolours Observations

Terrazzo

Floordetail

Preservation status

In:Lightblue Out:Grey In: Use of terrazzo for the landing of the staircases and in the secondary entrancesfloor. Out:Thewholecorridor In:Verygoodcondition Deteriorationform:Erosionof grouting Out:Verybadcondition c.s.222223Terrazzodetail Source:Author Deteriorationform:Cracks,Lacunae

Generalview
c.s.224The lateral entranceto thebuilding on Lukavittou Source: Author

c.s.225The internal entrances Source: Author

CaseStudy21FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.226Surfaceerosion Source:Author

c.s.227Cracks Source:Author

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Kardarashouse MegalouVasileiou12&Korai,N.SmyrniSuburb 1939 (?) Notlisted Thebuildingwasamodernmovementonestoreyrefugeeshouse. In 1981 two more floors were added on the top of the original building. The terrazzo floors under observation are in ground floor of the original building in all the rooms, apart from the bedrooms and theofficewhichhavewoodenfloors

Externalview CaseStudy22GeneralData
c.s.250252 Viewfrom M.Vasileiou andKorai theoriginal building Source: Author

Plans: Noplanavailable

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Type Maincolours

Terrazzo Redwithyellowaggregates,entrance andhall Red, with white aggregates, corridor andkitchen Terrazzoinentrance,mainhall, corridorandkitchen.Thebathroom hasmosaictiles. Excellentcondition. Allthedecaywascausedby extraordinaryevents,likeplanting concretecolumnstoaddfloors,or demolishingawalltomodifythe spaces.

Floordetail

Observations

Preservation status

c.s.230231Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview CaseStudy22FloorData
c.s.232The mainhall Source:Author

c.s.233Corridor totheKitchen Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.234Filledlacunae Source:Author

c.s.235Lacunae Source:Author

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Ermou44,SyntagmaCityCenter (?) (?) Notlisted Thebuildingisamodernmovementapartmentbuilding,originally residences,nowadaysusedasoffices. Thefloorsunderobservationareinanapartmentofthefourthfloor. Theapartmenthadwoodenfloorsandterrazzoatitsserviceentrance. At the last renovation of August 2008, the terrazzo in question was destroyed. Aterrazzoisalsofoundinthesecondaryentranceofthebuilding.

Externalview CaseStudy23GeneralData

c.s.235View fromErmou Source:Author

Plan:

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Type Maincolours

Terrazzo Grey,servicearea Yellow, secondary entrance of the building The terrazzo of the apartment has beendestroyed. The grey terrazzo of the apartment was in very bad condition as it had previouslybeencoveredwithaglued oncarpet. The terrazzo of the secondary entranceingoodconditionexceptfor onecrack.

Floordetail

Observations Preservation status

c.s.237238Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.239The secondary entrance Source:Author

CaseStudy23FloorData

c.s.240The secondary entranceofthe apartment Source:Author

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.241Glueresidues Source:Author

c.s.242Cleaningtest Source:Author

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Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Ypsliantou28,KolonakiCityCenter (?) (?) NotListed This is a modern movement threestorey apartment building, originallyresidences,nowadaysstillusedassuch. Theterrazzofloorunderobservationisinthebuildingsentrance; noentrytotheapartmentswaspossible.

Externalview c.s.243DetailofEntrance
Source:Author

CaseStudy24GeneralData

c.s.244View from Ypsilantou Source: Author

Plans: Noplanavailable

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix I 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

TerrazzoandMarble Yellow Terrazzowithlargeaggregates, alternatingwithwhiteandredmarble formingrhombs. Verygood Deteriorationform: Lacunae,duetotheelevatederosion ofthemortarnottheaggregate.

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.245Terrazzodetail Source:Author

Generalview
c.s.246The mainentrance Source:Author
Figure 1

c.s.247The mainentrance Source:Author

CaseStudy24FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.248Lacunaeduetomortarerosion Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix I 3. Case studies

Name Location Year Architect Listingnumber Shortdescription

Irodotou9,KolonakiCityCenter (?) (?) NotListed Thebuildinghasbothtracesofmodernmovementandinfluences of the popular style with an arched entrance. It is a fourstorey apartment building, originally residences with two shops on the groundfloor,nowadaysstillusedassuch. Theterrazzofloorunderobservationisinthebuildingsentrance; noentrytotheapartmentswaspossible.

Externalview c.s.249Detailofpopularstyle
inspiredmainentrance c.s.250Viewfrom Irodotou Source:Author

Source:Author CaseStudy25GeneralData

Plans: Noplanavailable

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix I 3. Case studies

Type Maincolours Observations

TerrazzoandMarble Yellow Terrazzo with large aggregates, alternating with white marble forming rhombs. Could be the so called kozanitiko' terrazzo as the small aggregates appear to be golden. Verygood Deteriorationform: Lacunae,duetotheelevatederosion ofthemortarnottheaggregate.

Floordetail

Preservation status

c.s.251Floordetail Source:Author

Generalview

c.s.252Themain entrance Source:Author

CaseStudy25FloorData

Floordecayparticulars

c.s.253Lacunae duetomortar erosion Source:Author

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Alppendix -I 5. Discussion

AppendixII:EllinikiEtairia
24photosoftheresearchofEllinikiEtairia(2008)

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix II 3. Case studies

EllinikiEtairiaResarch1 Protectionandevaluationofarchitecturalheritageofthe1930smodernmovementof theMunicilpalityofAthens, Records:arch.KaterinaChatzikonstantinou,Source:EllinikiEtairia

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix II 3. Case studies

EllinikiEtairiaResarch2 Protectionandevaluationofarchitecturalheritageofthe1930smodernmovementof theMunicilpalityofAthens, Records:arch.KaterinaChatzikonstantinou,Source:EllinikiEtairia

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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Appendix II 3. Case studies

EllinikiEtairiaResarch3 Protectionandevaluationofarchitecturalheritageofthe1930smodernmovementof theMunicilpalityofAthens, Records:arch.KaterinaChatzikonstantinou,Source:EllinikiEtairia

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Resources

TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Resources 5. Discussion

Primaryresources
Archives
ArchivesoftheByzantineandChristianMuseum,LoverdosMuesumarchive, January2009 BankofGreece,DepartmentofHistoricalarchivesandcollections,January2009 ElllinikiEtairiaSAK(HellenicSocietyfortheProtectionoftheEnvironmentand theCulturalHeritage, CouncilforConservationofArchitecturalHeritage), Project: 1930()(Protection andevaluationofarchitecturalheritageofthe1930smodernmovementofthe MunicilpalityofAthens),Projectdirector:archaeologistEiriniGratsia/SAK, Researcherrecords:architectKaterinaChatzikonstantinou.,January2009 NeoHellenicArchitectureArchivesoftheBenakiMuseum,E.Zillersarchive, February2009

Interviews
Owners: ChatzinikoliM,casestudy16b,December2008 FlengaKouremenouM,casestudy13,January2008 GeorgiadisN,casestudy20,December2008 KardarasA,casestudy22,December2008 KarakostasP,casestudy4,January2008 MalliarisPandE,casestudy10,February2009 MeleggoglouI,casestudy16,January2009 MoralisI,February,casestudy9,2009 PerdikisS,casestudy23,July2008 TzartzanisN,casestudy18,December2008
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TERRAZZO AND MOSAIC FLOORS IN INTERWAR BUILDINGS IN ATHENS: Conservation Issues Resources 5. Discussion

Architects: KalligaE,January2009 DeligiannisC,January2009 KoumanoudisI,February2009

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