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THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

ishikawajima aircraft Industries Company, Ltd.


(Isfaikawajima

Koku Kogyo Kabushiki

Kaisha)

CORPORATION REPORT
(Engines)

No. XIII

AIRCRAFT DIVISION
Dates of Survey:

26 - 27 November 1945
Date of Publication:
1

November 1946

THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

ishikawajima aircraft Industries Company, Ltd.


(Ishikawajima

Koku Kogyo Kabushiki

Kaisha)

CORPORATION REPORT
(Engines)

No. XIII

aircraft division
Dates of Survey:

26-27 November 1945


Date of Publication:
1

November 1946

i
llo ?J^

0. S.

SUPERINTENDENT Of

DOCUMENT

NOV 21 1946

Tliis report

was written primarily

for the use of the

Bombing Survey
nature.

in the preparation of further reports of a

United States Strategic more comprehensive

Any

conclusions or opinions expressed in this report

must be consid-

ered as Hmited to the specific material covered and as subject to further inter-

pretation in the light of further studies conducted by the survey.

FOREWORD
Bombing Survey by the Secretary of War on November 1944, pursuant to a directive from the late President Roosevelt. Its mission was to conduct an impartial and expert study of the effects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with aii- attacks on Japan and to establish a basis for evaluating the importance and potentialities of air power as an instrument of
The United
States Strategic

was established

'.^

military strategy, for planning the future developof the United States armed forces, and for determining future economic policies with respect A summary report and to the national defense. some 200 supporting reports containing the findings of the survey in Germany have been

ment

published.

On

15

August 1945, President Truman requested

that the survey conduct a similar study of the


effects of all types of air attack in the

war agamst
the

Japan,

submitting reports in duplicate to

Secretary of

War and

to the Secretary of the

Navy.

The

officers

of the survey

durmg

its

Japanese

complement provided for 300 and 500 enlisted men. The military segment of the organization was drawn from the Army to the extent of 60 percent, and from the Navy to the extent of 40 percent. Both the Army and the Navy gave the sui'\'ey all possible assistance in furnishing men, supplies, transport, and information. The survey operated from headquarters established hi Tokyo early m September 1945, with subheadquarters in Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, and with mobile teams operatmg in other parts of Japan, the islands of the Pacific, and the Asiatic mamland. It was possible to reconstruct much of wartime Japanese military plamiing and execution, engagement by engagement, and campaign by campaign, and to secure reasonably accurate statistics on Japan's economy and war-production, plant by plant, and mdustry by industry. In addition, studies were conducted on Japan's over-all strategic plans and the background of her entry into the war, the mternal discussions and negotiations
survey's
civilians, .350 officers,

The

leading to her acceptance of unconditional surrender, the course of health

phase were:
Franklin D'Olier, Chairman.

and morale among the


Japa-

civilian population, the effectiveness of the

Paul H.

Nitze,

Henry C. Alexander,

nese civilian defense organization, and the effects


of the atomic

Vice Chairmen.

bombs.

Separate reports will be

J.

Harry L. Bowman, Kenneth Galbraith,


Jr.,

issued covering each phase of the study.

The survey mterrogated more than 700 Japanese military. Government, and mdustrial
It also recovered
officials.

Rensis Likert,

Frank A. McNamee, Fred Searles, Jr.,

Mom-oe E. Spaght,
Dr. Lewis R. Thompson,

Theodore P. Wright, Directors. Walter Wilds, Secretary.

and translated many documents which not only have been useful to the survey, but also wOl furnish data valuable for other studies. Arrangements have been made to turn over the survey's files to the Central Intelligence Group, through which they will be available for further examination and distribution.

Ul

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Corporation and The Air Attacks

Its

Importance

in

the Aircraft Industry


'

3
4 5 5
facing facing

Prod ucTiON Statistics K valuation OF Pre- Attack Intelligence Reference Item


Appendix:
A.

Tomioka

Plant: Plant Lay-out and Production Flow

6
6

B. Organization of the Corporation, August 1945 C. History of the Hidaka Plant

D-1. Employment Statistics. 1941-45 D-2. Employment Graph, 1941-45 E-1. Man-Hours Statistics, 1941-45 E-2. Man-Hours Graph, 1941-45 F-1. Labor Turnover Statistics, 1941-45 F-2. Labor Turnover Graph, 1941-45
G. Dispersal Data H. Air Attack Data I-l. Engine Production Statistics, 1941-45 1-2. Engine Production Graph, 1941-45

7-8 9
10
11

12 13
14

15 16

17 18

Ishikawajima Aircraft Industries Co., Ltd.

THE CORPORATION AND


INTRODUCTION

ITS

IMPORTANCE IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY


With
the impetus of government

demand,

ex-

The Ishikawajima Au-craft Industries Co., Ltd. K) was one of four (Ishikawajima Koku Kogyo Japanese companies which made the Ha-.35 (Sakae 10-, 20-, and 30-series) engines used to power the Kate, Zeke, Rufe, Lily, Oscar, and Irving airIn 1944, the peak year of Japanese airl)laTies.

pansion of the Tomioka plant was almost continuous and new plants were purchased and built.

craft

engine production in general and

Ha-35

Excluding dispersal miits (covered later in this report), at the time of the Japanese surrender Ishikawajima consisted of four fabrication and assembly plants, one of which was not yet in These operation, and tlu-ee accessory plants.

engines in particular, Ishikawajima's output was 2.5 percent of the total and 10.9 percent of the
total

were as follows:
Fabrication

and assembly

plants:

Ha-35 engines produced. The company was founded in 1937

Tomioka
as a branch

plant, in Isogo

Ward, Tomioka, a

of the Ishikawajima Shipbuilding Co. (Ishikawajima Zosenjo). Initially this au-craft branch made minor aii'craft engine component parts. In 1937 and 1938 it expanded its parts activities to include
fal)rication

suburb of Yokohama. Chuetsu plant, at DeMachi, Higashi Tonami County, Toyama Prefecture.

Hidaka

plant, in
plant,

Wakayama
in

Prefectm-e.

Yamato

and

final

engine assembly.
plant, in the Isogo

Yamato Precinct, Koza County, Kanagawa Prefecture.


plant,

The main Tomioka

Ward

of

Tomioka, a suburb of Yokohama, was planned late in 1937 and the foundry of this works was completed in September 1938. The original plan had been to make components for the Tempu and Jimpu engines for trainer planes. Beginning in 1939, however, parts were made for the Kinsei and
Kasei engines. Construction of tlie Tomioka machhie shops was completed early in 1941. This was the company's largest expansion project, intended for both production and repair of Sakae engines for the Navy

Accessory plants:
in Minami Ward, Yokohama. Nakamura Precinct, in Adachi plant, in Adachi Ward, Kono Precinct

Nakamura-Bashi

of

Tokyo.
plant,
in

Amakami
Negishi,

Kami

Precinct,

Nishi

Yokohama.

In addition to these seven works, the Ishikawajima Co. owned several warehouses, used for the
storage of parts and tools, in the

Yokohama

area.

The Japanese Government


controlled,

at no time directly

and general repair

of other engine types.

was earned out in Dec(>mber 1940 and tlie first new engine was assembled in December 1941. The Tomioka plant was Ishifirst

The

repair

operated, subsidized, or owned any Ishikawajima Co. Governmental relationship was indnect only, in that it (a) loaned
part
the
of

the

kawajima's only engine assembly plant for new engines (appendix A).
In September 1941, The Ishikawajima Aircraft Co. was reorganized to constitute an independent
corporation with stock ownership vested in the

chinery,

company about 30 percent of its plant ma(6) loaned the company money from
(c)

government banks,
and, of com-se,
allocations,
(g)

established price controls

{d)

granted material priorities and

finished products.

furnished labor, and (f) inspected A stafl:' of nine naval officers

Ishikawajima
increased

Shipbuilding

Co.

Capitalization

thereafter

and eventually reached a

staff

comprised the company's inspection staft': this was headed by Captain (Navy) Masukichi
in 1945.

92,000,000 yen total.

Kondo


ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION
Key
below:
President

parts or services for the

Tomioka
in

executives of the corporation are listed


Hikosuke Araki. Kensuke Nagano. Kiyoshi Matsukasa, Kazue Sano, Koichi Kanda.
Kasehara, Ichiji Otsuka, Tsuneo Nonaka. Masanori Nakayama. Kazue Sano.
Itsugi

mura-Bashi began operations

plant. NakaAugust 1943 as a

Chief director

heat-treatment unit. Adachi, organized in March 1944, was a metal-rolling mill. Amakami, acquired in October 1944, was the company's lumber
mill.

Managing
Directors

directors^

Auditor Business manager Personnel chief Planning chief

Principal suppliers of raw materials and component parts, numbermg approximately 70, of the Ishikawajima complex were almost all located in

Tsuneo Nonaka.
Kiyoshi Matsukasa.

the Tokyo-Kawasaki area adjacent to the plant and only a few were as far away as Kobe or Nagoya
(reference item
1).

The

organizational structure of the Ishikawa-

jima Co. was built around the

Tomioka

plant as

The the major fabrication and assembly unit. Chuetsu, Hidaka, and Yaniato plants were intended to supply parts and assemblies to Tomioka for final assembly of HA-35 engines (appendix A). Hidaka was, in addition, to produce turbo-superchargers for the Navy.
plants

The

tliree

small accessory

Nakamura-Bashi, kami complemented the


company (appendix B). The Tomioka plant was

Employment increased steadily and gradually, both in numbers and man-hours worked, until November 1944. In December 1944 the number of employees declined gradually, and beginning in December 1944 man-hours worked began a long decline which became precipitous after the dispersal program was started in April (appendices D-1, D-2, E-1, and E-2).
Percent of man-hoiu's of work lost, for all reawas high and erratic, varying from a low of 14.6 to a high of 48.4 percent (appendixes E-1 and E-2). In the last 4 years prior to the surrender, 11,843,860 man-hours, or 27.5 percent of Since there were no direct air the total, were lost. attacks on any works, that factor did not affect man-hours lost. Indu-ect air attacks had little effect on lost time increasing the total loss from 1 to only 3 percent except during the final month of
sons,

Adachi, and Amaorganization of the


the original and largest
It

unit of the company, and the only works at which

new

engines were assembled.

also

repaired

damaged engines and

fabricated various engine


its

parts for other manufacturers as well as for

own

assembly operations. No assembly line technique was used job shop practices, only, were employed. The Chuetsu plant, a fabrication and assembly
;

August 1945, when


cent
loss.

this factor

caused a 14.8-per-

Table

1,

below, indicates the yearly

factory,

repaired

parts for the


castings for

damaged engines, fabricated Tomioka plant, and heat-treated It was acquired in Novemthe Navy.

trend of lost time.

Table

1.

Employee and man-hour trends

ber
until

1943 and operated continuously thereafter

August 1945.
plants were intended

The Hidaka and Yamato


to

be the remaining two major fabrication and assembly units. The Hidaka plant was converted

from a factory of the Chuetsu Textile Co. in September 1943 and began small-scale operations in December of that year. It originally had been intended only for the fabrication of exhaust turbosuperchargers for the Navy, but several changes of plans and orders by the Navy prevented this being put into effect. Hidaka's role, consequently, was limited to production of parts for the Tomioka The Yamato plant was plant (appendix C). started in May 1943, but construction was not completed before the surrender to the Allies. The Nakamura-Bashi, Adachi, and Amakami plants were small accessory producers, supplying

The

ration of iioiiproductivo labor

was

faij-ly

gromid

constant, declining from a high of 50.2 percent in


to a low of 29.7 percent in October and averaged about 35 to 37 percent, a value 1944, quite comparable with the average American works of this approximate size (appendices D-1 and D-2). Multiple, round-the-clock shifts weie inaugurated in October 1943, immediately after the Hidaka plant was placed in operation, and prior Thus, the to accjuisition of the Chuetsu plant. percentage of night-shift workers had relatively

site at the Chuetsu plant. After the 4 April order, disjjcrsal was undeilakeu with maxi-

December 1941

mum
of

effort.

At the time
the

of the dispe7-sal order, construction

plant was incomijlete and the Chuetsu plant had not begun to ])roduce turbosuperchargers. These works, thcu'efore, together

Yamato

with the thiee small accessory plants (Adachi,

Amakami, and Nakamura-Bashi) were not dispersed; the Tomioka and Hidaka plants were.
Ishikawajima's dispersal was carried out in two

This percentage increased rapidly to a high plateau of an average of from 16 to 18 percent from February through
little efl'ect

on plant

efficiency.

The first, as a result of the 4 April order, involved the moving of activities from the Tomioka plant to underground machine shops at the followstages.

ing

locations: Chuetsu,

Sugita,

Negishi,

and declined rapidly thereafter (appendices D-1 and D-2). Labor tmiiover (new employees to total employment) trends were erratic and abrupt, from a low of 0.2 percent to a high of 26.7 percent. During the last 14 months of the war, however, labor turnover steadied at a relatively even low level, iir spite of the fact that the number of employees dischai-ged remamed erratic and relatively high (appendices F-1 and F-2). The term "discharged employees" includes all persons released
1944,
for various reasons.

November

Sobu,

Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Sanuki. The second dispersal, as a result


tions Ministry order of 22

of the

Muni-

May

1945, for protec-

tion of production facilities in the Kmki area, involved moving machine shops from the Hidaka

plant to the

Tomioka plant and

to the

Chuetsu

and Sanuki undei'ground

locations.

THE DISPERSAL PROGRAM


Prior to the directive of the Central Section for Plamiing Defense of Production (Rinji Seisan B5ei Taisaku Chuo Honu) of the Munitions Ministry of 4 April 1945 which ordered all au'craft manufacturers to disperse their activities, the Ishikawajima Co. had asked the Government to be allowed to disperse some units and on their own mitiative, planned and cariied out one dispersal movement, namely; some machme shop processes
transferred

Plans also had been drawn to disperse the heat treatment and assembly processes to undergromrd plants at Nakamura, near Negishi, but these plans never materialized. Of the company's total 1,318 machine tools, it was planned to disperse all; actually, only 887, or 68 percent were dispersed Korean labor was used extensively (appendix G)
.

in dispersal operations.

cept at the

The above-mentioned undergromid shops, exYokosuka Naval Arsenal and Sanuki,


all

from the Tomioka plant

to

an urder-

mountamside Tomioka The Yokosuka Naval Arsenal was located plant. about 3 miles south of the Tomioka plant. The Sanuki underground location, near Cliiba, was accessible only by water across Tokyo Bay.
were
relatively small cave-type,
timiiels located

the vicinity of the

THE AIR ATTACKS


AIR ATTACKS

ON URBAN AREAS
neither selected nor

The Ishikawajima Co. was

attacked as a primary target. Units of the company, however, were struck three times in attacks on adjacent url)an areas (appendix H). Data of
these attacks were ascertained from records of the

production (appendix H). Damage of Tomioka's the 29 June attack caused a gas supply system suspension of heat treating operations and resulted in a production loss of about 90 enguies in Jidy. Effects on other mstallations was limited to mcendiaiy damage and destruction of warehouses, tools,

and material

stocks.

No fatalities were sustained.

Tabulatmg Service Section


Strategic

of the United States

The
in the

attacks

Bombing Survey. upon company mstallations, except case of the Tomioka plant, did not afi'ect

Generally, attacks of the Yokohama-Tokyo area became so effective beginning in March and April

1945 that the IshUiawajima Co. found


to carry out planned operations

it

impossible

and engine pro-

708860 4(V-

duction was reduced about 25 percent in those

increased.

As a

rule,

HE

was dreaded more than

months.
of

The 29

May attack destroyed the homes


and caused a
loss

IB

attacks.

2,500 workers
of work.

of

30,000

Day and
down

night attacks in June and July slowed

man-hours

dispersal activities because of disruptions to

Morale had been generally good until 12 June, when a nearby plant was struck by HE; Ishikawajima workers saw casualties at first hand, heard many stories and became nervous and "jumpy"
as a result.

transportation and workers' homes, and production declined rapidly to about 50 percent of its

March

value.

Practically

all

suppliers of

raw

materials and component parts were located in the Yokohama-Tokyo urban area and contmued

The
turn,

increased bondjings of July

made
closer

them

feel

they were continuously

movmg

to their

own

and nervousness and

inefficiency

attacks in this area served to reduce and deny receipts from these suppliers. New supply sources could not be found.

PRODUCTION STATISTICS
Ishikawajima's
capacity
for

production

of

engines rose steadily from 25 in September 1942 to a level of 210 in November 1944 and remained

chine tools (especially internal grinders) in time and this resulted in production schedules being

constant thereafter (appendices I-l and 1-2). This steady increase was based partially on antici-

pated receipts of machine tools promised by the Government. The acquisition and operation of the Hidaka and Chuetsu fabrication and assembly plants in September and November 1943 and the four accessory plants between May 1943 and October 1944 did not in any case sharply increase engine production capacity since none of these plants were final assembly works: the Hidaka plant, as a matter of fact, had been intended
solely for the prockiction of exhaust-driven turbo-

back about 6 months in 1943. In 1944, shortage of labor was the most serious problem: many experienced production men and young engineers were drafted into the services. As a result of this industry-wide shortage the
set

Government
(h'uts

instituted a

program

of drafting stu-

and

soldiers into factory labor jobs in April.

Isliikawajima thus suddenly received a large number of untrained laborers. As a result, fabrication rejections because of poor workmanship increased
to almost 30 percent.

Beginnmg
were used.

late

in

1944,

nickel-steel

became

critically short in

supply and substitute materials

superchargers for the Navy.

This resulted in

many

complications.

Government demand,
duce engines.
Orders

or orders,

was

entirely

The

inconsistent with Ishikawajima's ability to proinitially wei'e

use of softer, lower grade steel in such engine parts as reduction gears, which require a high

given for G
to

month
a

periods: in April 1944 this

was reduced

in test

4-month short-term form of order. These demands increased in relatively small amounts
until Ishikawajima's ability to

degree of hardness, caused repeated engine failures and acceptance. This condition was a material factor in the pro-

duction decline late in 1944 and

e.arly

in

1945.

produce exceeded
of 1944:
all

Also, in the beginning of 1945, receipts of parts

Government demand in the first quarter lliereafter, demands skyrocketed out of

pro-

portion to the company's ability to produce and icaclied a high demand of 420 engines per month
in

February and March 1945.


declined

Thereafter, de-

mand

abruptly to below theoretical ability to produce (appendixes I-l and 1-2). Contrasting both plant capacity and Govern-

such as rocker arms, inlet valves, and push rods, from the Chuetsu plant in Toyama Prefecture, dropped materially. This was caused by rail disrui)tions resulting both from effects of American boinbmgs and heavy snowfalls during that winter. Analysis of production curves shows that output increased steadily from tiie first engine assembled in December 1941 until the peak of 150 was
attained in June 1944 (appendixes I-l and 1-2). Production declined sharply in July and August because of difficulties in obtaining raw materials

ment demand, actual production

at

no

time

reached either ordered or capacity level. Initially, Isliikawajima had insufficient technically trained and experienced workers to carry out a mass production plan. The first Government orders failed to take this into account. Thereafter
the

and because

of the loss of experienced

men

to the military services,

and key mentioned above.

Government

failed to provide

promised ma-

Recovery was further retarded during the winter of 1944-45 by dispersal of some machining opera-

HE T TREATMENT

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CONNECTING RODS

T
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COMPLETE

CRANK SHAFTS

CYLINDERS

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FIRST ASSEMBLY

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PLANT LAYOUT
TOMIOKA

PRODUCTION FLOW

PLANT
1945

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX

Ofoonliofion oi the Corporation

August 1945 Uhikowaiima Aircraft Co.

[
Fabrication

Ishikawajima Shipbuilding Company Parent Company: Vested Stoct< Ownership

IshilinwQJima Aircraft Industries Co., Ltd.

Became independent in September 1941 Capitoliialion: 42,000,000 Yen

and

Assembly

Pionts

Accessory

Plants

TOMIQKA PLANT
isogo

CHUET5U PLANT
DeMochi, Higashi Tonami Counly

HIDAKA PLANT
Wokoyamo
Prefecture

YAMATO PLANT
Yamoto
Precinct,
Prcfectur*

MAKAMURA-BASHI PLANT
Minomi Ward Nokomuia Precinc

ADACHI PLANT
Adachi Word, Kono Precinct. Tokyo

AMAKAMI PLANT
Komi
Precinct Nish. Negishi

Wotd, Tomioita, Yokohama

Koza Counly,

Toyama
Former

Prefecture

Kcnogowo

Yokohama
Acquired August 1943, August 1943 to August 1945, Heol treotment of metal ports for Tomioko Plont

Yokohomo

textile

mill

pur-

chased and converted


Consttucticn sfcited lotc ?937.
'n

Former

Under construction May 1943 to August 1945:


textile
mill

Acquired March
1944,
Melol-r oiling mill
fcr

Acauired October
1944.

pur-

November 1943.

chased and converted


in

did not reach production stage.

Exponsion

Lumber

mill

for

Tomi-

Foundry completed September 1938. Mochinc shops completed early 1941.


cxponsion.
April

Expansion;
First

May

to

Aufor

September
solely

Intended as

943.
for

gust
1

1945.
engines

Intended

o costing foundry.
the

Tomioka

Plant,

oi<o Plont

1941

to

October

1943.
to

Repaired

production

of

exhaust

gust
1.

Second exponsion, November 1943 1945

Au-

nal, Hiratsuko

2d Naval Air ArseSupply

turbo-supctchargeis, but

because of government changes of orders, pro-

Assembled

SAKAE

engines

for

2d Ncvol
2

2.

Alt Aficnal, Nal<ajimo, and Mitsubishi. Repoiied Tcmpu Jimpu, Sokoe, and Kotobul<i

Dump. Fabricated various parts for Tom ioka


Plant.

duced no superchargers.
Fobricated parts and subassemblies
for the

encincs

foi

?d Naval Air Arscnol and


3
for

Tomi-

Naval
3

An
for

Tcchnicol Arsenal.

Heat-treated
ports for

various

oka

Plont, instcod.

Oil pump housinos

Nakajimo.
for

2d Novol Air

4
5.

Wheels

Okamoto

Industries Ltd.

Reduction geai housings

Aichi Aircroh

Arsenal hliratsuko Supply Dump.


Plant

Co
6.
7.

Ltd
for

Manager:

Coble boxes
Ltd.

Hitochi Plant.
foi

Kiyoshi Matsukasa.
Plant

Supcfchoigci ports

Shiboura Turbine Co

Manager:

Koichi Kanda.

Toil

wheel mounts
for

for

Koyobo

Plant

Ptoductron Chief:

9 Coble boxes
10.

Hol<ush'n Electric Co., Ltd

Notsuo Ntshimura,

Beoiing rings ond bushings for


craft Co.. Ltd.

Tonako Air-

11. Cronkcoscs for 2d

Naval Air Arscnol,


bcoring

12 Reduction gear
plotes

casings, distributor cosings.

intake manifolds, diffusion plates,

mom

oil

sumps, cylmdcr

oil

sumps,

Suction pipes, fcr

own

use

Plont

Monoger

Kiyoshi Matsul-.asa

Chicl Engineer

YosKimi Ishikowo

7ti5&60-H6

(Face p.

5)

No, 2

tions to

tlic

distant

Chuetsu underground

|)lant,

but again reached the 150 per month [feak Mareli 1945.

in

During April, May, and June, increasing air attacks continued to disrupt transport at ion and
lower morale to such an extent that jirochiction ch'clined about 25 percent. Thereafter, the company's attempts at large-scale dispersal brought
the parts pioducing units to a virtual halt, and

engine production declined sharply to in July and zero in August.

(57

percent

The Tomioka and Chuetsu

plants, in addition

to their fabrication activities, also repaired Sakae,

Jimpu, Tempu, and Kotobuki engines (table


Table
2.

2).

Engine repairs completed

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX C
HISTORY OF THE HIDAKA PLANT
The Hidaka
Industries plant of the Ishikawajima Aii'craft
Ltd.,

Model
most

5 turl)o-sui)erchargers, and

tiii^

training of

newly-hired

inexperienced

woi-kei-s.

However,
also used in

Co.,

located

in

Hidaka Gun,

of these

new employees were

on the north coast of Honshu, was, prior to its piu-chase in September 1943, a blanch factory of the Chuetsu Textile Co., Ltd., whose main offices and plant were located in DeMachi, in Higashi Tonami County in Toyama
Prefecture.

Wakayama Ken,

conversion of plant structures and reclamation of adjacent laud purciiased for expansion of llic
plant.

Work

progressed slowly through June, and in

July, as sheet-metal parts

and forgings were being

received, the Mmiitions Ministry suddeidy ordered

Ishikawajima Co., which had been carrying out its experiemental projects on aircraft engines and turbo-superchargAfter
this

purchase,

the

production of turbo-supei-chargei-s iuilted and experimental work begun on a tui-bine rocket


CurreJit production plans accordingly were di-opped, and this resulted in a surplus of employees and trainees. To absorb this excess, the Hidaka plant in August took over

motor known as TR.

Tomioka plant, transferred these activiHidaka plant. This transfer begim in December 1943, involved 50 machiiie tools and 100 employees, and was carried out in small increments lasting 1 year. At that time, experimental work had progressed to the stage where the company was prepared to start work on production of
ers
its

ties to the

some subcontract

fabrication of fuselage parts of

the fighter George for the

Naruo plant

of the

exhaust-driven turbo50 i ET model 5 2,000 superchargers for the Navy as an experimental


order.

Kawanishi Au-craft Industries Co., Ltd., and fabrication of JZKI bulletproof cockpit-frame windshields for the Navy. In order to obtain needed machine tools for the
production of the

TR

turbine rocket motors, the

The production problem


tory for production.
tools

initially

was primarily

the acquisition of machine tools to equip this fac-

Some all-purpose machine were on hand, but production schedules demanded various s])ecial-type tools such as special
grinders to finish turbine blades.

However, since

other companies were being expanded at the time,


these tools could not be obtained rapidly.

in Wakayama was purSeptember 1944. This Shibayama Works had been engaged in production of slotting machines, and this acquisition added about 100 machine tools, a large amount of stock parts, and about 50 employees to the Hidaka plant rolls. These machine tools, however, were so old that a considerable peiiod of time was required for recon-

Shibayama
chased
in

Steel

Woiks

In the meantime, military demands for tm-bosuperchargers became pressing. In March 1944 the Munitions Ministry ordered production of Mitsubishi Model 2 1,000 exhaust-driven turbosupei'chargers, a type considered moi'e generally adapted to combat. Accordingly, Ishikawajima set up plans for producing 450 of these imits per month using 250 machme tools and 2,060 employees by March 1945, and because of shortage of machine tools, adopted the three-shift system of work. Production was to have begun in Jime

them for TR production. In October, a labor capacity surplus still remaining, it was decided to use some labor to fabricate small parts for production of the Sakae 20-series engines bemg made at the Tomioka
verting
plant.
It was intended to produce 16 different types of small. parts, the largest being the articu-

lated connecting rod.

Production was to have been started in January 1945. From October through December, some machine tools from the Shibayama Works and a few

new

tools of the Miuiition Ministry's allocation

1944.

Acquisition

of
it still

materials

proceeded

fahdy

was found to be impossible to Only in the obtain the requii'ed machine tools. installation of the heat treatment shop was good progress made, and this shop was completed by Plant operations dm-ing that time were 6 June. devoted to making tools for large-scale production of both the Mitsubishi Model 2 and the I ET
smoothly but

weie obtained. The Shibayama tools, however, were unfit for use without extensive reconversion work expended on them. At the end of December, when experimental work on the TR turbine rocket motor was nearing completion, the Munition Ministry again suddenly ordered all work on this project stopped. The Ishikawajima Co. then decided to concentrate all its Hidaka plant facilities on manufacturing parts

for its
its

own Toinioka

plant and accordingly gave

the

Hidaka

plant,

Hidaka shipped ahnost


all,

all

of its

subcontract sheet-metal work for Kawanishi up and bulletproof windshields for the Navy. Pai'ts production, which had been scheduled to
begin in January 1945 was delayed by typical Japanese bmiglmg and finally was begun in March. Using the machine tools which had been intended for the production of the TR turbme rocket motors Hidaka produced master connecting rods, propellor shafts, reduction gear housings, pinion cages,

student laborers and a small number of

its

experi-

enced workers, about 350 people in

to

Tomioka.
in

In June, after the above mentioned part of the

Tomioka plant moved


In

to

Hidaka was placed

operation, these 350 workers were recalled.

April

the

directive forced
all

Hidaka

Munitions Ministry's dispersal to abandon completely

current expansion plans.

On

22

May

the for-

and other large

parts, in addition to the smaller

parts originally planned.

After AprO, that part of the Tomioka plant which had fabricated master connecting rods,
articulated connecting rods,

and wristpins, was

moved to Hidaka. At the same time, since the Tomioka plant was suffering from a labor shortage, and also to reduce the number of trainees at

mal dispersal order was received and the Hidaka plant was completely dispersed to the Chuetsu, Tomioka, and Sanuki locations. Duruig this period of dispersal, air attack alerts and attacks on nearby installations delayed movement activities to the extent that dispersion to Chuetsu and Tomioka was not completed before the end of the
war.

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX D-1


Employ menl data
Male
Female
Percent

Students

Soldiers

Productive

Nonproductive

Percent

1941

1.936
1,991

108

5.6
6.3

2. 2,

044
111

1.077

967
1,001
9.39

47.3
147.4

120 128 133

1,110
1,071

1,882

6.8
6.1

2,010
2,321

46.7

2,188

1,154

1,167

50.2

1942
2,211
155
181

7.0 8.1

2,366 2,417
2,464 2,903 2,848

1,185
1,367
1,414

1,181

49.9
43.4

2,236
2,265 2,614
2,577

1,050 1,050
1.193

199

8.8
11.
1

.42,6
41.1

289
271

1,710

10.5

1,695 1.690 1,680 1,826


1,815 1,820

1,163 1,136

40.5 40.2
40.1

2,576
2,574 2.833 2,794

250 246
247
213

9.7 9.6 8.7


7.4 7.6
7.5

2,826
2,820

1,130 1,265 1,192


1,211

3,080

40.7
39.
i

3,007
3,031

2,817
2,821

214

40.0
39.!

212 210

3,033 3,039

1,825 1,859

1,208 1,180

2,829
1943

7.4

38.8

2,865 2,888
2,911

210

7.3 7.0 7.0

3,075 3,090 3.114


3,081

1,865

1,210 1,195

39.3 38.7 37.0 37.0 36.5 36.0 34.6


32.9
32.1

202
203
195

1,895

1,962
1,940

1,152
1,141

2,886

6.8
7.3

3,098 3,257
3,341

225
219
221

3,323 3,476

2,110 2.259 2.330


2. 3.S0

1,213 1,217

6.7
6.6 6.4 5.9 5.6

3,562
3,549 3,650 3,908 3,965
4,427

1,232
1,

3,334 3,448 3,700 3,722


4.157
1944

215 202

169

2.480 2.548 2.625


2,

1,170 1,360 1,340 1,622

208
243 270

34.8
33.!

6.5 6.5

805

36.6

4.478

354

4,832
8.5

3. 3,

019
161

1.813

37.6 34.4
33.!

4,442 4,353

377
401

4,819 4,754

1,658 1,608

9.2 300
448 458
1,021

3,146

5,464

3,406
3,664 3,624
4,068

2,058
2,224
1.803 1.897
1.863 1,803

37.7
37.1

6,888
6,427
39
191

33.2 31.8
31.1

5,965 5,950

1,021
1,

4,097
4, 4,

213

20
179

6,897
6,213

094

30.6 29.7
29.9

1,431

365

1,848 1,866

1,475 1,707 1945


1,941

242
118

6,242 6,188

4,377

4,302

1,886

30.5

123

5,944 5,984 5,917


5,607 5,456 5,763 5,608 5,936

4,072
4,106 4,003

1,872 1,878 1,914


1,883
1,863 1,914 1,883 1,959

31.6
31.3 32.3 33.4
34.1

1,941 1,941 1,659

199

224 216
239

3,724 3,593 3,849


3,726

1,457

1,792
1,883

275
271

33.2 33.6 33.0

2,001

270

3,976

(N

X Q w
Oh

<

<
I

CD

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX
Alan-hours

E-1

Man-hour.s
Percent of required

Man-hours Total manworked hours lost

Percent

lost a/c

Man-hours
Percent
(planned) required

attack
alerts

1941

September. October

446,336
441, 429

114, 280

25.6
25.1

111,010
88, 260 80, 850

November.
December..

470,931
555, 504

18.7 14.6

January
February...

475, 224 .566,711


.535,

87,010
96, 660

18.3
17.1

March
April

316

116.010
133, 140

21.7 21.8
24.7 24.9

612, 134 642, 1S3 649, 917

May.
June July August September. October November.. December..

158,310 161,810
185, 9.30

533, 593
583, 305 602, 061 569, 422 622, 348 630, 658

34.8
38.7 34.5 39.2 32.6
.37.2

225, 070 207, 460

223,170
202, 910 234, 3tfl

January...

14.9

540, 695
661, 320 554, 406 667. 105 720, 256 757, 217 753, 320 685, 974 783, 124

261,560
237, 580 248, 950 257, 190 273, 260 278, 160
267, 360

48.4 36.9

3. 3. 3.
2,

610. UOO 610. 000 610, OOO 480, 000 480, 000 480,

February.

18.3 15.4

March
April

44.9 38.6
37.9

26.9 29.0 30.5 46.4 39.4

May
Juno
July

2, 2,

36.7
36.5

000

1,660,000
1, 1,

August September.
October

327, 940 258, 230 266, 750


2.53,

47.8
.33.0

740, 000
740,

45.0
42.6

000

882, 179

30.2
24.7

2, 2,

070, 000 070. 000

November. December.
1944

49.5 4S.8

1,025,456
1,

180

059, 967

299, 3.50

28.2

2,170,000

January
February...

71.1

1,087,230
1,

370, 000 280, 710

1,530,000

76.9 76.0 57.7 62.8 40.6 41.8

176, 437 162, 859

1,530,000
1,530,000
2, 2,

March
April

1,

316, 720
321. 760

1,228,606
1,337,916
1, 1, 1,

130, 130,

000 000 000 000 000 000 000

May
June
July

327, 000
3.50,

364, 592
284, 274 370, 738

000

3, 360, 3, 070,
3,

355, 000

August September
October

44.6 45.9
33.2 37.9
.

416,810
324. 000

070, 000

1,408,024
1,

3, 070, 4, 230,

403, 899

316,000
273, 000 259, 980
20.

November. December

1,601,120
1,

693
537

0.04
1.4

4, 230,
4,

35.8

516, 184

230, 000

January...

33.9 34.5 30.6 63.3 58.5


54.3

1,

383, 071 408, 401


247,

289, 000
264, 000

20.9 18.7 23.3 19.2

10. 20, 16,

367

.8

4,080,000
4. 4.

February.

1, 1, 1, 1, 1,

816
583

1.5

080. 000
080. 000

March
.\pril

038

290, 000
3.59,

1.3 1.5
1.8

347, 874 247, 073


156, 588

000

19,600 22,503

2. 130. 2, 2, 2, 2,

000 000 000 000

May
June
July
.\ugust
Total..

250, 000
.387.

20.0
3.3.5

130, 130, 130,

390

33,646 37,130

2.9
3.4

50.5
14.7

1,076,323
312, 746

358, 000
180, 160

33.3
.34.6
27.5

46,280

14.8

130,

000

43, 149, 084

11, 843,

360

11

m X Q Z
I

<

<
p

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX
Labor turn-over

F-1

New

em-

Employees
discharged

ployees

Turnover

New

em-

Employees
discnarKed

ployees

Turnover

1941

September
October

102
119

59
50

Percent 5.0
5.6

1943

Percent
334
,

September
October

9.2
6.7 28 68
2.

263
85

November December
1942

92
619

193

4.6

308

26.7

November December
1944

510

11.5

January February March,


April

86
_.

40
171
11

3.6
9.4 2.4
18.7
1.4

228
58
541

January February March.


April

457
116
111

52
103

9.6 2.4 2.3 H.6

46
116

102

526

May
June
July

40 37
19

95 59

1.3
.7

May... June
July

343
42 88 44
83

67 613 152 211


157 105

6.8
.7
1.5
.

25
9
108
3 15

August September
October

269 35 27
17

8.7
1.2

August September
October

1.4

44
21

.7 .3

November December
1943

13

November. December
1945

26

.4

January February

76 28

40
13

2.0

.9
1.5

January February

25
21
_.

608

.4 .3

57
102

March
April

48
297
244
183 120
133

24 45

March
April

10 50

.2
.9

9.7
7.4

70
7 33

May..:.. June
July August.

2
30
24
147

May
June.-

36
9

.6 .2
.6

5.3

3.4
3.8

July

28
109

August

13

(N

Q Z
m

< <

a.

<
X

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX G
Dispersal data

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX H
Air attack data
Date, attack
air force,

target

Installation

damaged

Extent

of

damage

Materials

damaged

Manhours lost

Production

loss

3 Apr.

ly-l."'. 2U \, Kawasaki ui'ban area. 15 Apr. 194fi. 20 AF, Kawasaki urban area.

Takashima Machi warehouse, Yokahama.


Nakaniura-Bashi plant, Yoka-

Warehouse burned; office and oil house damaged.


Office,

Cement
6

stock, office supplies de-

None
9.

None. None. None.

stroyed.

warehouse,
billet

shop

machines destroyed

120

hama. Yawatabashi warrhonsc, Yokahama.


Toraioka plant, Yokahama Suekiehi warehouse, Yokahama Takashima machine warehouse,

building burned.

Warehouse and

burned

Tools and instruments destroyed-

None
30.000

2A

May

194.'>,

20

AF,

No

record

Yokahama urban area.

Warehouse burned .-.do


,...do

Gas supply system damaged Alloy steel stocks damaged Graphite and cement stocks
stroyed.

About
None. None.

90 engines

de-

3fi,

800

Yokahama.
Sakurajieko warehouse, Yoka-

Lead, zinc,
destroyed.

tin,

chemical stocks

None.

hama.

16

ISHIKAWAJIMA APPENDIX
Actual

I-l

IlA-35 engine pruduclion November 19/,l-Augusl 194^


Ordered

Maximum
1943

Actual

Ordered

Maximum

1941

November December
Total

..

November. December
t

100 105

90
100

Total
1942

390
1944

1,131

January February.

January February
.,_.

05
70
100

105

March
April

March
April

70
130 150 110

May
JuneJuly

May
June
July

August September
October

August September
October...

60 80
120

November. December
Total
1943 29

November... December
Total
1945

93
107

2,705

January.. February March...


April

82
82 82 95 96
9S

January February

95
,

370
420
420 160 160
160
160

101

March
April

150 110 118


91

May
June
July...

May..
June
July

95
100
100 100

67

August September
October

August
Total

160

(N
I

<

I
C/5

UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY


LIST OF REPORTS
The following is a bibliography of reports resulting from the Survey's studies of the European and Pacific wars. Certain of these reports may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents at the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Permission to examine the remaining reports may be had by writing to the Headquarters of tlie Survey at Gravelly Point, Washington 25, D. C.
21

Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke, Hildesheim, Ger-

many
22 23
24

Metallgussgesellschaft

Aluminiumwerk Germany

GmbH,
m

GmbH,

Leipzig,
2,

Germany
Bitterfeld,

Plant No.

25 26 27

Gebrueder Giulini G b H, Ludwigshafen, Germany Friedrichshafen Luftschiffbau Zeppelin on Bodensee, Germany

GmbH,

European

War

Wieland Werke A G, Ulm, Germany Rudolph Rautenbach Leichmetallgiessereien,


gen,

Solin-

OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN


1

Germany

28 29
30

Lippewerke Vereinigte Aluminiumwerke

G, Lunen,

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Summary Rep<u-t (European War) The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Overall Report (European War) The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy

Germany
Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke, Heddernheim, Ger-

many
Duerener Metallwerke & Waren, Germany

G,

Duren Wittenau-Berlin

AREA STUDIES DIVISION


31

AIRCRAFT DIVISION
(By Division and Branch)
4
o
Aii-ci'iift

32
33

Area Studies Division Report A Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing

Division Industry Report Inspection Visits to Various Targets

A A A A A

Sliecitil Kc]i(irl

34

Airframes Branch
35

Junkers Aircraft and Aero Engine Works, Dessau,

Germany
7 8

36

Erla Maschinenwerke A T G Maschinenbau,

GmbH, Heiterblick,

GmbH,

Germany

Leipzig (Mockau),

37 38
39

Germany
9
10
11

Gothaer Waggonfabrlk, A G, Gotha, Germany Focke Wulf Aircraft Plant, Bremen, Germany Over-all Report Messerschmitt A G, Part A
Augsburg, Germany Part B Appendices I, II, III Dornier Works, Friedrichshafen & Munich, Germany Gerhard Fieseler Werke Kassel, Germany Wiener Neustaedter Flugzeugwerke, Wiener Neustadt, Austria

A
A

on Hamburg Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Wuppertal Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Dusseldorf E>etailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Solingen Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Remscheid. Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Darmstadt Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Lubeck Brief Study of the Effects of Area Bombing on Berlin, Augsburg, Bochum, Leipzig, Hagen, Dortmund, Oberhausen, Schweinfurt, and Bremen

12 13 14

CIVILIAN DEFENSE DIVISION


40 41 42 43 44
45
Civilian Defense Division Cologne Field Report Bonn Field Report Hanover Field Report

GmbH,

Final Report
I,

Aero Engines Branch


15

Bussing

NAG

Flugmotorenwerke

GmbH,
&

Bruns-

Hamburg Field Report Vol Bad Oldesloe Field Report


Augsburg Field Report

Text

Vol

II,

Exhibits

16 17 18 19

wick, Germany Mittel-Deutsche Motorenwerke

Germany
Bavarian Motor Works
Inc,

GmbH,

Taucha,

46 47

Reception Areas in Bavaria, Germany

Eisenach

Durrerhof,

Germany
Bayerische Motorenwerke

EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Electrical

A G (BMW)

Munich, Ger48 49

Branch

many
Henschel Flugmotorenwerke, Kassel, Germany
Light Metal Branch
Optical and Precision Instrument Branch

German Electrical Equipment Industry Report Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim Kafertal, Germany

20

Light Metals Industry fPart of Germany (Part

1,

Aluminum II, Magnesium

50

Optical and Precision Instrument Industry Report

19

Abrasives Branch
51 52

Submarine Branch
92

The German Abrasive Industry Mayer and Schmidt, OfEenbacli on Main, Germany
Anti-Friction Branch

German Submarine Industry Report


Mascbinenfabrik
burg,

93 94 95 96
97

Augsburg-Nurnberg

G,

Augs-

Germany

53

The German Anti-Friction Bearings Industry


Machine Tools Branch

Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany Deutschewerke A G, Kiel, Germany


Deutsche Schiff und Maschinenbau, Bremen, Ger-

many
Friedrich

Krupp Germaniawerft.

Kiel,

Germany

54 55 56 57 58

Machine Tools & Machinery as Capital Equipment Machine Tool Industry in Germany Herman Kolb Co, Cologne, Germany Collet and Engelhard, Offenbach, Germany Naxos Union, Frankfort on Main, Germany

98 99 100

Howaldtswerke A G. Hamburg, Germany Submarine Assembly Shelter, Farge, Germany Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack, Germany
Ordnance Branch

MILITARY ANALYSIS DIVISION


59 60
61

101 102 103 104 105 106


107 lOS

Ordnance Industry Report Friedrich Krupp Grusonwerke

The Defeat of the German Air Force V-Weapons (Crossbow) Campaign


Air Force Rate of Operation Weather Factors in Combat Bombardment Operations in the

A G

Magdeburg,

Germany Bochumer Verein


chum, Gei-many

fuer Gusstahlfabrikation

G, Bo-

62

European Theatre

Bombing Accuracy, USAAF Heavy and Medium Bombers in the ETO 64 Description of RAF Bombing 64a The Impact of the Allied Air Effort on German Lo63
gistics

Hen.schel & Sohn, Kassel, Germany Rheinmetall-Borsig, Dusseldorf, Germany Hermann Goering Werke, Braunschweig, Hallendorf,

Germany
Hannoverische Maschinenbau, Hanover, Germany Gusstahlfabrik Friedrich Krupp, Essen, Germany

MORALE DIVISION
64b The
Effects of Strategic

Bombing on German Morale


109 110 111

OIL DIVISION
Oil Division, Final Report Oil Division, Final Report, Appendix Powder, Explosives, Special Rockets and Jet Prppellants, War Gases and Smoke Acid (Ministerial
'

Medical Branch
65
Tlie Effect of Boml)ing on
in

Health and Medical Care

Germany

Report #1)
112

MUNITIONS DIVISION
Heavy Industry Branch
66

Underground and Dispersal Plants

in

Greater Ger-

113
114

many The German


78

Oil Industry, Ministerial Report

Team

The Coking Industry Report on Germany


Coking Plant Report No. 1, Sections A, B, C, & D Gutehoftnungshuette, Oberhausen, Germany Friedrich-Alfred Huette, Rheiuhausen, Germany Neunkirehen Eisenwerke A G, Neunkirchen, Ger-

Ministerial Report on Chemicals


Oil

67 68
69 70 71
72 73

Branch

many
Reichswerke Hermann Goering

115

G,

Hallendorf,

Ammoniakwerke Merseburg many 2 Appendices

GmbH,

Leuna, Ger-

Germany
August
Tliy.ssen

116 117
lis 119 120

Huette

G,

Hamborn, Germany

Friedrich

Krupp

G, Borbeck Plant, Essen, Ger-

Braunkolile Benzin A G, Zeitz and Bohlen, Germany Wiiitershall A G, Luetzkendorf, Germany Ludwigsliafen-Oppau Works of I G Farbenindustrie

many
74 75 76

Dortmund Hoerder Huettenverein, A G, Dortmund, Germany Hoesch A G, Dortmund, Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstahlfabrikation A G, Bochum, Germany
Motor Vehicles and Tanks Branch

A G, Lndwigshafen, Germany Ruhroel Ilydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Germany, Vol. I, Vol II Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Harburg Refinery, Hamburg, Germany Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Grasbrook Refinery, Hamburg, Germany Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Wilhelmsburg Refinery, Hamburg, Germany Gewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany, Vol
I & Vol II Europaeische Tanklager und Transport

121
122
123

77 78 79

German Motor Vehicles Industry Report Tank Industry Report Daimler Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany
Renault Motor Vehicles Plant, Billancourt, Paris

80
81 82 83

G,

Ham-

Adam

Opel, Russelsheim,

Germany

Daimler Benz-Gaggenau Works, Gaggenau, Germany Mascbinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg, Nurnberg, Ger-

124 125

Germany Ebano Asphalt Werke A burg, Germany


burg,

G,

Harburg Refinery, HamOil Plant

many
84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91

Meerbeck Rheinpreussen Svnthetic

Vol

Auto Union A G, Chemnitz and Zwickau, Germany


Henschel & Sohn, Kassel, Germany Maybach Motor Works, Friedriehshafen, Germany Voigtlander, Mascbinenfabrik A G, Plauen, Germany Volkswagenwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Bussing NAG, Brunswick, Germany Muehlenbau Industrie A G (Miag) Brunswick, Ger-

&

Vol II

Rubber Branch
126
127

Deutsche

Dunlop

Gummi

Co.,

Hanau on

Main,

Germany
128 129
Continental Gummiwerke. Hanover, Germany Huels Synthetic Rubber Plant Ministerial Report cm German Rubber Industry

many
Friedrieli

Krupp Grusoiiwerke, Magdeburg, Germany

20

Propellants Branch
130
131

132

Elektrochemiscliewerke, Munich, Germany Schopnebeck Explosive Plant, Lignose Sprengstoff Werke Bad Salzemen, Germany Plants of Dynamit A G, Vormal, Alfred Nobel & Co, Troisdorf, Clausthal, Drummel and Duneberg,

GmbH,

184 1S5 186 187 188


IS!)

Daimler-Benz
Synthetic Oil

G,

Mannheim, Germany
Mecrbeek-IIandiurg,

I'lant,

Germany

Germany
133

Deutsche Sprengchemie

GmbH, Kraiburg, Germany

OVERALL ECONOMIC EFFECTS DIVISION


Overall Economic Effects Division Report Gross National Product papers 1 Special Kriegseilberichte which together Herman Goering Works comprise the [ Food and Agriculture above I'eport 134a Industrial Sales Output and Productivity

190 191 192 193 194

Gewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany Klockner Humboldt Deutz, Ulm, Germany Ruhroel Hydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Germany Neukirchen Eisenwerke A G, Neukirchen, Germany Railway Viaduct at Altenbecken, Germany Railway Viaduct at Arnsburg, Germany Deurag-Nerag Refineries, Misburg, Germany Fire Raids on German Cities
Farbenindustrie, Ludwigsliafen, Germany, Vol Vol Roundhouse in Marshalling Yard, Ulm, Germany I G Farbendustrie, Leverkusen, Germany Chemische-Werke, Huels, Germany
I

&

134

195 196 197 198 199

Gremberg Marshalling Yard, Gremberg, Germany Locomotive Shops and Bridges at Hanun, Germany

TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
PHYSICAL DAMAGE DIVISION
200
134b 135 130 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146
147

Physical Damage Division Report (ETC) Villacoublay Airdrome, Paris, France Railroad Repair Yards, Malines, Belgium Railroad Repair Yards, Louvain, Belgium Railroad Repair Yards, Hasselt, Belgium Railroad Repair Y'ards, Namur, Belgium Submarine Pens, Brest, France

201 202

Effe-\'ts of Strategic Bombing on German Transportation Rail Operations Over the Brenner Pass Effects of Bombing on Railroad Installations In

The

Regensburg, Nurnberg and Munich E)ivisions.


203 204

German Locomotive Industry During German Military Railroad Traffic

the

War

Powder Powder

Plant, Angouleme, Prance Plant, Bergerac, France Coking Plants, Montigny & Liege, Belgium Fort St. Blaise Verdun Group, Metz, France

UTILITIES DIVISION
205 206 207 208

German

Gnome

et Rhone, Limoges, Frauce Michelin Tire Factory, Clermont-Ferrand, France Gnome et Rhone Aero Engine Factory, Le Mans,

1 to 10 in 11 to 20 In

Electric Utilities Industry Report Vol I "Utilities Division Plant Reports"

Vol II "Utilities Division Plant Reports" 21 Rheinische-Westfalische Elektrizitaetswerk A G

France
148 149 150 151 152 153
l.'J4

Pacific

Kugelfiscber Bearing Ball Plant, Ebelsbach, Germany Louis Breguet Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France S. N. C. A. S. E. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France A. I. A. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France

War

OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN


1

Summary Report
The
Effects of

V Weapons

155
156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182
183

City Area Public Air Raid Shelters In Germany Goldenberg Thermal Electric Power Station, Knapsack, Germany Brauweiler Transformer & Switching Station, Brauweller,

in London of Krefeld

Japan's Struggle to

War) End The War Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and


(Pacific

Nagasaki

CIVILIAN STUDIES
Civilian Defense Division

Germany

Storage Depot, Nahbollenbach, Germany Railway and Road Bridge, Bad Munster, Germany

Railway Bridge, Eller, Germany Gustloff-VVerke Weimar, Weimar, Germany Henschell & Sohn G m b H, Kassel, Germany Area Survey at Plrmasens, Germany Hanomag, Hauo^er, Germany

6 7 8 9

MAN Werke Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany


GmbH,
m

Friedrich Krupp A G, Essen, Germany Erla Maschinenwerke, G m b H, Heiterblick, Germany A T G Maschlnenbau G b H, Mockau, Germany Erla Maschinenwerke Mockau, Germany Bayerische Motorenwerke, Durrerhof, Germany Mittel-Deutsche Motorenwerke Tauclia,

Germany

GmbH,

10
11

Submarine Pens Deutsche-Werft, Hamburg, Germany


Multi-Storied Structures, Hamburg, Germany Continental Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Kassel Marshalling Yards, Kassel, Germany

Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Tokyo, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Nagasaki, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Kyoto, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Kobe, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Osaka, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects, Hiroshima, Japan- -No. 1 Summary Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects in Japan Final Report Covering Air Raid Protection and Allied Subjects in Japan

Medical Division

Ammoniawerke, MerseburgLeuna, Germany Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim, Kafertal, Germany Adam Opel A G, Russelsheim, Germany Daimler-Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Valentin Submarine Assembly, Farge, Germany Volkswaggonwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Railway Viaduct at Bielefeld, Germany Ship Yards Howaldtswerke, Hamburg, Germany Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany

Bombing on Health and Medical ServJapan 13 The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Health and Medical Services In Hiroshima and Nagasaki
12

The

Effects of

ices in

Morale Division
14

The

Effects of Strategic

Bombing on Japanese Morale

21

ECONOMIC STUDIES
Aircraft Division
15 16

33

17

18

19

The Japanese Aircraft Industry Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Corporation Report No. I (Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK) (Airframes & Engines) Nakajima Aircraft Company. Ltd. Corporation Report No. II (Naliajima Hiliolii KK) (Airframes & Engines) Kawanishi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. Ill (Kawanislii Koliiiki Kabushiki Kaisha) (Airframes) Kawasaki Aircraft Industries Company, Inc. Corporation Report No. IV
(Kawasaki

34

Nissan Automobile Company Corporation Report No. XVIII (Nissan Jidosha KK) (Engines) Army Air Arsenal & Navy Air Depots Corporation Report No. XIX (Airframes and Engines)

35

Japan Aircraft Underground


Report No.

XX

Basic Materials Division

36

Coal and Metals in Japan's

War Economy

(Vol. I)

Capital Goods, Equipment and Construction Division


37 38 39

The Japanese Construction Industry


Japane.se Electrical Equipment

Kokuki

Kogyo

Kabushiki

Kaisha) (Airframes & Engines)


20
Aichi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. (Aichi Kokuki KK)

The Japanese Machine Building Industry


Electric

Power Division

V
40 41

(Airframes
21

&

Engines)

The The

Sumitomo Metal

Industries, Propeller Division

Corporation Report No. VI

Electric Electric ports)

Power Industry of Japan Power Industry of Japan (Plant Re-

(Sumitomo Kinzoku Kogyo KK, Puropera


Seizosho) (Propellers) Hitachi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. VII (Hitachi Kokuki KK)

Manpower, Food and


42

Civilian Supplies Division


of Living

The Japanese Wartime Standard zation of Manpower

and

Util'

(Airframes
23

&

Engines)
Industries, Ltd.

Military Supplies Division

Japan International Air

24

Corporation Report No. VIII (Nippon Kukusai Koku Kogyo KK) (Airframes) Japan Musical Instrument Manufacturing Company Corporation Report No. IX (Nippon Gakki Seizo KK)
(

43 44 45 46
47 48

Japanese War Production Industries Japanese Naval Ordnance Japanese Army Ordnance Japanese Naval Shipbuilding Japanese Motor Vehicle Industry Japanese Merchant Shipbuilding
Oil

Propellers

25

Tachikawa Aircraft Company


Corporation Report No.

X
KK)
XI
49 50
51 52

and Chemical Division

(Tachikawa Hikoki
26
(Airframes) Fuji Airplane Company Corporation Report No. (Fuji Hikoki KK) (Airframes) Showa Airplane Company Corporation Report No.

Chemicals in Japan's Chemicals in Japan's


Oil in Japan's War Oil in Japan's War

War WarAppendix

Appendix

27

Overall Economic Effects Division


53

XII (Showa Hikoki Kogyo KK)

28

(Airframes) Ishikawajima Aircraft Industries Company, Ltd. Corporation Report No. XIII ( Isliikawajinia Kokfi Kogyo Kalnishiki

The Effects of Strategic Bombing on Japan's Wai Economy (Including Appendix A: LI. S. Economi( Intelligence on Japan Analysis and Comparison; Appendix B Gross National Product on Japan and Its Components; Appendix C: Statistical

29

30

31

32

Kaisha) Engines Nippon Airplane Company Corporation Report No. XI\' (Nippon Hikoki KK) (Airframes) Kyushu Airplane Company Corporation Report No. XV (Kyushu Hikoki KK) ( Airframes Slioda Engineering Company Corporation Report No. XVI (Shoda Seisakujo) (Components) Mitaka Aircraft Industries Corporation Report No. XVII (Mitaka Koku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha) (Components)
(

Sources).

Transportation Division
54

The War Against Japanese Transportation, 19411945

Urban Areas Division


55
Effects of Air Attack on Japanese

Urban Economy

(Summary Report)
56 57 58 59 60
Effects of Air Attack

on Urban Complex Tokyo-

Kawa.saki-Tokohama
Effects Effects Effects Effects
of Air Attack on the City of Nagoya of Air Attack on Osaka-Kobe-K.voto of Air Attack on the City of Nagasaki of Air Attack on the City of Hiroshima

22

MILITARY STUDIES
Military Analysis Division

87

Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure I), Comments and Data on Effectiveness
of

Ammunition

88
(;i

62 63 64
65
66

Air Forces Allied with the United States in tlie War Against Japan Japanese Air Power Japanese Air Weapons and Tactics The Effect of Air Action on Japanese Ground Army
Logistics

Report of Ships Rombardment Survey Party (Enclosure J), Comments and Data on Accuracy of
Firing

89

Reports of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure K), Effects of Surface Bombardments on Japanese War Potential
Physical

Employment of Forces Under the Southwest

Pacific

Damage

Division

Command
The
bardment
67
Strategic Air Operations of Very Heavy Bomin the War Against Japan (Twentieth

00
91

Air Force) Air Operations in China, Burma, India


II

World War

The Air Transport Command in the War Against Japan 69 The Thirteenth Air Force in the War Against Japan 70 The Seventh and Eleventh Air Forces in the War Against Japan 71 The Fifth Air Force in the War Against Japan
68

92 03 94 95

Effect of the Incendiary Bomb Attacks on Japan (a Report on Eiglit Cities) The Effects of the Ten Thousand Pound Bomb on Japanese Targets (a Report on Nine Incidents) Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Japan Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, Japan Effects of the Four Thousand Pound Bomb on Japanese Targets (a Report on Five Incidents) Effects of Two Thousand, One Thousand, and Five Hundred Pound Bombs on Japanese Targets (a

Naval Analysis Division


72 73 74 75 76
77 78 79

96
I

Report on Eight Incidents) Report on Physical Damage in Japan (Summary Report)


(J-2 Division

The Interrogations
11)

of Japanese Officials (Vols.

and
97 98
99
100
101

Campaigns of the Pacific War The Reduction of Wake Island The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul The American Campaign Against Wotje, Maloelap, Mille, and Jaluit (Vols. I, II and III) The Reduction of Truk The Offensive Mine Laying Campaign Against Japan Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party Fore-

word,
80
81

Introduction,

Conclusions,

and

General

Summary
Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure A), Kamaishi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure B), Hamamatsu Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party closure C), Hitachi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party closure D), Hakodate Area

102
103

82 83 84

(En(En-

104 105

85
86

Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure E), Muroran Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure F), Shimizu Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosures G and H), Shionomi-Saki and NojimaSaki Areas

106

107
108

Japanese Military and Naval Intelligence Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part I, Comprehensive Report Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part II, Airfields Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part III, Computed Bomt Plotting Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part IV, Urban Area Analysis Evaluation of Photogi-aphic Intelligence In the Japanese Homeland, Part V, Cntnouflage Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part VI, Shipping Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part VII, Electronics Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part VIII, Beach Intelligence Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part IX, Artillery Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part X, Roads and Railroads Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part XI, Industrial Analysis

23

U. S.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1946