You are on page 1of 11

ABSTRACT

Most will agree with the statement that Organization Development implies

change, and we accepted that improvement in organizational functioning means

that change has occurred, then broadly defined, Organization Development

means organization change.

Not everyone agrees with this statement, and the researcher does not.

Improvement in an organization’s way of operation may mean change from one

procedure to a better one – such as putting an organization’s payroll procedure

onto a computer rather processing checks by hand – but the fundamentals of

how problems are solved, how decisions are made, and how people are treated

may not have changed at all. This more fundamental aspect of change in the

organization and how social power and organizational politics are affecting it was

the domain of this research study.

There are four primary social-psychological concepts for diagnosing an

organization to be effective and efficient; they are norms, values, and rewards.

The fourth concept is power, and herein lies the center stage of my study. And

the reason for choosing power is both significant and straightforward.

Organization Development signifies change, and for change to occur in an

organization, power must be exercised. The research study is to understand the

nature of power, from both the personal and organizational perspective, and be

able to determine, within an organization, specifically Pamantasan ng Lungsod

ng Muntinlupa, who has power, how power is exercised, and where the leverages

v
for change are likely to be, specifically on how to attain organization development

in terms of human resource management functions such as; recruitment,

placement and involvement, staff development, and motivation.

The initial concern of the study was power itself – individual need for

power and the consequences of this need on management, sources of power for

an individual in a social context, and organizational sources of power. The study

considers management, which was define as the exercise of power, and then,

who addresses the implications of what power and politics can do in affecting

management effectiveness and efficiency at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng

Muntinlupa in the attainment of its organizational objectives.

The general problem of this study is to determine the effects of social

power and organizational politics in organization development in terms of human

resource management functions such as: recruitment and selection, placement

and involvement, staff development, and motivation.

Specifically, the study wants the following sub-problem to be answered.

1) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of;

1.1} Person-related variables:

a) Gender

b) Civil Status

c) Age

1.2) Professional-related variables:

a) Status of appointment

vi
b) Length of service

c) Highest educational attainment

2). How did the respondents assess the administrators/deans and the use of their

social powers aimed to improve organization development:

a) Reward power

b) Coercive power

c) Legitimate power

d) Referent power

e) Expert power

3). Which of the administrators/deans social powers has the greatest capacity to

improve desired organizational outcomes:

a) Reward power

b) Coercive power

c) Legitimate power

d) Referent power

e) Expert power

4) Is there a significant difference between male and female respondents in their

assessment of the aforementioned variables?

5) How did the respondents assess the administrators/deans in their practice of

the following systems that affect organizational life:

a) Palakasan System

b) Padrino System

vii
c) Political Affiliation

6) How did the respondents assess the effect of the administrators/deans in their

use of Social Powers in improving desired organizational outcomes?

7) Is there a significant relation between the respondent’s assessment of the

effects of social powers and organizational politics in organization development?

This study focuses its attention on the kind of social power and the

indicators of organizational politics being exercised by the administrative and

academic personnel, in the furtherance of the educational philosophy and

objectives of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. The study only

included as respondents the faculty who in one way are the major component of

how social power and politics affects them personally and professionally.

Through this study, the faculty will be learning with information on

organization development that will serve as a way in providing quality education.

For the present Administrators, for this study will be very useful and can be a

source of information to evaluate their existing systems and practices and come

up with another that is more responsive and effective. Lastly for future

researchers, may this study be a source of information in making a future study

in organization development.

The research paradigm is to show the concept on how social powers

namely: rewards, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power can affect the

effectiveness of organization development in terms of human resource functions

of recruitment, placement and involvement of employees, staff development and

motivation in an organization. Organizational politics; such as the Palakasan


viii
System, the Padrino System and Political Affiliation will also be a major variable

that will be significant in the study of organization development plus the fact that

all these indicators can be moderated by the person- related variables of the

respondents such as gender and age and the professional-related factors such

as status of employment, highest educational attainment, and length of years in

teaching at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa.

Hypothesis

Ho There is no significant relation between social powers and organizational

politics in the attainment of effective organization development at

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa.

Ho There is no significant difference between the respondent’s

assessments of the effects social power and organizational politics

in organization development.

The study made use of the descriptive method of research.

A Descriptive study is an inquiry into the nature of an unknown

phenomenon or the occurrence of an event. It does not explain relationship but

seeks knowledge for better understanding of the nature of the subject of the

study to serve as basis for some future actions including formulation of

hypothesis of relationship. The aim of the descriptive study is to infer to the

reference population the findings from a sample.

ix
The research design describes what the study has done to answer the

research questions.

The study used the descriptive correlation survey. This is a study that

shows the difference between two or more variables, that is, how a variable

varies with another. Since the present research is a status study, the correlation

survey was the most appropriate method to use in gathering data.

This research study was conducted within the confines of Pamantasan ng

Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that is located at National Bilibid Reservation, Poblacion,

Muntinlupa City. The respondents of the study were the faculty members of the

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. Muntinlupa City. The data collection

was purposive sampling, a method that involved all the members of the

population. Since there are only 0ne hundred and twenty faculty members of our

institution that were served with the survey questionnaires, and only one hundred

were retrieved or 83.33% of the faculty force were considered as respondent of

this study.

The study used the survey questionnaire as a research instrument. A

questionnaire gathers data faster than other methods which when answered

honestly and properly by selected respondents, will supply the necessary

information to complete a research study.

The questionnaires were distributed to all faculty members of Pamantasan

ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, and One hundred filled questionnaires were

retrieved. The content of the questionnaires was focus on how social power and

x
organizational politics that could affect the organization development of

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa as a basis for policy direction.

After presenting the analysis and interpreting the data gathered through the use

of statistical tools, the following findings were arrived at:

a. Among the Social Powers which has the great capacity to

affect organizational outcomes.

1.1 Reward Power

1.2 Coercive Power

1.3 Legitimate Power

1.4 Referent Power

1.5 Expert Power

Based on the results, it can be perceived that power

administrators do not use the reward power bestowed on them. Especially with a

weighted mean of 2.41, the administrators never complemented their work in

terms of their effectiveness and efficiency.

On coercive Power there is a strong argument that the

administrators uses coercive power in the organization especially when they are

forced to participate actively in any civic affairs sponsored by the city hall and at

sometimes at their own discretion.

On referent power, the respondents gathered a weighted mean

of 3.35, thus they all agree the referent power is being used in our organization

especially the appointments of teachers due to political referrals.

xi
On expert power, the respondents are neutral on how the

administrators/deans exercises their rights in leading the institution to academic

standards.

b. Among the indicators of organizational politics, which one is

an effective instrument in acquiring preferred outcome:

2.1 Palakasan System

2.2 Padrino System

2.3 Political System

On the Palakasan System, the respondents agree that the

majority of the members of the faculty are admitted because they know

somebody influential from the organization.

While on the Padrino System, the respondents are neutral on

the use of “ninong” and “ninang” in the facilitation of their regularization.

On political affiliation, the general weighted mean of 3.11 agrees

that loadings of subjects per semester depend of how close you are to the

administrators/deans.

c. And lastly, between social power and organizational politics,

which has the great capacity to influence organization

development, the one that can greatly influence changes in

the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa are social

powers wherein it garnered 70% of the respondents who

totally agree.

xii
In the light of the findings arrived, the following conclusions were

formulated. The target dimensions of organizational development in Pamantasan

ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that gives an outline, which are not mutually exclusive

and distinct from each other. Complicated and high falluting department

objectives can be restructured that will help in the realization of organizational

goals. It should involve as many groups as possible through their representatives

including the studentry. The involvement of these representatives by

management in the goaling process helps insure its members identify

themselves with the organization. Thus, they would cooperate in the

achievement of the objectives, which they help formulate.

The organigram or table of organizations is usually the most visible written

output of the organizing or re-organizing the structure. Span of control, height

and width of the organization, centralization of decision making are some

symbols depicting to a great extent the presence or absence of authority in the

organization. Change in individuals’ duties, responsibilities, roles functions due to

change in structure is evidenced from their behavior. Although structure includes

three components; authority, abilities and skills, and rewards, the last two are

better placed under the category of people in terms of how organizational

development can be used in changing them and the facility and difficulty by

which they can be changed. Duties, responsibilities, roles and functions are

important components of positions, which are structured under authority.

Content includes the material dimensions used by the organization to

achieve its goals. In the business setting these consist of funds, facilities,

xiii
equipment, markets, products, services. In schools, the curriculum is a good

example.

Technology, another component for organizational development, answers

how jobs are better done. Developing and refining new ways, means, procedure

of producing goods, products, services, are a continuous process.

The most difficult target for organizational development is

people. Due to their very nature of complexity and intricacy, this dimension is

most elusive and challenging to deal with. It takes more time, effort and

competence to know and understand people and more so to develop them in the

image for which they can be useful to the organization. The latter has its own

role, which can be accomplished by people who share with it the same values,

interests and aspirations. By the same token, people would want the organization

to share with them its joys, worries and commitments. Because of the symbiotic

role of people development, the dimension of people comes most problematic in

organizational development.

Based on the conclusion, the following recommendations are being

presented by the researcher.

1. Assume a customer or beneficiary orientation

2. Integrate the three critical elements of effective performance in the

organization: strategy, structures, and spirit of service

xiv
3. Enable the individual human worker or manager to be productive in work and

achieving in his personal life as a worker or professional by taking total

responsibility for results.

4. Translate the task of self-responsible performance into organizational

structures that promote a responsible work behavior.

5. Use co-creation (participative approach) for peak performance and work

commitment.

6. Promote the development of enabling skills as well as make the enabling

leader, the model or ideal of leadership.

7. Use developmental tools appropriate to our Filipino culture.

xv