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c) THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

1. Fossil fuels are a non-renewable energy source. Hence, there is a need to look for alternative sources of energy. 2. Renewable energy is energy flow that occurs naturally in the environment and can be harnessed for the benefit of humans. 3. Renewable energy is inexhaustible and does not pollute the environment. 4. Examples of renewable energy are : o Solar energy which can be converted into electricity and used in heating. o Wind energy which is used to operate windmills to pump water for the irrigation of crops. o Flowing water which is used to generate hydroelectric power. o Wave energy the upward and downward motion of waves is harnessed to generate energy. o Geothermal energy o Biomass energy which is produced when decomposing organic matter, releases a gas consisting of 50% methane. This biogas released can be collected and used as fuel for various purposes such as heating or generating electricity. o Gasohol is the conversion of energy in biomass. The fermentation of sugar by yeast converts the energy in biomass into ethanol which can be used as fuel. An example of this fuel is gasohol which consists of 80% to 90% unleaded petroleum spirit with 10% to 20% ethanol. Gasohol can be used as fuel in motor vehicles. Plant materials which can be used in the process of fermentation by yeast to produce gasohol are sugar cane, sugar beet and maize. o Palm oil fuel - palm oil can be converted into methyl ester which is used as fuel. Biodiesel from crude palm oil is an environment friendly alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can meet approximately 17% of the countrys energy requirements and thereby reduce the countrys dependence on petroleum.

d) THE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY

1. Reduce the burning of coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels.

2. Substitute natural gas for coal at power plants.

3. Improve fuel efficiency in vehicles-use cars that run on energy-efficient engines.

4. Use a cleaner fuel by reducing the content of sulphur in diesel and switching to gas.

5. Improve energy efficiency in factories.

6. Use more hybrid cars which combine electric and gasoline engines.

SUMMARY
1. Human carry out various activities that have a profound impact on the ecosystem. 2. The impacts due to unplanned development on the ecosystem are soil erosion, flash flood, global warming, thinning of ozone layer, change of climates, mass extinction of plant and animal species and deforestation. 3. Environmental pollution can be classified into four types: air pollution, thermal pollution and sound pollution. 4. Pollution brings about negatives effects to humans and all other living things. 5. The greenhouse effect raises the average global warming. 6. The ozone layer that is becoming thinner allows excessive ultraviolet radiation to enter the earth. 7. An integrated and coordinated plan is required to strike a balance between development and maintaining a balanced ecosystem.

OBJECTIVE
The reasons why this paperwork is being done is due to several objectives as stated below:-

>Evaluating human activities that endanger an ecosystem

>Understanding the greenhouse effect and the thinning of the ozone layer

>Realizing the importance of proper management of development activities and the ecosystem

>To instill awareness among humans about the significances of preservation and conservation of the ecosystem.

>To make humans realize how bad are the effects of humans activities towards the environment.

>To increase efforts on creating a safer environment for ourselves and for the future generations.

>To deduce the time for the depletion and destruction of the environment due to various environmental problems caused by human beings.