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Distribución normal

z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879

0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389

1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319

1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4508 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767

2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936

2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4885 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986

3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
3.1 0.4990 0.4991 0.4991 0.4991 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4993 0.4993
3.2 0.4993 0.4993 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995
3.3 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4997
3.4 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4998

3.5 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4498
3.6 0.4998 0.4998 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.7 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.8 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.9 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000
Distribución t

0.900 0.700 0.500 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.050 0.020 0.010 0.001 Valor de α Prueba
0.100 0.300 0.500 0.700 0.800 0.900 0.950 0.980 0.990 0.999 IC de dos colas
0.450 0.350 0.250 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.025 0.010 0.005 0.0005 Valor de α Prueba
0.550 0.650 0.750 0.850 0.900 0.950 0.975 0.990 0.995 0.9995 IC de una cola

g.l. Valores de t
1 0.158 0.510 1.000 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 0.142 0.445 0.816 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31.598
3 0.137 0.424 0.765 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.941
4 0.134 0.414 0.741 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 0.132 0.408 0.727 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.859

6 0.131 0.404 0.718 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
7 0.130 0.402 0.711 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.405
8 0.130 0.399 0.706 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 0.129 0.398 0.703 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 0.129 0.397 0.700 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587

11 0.129 0.396 0.697 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
12 0.128 0.395 0.695 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
13 0.128 0.394 0.694 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 0.128 0.393 0.692 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 0.128 0.393 0.691 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073

16 0.128 0.392 0.690 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 0.128 0.392 0.689 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 0.127 0.392 0.688 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 0.127 0.391 0.688 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 0.127 0.391 0.687 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850

21 0.127 0.391 0.686 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
22 0.127 0.390 0.686 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 0.127 0.390 0.685 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.767
24 0.127 0.390 0.685 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 0.127 0.390 0.684 1.058 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725

26 0.127 0.390 0.684 1.058 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
27 0.127 0.389 0.684 1.057 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 0.127 0.389 0.683 1.056 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 0.127 0.389 0.683 1.055 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 0.127 0.389 0.683 1.055 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646

40 0.126 0.388 0.681 1.050 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
60 0.126 0.387 0.679 1.045 1.296 1.671 2.000 2.390 2.660 3.460
120 0.126 0.386 0.677 1.041 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617 3.373
0.126 0.385 0.674 1.036 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576 3.291
Tabla de valores críticos de A

Para cualquier valor de N - 1, la tabla indica los valores de A correspondientes a diferentes


niveles de probabilidad. A es significativa a un nivel dado si es igual o menor que el valor
indicado en la tabla. Ejemplo: si D = 60. ( D)2 = 200, = 0.05, prueba bilateral, y N - 1 = 28,
2

A = 0.300. Puesto que este valor no es igual o menor que 0.265, requerido para el rechazo de
H0 no podemos rechazar la hipótesis nula.

Nivel de significación para una prueba unilateral


.05 .025 .01 .005 .0005
Nivel de significación para una prueba bilateral
N - 1* .10 .05 .02 .01 .001
1 0.5125 0.5031 0.50049 0.50012 0.5000012
2 0.412 0.369 0.347 0.340 0.334
3 0.385 0.324 0.286 0.272 0.254
4 0.376 0.304 0.257 0.238 0.211
5 0.372 0.293 0.240 0.218 0.184

6 0.370 0.286 0.230 0.205 0.167


7 0.369 0.281 0.222 0.196 0.155
8 0.368 0.278 0.217 0.190 0.146
9 0.368 0.276 0.213 0.185 0.139
10 0.368 0.274 0.210 0.181 0.134

11 0.368 0.273 0.207 0.178 0.130


12 0.368 0.271 0.205 0.176 0.126
13 0.368 0.270 0.204 0.174 0.124
14 0.368 0.270 0.202 0.172 0.121
15 0.368 0.269 0.201 0.170 0.119

16 0.368 0.268 0.200 0.169 0.117


17 0.368 0.268 0.199 0.168 0.116
18 0.368 0.267 0.198 0.167 0.114
19 0.368 0.267 0.197 0.166 0.113
20 0.368 0.266 0.197 0.165 0.112

21 0.368 0.266 0.196 0.165 0.111


22 0.368 0.266 0.196 0.164 0.110
23 0.368 0.266 0.195 0.163 0.109
24 0.368 0.265 0.195 0.163 0.108
25 0.368 0.265 0.194 0.162 0.108

26 0.368 0.265 0.194 0.162 0.107


27 0.368 0.265 0.193 0.161 0.107
28 0.368 0.265 0.193 0.161 0.106
29 0.368 0.264 0.193 0.161 0.106
30 0.368 0.264 0.193 0.160 0.105

40 0.368 0.263 0.191 0.158 0.102


60 0.369 0.262 0.189 0.155 0.099
120 0.369 0.261 0.187 0.153 0.095
0.370 0.260 0.185 0.151 0.092

*N = número de parejas.
Tabla de valores críticos de A

Para cualquier valor de N - 1, la tabla indica los valores de A correspondientes a diferentes niveles de probabilidad. A es
2 2
significativa a un nivel dado si es igual o menor que el valor indicado en la tabla. Ejemplo: si D = 60. ( D) = 200, =
0.05, prueba bilateral, y N - 1 = 28, A = 0.300. Puesto que este valor no es igual o menor que 0.265, requerido para el
rechazo de H0 no podemos rechazar la hipótesis nula.

Nivel de significación para una prueba unilateral


.45 .35 .25 .15 .10 .05 .025 .01 .005 .0005
Nivel de significación para una prueba bilateral
N - 1* .90 .70 .50 .30 .20 .10 .05 .02 .01 .001
1 20.5288 2.4223 1.0000 0.6298 0.5528 0.5125 0.5031 0.50049 0.50012 0.5000012
2 33.396 3.700 1.335 0.680 0.521 0.412 0.369 0.347 0.340 0.334
3 40.210 4.422 1.532 0.730 0.530 0.385 0.324 0.286 0.272 0.254
4 44.753 4.868 1.657 0.765 0.540 0.376 0.304 0.257 0.238 0.211
5 47.993 5.173 1.743 0.790 0.549 0.372 0.293 0.240 0.218 0.184

6 50.090 5.394 1.806 0.809 0.556 0.370 0.286 0.230 0.205 0.167
7 51.900 5.539 1.856 0.824 0.562 0.369 0.281 0.222 0.196 0.155
8 52.708 5.695 1.894 0.835 0.567 0.368 0.278 0.217 0.190 0.146
9 54.183 5.782 1.921 0.844 0.571 0.368 0.276 0.213 0.185 0.139
10 54.720 5.859 1.946 0.852 0.574 0.368 0.274 0.210 0.181 0.134

11 55.168 5.929 1.970 0.858 0.577 0.368 0.273 0.207 0.178 0.130
12 56.417 5.993 1.988 0.864 0.579 0.368 0.271 0.205 0.176 0.126
13 56.747 6.053 1.999 0.869 0.581 0.368 0.270 0.204 0.174 0.124
14 57.033 6.110 2.016 0.873 0.583 0.368 0.270 0.202 0.172 0.121
15 57.283 6.132 2.026 0.875 0.584 0.368 0.269 0.201 0.170 0.119

16 57.504 6.184 2.036 0.879 0.585 0.368 0.268 0.200 0.169 0.117
17 57.700 6.202 2.045 0.882 0.587 0.368 0.268 0.199 0.168 0.116
18 58.790 6.218 2.054 0.885 0.588 0.368 0.267 0.198 0.167 0.114
19 58.950 6.264 2.057 0.886 0.589 0.368 0.267 0.197 0.166 0.113
20 59.095 6.277 2.066 0.889 0.590 0.368 0.266 0.197 0.165 0.112

21 59.227 6.289 2.074 0.890 0.591 0.368 0.266 0.196 0.165 0.111
22 59.348 6.332 2.076 0.893 0.592 0.368 0.266 0.196 0.164 0.110
23 59.458 6.342 2.084 0.895 0.593 0.368 0.266 0.195 0.163 0.109
24 59.560 6.352 2.086 0.896 0.593 0.368 0.265 0.195 0.163 0.108
25 59.654 6.360 2.094 0.897 0.594 0.368 0.265 0.194 0.162 0.108

26 59.741 6.368 2.095 0.897 0.594 0.368 0.265 0.194 0.162 0.107
27 59.822 6.408 2.097 0.899 0.594 0.368 0.265 0.193 0.161 0.107
28 59.897 6.415 2.104 0.900 0.595 0.368 0.265 0.193 0.161 0.106
29 59.967 6.422 2.106 0.902 0.596 0.368 0.264 0.193 0.161 0.106
30 60.032 6.428 2.107 0.902 0.596 0.368 0.264 0.193 0.160 0.105

40 61.476 6.505 2.128 0.909 0.599 0.368 0.263 0.191 0.158 0.102
60 61.972 6.584 2.150 0.917 0.602 0.369 0.262 0.189 0.155 0.099
120 62.476 6.664 2.172 0.923 0.605 0.369 0.261 0.187 0.153 0.095
62.982 6.746 2.201 0.932 0.608 0.370 0.260 0.185 0.151 0.092
Preparado por Gustavo Lavanchy Turrys - Psicólogo
*N = número de parejas.
La F obtenida es significativa a un nivel dado si es igual o mayor que el valor indicado en la tabla. Las filas superiores (números claros)
y las filas inferiores (números oscuros) corresponden a los niveles 0.05 y 0.01. respectivamente. Los valores indicados son para la cola
derecha de la distribución que se obtiene dividiendo el estimador de la varianza mayor por el estimador de la varianza menor. Para
hallar el lado izquierdo complementario, o sea. la cola inferior, dados los gl y el nivel , inviértanse los grados de libertad y con ellos se
encontrará en la tabla F el recíproco del valor buscado. Por ejemplo, el valor cuya derecha está el 5% del área, para 7 y 12 gl, es
2.85. Para hallar el punto a cuya izquierda está el 5% del área. se busca en la tabla en = 0.05 con 12 y 7 gl y se obtiene 3.57. El
recíproco de este número es 1/3.57= 0.28. Así, el 5% del área está a la izquierda de F = 0.28.
! " #

Una diferencia en las varianzas es significativa al nivel α = 0.05, con gl1 y gl2, si es igual o mayor que el valor
superior en cada casilla o si es igual o menor que el valor inferior en esa casilla. Por ejemplo, si S1 = 8.69, gl =
12 y S2 = 2.63, gl = 9, F = 3.30. Los valores críticos para gl12 y gl9 son 0.291 y 3.87. Puesto que la F obtenida
está comprendida entre estos valores, no podemos rechazar la hipótesis de la homogeneidad de las varianzas.
Nota: Si hubiéramos calculado F con S1 en el denominador, los valores críticos inferior y superior para 9 y 12 gl
habrían sido 0.259 y 3.44.

gl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 20 24 30 40 50 60 100 200 500


.002 .026 .057 .082 .100 .113 .124 .132 .139 .144 .149 .153 .161 .170 .175 .180 .184 .187 .189 .193 .196 .198
1 648 800 864 900 922 937 948 957 963 969 973 977 985 993 997 1000 1010 1010 1010 1010 1020 1020

.001 .026 .062 .094 .119 .138 .153 .165 .175 .183 .190 .196 .210 .224 .232 .239 .247 .251 .255 .261 :266 .269
2 38.5 39.0 39.2 39.2 39.3 39.3 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5

.001 .026 .065 .100 .129 .152 .170 .185 .197 .207 .216 .224 .241 .259 .269 .279 .289 .295 .299 .308 .314 .318
3 17.4 16.0 15.4 15.1 14.9 14.7 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.1 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.9 13.9

.001 .026 .066 .104 .135 .161 .181 .198 .212 .224 .234 .243 .263 .284 .296 .308 .320 .327 .332 .342 .351 .356
4 12.2 10.6 9.98 9.60 9.36 9.20 9.07 8.98 8.90 8.84 8.79 8.75 8.66 8.56 8.51 8.46 8.41 8.38 8.36 8.32 8.29 8.27

.001 .025 .067 .107 .140 .167 .189 .208 .223 .236 .248 .257 .280 .304 .317 .330 .344 .353 .359 .370 .380 .386
5 10.0 8.43 7.76 7.39 7.15 6.98 6.85 6.76 6.68 6.62 6.57 6.52 6.43 6.33 6.28 6.23 6.18 6.14 6.12 6.08 6.05 6.03

.001 .025 .068 .109 .143 .172 .195 .215 .231 .246 .258 .268 .293 .320 .334 .349 .364 .375 .381 .394 .405 .415
6 8.81 7.26 6.60 6.23 5.99 5.82 5.70 5.60 5.52 5.46 5.41 5.37 5.27 5.17 5.12 5.07 5.01 4.98 4.96 4.92 4.88 4.86

.001 .025 .068 .110 .146 .176 .200 .221 .238 .253 .266 .277 .304 .333 .348 .364 .381 .392 .399 .413 .426 .433
7 8.07 6.54 5.89 5.52 5.29 5.12 4.99 4.90 4.82 4.76 4.71 4.67 4.57 4.47 4.42 4.36 4.31 4.28 4.25 4.21 4.18 4.16

.001 .025 .069 .111 .148 .179 .204 .226 .244 .259 .273 .285 .313 .343 .360 .377 .395 .407 .415 .431 .442 .450
8 7.57 6.06 5.42 5.05 4.82 4.65 4.53 4.43 4.36 4.30 4.24 4.20 4.10 4.00 3.95 3.89 3.84 3.81 3.78 3.74 3.70 3.68

.001 .025 .069 .112 .150 .181 .207 .230 .248 .265 .279 .291 .320 .352 .370 .388 .408 .420 .428 .446 .459 .467
9 7.21 5.71 5.08 4.72 4.48 4.32 4.20 4.10 4.03 3.96 3.91 3.87 3.77 3.67 3.61 3.56 3.51 3.47 3.45 3.40 3.37 3.35

.001 .025 .069 .113 .151 .183 .210 .233 .252 .269 .283 .296 .327 .360 .379 .398 .419 .431 .441 .459 .474 .483
10 6.94 5.46 4.83 4.47 4.24 4.07 3.95 3.85 3.78 3.72 3.66 3.62 3.52 3.42 3.37 3.31 3.26 3.22 3.20 3.15 3.12 3.09

.001 .025 .069 .114 .152 .185 .212 .236 .256 .273 .288 .301 .332 .368 .386 .407 .429 .442 .450 .472 .485 .495
11 6.72 5.26 4.63 4.28 4.04 3.88 3.76 3.66 3.59 3.53 3.47 3.43 3.33 3.23 3.17 3.12 3.06 3.03 3.00 2.96 2.92 2.90

.001 .025 .070 .114 .153 .186 .214 .238 .259 .276 .292 .305 .337 .374 .394 .416 .437 .450 .461 .481 .498 .508
12 6.55 5.10 4.47 4.12 3.89 3.73 3.61 3.51 3.44 3.37 3.32 3.28 3.18 3.07 3.02 2.96 2.91 2.87 2.85 2.80 2.76 2.74

.001 .025 .070 .116 .156 .190 .219 .244 .265 .284 .300 .315 .349 .389 .410 .433 .458 .474 .485 .508 .526 .538
15 6.20 4.76 4.15 3.80 3.58 3.41 3.29 3.20 3.12 3.06 3.01 2.96 2.86 2.76 2.70 2.64 2.59 2.55 2.52 2.47 2.44 2.41

.001 .025 .071 .117 .158 .193 .224 .250 .273 .292 .310 .325 .363 .406 .430 .456 .484 .503 .514 .541 .562 .575
20 5.87 4.46 3.86 3.51 3.29 3.13 3.01 2.91 2.84 2.77 2.72 2.68 2.57 2.46 2.41 2.35 2.29 2.25 2.22 2.17 2.13 2.10

.001 .025 .071 .117 .159 .195 .227 .253 .277 .297 .315 .331 .370 .415 .441 .468 .498 .518 .531 .562 .585 .599
24 5.72 4.32 3.72 3.38 3.15 2.99 2.87 2.78 2.70 2.64 2.59 2.54 2.44 2.33 2.27 2.21 2.15 2.11 2.08 2.02 1.98 1.95

.001 .025 .071 .118 .161 .197 .229 .257 .281 .302 .321 .337 .378 .426 .453 .482 .515 .535 .551 .585 .610 .625
30 5.57 4.18 3.59 3.25 3.03 2.87 2.75 2.65 2.57 2.51 2.46 2.41 2.31 2.20 2.14 2.07 2.01 1.97 1.94 1.88 1.84 1.81

.001 .025 .071 .119 .162 .199 .232 .260 .285 .307 .327 .344 .387 .437 .466 .498 .533 .556 .573 .610 .641 .662
40 5.42 4.05 3.46 3.13 2.90 2.74 2.62 2.53 2.45 2.39 2.33 2.29 2.18 2.07 2.01 1.94 1.88 1.83 1.80 1.74 1.69 1.66

.001 .025 .071 .120 .163 .202 .235 .264 .290 .313 .333 .351 .396 .450 .481 .515 .555 .581 .600 .641 .680 .704
60 5.29 3.93 3.34 3.01 2.79 2.63 2.51 2.41 2.33 2.27 2.22 2.17 2.06 1.94 1.88 1.82 1.74 1.70 1.67 1.60 1.54 1.51

.001 .025 .072 .120 .165 .204 .238 .268 .295 .318 .340 .359 .406 .464 .498 .536 .580 .611 .633 .684 .729 .762
120 5.15 3.80 3.23 2.89 2.67 2.52 2.39 2.30 2.22 2.16 2.10 2.05 1.95 1.82 1.76 1.69 1.61 1.56 1.53 1.45 1.39 1.34
Distribución chi-cuadrado

g.l. 0.995 0.900 0.975 0.950 0.900 0.700 0.500 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.050 0.025 0.020 0.010 0.005
1 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.004 0.016 0.148 0.455 1.074 1.642 2.706 3.841 5.024 5.412 6.635 7.879
2 0.010 0.020 0.051 0.103 0.211 0.713 1.386 2.408 3.219 4.605 5.991 7.378 7.824 9.210 10.597
3 0.072 0.115 0.216 0.352 0.584 1.424 2.366 3.665 4.642 6.251 7.815 9.348 9.837 11.345 12.838
4 0.207 0.297 0.484 0.711 1.064 2.195 3.357 4.878 5.989 7.779 9.488 11.143 11.668 13.277 14.860

5 0.412 0.554 0.831 1.145 1.610 3.000 4.351 6.064 7.289 9.236 11.070 12.833 13.388 15.086 16.750
6 0.676 0.872 1.237 1.635 2.204 3.828 5.348 7.231 8.558 10.645 12.592 14.449 15.033 16.812 18.548
7 0.989 1.239 1.690 2.167 2.833 4.671 6.346 8.383 9.803 12.017 14.067 16.013 16.622 18.475 20.278
8 1.344 1.646 2.180 2.733 3.490 5.527 7.344 9.524 11.030 13.362 15.507 17.535 18.168 20.090 21.955
9 1.735 2.088 2.700 3.325 4.168 6.393 8.343 10.656 12.242 14.684 16.919 19.023 19.679 21.666 23.589

10 2.156 2.558 3.247 3.940 4.865 7.267 9.342 11.781 13.442 15.987 18.307 20.483 21.161 23.209 25.188
11 2.603 3.053 3.816 4.575 5.578 8.148 10.341 12.899 14.631 17.275 19.675 21.920 22.618 24.725 26.757
12 3.074 3.571 4.404 5.226 6.304 9.034 11.340 14.011 15.812 18.549 21.026 23.337 24.054 26.217 28.299
13 3.565 4.107 5.009 5.892 7.042 9.926 12.340 15.119 16.985 19.812 22.362 24.736 25.472 27.688 29.819
14 4.075 4.660 5.629 6.571 7.790 10.821 13.339 16.222 18.151 21.064 23.685 26.119 26.873 29.141 31.319

15 4.601 5.229 6.262 7.261 8.547 11.721 14.339 17.322 19.311 22.307 24.996 27.488 28.259 30.578 32.801
16 5.142 5.812 6.908 7.962 9.312 12.624 15.338 18.418 20.465 23.542 26.296 28.845 29.633 32.000 34.267
17 5.697 6.408 7.564 8.672 10.085 13.531 16.338 19.511 21.615 24.769 27.587 30.191 30.995 33.409 35.718
18 6.265 7.015 8.231 9.390 10.865 14.440 17.338 20.601 22.760 25.989 28.869 31.526 32.346 34.805 37.156
19 6.844 7.633 8.907 10.117 11.651 15.352 18.338 21.689 23.900 27.204 30.144 32.852 33.687 36.191 38.582

20 7.434 8.260 9.591 10.851 12.443 16.266 19.337 22.775 25.038 28.412 31.410 34.170 35.020 37.566 39.997
21 8.034 8.897 10.283 11.591 13.240 17.182 20.337 23.858 26.171 29.615 32.671 35.479 36.343 38.932 41.401
22 8.643 9.542 10.982 12.338 14.041 18.101 21.337 24.939 27.301 30.813 33.924 36.781 37.659 40.289 42.796
23 9.260 10.196 11.689 13.091 14.848 19.021 22.337 26.018 28.429 32.007 35.172 38.076 38.968 41.638 44.181
24 9.886 10.856 12.401 13.848 15.659 19.943 23.337 27.096 29.553 33.196 36.415 39.364 40.270 42.980 45.559

25 10.520 11.524 13.120 14.611 16.473 20.867 24.337 28.172 30.675 34.382 37.652 40.646 41.566 44.314 46.928
26 11.160 12.198 13.844 15.379 17.292 21.792 25.336 29.246 31.795 35.563 38.885 41.923 42.856 45.642 48.290
27 11.808 12.879 14.573 16.151 18.114 22.719 26.336 30.319 32.912 36.741 40.113 43.194 44.140 46.963 49.645
28 12.461 13.565 15.308 16.928 18.939 23.647 27.336 31.391 34.027 37.916 41.337 44.461 45.419 48.278 50.993
29 13.121 14.256 16.047 17.708 19.768 24.577 28.336 32.461 35.139 39.087 42.557 45.722 46.693 49.588 52.336

30 13.787 14.953 16.791 18.493 20.599 25.508 29.336 33.530 36.250 40.256 43.773 46.979 47.962 50.892 53.672
40 20.707 22.164 24.433 26.509 29.051 34.872 39.335 44.165 47.269 51.805 55.758 59.342 60.436 63.691 66.766
50 27.991 29.707 32.357 34.764 37.689 44.313 49.335 54.723 58.164 63.167 67.505 71.420 72.613 76.154 79.490
60 35.534 37.485 40.482 43.188 46.459 53.809 59.335 65.227 68.972 74.397 79.082 83.298 84.580 88.379 91.952
70 43.275 45.442 48.758 51.739 55.329 63.346 69.334 75.689 79.715 85.527 90.531 95.023 96.388 100.425 104.215

80 51.172 53.540 57.153 60.391 64.278 72.915 79.334 86.120 90.405 96.578 101.879 106.629 108.069 112.329 116.321
90 59.196 61.754 65.647 69.126 73.291 82.511 89.334 96.524 101.054 107.565 113.145 118.136 119.648 124.116 128.299
100 67.328 70.065 74.222 77.929 82.358 92.129 99.334 106.906 111.667 118.498 124.342 129.561 131.142 135.807 140.169
$ # % $ $
2 3 & ! 4
! " ! 5 4 6 7 80 &
# $ % 4 &
&
! ! ! ! ! !
.025 .01 .005 .05 .025 .01 .005 .06 .025 .01 .005
! ! ! ! ! !
N .05 .02 .01 N .10 .05 .02 .01 N .10 .05 .02 .01
6 0 - - 5 0 — — — 28 130 116 101 91
7 2 0 - 6 2 0 — — 29 140 126 110 100
8 4 2 0 7 3 2 0 — 30 151 137 120 109
9 6 3 2 8 5 3 1 0 31 163 147 130 118
10 8 5 3 9 8 5 3 1 32 175 159 140 128
11 11 7 5 10 10 8 5 3 33 187 170 151 138
12 14 10 7 11 13 10 7 5 34 200 182 162 148
13 17 13 10 12 17 13 9 7 35 213 195 173 159
14 21 16 13 13 21 17 12 9 36 227 208 185 171
15 25 20 16 14 25 21 15 12 37 241 221 198 182
16 30 24 20 15 30 25 19 15 38 256 235 211 194
17 35 28 23 10 35 29 23 19 39 271 249 224 207
18 40 33 28 17 41 34 27 23 40 286 264 238 220
19 46 38 32 18 47 40 32 27 41 302 279 252 233
20 52 43 38 19 53 46 37 32 42 319 294 266 247
21 59 49 43 20 60 52 43 37 43 336 310 281 261
22 66 56 49 21 67 58 49 42 44 353 327 296 276
23 73 62 55 22 75 65 55 48 45 371 343 312 291
24 81 69 61 23 83 73 62 54 46 389 361 328 307
25 89 77 68 24 91 81 69 61 47 407 378 345 322
25 100 89 76 68 48 426 396 362 339
%& ' # $ ( ) !
26 110 98 84 75 49 446 415 379 355
!! $ ! * +, -
27 119 107 92 83 50 466 434 397 373
./ 0 !1 0 ! /
95 1 ! 4 " ! 3 4 ! / 4
: ) ; ! -!! $ ) 5 0 ( # $ / - # $6
* +, < < 8 < ! : 3 1
0 ! 5 : ! 0! =

! & = 6! 80

! & = 6! 8

# $ /# $ & 3 6! 80 4
> : 1 & 3 ?
$ # # # % & ' % ( *+( , ' ! % !
# % ( # # ' ) -./.0
En el cuerpo de esta tabla se dan las probabilidades de una cola conforme a H0 para la prueba $ 3 50 / C$ 3 G < $0 C $0
binomial cuando P = Q = ½. Para ahorrar espacio se omitieron los puntos decimales en las p. / 4 ! 4
< 4 ! ! $

$ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 PRUEBA UNILATERAL PRUEBA BILATERAL


N N 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.01
5 031 188 500 812 969 @ 5 4 5 5 — 5 5 — —
6 016 109 344 656 891 984 @ 6 5 6 6 — 6 6 6 —
7 008 062 227 500 773 938 992 @ 7 6 6 7 7 6 7 7 —
8 004 035 145 363 637 855 965 996 @ 8 6 7 7 8 7 7 8 —
9 002 020 090 254 500 746 910 980 998 @ 9 7 7 8 9 7 8 8 9
10 001 011 055 172 377 623 828 945 989 999 @ 10 7 8 9 10 8 9 9 10
11 006 033 113 274 500 726 887 967 994 @ @ 11 8 9 9 10 9 9 10 11
12 003 019 073 194 387 613 806 927 981 997 @ @ 12 8 9 10 11 9 10 10 11
13 002 011 046 133 291 500 709 867 954 989 998 @ @ 13 9 10 10 12 10 10 11 12
14 001 006 029 090 212 395 605 788 910 971 994 999 @ @ 14 10 10 11 12 10 11 12 13
15 004 018 059 151 304 500 696 849 941 982 996 @ @ @ 15 10 11 12 13 11 12 12 13
16 002 011 038 105 227 402 598 773 895 962 989 998 @ @ 16 11 12 12 14 12 12 13 14
17 001 006 025 072 166 315 500 685 834 928 975 994 999 @ 17 11 12 13 14 12 13 13 15
18 001 004 015 048 119 240 407 593 760 881 952 985 996 999 18 12 13 13 15 13 13 14 15
19 002 010 032 084 180 324 500 676 820 916 968 990 998 19 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16
20 001 006 021 058 132 252 412 588 748 868 942 979 994 20 13 14 15 16 14 15 15 17
21 001 004 013 039 095 192 332 500 668 808 905 961 987 21 13 14 15 17 14 15 16 17
22 002 008 026 067 143 262 416 584 738 857 933 974 22 14 15 16 17 15 16 17 18
23 001 005 017 047 105 202 339 500 661 798 895 953 23 15 16 16 18 16 16 17 19
24 001 003 011 032 076 154 271 419 581 729 846 924 24 15 16 17 19 16 17 18 19
25 002 007 022 054 115 212 345 500 655 788 885 25 16 17 18 19 17 18 18 20
26 16 17 18 20 17 18 19 20
%& 'D0 E0 # + 0F /< 0> ' 3 * +, F 0 !1 27 17 18 19 20 18 19 20 21
0 ! / 28 17 18 19 21 18 19 20 22
29 18 19 20 22 19 20 21 22
5 ! ! ! 30 18 20 20 22 20 20 21 23
31 19 20 21 23 20 21 22 24
32 19 21 22 24 21 22 23 24
@ ! $ 33 20 21 22 24 21 22 23 25
34 20 22 23 25 22 23 24 25
35 21 22 23 25 22 23 24 26
36 22 23 24 26 23 24 25 27
37 22 23 24 27 23 24 25 27
. A ! $ 0 38 23 24 25 27 24 25 26 28
39 23 24 26 28 24 26 27 28

= = = 40 24 25 26 28 25 26 27 29
41 24 26 27 29 26 27 28 30
42 25 26 27 29 26 27 28 30
) > + 43 25 27 28 30 27 28 29 31
44 26 27 28 31 27 28 29 31
) < − 45 26 28 29 31 28 29 30 32
46 27 28 30 32 28 30 31 33
47 27 29 30 32 29 30 31 33
48 28 29 31 33 29 31 32 34
49 28 30 31 34 30 31 32 35
5 ! ! < B/ & / C5 50 29 31 32 34 31 32 33 35
$ # # # % 1 ' %
# % 2 3 % 4 " 5 1
6 7 +8 9 )
& " & " & " & "

H D I + 0 # F0 / # 0# - J 1
K > - 0) - 0 0 C . ! /
$ # # # % 1 ' %
# % : 3 % 4 "
1 ' )
$ # 7. $ # 7.
= = = = = = =
L L L L L L L L
0.0 1.000 0.2 1.000 0.0 1.000 5.7 0.141
0.6 0.958 0.6 0.958 0.3 0.992 6.0 0.105
1.2 0.834 1.0 0.910 0.6 0.928 6.3 0.094
1.8 0.792 1.8 0.727 0.9 0.900 6.6 0.077
2.4 0.625 2.2 0.608 1.2 0.800 6.9 0.068
3.0 0.542 2.6 0.524 1.5 0.754 7.2 0.054
3.6 0.458 3.4 0.446 1.8 0.677 7.5 0.052
4.2 0.375 3.8 0.342 2.1 0.649 7.8 0.036
4.8 0.208 4.2 0.300 2.4 0.524 8.1 0.033
5.4 0.167 5.0 0.207 2.7 0.508 8.4 0.019
6.0 0.042 5.4 0.175 3.0 0.432 8.7 0.014
5.8 0.148 3.3 0.389 9.3 0.012
6.6 0.075 8.6 0.355 9.6 0.0069
= = = = 7.0 0.054 3.9 0.324 9.9 0.0062
L L L L 7.4 0.033 4.5 0.242 10.2 0.0027
8.2 0.017 4.8 0.200 10.8 0.0016
9.0 0.0017 5.1 0.190 11.1 0.00094
5.4 0.158 12.0 0.000072
%& ( 0M 2 ! ! !3
1 K > - ) - 0 C 0 ! /
$ # # # % & '
% # % ; # < +8= !)

= = = =
1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t Normal
J J J J
0 .250 .100 .050 0 .200 .067 .028 .014 0 .125 .028 .008 .003 .001 .001 .000 0 .111 .022 .006 .002 .001 .000 .000 .000 3.308 .001
1 .500 .200 .100 1 .400 .133 .057 .029 1 .250 .056 .017 .006 .003 .001 .001 1 .222 .044 .012 .004 .002 .001 .000 .000 3.203 .001
2 .750 .400 .200 2 .600 .267 .114 .057 2 .375 .111 .033 .012 .005 .002 .001 2 .333 .089 .024 .008 .003 .001 .001 .000 3.098 .001
3 .600 .350 3 .400 .200 .100 3 .500 .167 .058 .021 .009 .004 .002 3 .444 .133 .042 .014 .005 .002 .001 .001 2.993 .001
4 .500 4 .600 .314 .171 4 .625 .250 .092 .036 .015 .007 .003 4 .556 .200 .067 .024 .009 .004 .002 .001 2.888 .002
5 .650 5 .429 .243 5 .333 .133 .055 .024 .011 .006 5 .267 .097 .036 .015 .006 .003 .001 2.783 .003
6 .571 .343 6 .444 .192 .082 .037 .017 .009 6 .356 .139 .055 .023 .010 .005 .002 2.678 .004
7 .443 7 .556 .258 .115 .053 .026 .013 7 .444 .188 .077 .033 .015 .007 .003 2.573 .005
8 .557 8 .333 .158 .074 .037 .019 8 .556 .248 .107 .047 .021 .010 .005 2.468 .007
9 .417 .206 .101 .051 .027 9 .315 .141 .064 .030 .014 .007 2.363 .009
= = 10 .500 .264 .134 .069 .036 10 .387 .184 .085 .041 .020 .010 2.258 .012
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 .583 .324 .172 .090 .049 11 .461 .230 .111 .054 .027 .014 2.153 .016
J J 12 .394 .216 .117 .064 12 .539 .285 .142 .071 .036 .019 2.048 .020
0 .167 .047 .018 .008 .004 0 .143 .036 .012 .005 .002 .001 13 .464 .265 .147 .082 13 .341 .177 .091 .047 .025 1.943 .026
1 .333 .095 .036 .016 .008 1 .286 .071 .024 .010 .004 .002 14 .538 .319 .183 .104 14 .404 .217 .114 .060 .032 1.838 .033
2 .500 .190 .071 .032 .016 2 .428 .143 .048 .019 .009 .004 15 .378 .223 .130 15 .467 .262 .141 .076 .041 1.733 .041
3 .667 .286 .125 .056 .028 3 .571 .214 .083 .033 .015 .008 16 .438 .267 .159 16 .533 .311 .172 .095 .052 1.628 .052
4 .429 .196 .095 .048 4 .321 .131 .057 .026 .013 17 .500 .314 .191 17 .362 .207 .116 .065 1.523 .064
5 .571 .286 .143 .075 5 .429 .190 .086 .041 .021 18 .562 .365 .228 18 .416 .245 .140 .080 1.418 .078
6 .393 .206 .111 6 .571 .274 .129 .063 .032 19 .418 .267 19 .472 .286 .168 .097 1.313 .094
7 .500 .278 .155 7 .357 .176 .089 .047 20 .473 .310 20 .528 .331 .198 .117 1.208 .113
8 .607 .365 .210 8 .452 .238 .123 .066 21 .527 .355 21 .377 .232 .139 1.102 .135
9 .452 .274 9 .548 .305 .165 .090 22 .402 22 .426 .268 .164 0.998 .159
10 .548 .345 10 .381 .214 .120 23 .451 23 .475 .306 .191 0.893 .185
11 .421 11 .457 .268 .155 24 .500 24 .525 .347 .221 0.788 .215
12 .500 12 .545 .331 .197 25 .549 25 .389 .253 0.683 .247
13 .579 13 .396 .242 26 .433 .287 0.578 .282
14 .465 .294 27 .478 .323 0.473 .318
15 .535 .350 28 .522 .360 0.368 .356
16 .409 29 .399 0.263 .396
17 .469 30 .439 0.158 .437
18 .531 31 .480 0.052 .481
32 .520
%; ! M 0 F E 0 / N#B /0 O ; 2 !
1 / 4 - M B ) 0 0
C 0 ! /
$ # % ; # < +8= !)

D 3 J! ! P= D 3 J! ! P=
! ! P= ! ! P=

D 3 J! ! P= D 3 J! ! P=
! ! P= ! ! P=

%& 0 0 / - 0O &
$ ! 3 M C#B / E B '
2 ; B ' J /0 0 7 0 !
/
$ # % # 8 =

- #

> ? @ A B '#
!
J O ; ? @ A C ; ? @ A D

Q A
R6 S 8Q R6 S 8A
Q A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
R6 S 8Q R6 S 8A
Q A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
R6 S 8Q R6 S 8A
Q A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
R6 S 8Q R6 S 8A
Q A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
R6 S 8Q R6 S 8A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? Q 9R6 S 8 0 R6 S 8? A
$ 9 0 R6 S 8? Q 9 0 R6 S 8? A
%& N# B0 > 2 -! ! ! 4 1 /
> - ) - 0 0 0 ! /
$ # % > # ' $ # % 6> $ # % > #
6 ' 1 %+E' %) # ' ' 6 ' 1 %+E' %
6 ' 1 %+E' %

6M ! 4 " 8 6M ,! 8%

& " 5 5 D O 4 4
! O= 1$ U ( 6L8 T ) 6L8 U B K F
% @
0 O = 1$
P= P= P= P= U ) 6L8 C ) 6L8 U

+
T T

%& ) 0 & ! :
!3 - M B ) 0 0 C 0
!

M1

%& M /0 ( > 0 > < ! I C) !


: > - ) - 0 0 0 ! /

%D 0< - 5 ! ! I C)
5/ B E 0 0 0 ! / - - 5 3

@ O M /0 ( > 0 > < 1$


- M B ) 0 0 C 0 ! /
$ # % " 5
+' ' - )

5 0 F , =
F, V

! !
0.10 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
gl ! !
(N-2) 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.001
1 0.952 0.988 0.997 0.9995 0.9999 1.000
2 0.800 0.900 0.950 0.980 0.990 0.999
3 0.688 0.805 0.878 0.934 0.959 0.992
4 0.609 0.729 0.811 0.882 0.917 0.975
5 0.551 0.669 0.754 0.833 0.874 0.951
6 0.507 0.622 0.707 0.789 0.834 0.925
7 0.472 0.582 0.666 0.750 0.798 0.899
8 0.443 0.549 0.632 0.716 0.765 0.873
9 0.419 0.521 0.602 0.685 0.735 0.848
10 0.399 0.497 0.576 0.658 0.708 0.824
11 0.381 0.476 0.553 0.634 0.684 0.801
12 0.365 0.458 0.532 0.612 0.661 0.780
13 0.351 0.441 0.514 0.592 0.641 0.761
14 0.339 0.426 0.497 0.574 0.623 0.742
15 0.328 0.412 0.482 0.558 0.606 0.725
16 0.317 0.400 0.468 0.542 0.590 0.709
17 0.308 0.389 0.456 0.528 0.575 0.694
18 0.300 0.378 0.444 0.516 0.561 0.679
19 0.292 0.369 0.433 0.503 0.549 0.666
20 0.285 0.360 0.423 0.492 0.537 0.653
21 0.278 0.352 0.413 0.482 0.526 0.641
22 0.272 0.344 0.404 0.472 0.515 0.629
23 0.266 0.337 0.396 0.462 0.505 0.618
24 0.260 0.330 0.388 0.453 0.496 0.608
25 0.255 0.323 0.881 0.445 0.487 0.598
26 0.250 0.317 0.374 0.437 0.479 0.588
27 0.246 0.311 0.367 0.430 0.471 0.579
28 0.241 0.306 0.361 0.423 0.463 0.571
29 0.237 0.301 0.355 0.416 0.456 0.563
30 0.233 0.296 0.349 0.409 0.449 0.555
35 0.216 0.275 0.325 0.381 0.418 0.519
40 0.202 0.257 0.304 0.358 0.393 0.490
45 0.191 0.243 0.288 0.338 0.372 0.465
50 0.181 0.231 0.273 0.322 0.354 0.444
60 0.165 0.211 0.250 0.295 0.325 0.408
70 0.153 0.195 0.232 0.274 0.303 0.380
80 0.143 0.183 0.217 0.256 0.283 0.357
90 0.135 0.173 0.205 0.242 0.267 0.338
100 0.128 0.164 0.195 0.230 0.254 0.322
125 0.115 0.147 0.174 0.206 0.228 0.289
150 0.105 0.134 0.159 0.189 0.208 0.265
200 0.091 0.116 0.138 0.164 0.181 0.230
300 0.074 0.095 0.113 0.134 0.148 0.189
400 0.065 0.082 0.098 0.116 0.128 0.164
500 0.058 0.073 0.088 0.104 0.115 0.147
1000 0.041 0.052 0.062 0.073 0.081 0.104

%- 0 ! 0 ( B ; - /( * 0)
0 W0 B 2 ! < !< 0
< 6 ! X Y E / 0 2 B8 J K
K /

5 ! ! < B/ & / C5
$ # " ' 5 " 5 + ' ' -
F G # 1 " 5 )

5 0 F , = LL
F , V LL O LL ! !

. −
=
W6 − 8
O ,
K =D
Z =D ! ! : F
2: ! ,
) = 0 = 04 ! ! = 0 5
= 0 4 ! K = 0 *! = 0 !
Z = 0 ) / ,

= = =
W6 − 8
2 Z= 0 0 P= 0! B K F

& Z
r Zr r Zr r Zr
.01 .010 .34 .354 .67 .811
.02 .020 .35 .366 .68 .829
.03 .030 .36 .377 .69 .848
.04 .040 .37 .389 .70 .867
.05 .050 .38 .400 .71 .887
.06 .060 .39 .412 .72 .908
.07 .070 .40 .424 .73 .929
.08 .080 .41 .436 .74 .950
.09 .090 .42 .448 .75 .973
.10 .100 .43 .460 .76 .996
.11 .110 .44 .472 .77 1.020
.12 .121 .45 .485 .78 1.045
.13 .131 .46 .497 .79 1.071
.14 .141 .47 .510 .80 1.099
.15 .151 .48 .523 .81 1.127
.16 .161 .49 .536 .82 1.157
.17 .172 .50 .549 .83 1.188
.18 .181 .51 .563 .84 1.221
.19 .192 .52 .577 .85 1.256
.20 .203 .53 .590 .86 1.293
.21 .214 .54 .604 .87 1.333
.22 .224 .55 .618 .88 1.376
.23 .234 .56 .633 .89 1.422
.24 .245 .57 .648 .90 1.472
.25 .256 .58 .663 .91 1.528
.26 .266 .59 .678 .92 1.589
.27 .277 .60 .693 .93 1.658
.28 .288 .61 .709 .94 1.738
.29 .299 .62 .725 .95 1.832
.30 .309 .63 .741 .96 1.946
.31 .321 .64 .758 .97 2.092
.32 .332 .65 .775 .98 2.298
.33 .343 .66 .793 .99 2.647

%5 ! ! < B/ & / C5