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PROBLEM ANALYSIS OF THE

LAMASI RIVER BASIN


Hisma KaHman Rita mustiKasaRi

PROBLEM ANALYSIS OF THE

LAMASI RIVER BASIN

By: Hisma Kahman Rita mustikasari English editor: sunama nawawi Bahasa Indonesia editor: nonet sudiyah istichomah Photos and graphics: air telapak Printed in Bogor, Indonesia, by Telapak Printing

PROBLEM ANALYSIS OF THE

LAMASI RIVER BASIN


This publication is under project title: Telapaks Capacity Development Project on a Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia (CDP IWRM NA). MoU Number: 313-2009-527-CN between Telapak and Both ENDS. Both ENDS, which has received funding from PSO the association of Dutch development organisation for strengthening CSO on development of the Negotiated Approach (NA), an approach to design policy processes, aiming at the empowerment of local actors as fully-fledged participants in all phases of the policy process. Both ENDS Email: info@bothends.org Website: www.bothends.org Telapak Email: info@telapak.org Website: www.telapak.org April 2011

Foreword
Experiences in many countries demonstrate that people living in communities and villages all over the world are able to manage or co-manage their rivers, lakes and groundwater. Increasingly, governments recognize the need to include these people in day-to-day water management and in the development of policies related to the use of water resources. Both ENDS and Telapak work closely together to promote successful community participation in natural resources management. Our cooperation is based on the conviction that successful and effective resources management is only possible if communities have the capacity and opportunity to develop and negotiate their own visions and solutions to challenges related to resources management. Communities willing to take the lead in resources management need to understand the functioning of ecosystems, such as rivers and lakes. Given this need, we welcome the Livelihood Analysis and Analysis Activities (LA & AA) Guide and series1. The series helps communities and civil society organisations to gain insight in the economic activities and the variety of stakeholders in their basin, and to place problems of local communities into broader geopolitical and geo-economic context. By doing so, the series will increase their abilities to effectively lead water management processes in their own river basins. Both ENDS and Telapak aspire that rivers continue to flow freely, for the benefit of the many communities that depend on them. I trust that Telapaks work will be usefull to many civil society organisations, and will contribute to the realisation of this aspiration in Indonesia. Danielle Hirsch Director Both ENDS
1 These series consist of the following documents: 1. Getting a Water Users Perspectives, A Guide for Analyzing Livelihoods and Economic Activities in the Context of a Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management. 2. Field Report on Testing the Livelihood and Activity Analyses in the Lamasi River Basin. 3. Problem Analyses of the Lamasi River Basin 4. Case Description of the Air Bengkulu River Basin

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Foreword
Communities as right holder is stated in the Constitution of Indonesia 1945; the state will then has to ensure that their everyday need for water will be met. For this, Law no. 7/2004 on Water Resource was produced with a provision of involving community participation in water resource management.The participation of communities and civil organizations become very important throughout the whole management of water resource management in Indonesia.. In daily life we often find communities who are actively and wisely protecting and utilizing water resource for their needs. This is a fact that should encourage the government to recognize this community way of water resource and following on that to provide rooms for communities involvement in water resource related policy making as these policies are directly linked to conserving the life of these communities. For this community involvement to become effective, what crucially needed is the capacity and capability of community to develop and provide constructive argument in negotiation processes with those of policy makers. Given this need, we welcome the Livelihood Analysis and Analysis Activities (LA & AA) Guide and series1. Telapak and Both END hope that the government will make sure this room available for the communities to contribute and to take a role in policy making processes and interventions related to water resource management. I hope this serial of book publications from the Telapak CDP IWRM NA will be useful as a guidelines for all stakeholders, especially for civil society groups, in promoting community involvement in the planning and management of water resource in Indonesia for the better and the more just. Because water is the right of every citizen in Indonesia. Christian Purba Board of Telapak Member of National Water Council
1 These series consist of the following documents: 1. Getting a Water Users Perspectives, A Guide for Analyzing Livelihoods and Economic Activities in the Context of a Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management. 2. Field Report on Testing the Livelihood and Activity Analyses in the Lamasi River Basin. 3. Problem Analyses of the Lamasi River Basin 4. Case Description of the Air Bengkulu River Basin

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

acknowledgment
This Capacity Development Project has been a good training exercise and opportunity to increase our knowledge about water and expand Telapak, Perkumpulan Bumi Sawerigading (PBS) and Yayasan Ulayat Bengkulu (YUB) network and credibility. The authors wish to see more and more members of the public to take interest and get involved in water issues, and perhaps even further than just involvement on a participatory project, trying on full-fledged actions throughout all phases of policy processes. Thank you to Rob Koudstaal, our project advisor, for his passionate assistance for the last 2.5 years, since his first visit to Kedai Telapak on December 2007. Will Burghorn helped sharpen our antropology and social perspectives, which we have been able to develop on this book series. Christa Nooy has been supporting our project activities and keeping us updated with the next project of developing Negotiated Approach, and linking it to the international fora. Thank you to our peers at Telapak, PBS and YUB. Lets use this series to help ourselves know better about our river basins and support water users to be able to negotiate their interest of having a balanced approach between poverty reduction, sustainable use of water, and economic development.

authors

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Contents

i. introduction ..........................................................................................................................1 ii. General Characteristics of the Lamasi River Basin.................................3 ii.1. overview .....................................................................................................................3 ii.2. institutional arrangements for Water management in the Lamasi River Basin ...............................................................................................4 II.2.1. Institutions ....................................................................................................5 II.2.2. River Basin Regulations and the Lamasi River Basin Council .........................................................8 ii.3. natural Resources Conditions ......................................................................9 iii. Water availability ...................................................................................................... 13 River Conditions .......................................................................................................... 13 iV. Production and water-utiLiZinG activities........................................... 15 iV.1. agroforestry ....................................................................................................... 15 iV.2. Wet Land Paddy Farming .......................................................................... 16 IV.2.1. The Government-built Irrigation System ................................ 18 IV.2.2. Irrigation in the Downstream Lamasi ....................................... 19 iV.3. shrimp and Fish Catching and Fish Cultivation ............................ 19 iV.4. seaweed Cultivation ....................................................................................... 20 iV.5. mining on Land .................................................................................................. 21 iV.6. sand and Gravel mining in the River (Galian C mining) .......... 21 iV.7. Hydropower ......................................................................................................... 22 iV.8. Public Water supply ....................................................................................... 22

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

V. People and Living Conditions .............................................................................. 25 Vi. on-going and Planned Projects ........................................................................ 29 VII. Problem identification ........................................................................................... 31 VII.1. Problem Identification Based on CDP Field Work .............. 31 VII.2. Problem identification based on a PBs focus group discussion in 2008 ............................................. 33 Viii. suggestion for actions ......................................................................................... 35 References ............................................................................................................................... 37 appendix appendix 1. map of Lamasi River Basin............................................................... 40 appendix 2. map of Lamasi and Rongkong River Basin ............................ 41 appendix 3. List of villages within the Lamasi River Basin .................... 42

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

acronyms

AMAN: APBD: APBN:

Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nasional; Indigenous People Alliance Anggaran Pembangunan dan Belanja Daerah; Provincial Budget for Development Anggaran Pembangunan dan Belanja Nasional; National Budget for Development

BAPPEDA: Badan Perencana Pembangunan Daerah; Regional Planning and Development Agency BPDAS: Badan Pengelola Daerah Aliran Sungai; River Basin Management Board CDP IWRM NA: Telapaks Capacity Development Project with a mission to apply the Negotiated Approach to IWRM DAS: Fordas GoI: GP3A: IWRM: ITB: IUP: KDL: NA: PSDA: Daerah Aliran Sungai; River Basin Walmas: Forum DAS Walenrang - Lamasi; Walenrang - Lamasi River Basin Forum Government of Indonesia Gabungan Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air; Association of Water User Farmer Groups Integrated Water Resource Management Institut Teknologi Bandung; Bandung Technology Institute Izin Usaha Pertambangan; Mining Operation Licency Komite DAS Lamasi; Lamasi River Basin Council Negotiated Approach Water Resources Management Agency

TKPSDA: Tim Koordinasi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air; Water Management Coordination Team

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

TGHK: TPLD: UPTD:

Tata Guna Hutan Kesepakatan; Forest Governance for Utilizing Agreement Tata Pemerintahan Lokal Demokratis; Local Democratic Governance Rule Unit Pelaksana Teknis Daerah; Local Technical Implementation Unit under one Department in Province Operation and Maintenance Perkumpulan Bumi Sawerigading; Bumi Sawerigading Foundation Peraturan Daerah; Local Regulation Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air; Water User Farmer Group Wilayah Sungai; Watershed Yayasan Bumi Sawerigading; Bumi Sawerigading Foundation

Forum DAS Walmas: Walenrang-Lamasi River Basin Forum O&M: PBS: Perda: P3A: WS: YBS:

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i
introduction
This problem analysis of the Lamasi River Basin is written as part of the institutional capacity development program conducted by Telapaks CDP IWRM NA (Telapaks Capacity Development Project with a mission to apply the Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resource Management). This document is prepared to support the Lamasi River Basin Council (KDL) despite its limited scope due to the fact that the analysis is done in the context of a capacity development project and should not be considered an in-depth analysis of the problems in the Lamasi River Basin. It is hoped that this problem analysis shall help KDL perform its duties. This problem analysis is prepared by Mrs Hisma Kahman and her team (Mr Afrianto and Rahmat who were in charge of collecting data) from Bumi Sawerigading Foundation (PBS)1 with assistance from the CDP team (Mrs Rita Mustikasari, Mr Oka Adriansyah and Mr Denny Boy Mochran) conducted within the implementation of the CDP IWRM NA program from September 2008 to April 2011. The problem analysis is based on data collected through analyses of livelihoods and economic activities in the Lamasi River Basin (Kahman H., R. Mustikasari., 2011) that conducted using Getting a Water Users Perspectives, A Guide for Analyzing Livelihoods and Economic Activities in the Context of a Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management (Mustikasari R., 2011). Other report that used this guide and also publised under the CDP is Case Description of Air Bengkulu River Basin (Andriansyah O, R. Mustikasari, 2011a) that base on data collected through Field Report
1 The Bumi Sawerigading Association (PBS) changed its organisation on 2008 from Bumi Sawerigading Foundation (YBS).

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Air Bengkulu (Andriansyah O., R. Mustikasari, 2011b). These documents are basically a local community analysis since it is prepared based on the field report and perspective of the people living in the local basin; Lamasi and Air Bengkulu Basin. This document is divided into eight chapters; the first chapter is an introduction, explaining the objective of the document, the author and process of the document. Chapter II present the general characteristics of the Lamasi Basin, the water resource institutions of the Lamasi Basin and the regulations concerning river basins and Lamasi Basin Council. Chapter III discusses water availability. The authors present little information in this chapter due to the lack of data and thus focus merely on the present condition of the Lamasi River. Chapter IV discusses production activities. It focuses on three production activities, namely paddy cultivation (irrigated and non-irrigated paddy fields), fisheries, and seaweed farming. Chapter V presents the people and living conditions. Chapter VI presents the existing and future projects. Chapter VII presents the problems encountered, and Chapter VIII includes suggestions for future actions of the KDL.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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General Characteristics of the Lamasi River Basin

ii.1. overview
The total area of the Lamasi River Basin (also called Lamasi Basin) is 48,732 ha (487,32 km2). The main river in this basin is the Lamasi River which is 69 km long. The Lamasi Basin falls within three administrative regions: the North Toraja Regency (4,196 ha or 9%); the North Luwu Regency (7,227 ha or 15%); and the Luwu Regency (37,310 ha or 76%).The map of the Lamasi Basin is presented in Appendix 1; the Basin is bordered by:

66 66 66 66

the Rongkong River Basin in the Northeast; the Paremang River Basin in the Southwest; the Bay of Bone in the Southeast; and the hydrological divide with rivers flowing to the West in the Northwest.

For water management purposes, Ministry of Public Work is divided the whole area of Indonesia into different type of Watershed (WS) 2. The WS Pompengan Jeneberang which Lamasi River Basin including is categorized of national interest and called as WS Strategic National.
2 In this report the English translation of Wilayah Sungai (WS) is Watershed.This is a terminology used by Ministry of Public Work that is different with the concept of River Basin (DAS) that used by Ministry of Forestry.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

The South Sulawesi Province proposed to split the WS Pompengan Jeneberang into four watershed areas, that contain several river basins. These are: WS Jeneberang; WS Walane Cendrane; WS Pompengan Larona; and WS Saddang. Under this new proposal, The Lamasi River Basin is part of WS Pompengan - Larona. This watershed covers the basins of 11 rivers : 1) Pompengan; 2) Larona; 3) Latuppa; 4) Bua; 5) Makawa; 6) Kalaena; 7) Bungadidi; 8) Kebo; 9) Balease; 10) Rongkong; and 11) Lamasi. See more on II.2.1. point 6. Despite the fact that the Lamasi River Basin is grouped in one watershed area with 10 other basins, it has closest hydrologic similarity and relationship with the Rongkong River Basin. The hydrologic relationship refers to the interaction of the two basins that make up one floodplain in the downstream area.The flood plain that is included in the Lamasi River Basin is located in the Lamasi Timur and Malangke Districts of the Luwu Regency. There is insufficient data available to make a reliable estimate of the total number of population in the Lamasi River Basin. Judging from the fact presented in the table in Appendix 3 List of Villages within the Lamasi River Basin, it may be assumed that in the year 2009, about 55,000 people lived in 28 villages of the Lamasi Basin that fall under the Luwu Regency administration (covering about of the total basin area). Given the fact that the 4 villages in the North Toraja and North Luwu regencies are located in the sparsely-populated upstream part of the Lamasi River Basin, it can be estimated that in the year 2009 roughly a total of 60,000 people lived in the Lamasi Basin. Based on unverified information from the field investigations, the impression exists that the population is growing rapidly all over the basin.

ii.2. institutional arrangements for Water management in the Lamasi River Basin
The Lamasi River Basin crosses regency borders, so that, based on Act No. 7 (GoI, 2004) concerning water resources management, management authority would resort at either the provincial or the national level. As mentioned earlier, the Lamasi River Basin is part of the WS Pompengan - Larona Watershed within the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi. For practical reasons, the South Sulawesi Provincial Water Council proposes that the management under the authority of WS Pompengan -

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Larona should be the authority of the national government (Source: personal discussion between the CDP team and the head of the PSDA Province on July, 12, 2010). The irrigation system in the Lamasi River Basin is divided in two parts, based on the supply channels that take off from Bendung Lamasi: the Lamasi Right Bank (5,503 ha) and the Lamasi Left Bank (4,803 ha) irrigation schemes. According to the head of the PSDA Luwu, the Lamasi Left Bank irrigation scheme is operating well. The Lamasi Right Bank irrigation scheme is still under construction. While finalization is still uncertain and the system is not functioning well, water is provided where and when possible.The Lamasi Right Bank irrigation system falls within the Walenrang and Walenrang Timur Districts; while the Lamasi Left Bank irrigation system falls within the Walenrang Utara, Lamasi and Lamasi Timur Districts. The entire irrigation area of the Bendung Lamasi is located under the authority of the PSDA Luwu Regency (Source: information from the head of the PSDA Luwu). However, according to the government regulations regarding irrigation (GoI, 2006), the O&M (operation and maintenance) of irrigation systems of more than 5,000 ha is under the authority of the central government. This regulation has not yet been implemented in Luwu Regency (end of 2010). II.2.1. Institutions The following main government institutions are involved in the management of water resources in the Lamasi River Basin. 1. The Saddang River Basin Management Board (BPDAS). This board is one of the technical implementation units of the Ministry of Forestry that is stationed in the area and is responsible for the preservation and rehabilitation of the forest and land in the catchment area. There are two BPDAS in South Sulawesi, BPDAS Saddang and BPDAS Jeneberang Walanae. BPDAS Saddang office in Toraja Regency is in charge of 71 river basins in South Sulawesi3. 2. Department of Water Resources Management of South Sulawesi Province (PSDA Provinsi). As stipulated in the Regulation of South Sulawesi Provincial Government No. 08 of 2008 concerning Organizational and Work Patterns of the Regional Offices of South Sulawesi Province (Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, 2008), PSDA shall
3 The concept of river basin (DAS) and watershed (WS) is different. The Ministry of Forestry use the terminology of river basin that have hydrology border while Ministry of Public Work use watershed for their unit management that consists of two or more river basins.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

be responsible for water resources by taking into account the principles of decentralization, deconcentration and assistance. To perform the tasks stipulated in Article 137 PSDA Provinsi shall be responsible for: a. Policy making related to the technical aspects of water resources that include water resource management, river management, lake management, management of weir and shores, irrigation and swamps as well as standard water quality standards. b. Facilitating water resource matters and providing public services related to water resource management, programs, river management, lake management, management of weir and shores, irrigation and swamps as well as standard water ; c. Providing guidance related to water resource management, programs, river management, lake management, management of weir and shores, irrigation and swamps as well as standard water; 3. Department of Water Resources Management of Luwu Regency (PSDA Kabupaten Luwu). This institution is given the mandates by Regency Autonomy in water resources management to perform the duties of decentralization and other duties assigned by the Regent. The agencys tasks include: 66 Planning technical policies concerning Regencys Water Resources Management; 66 Issuing licenses and implementation of public services; 66 Conducting the Agencys administrative tasks; 66 Assisting the Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) in water resources management such as UPTD irrigation; and PSDA Luwu is not structurally under the Provincial Water Resources Management Agency. After the decentralization on 2001, the two organizations relate to each other in terms of coordination. 4. Departments of Water Resources Management (PSDA Kabupaten) of the North Luwu and North Toraja Regencies with the same tasks as mentioned under point 3. 5. The Provincial Water Council. The establishment of the Provincial Water Council is stipulated in Law Number 7/2004, which requires that the council be formed in each of the provinces to integrate various sectors, regions, and stakeholders of water resources at provincial level. The council is to help the governor formulate policies and strategies of water resource management in the province.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

6. TKPSDA WS Pompengan-Jeneberang. It was established with the issuance of the Decree of The Ministry of Public Works on January 22, 2010. Lamasi River Basin is one of the basin under TKPSDA WS Pompengan-Jeneberang. There was a new proposal to split the WS to four different WS which means will have four differents TKPSDAs. TKPSDA is a non-structural organization under the Minister of Public Works and it domiciles in the province where BBWS/BWS office allocate. It is responsable for devising patterns and planning of water resources within the watershed (WS) on this contect WS Pompengan-Jeneberang. It is also responsible for allocation planning of water in each of the water sources and management planning of hydrology, hydrometeorology, and hydrogeology systems within WS PompenganJeneberang to integrate the information system. As stipulated in the decree, TKPSDA WS Pompengan-Jeneberang shall be assisted by the secretariat whose structure and work patterns are determined by the caretaker of TKPSDA WS Pompengan-Jeneberang. In addition, the following civil society organizations are involved. 1. Bumi Sawerigading Foundation (PBS). One of the social NGOs working in the Lamasi Watershed is Perkumpulan Bumi Sawerigading (PBS) of Palopo. PBS has worked in the Lamasi River Basin since 1999. The agencys early activities include participatory mapping of Sangtandung Village, in the upstream area of the Lamasi Basin, and the territory of the Lempe indigenous group. In 2004 PBS -- through the Democratic Local Governance (Tata Pemerintahan Lokal Demokratis or TPLD) Program -- conducted an inventory of the issues faced in each zone of the Luwu Raya4. PBS also organized the community in the Luwu Raya by facilitating community forums in each village in the Lamasi River Basin and empowered the Lamasi River Basin communities through training. 2. Walenrang Lamasi River Basin Forum (Fordas Walmas). This forum was established with the mandate given by the community forums. At the time of 2005, representatives of each of the community forums (from upstream and downstream regions) held a discussion and decided to form a larger forum.This forum functions as a grievance panel for the communities and as mediator between the communities and the government. In addition, the river basin forum which has represented the Lamasi River Basin communities, gave way to the issuance of a Regional Regulation
4 On the early 2000, the Luwu Raya split into two regencies and one city; Luwu Regency, Luwu Utara Regency and the city of Palopo.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

concerning the Lamasi River Basin Management and Conservation (facilitated by PBS), and in 2006 the regulation was approved by the Luwu Regional Representatives Council. In its initial stage, the forum went well. Not only is it a mediator for river basin management issues, but it won trust from the communities to mediate social conflicts as well. Currently, the Lamasi River Basin Forum is not as active as it once was, because some of its members have entered the political arena, and therefore are more occupied with political and sometimes personal matters. 3. Water User Farmers Group (P3A). In the Lamasi River Basin, there are some P3As which several of the Fordas Walmas members are also its members. The P3A is still unable to work based on the mandate given and its functions and thus the community has not reaped the benefits from this organization. The P3As function is to fulfill the needs of farmers in their respective area, such as the needs for water and production facilities. P3A shall be responsible for: 66 equal distribution of irrigation water to its members; 66 organize community collaborative work to clean the irrigation channels; 66 coordinate with the local government; 66 compile planting reports in their areas; and 66 collect fees from members, which range from about IDR 40,000 to 50,000/ha. 4. Association of Water User Farmer Groups (GP3A). The GP3A coordinates several P3As in their respective work areas. Based on interviews with coordinator of P3A in Area I (Lamasi River Basin) of Dinas PSDA Luwu, there are four GP3As in Lamasi Left Bank irrigation scheme, organizing 53 P3As. The Lamasi Right Bank irrigation scheme, he believes, has no P3As because the irrigation channels are under rehabilitation. The main tasks of GP3A include the coordination with Regional Water Resources Agencies and the collection of fees from the P3As. 5. AMAN Tana Luwu. This is a local Indigenous group in Luwu Raya. Weak local institutional capacity (community meetings under customary law) that used to be the highest decision making process were gradually abandoned. II.2.2. River Basin Regulations and the Lamasi River Basin Council Local initiatives for IWRM in the Lamasi River Basin started in 2004 - particularly in Luwu Regency - with the formation of the Fordas Walmas (see Section II.2.1). This Forum encouraged and initiated the formulation and approval of Regency government Regulation No. 9 of the year 2006 concerning Management and Conservation of the

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Lamasi River Basin in Luwu Regency (Kabupaten Luwu, 2006). With the issuance of the regulation, Telapak and PBS proposed in the beginning of the year 2009 to form a multi-party Lamasi River Basin Council (KDL) in Luwu Regency. Prepared by the PSDA Luwu and coached by the above mentioned NGOs and the CDP, the KDL was officially established on July 7, 2010. The inauguration was attended by representatives of the National and South Sulawesi Provincial Water Resources Councils. The KDL consists of 4 representatives from government organizations and 7 individuals, three of which represent Fordas Walmas. The term of this KDL is 3.5 years (till end of 2013); its main functions are the coordination, facilitation, planning, conflict mediation, and monitoring of water resources development in the Lamasi River Basin in Luwu Regency. Important tasks of KDL will include to link-up with the TKPSDA in the formulation of strategic plans for the Pompengan - Larona Watershed area and to extend its activities to the other regencies in the Lamasi Basin. It is also important to coordinate with the Rongkong River Basin authorities for managing the floods in the downstream LamasiRongkong floodplain.

ii.3. natural Resources Conditions


Land use in the Lamasi River Basin is as follows: protected forest: 52%; production forest: 10%; agricultural areas, settlements and others: 35%; and wetland area and mangroves: 3% (Badan Planologi Kehutanan, 2005). Generally, local people in the Lamasi River Basin use the natural resources for subsistence activities such as farming, gardening, sand mining, fishing and seaweeds and fish cultivation. The main agricultural product is paddy with the secondary ones being cocoa, coffee and fruits (durian, rambutan and langsat). The ongoing changes below have been identified and are relevant in the context of management of the Lamasi River Basin. 66 Deforestation in the upstream part of the Lamasi Basin has caused damage to the flora and fauna. This is of great concern to both villagers, who see their means of existence affected, and environmentalist who claim that some endemic species are at the edge of extinction.

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

66 Land allocation and conversion for galena5 mining, which is in the process of granting concessions and operation licenses. 66 Conversion of mangroves into fish /seaweed ponds by businessmen from big cities threatens these mangrove ecosystems. 66 Villagers in the upstream forest areas randomly fell trees in the forest to build their houses. To make things worse, some people are working for barons who reside in big cities. These barons supply production tools, such as chain saws and trucks. 66 The Lamasi River Basin is the only source of water for both governmentbuilt and local irrigation systems. The government-built irrigation system is considered the backbone of the barn in the entire Luwu Regency and even the areas around it. Potentially, this system is able to irrigate an area of 10,306 ha (at present (2010) only about half of the system is operational). 66 Non-timber forest products (such as: rattan; coffee; resin; honey; herb medicines; palm sugar; and chocolate) are still produced in a traditional way and there has been no effort to add value to these raw materials. Without such efforts these agroforestry products will not significantly contribute to the local economy. 66 Some of the people mine sand and stones from the river for additional income. These materials are sold to the small local companies or to contractors that happen to build paved roads in the area. This provides an additional source for the contractors to the often not sufficient mining activities done by them. 66 Some of the potential resources to develop are bamboos and hardwood species found in the basin. As these resources have not yet been optimally utilised, they have not given any added-value to the communities. This fact indicates that no institutions are in place to economically empower the communities.

Galena mining on an area of 400 ha is in West Walenrang District.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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iii
Water availability
Little information concerning the hydrology, ecology, ecosystem and flora-fauna of the basin is available. This lack of data and their subsequent analysis hampers a sustainable management of the natural resources of the Lamasi basin by both policy makers and stakeholders. The precipitation in the Lamasi River Basin is about 2,500 3,000 mm per year. April September are the wet months, while October March constitute the dry period. (Source: website www.psdasulsel.org) A water availability analysis by a researcher from the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Abdulah Abid, showed that the annual discharge of the Lamasi River is about 14 m3/s. (Abid, Abdullah, 2005) 6. The development of the Lamasi irrigation system started soon after the operation of the Lamasi Weir in 1981. Currently, the weir has the potential to supply water for an area of 10,306 ha.

River Conditions
As mentioned, the average amount of the river flow is about 14 m3/s. Heavy rainfall in the Lamasi Basin causes flash floods that may occur up to three times a year. In the upstream area these flash floods may cause land slides and occasional damages to infrastructure and houses alongside the river. In the downstream area, the Lamasi
6 Information is obtained from the website (http://digilib.itb.ac.id). Research was done in the years 2004-2005, in several areas on the Lamasi River Basin. More detailed information can be found in the library of the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB).

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overflows the low lying surrounding lands in the districts of Walenrang and Lamasi, submerging the houses, the paddy fields and cocoa gardens and adversely affecting the communities lives and economy. After the floods, restoring the once submerged land may take up to one week, and the land will not be 100% restored. While waiting for floods to subside, farmers do nothing; most of the time they stay at home. During a major flood in September 2008, 7 villages were submerged: Pelalan,To lemo, Pompengan, Pompengan Utara, Pompengan Pantai, Pompengan Tengah, and Bulu Londong, affecting about 9,000 people (see the population in 2009 in Appendix 3). The flash floods and corresponding landslides bring sediments to the downstream area which are deposited not only in the floodplain but also in the riverbed after the floods recede. Sedimentation in the downstream part of the river may also be due to the upstream extraction of water at the weir. Downstream of this weir the reduced river flow has to carry an overload of sediments, causing sedimentation in the riverbed. The middle and downstream area of the river dry up in the dry season. During the dry season, saline water from the bay intrudes upstream into the river, affecting fishing and sea weed cultivation activities. The weir in the middle part of the Lamasi, which was built in 1981, is the main infrastructure used to supply the government irrigation systems on the Right and Left River Banks. At several places along the downstream area, river embankments are constructed by the government to prevent erosion in the river. These embankments however, in addition to the road infrastructure, are likely to hamper proper drainage of local rainfall and river waters after the flooding. No serious pollution case has been reported.Turbidity makes water unsuitable to drink. In the dry season, groundwater becomes saline in the downstream area, while in the rainy season it becomes turbid in the middle and downstream areas. In the lower part of the basin, the Lamasi River is strongly meandering and thus contributes to erosion in the outer bends and unstable conditions of its river banks. In the event of flood, the Lamasi River is connected to the Rongkong River, forming one combined flood plain. Any solution for these rivers and flood problems would require a joint approach of both rivers.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

iV
Production and Waterutilizing activities
This part elaborates production activities whose continuity is closely related to the availability and quality of water in the Lamasi Basin.

iV.1. agroforestry
The upstream part of the river basin has a more vast forest area compared to that of the downstream region. The steep contour is susceptible to land slides and even the smallest human activity may have an impact.The soil conservation is therefore a priority in this area. Generally, the upstream region is a productive agricultural area which is vital to Palopos economy as well as to that of the surrounding areas. Produce includes durian, rambutan and langsat. These trees can also be used for land conservation that does conserve the lands economic value. Agricultural practices have to be in accord with the characteristics of mountainous areas. External factors, however, have altered traditional agricultural practices which will in turn jeopardize the environmental stability in the region. For example, traditional agriculture does not use heavy equipment; farmers only have hoes, machetes for cutting and tanks (for spraying pesticides). The type of agricultural practice they carry out is more similar to that of the secondary forest exploitation. Farmers in the upstream region are semi-subsistent as they not always fulfill their daily needs by purchasing. Farmers obtain some of their staple foods by planting vegetables

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and paddy. Water for daily consumption is obtained from the river flowing behind their homes. Potable water is brought into the homes using pipes. The water is clear and readily available the whole year. The river never dries up even during the dry season. The farmers hope for better income with the cocoa and coffee price hike. Several farmers plan to turn their farms into monoculture cocoa plantation using environmentally unfriendly practices such as spraying with pesticides to control pests (that are found in many cocoa plantations in Sulawesi). Pesticide waste can flow into the river and pollute the downstream areas. From a hydrological point of view, the agroforestry system is better than the monoculture cocoa plantations.The external factor that can potentially affect agroforestry activities and livelihoods is forest degradation due to encroachment and illegal logging.

iV.2. Wet Land Paddy Farming


Paddy farming is the main livelihood (80%) for most people in Luwu (BPS Luwu, 2009). Table 1 below is a summary of data from three respondents of farmers in irrigated and non-irrigated paddy in Lamasi River Basin.

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Table 1. Calculation of Production Cost and income of farmers of non-irrigated and irrigated paddy.
input per ha Fertilizer Water urea NA NA NA 133,333 57,778 6,667 416,000 320,000 12,000 390,000 130,000 30,000 500,000 384,000 444,444 Productivity per ha income per ha (Rp) Paddy (kg) 3.952.500 3.466.250 37.712.500 5,750 11,040 9,890 Rupiah (Rp.2100/ kg) 12,075,000 23,184,000 20,769,000 Foska/ adika Chemical / Postik Planting Land amount of Land (ha) seed (Rp) tractor (Rp) equip ments 0.5 1.25 2.25 output per ha Paddy in sack (115 kg) Rupiah 6.037.500 28.980.000 47.092.500 25 120 195 177,778 800,000 Hoe, AritA 44,444 64,000 36,000 Hoe, AritA 160,000 130,000 750,000 Hoe, AritA 400,000 Labor (days) Harvest 240,000 1,632,000 868,889 Doros 1,600,000 3,072,000 1,635,556

Crops

Bapak Yangsen1

Bapak Jardin2 5Bapak Pong Labba3

Crops

total input in Rp per ha 4,170,000 6,096,000 4,168,889

Bapak Yangsen1 Bapak Jardin2 Bapak Pong Labba3

Every farmer has hoe as one of their basic equipments. It takes years for farmer to buy new hoe

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

1. Bapak Yangsen lives in Tolemo Village, Lamasi Timur District, in the center of the Lamasi River Basin, which borders the downstream villages.Yangsen depends on rainfall and water from the discharge of irrigation canal for his rice field. He owns 0.5 ha paddy field. In this report,Yangsen is categorized as a non-irrigated farmer. 2. Bapak Jardin lives in Tolemo Village, Lamasi Timur District. This village is located in the middle of the Lamasi River Basin and borders the upstream villages. Most of this area is irrigated by the weir (Bendung Lamasi). Unfortunately, Jardin does not have access to the irrigation system so he is categorised as a non-irrigated farmer. He works as a paid worker in somebodys 1.25 ha paddy field. 3. Bapak Pong Labba lives in Padang Kalua Village, Lamasi District.The village is located in the middle of the Lamasi Basin, bordering the villages in the upstream area. It gets water from the weir, from which Pong Labba gets water for his 2.25 ha paddy field.

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With respect to the water supply, three types of paddy farming around the Lamasi Basin classified into:

66 wet land paddy farming irrigated by the government-built irrigation systems on the Left and Right Bank of the middle Lamasi River whose water comes from the Lamasi Weir; 66 wet land paddy farming irrigated by the local irrigation systems in the downstream Lamasi, whose water comes from the return flows of the government-built irrigation systems; and 66 dry land paddy farming (to be discussed under agroforestry).
This section below deals with the first two types of wet land paddy farming. IV.2.1. The Government-built Irrigation System The Lamasi Weir provides water for two irrigation areas: Lamasi Kiri to the left of the weir encompassing an area of 4,803 ha, and Lamasi Kanan to the right of the weir encompassing an area of 5,503 ha. (see Section II.2). The Lamasi Left Bank irrigation scheme are used by 53 P3As incorporated into 4 GP3As. Currently, the governmentbuilt irrigation system is managed by the PSDA Luwu as far as the primary and secondary canals are concerned, while the farmer groups are responsible for the maintenance and operation of the tertiary canals. Farmers in the irrigation system think that P3A brings little benefit to them. During the data collection and interviews, many farmers said they did not get benefit from the P3A; a quick observation reveals that the farmers that do not get sufficient water outnumber those who do. One of the respondents of the LA and AA data collection (Kahman H., R. Mustikasari., 2011), said that water is not evenly distributed, especially during the dry season. Lack of water hampered the growth of paddy. The interviewee expects that with good water supply he would be able to have three harvests per year instead of two. Under good conditions two harvests are possible with a yield of about 5,900 kg/ha. Rice harvest is the main livelihood for the farmers. Harvest failure is mainly due to unstable irrigation or pest. Farmers can suffer up to 50% to 70% loss from their normal harvest because of pest and rodents. During extended rainy seasons, floods inundate and wash away many farms.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

IV.2.2. Irrigation in the Downstream Lamasi In the downstream Lamasi area (Left Bank) farmers use the return flows from the government-built irrigation system to irrigate their paddy fields. Share cropping in this area is a common practice. For example, one of the respondents, a smallholder, receives a 1:6 ratio of the harvest: one sack while the landowner receives six sacks. In this case the landowner covers all the production cost. The irrigation canals in the downstream area do not function well. These canals supply water only if the government-built irrigation system has a return flow. This unstable irrigation supply has decreased yields since paddy may not grow well under such conditions.

iV.3. shrimp and Fish Catching and Fish Cultivation


Fishermen in the downstream area of Lamasi are divided into two groups: professional fishermen; and farmers who turn fresh water fishermen to compensate for the loss of income because their farmland was damaged by frequent flooding. Technical difficulties that the fishermen face in improving their catch is lack of equipment. Most fishermen use traditional equipment to catch shrimp and fish. The traditional methods may not contribute to an optimum catch, but they are environmentally friendly and do not cause pollution. The volume of catch fluctuates due to changing river conditions and thus brings about unpredictable income for the fishermen. This is when some fishermen borrow money from a loan shark. It may be assumed that the economic condition of the people living near the river is unstable. In fact, few fishermen do have alternative sources of income. Many fishermen own farms which, however, are no longer productive because of flooding. For example, one of the interviewees owns an unproductive 6 ha of land while another owns ha. These fishermen hope that they can return to work on their lands as soon as they are productive once again. Those who own 6 ha of land, for example, wish to plant cocoa, corn, and vegetables. This practice shall be an important source of alternative income if one day their earnings from fishing will not longer be sufficient. The fishermen obtain water from wells. Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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The largest shrimp species commonly caught is Udang Gala (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), which varies in weight; some may weigh 300 gram or more. Smaller shrimp species include Udang wato, Rongka (thumb-sized shrimps) and Bongko paku7, which is smaller than the other two. Usually, the catch is of the same size. In one day, a fisherman may catch 10-20 kg of small shrimps (worth IDR 8,000/kg) and/or 2-3 kg of Giant fresh water prawns (worth IDR 40,000/kg). The fishermen thus makes a gross income of maximum 80,000-160,000/day. If the river becomes hostile, the fishermens catch will be low. When the catch is low, the fishermen will not sell the catch and instead consume the catch themselves. During floods - that occur about three times a year and normally last for a period of 3 days - fishermens catch varies from only 2 to 5 kg of small prawns per day. When the river discharge is too high or too low, the catch declines. In addition to this, the fishers have another problem, i.e., lack of (modern) gears. Almost all the fishers still use traditional gears. In addition to fishing, many people in the downstream area cultivate fish in ponds, making use of the river water and brackish swamps around the river mouth. This is mostly a subsequent practice of sea weed farming and only a limited number of ponds is made exclusively for fish cultivation. Information on the pond areas for fish cultivation is contradicting. According to Luwu in numbers published in 2009 (BPS Luwu, 2009) the fish ponds in Walenrang Timur and Lamasi Timur districts encompass about 242 and 850 ha, respectively, while Luwu Aquaculture Division of the Regional Fisheries and Marine Affairs Agency reveals that there are 1,945 ha of seaweed farms in East Walenrang and 1,942 ha in East Lamasi districts (that use to combine with fish cultivation), and 107 ha of exclusive fresh water fish farms (year unknown).

iV.4. seaweed Cultivation


Some coastal hamlets depend entirely on seaweed, namely Tambak, Pompengan, Pompengan Pantai and Marobo; all located in Lamasi Pantai Village. The communities also raise fish among the seaweed to generate additional income and to control moss/ snails.
7 These are local names for small shrimp species. Bongko in local language means shrimp.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

The area of seaweed cultivation is periodically flooded. Floods directly decrease the seaweed production of the farms because the amount of salt water decreases. It takes approximately one week for the seaweed farms to return to normal after floods.

iV.5. mining on Land


The galena mining is done in Ilan Batu Village in the upstream part of the Lamasi River Basin. The ore is predicted to contain Galena (Pb), Copper (Cu), Sphalerit (Zn) and probably Gold (Au) in minor quantities.The total estimated reserve is 1.51 million tons. With an estimated 8,000 tons produced per month, the mine may last for about 15 years (as of 2010). Processing will be done in the downstream area of Harapan Village. The given license shall be effective for a period of 20 years, including 2 years of preparation and construction. The concession area is 377 ha. Exploitation activities (licensed for 18 years) are expected to start in 2013. The exploitation process includes: 6 6 6 stripping (deforestation); drilling to create blast-holes and subsequent blasting; and transporting the ore to disposal area, stock pile or factory for processing.

The processing includes such stages as: crushing, grinding, tailing thickening, reagent mixing, zinc and lead leaching and concentrate storage. No information is available on the environmental consequences of these steps and of the rehabilitation measures to be taken by the mining company. According to the mining company, 70% of the required labor will be local people but how many people will be recruited is still unknown.

iV.6. sand and Gravel mining in the River (Galian C mining)


From the legal perspective, Galian C mining must conduct an environmental impact analysis prior to its operation.This analysis must be conducted by the regional agencies (of Luwu Regency) of Mining, Spatial Planning and Housing, Infrastructure, Water Resources Management, Environmental Impact Management and the National Land Agency. Only if these six agencies give approval will the Mining Agency issue a permit.

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The Head of the Mining Agency explains that the mining companies usually conduct two types of exploitation. The first one is manual exploitation using shovels and sacks to carry the materials and is done by local labor. The second type of exploitation uses machines, such as excavators, that take the sand from the bottom of the rivers. Monitoring for Galian C mines is stipulated in Regency Decree No. 27/1/2010 concerning the Formation of an Integrated Team for Controlling Illegal Mining in Luwu Regency (Kabupaten Luwu, 2010). This integrated team consists of thirteen members, including representatives of: the Regional Forestry and Estates Agency; the PSDA Luwu; the Regional Environmental Impact Management Agency; the Regional Mining Agency; the District; the local police and the village. The tasks of the integrated team include: 1. conducting field assessments; 2. controlling, closing or legalizing illegal mining activities; 3. conducting research and studying, evaluating, and providing technical and environmental recommendations to be used as the basis for controlling mining permits (IUP); and 4. advocating the illegal miners to conduct legal mining permits in accordance with the applicable regulations (the mining site should complies with the technical and environmental requirements).

iV.7. Hydropower
In 2009, the Ministry of Mining built a 30kV micro-hydro power plant in Ilan Batu village. The regional mining agency has little information concerning the source of grant.

iV.8. Public Water supply


People in the basin rely on groundwater (springs and wells) for consumption (drinking water) while for other domestic purposes, such as washing, river water might be used. In the lower parts of the basin, located close to the sea, the groundwater increasingly becomes saline during the dry season. When this happens, the rich consume bottled water, while the needy people continue to use the saline water.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

V
People and Living Conditions
Poverty is the main social problem in the Luwu Regency with more than 85% of the population living in poverty (BPS Luwu, 2009). The people living around the Lamasi Basin are no exception to this situation.The governmental departments have not found an integrated solution to this problem. The official data from the Regency Government of Luwu as quoted in Luwu in figures, 2009 (BPS Luwu, 2009) show that the Lamasi district, which covers an area of only 1.4% of the total Luwu Regency area, is the most densely-populated area with about 465 people/km2. It should be noted that the area is the destination of a transmigration program. There is inadequate information on the professions of the 60,000 people living in DAS Lamasi.Luwu in Figures (BPS Luwu, 2009), specifies five major employment categories for the regency. 1. Farming, forestry, hunting and fishery: 61,811 men and 25,367 women: with a total number reaching 87,178 people (73% of the total people employed). 2. Processing industry: men 2,944 and women 1,707, with a total number reaching 4,651 (3.9 %) 3. Restaurants and hotels: men 4,126 and women 9,678, with a total number reaching 13,804 (11.5%) 4. Community services: men 5,933 and women 3,267, with a total number reaching 9,200 (7.7%)

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5. Others: blue-collar workers, transportation, finance and insurance, office/ building rental, land rental and company services: men 4,557 and women 567 with a total number reaching 5,124 (4.3%). The total population in Luwu Regency is 325,000 in 2008 (159,000 male and 166,000 female). Those within productive ages (>15 +) are about 206,000 (BPS Luwu, 2009) Most of the people live at the subsistence level due to uncertain income and harvest failure resulting from frequent and unpredicted floods and droughts. The major cause of these natural disasters is probably the disappearance of forest cover in the upstream areas. The communities in midstream and downstream areas lack of water with good quality. For fresh water, they have to rely on wells, which produce murky water during floods and the wet seasons. Upstream communities take fresh water from springs, using plastic hose or bamboos to channel the water.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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Vi
on-going and Planned Projects
Currently, Finalizing of Finishing the Lamasi River Right Bank irrigation scheme is underway, funded by BBWS Pompengan-Jeneberang. The PSDA Provinsi only works to resolve social conflicts occurring during the activity. The current ongoing BBWS project is to improve the ground channels into permanent channels in Walenrang and East Walenrang. A company from the Molucas8 rehabilitated the Lamasi Left Bank irrigation scheme in two stages in 2002, each costing more than IDR 14 billion. The target of the first stage is the rehabilitation and maintenance of riparian swamps and coastal areas; the target of the second stage is the rehabilitation and maintenance of the irrigation and drainage. The PSDA Luwu said that they were not involved in the coordination of this activity, and it sought to find information from the BBWS Pompengan-Jeneberang. In 2007, a settlement project was set up in Ilan Batu Uru Village in the upstream region, clearing up some forests in the catchment area of the basin. During the project, several houses were built for transmigrants from Java Island and the local people with the ratio of 75%-25%. The project has been terminated following the advocacy of a local NGO (AMPERA, an alliance of university students, youth and local people; but not PBS). The university students were actively scrutinising the clearing and providing assistance for the transmigrants.The transmigrants lived in misery. First, they had never expected that the area where they would live was located in the upstream area, which was far from
8 Handayani Gema Citra, PT. Jl. A.Y. Patty No.14 Kota Ambon. Telpon: 0911-352525.

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villages, and they were not welcomed by the local people who claimed that the land allocated for the transmigration project belonged to them. The transmigrants were neglected and had to stay in the transmigration office as they had no money to go back to where they came from. With the advocacy of the students, they were sent back home and the project was terminated. Another ongoing project is the river normalization project in North Pompengan Village, East Lamasi District. According to the PSDA Luwu, river normalization or straightening will reduce the flooding or inundation. Prior to the normalization project, the PSDA Luwu conducted social preparations, including community socialization on causes of floods, such as blocked currents due to meandering rivers. The PSDA Luwu also conducted socializations to those communities whose lands would be affected and would receive compensation in accordance with Paragraph 2(a) of Article 17 of Regulation of Minister of Public Works No. 63/PRT/1993 concerning Water and River Corridors, River Utilization Areas, Control of Rivers, and Former Rivers (Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 1993). The costs of this normalization project is quite high, and therefore the regional government requested additional assistance from the Regional Revenues and Expenditures Budget (APBD I) and State Revenues and Expenditures Budget (APBN). However to this day APBD I and APBN has come to end and therefore the Regional Government left the project unfinished. In addition to normalization, the PSDA Luwu is constructing an embankment of 2 m high, extending over a distance of 2 km. This embankment is constructed from clay. The soil is piled, flattened using heavy equipment, such as rollers. This embankment construction is built in Pelalan and Tolemo villages.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

Vii
Problem Identification
This chapter presents two types of problem identifications. Section VII.1. gives an overview of only water- related problems as they have been identified in the field work of the CDP team, which is based on the knowledge of the local people. Section VII.2 presents the results of focus group discussion conducted in 2008. While the approach in Section VII.1 is selective and based on the interpretation of in-depth interviews with farmers and other water users, the approach of Section VII.2 a non-selective overview of problems mentioned in FGD without any indication of the seriousness and priority of the mentioned problems.

VII.1. Problem Identification Based on CDP Field Work


This section presents an identification of the main water-related problems in the Lamasi River Basin mainly based on the LA and AA field work as described in the Lamasi Field Report (Kahman H., R. Mustikasari., 2011). The problem identification is limited to direct water related phenomena and their direct impacts and possible causes. It should be seen as a primary step in a more complete problem analysis that might include problems that are indirectly related to water (such as land availability and transportation problems) and that might provide possible solutions and bottlenecks to solve them. In general, the overall concern of the people is the worsening conditions of the Lamasi River. This has many aspects as revealed during the interviews with the people in the field. The main aspects include: increased flooding; increased shortage of water; and growingly unstable water flows. In addition, water quality might become an issue of growing concern.

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Flooding 66 The impacts of floods are intensifying as is confirmed by all respondents. It did however not become clear whether this is caused by increasing river floods, deteriorating drainage conditions (e.g., due to road construction) or by the fact that the affected areas have increased in value (changing land use). It seems advisable to find more information both on the origin of the flooding (river and/or drainage congestion) and on the damages caused by the floods. A damage assessment can be done through a kind of flood mapping: overlaying maps with inundated areas and maps that show land use, settlements and economic activities. 66 Another problem during the floods is the turbidity of the water which affects the sea weed cultivations. Droughts 66 Low river flows seem to be decreasing: less water during longer periods. This may become serious in the future when the Lamasi Rigth Bank irrigation scheme is operational and more water is extracted from the river than under present conditions. This will have the following consequences. 66 Increased shortages of irrigation water in the irrigation schemes themselves and in particular in the areas under local irrigation that are fed by the return flows from the Lamasi Left Bank irrigation scheme. 66 Low flows in the river will also result in an increased intrusion in-land from salt water from the sea. Salinization of wells and sea weed cultivation during the dry period is already a problem for local people. Such problems will certainly increase: higher salt concentrations, longer durations and more in land. 66 Fishers and in particular the shrimp fishermen in the lower part of the river complain that river flows have become more unstable over the years which adversely affect their work and catches. 66 The water quality is not yet a significant issue. The existing problems include turbidity (sea weed farming) and salt water intrusion (water supply and sea weed farming). This may dramatically change in the future after the completion of the Lamasi Right Bank irrigation scheme (increased salt water intrusion) and the mining activities.

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66 Deforestation was believed to be an important cause of the increased flooding, the lower low water flows and the more unstable river conditions. This could, however, not be substantiated.

VII.2. Problem identification based on a PBS focus group discussion in 2008


Perda (Regulation of the Regency Government) No. 9 of 2006 concerning Management and Conservation of the Lamasi River Basin was expected to address various problems in the basin.As the implementation of Perda was delayed, PBS conducted a Focus Group Discussion in 2008 to draw attention to the problems faced by the local people (YBS, 2007). The following problems were identified. Limited information on the economy, hydrology, ecology, archeology, ecosystem, sociocultural aspects, cutural sites, flora and fauna, etc. of the basin. Conflict over resources among the local people (water, mining site, timber, etc.). Natural products (rattan, coffee, resin, honeybees, medicinal herbs, palm sugar, cocoa) have not been optimally managed. Depleting fish resources in the downstream of Lamasi and Rongkong River Basin. Absence of synergy among the stakeholders (the governments, the private sector, the local communities, NGOs, academics). Mining concessions in parts of the basin. Poor management and utilisation of sand and gravel mining, which contributes to the degradation of the basin ecosystem. Poor management of existing information; their accuracy and validity mostly questionable; Absence of integrated management of Lamasi and Rongkong River Basin; Difficulty in initiating negotiations among stakeholders due to administrative obstacles; Overlapping policies (including those on spatial planning); Undefined responsibility and authority of governmental institutions in the basin management.

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Viii
suggestion for actions
Based on the water related problem identification in section VII.1., the following actions seem relevant and are recommended to the KDL for consideration. 66 This report and problem identification is preliminary. A more detailed problem analysis is recommended as a base for a Negotiated Approach (NA) to possible solutions. The tentative problem analysis of this report can be used as a guide for using a Livelihood Analysis and Activity Analysis (LA & AA) and gathering more information and maps, such as: physical condition (topography/hydrology), roads, settlement, land use, and land cover. 66 A solution to the flood problem needs a careful approach and should only be decided upon after a more thorough analysis that includes the Rongkong River and a better insight in the drainage conditions. Such an analysis would include a flood mapping exercise. Experts should be consulted to study the possibilities of different physical and non-physical interventions. 66 More information should be obtained on the mining activities and their consequences for the natural environment and the water resources. It is also recommended to consult experts that can be expected to give an opinion independent from the mining company and responsible agencies of the government. Mining and a prediction of its impacts on the water resources needs immediate attention. 66 The plan for river normalization must be based on in-depth studies of the floods and the impact of this intervention on the ecosystem and all

actors in this river basin.


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References
abid, abdullah. 2005. A Study Of Low Discharge Analysis For Water Resource Development Of Lamasi River Basin In Pompengan Larona Watersheds South Sulawesi Province. Department of Civil Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Bandung. andriansyah o. dan mustikasari R., 2011a. Case Description of the Air Bengkulu River Basin. Telapak. Bogor. andriansyah o. dan mustikasari R., 2011b. Potret Masyarakat dan Aktivitasnya di DAS Air Bengkulu.YUB. Bengkulu. Badan Planologi Kehutanan, 2005. Statistik Kehutanan on Table I.1.1.B. Luas Kawasan Hutan dan Perairan Berdasarkan Keputusan Menteri Kehutanan Tentang Penunjukan Kawasan Hutan dan Perairan Serta Tata Guna Hutan Kesepakatan (TGHK)/ Extent of Forest Area, Inland Water, Coastal and Marine Ecosystem Based on Forestry Ministerial Decree on the Designation of Provincial Forest Area. Inland Water, Coastal and Marine Ecosystem and Forest Land Use by Consensus: Departemen Kehutanan Indonesia, Jakarta BAPPEDA Sulawesi Selatan, 2009. Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan Nomor 9 tahun 2009 tentang Tata Ruang Regional Sulawesi Selatan 2009 2013. Makasar. BPs Luwu, 2009. Kabupaten Luwu dalam Angka 2009. Biro Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Luwu, Department Belopa, Luwu. Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 2006. Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum, Nomor 11A/PRT/M/2006;Tentang Kriteria dan Penetapan Wilayah Sungai. Jakarta. Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 1993. Keputusan Mentri Pekerjaan Umum Nomor 63/PRT/1993 tentang Koridor Sempadan Sungai, Areal Pemanfaatan Sungai, dan Pengontrolan Sungai. Jakarta. Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

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Goi, 2004. Act No.7 of 2004 about Water Resource. Government of the Republic of Indonesia. Goi, 2006. Government Regulation No. 20 of 2006 about Irrigation. Government of the Republic of Indonesia. Kabupaten Luwu, 2006. Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Luwu Nomor 09 Tahun 2006 tentang Pengelolaan dan Pelestarian Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Lamasi. Sekretariat Daerah Kabupaten Luwu. Luwu. Kabupaten Luwu, 2010. Surat Keputusan Bupati Nomor 27/1/2010 tentang Pembentukan Tim Integrasi untuk Pengontrolan Tambang Ilegal di Kabupaten Luwu. Sekretariat Daerah Kabupaten Luwu. Luwu. Kahman H., R. mustikasari., 2011. Field Report on Testing the Livelihood and Activity Analyses in the Lamasi River Basin. Telapak. Bogor. mustikasari R., 2011. Getting a Water Users Perspectives, A Guide for Analyzing Livelihoods and Economic Activities in the Context of a Negotiated Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management. Telapak. Bogor. Provinsi sulawesi selatan, 2008. Surat Keputusan Gubernur Sulawesi Selatan Nomor 08 Tahun 2008 tentang Pengaturan dan Pola Kerja Kantor Pemerintahan Sulawesi Selatan. YBs, 2007. Proposal to IUCN Not Published. Negotiated Approach to River Basin Management: Promoting Sustainable Management of Lamasi - Rongkong Basin to Ensure Sustainable Livelihood and Natural Resources.

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appendices

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appendix 1. map of Lamasi River Basin.

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

appendix 2. map of Lamasi and Rongkong River Basin.

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appendix 3. List of villages within the Lamasi River Basin District Village Population NA NA NA NA 2,043 814 1,038 2,827 2,429 979 1,620 2,117 1,558 2,369 1,052 3,811 1,956 1,814 2,694 1,660 2,768 2,205 2,180 2,506 1,375 2,895 3,150 1,569 2,673

toraja utara Regency Nanggala Lembang Lilikira Sadan Lembang Sangkaropi Luwu utara Baebunta Lawewe Bone Subur Luwu Regency West Walenrang Lamasi Hulu Lempe Pasang Lempe IlanBatuUru IlanBatu Lewandi Walenrang Walenrang BatuSitanduk Bulo Harapan Saragi Lalong East Walenrang SukaDamai Pangalli RanteDamai Kendekan Tabah Tanete Lamasi Pantai Seba-seba North Walenrang Sangtandung bolong Lamasi Wiwitan Padang kalua Lamasi

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Problem Analysis Of The Lamasi River Basin

District

Village Salujambu Wiwitantimur Pelalan Seriti Bulo Londong To lemo Salupao Pompengan Tengah Pompengan Pompengan Utara Popengan Pantai

Population 1,507 1,592 1,607 2,529 1,428 967 1387 696 1,675 1,676 688 55,559

East Lamasi

total Population in Lamasi River Basin:


Source: BPS Luwu, 2009

Notes: there is no adequate data on the population of North Toraja and North Luwu.

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Telapak is an association of NGO activists, business practitioners, academics, media affiliates and leaders of indigenous people, works with indigenous peoples, fishers and farmers of Indonesia towards sustainability, sovereignty, and integrity. The organization sustains its activities through cooperatives and community enterprises in printing, mass media, organic agriculture and sustainable fisheries and forestry. The mission is to influence public policy as it relates to conservation, to establish community-driven natural resource management, and to stop the unprecedented rate of ecosystem destruction while involving in the process the impoverished communities living in and around rich natural resources. Address: Jl. Pajajaran No. 54 Bogor 16143 Jawa Barat, Indonesia Phone : +62 251 8393 245 Fax : +62 251 8393 246 Email : info@telapak.org Website: www.telapak.org

authors:
Hisma Kahman Perkumpulan Bumi Sawerigading, Palopo, South Sulawesi Lawyer, community assistant/organizer (hisma_cute@yahoo.co.id) View on the Telapak CDP IWRM NA: The project has contributed a great deal to improve both personal and institutional capacity. The document produced by the project is beneficial to people and the Luwu Regency government in particular. We have been working in the Lamasi River Basin since 1999, but our problem analyses can only be told, not documented. We always have difficulty when outsiders ask for our work documentation. The CDP, on the other hand, prioritizes documentation of the work. In this regard, we are very much grateful for the presence of the project. Another interesting about the project is that any decision to be made by the team, no matter how small it is, is made through discussions. Water Dream: Now and forever, water is and will still be a gift, not a disaster ruining human life. 5-10 years from now on no problems are expected to emerge as a result of bad management of water. Rita mustikasari Coordinator Water Program (2010-2012), Telapak Bogor, Indonesia ritamustikasari@gmail.com Rita holds a Master in Rural Sociology from Bogor Agricultural University on 2005. She has undergraduate on Forestry Department and specialized on Conservation Area on 1994. Previous to working at Telapak she was a research assistant specializing in non-timber forest products in CIFOR (Center for International Forestry Research Organisation) 1995-2002. She has spent one year intership program as Indonesian Liason Officer in World Forest Institute in Portland, Oregon, USA on 1994-1995. Rita recently got accepted as one of fellow at the Joke Waller Hunter Initiative (http://www.bothends.info/JWH/ EnglJokeWallerHunter.html) for Leadership Development of Environmental Leaders from the South since 2010. Actively member in Komunitas Peduli Tjiliwoeng (Tjiliwoeng Community) (http://www.tjiliwoeng.co.cc/) Bogor to have a clean river through voluntary community action.

Contributor:
Rob Koudstaal wilrob2@gmail.com Rob Koudstaal is by training a civil engineer. He retired after a live-long experience as a consultant in planning for integrated water and coastal resources management in many parts of the world. Since 2005 he has been involved in international projects to develop practical approaches to the Negotiated Approach for Integrated Water Resources Management. This includes the development of the capacities of NGOs in Indonesia and in several countries in Latin America to apply this approach in their efforts to involve local water users and communities in making and implementing decisions in water management. Denny Boy Mochran Denny Boy Mochran has been work since 1990 as a professional facilitator for environmental awareness education for youth, he then develops his facilitation expertise to developing organizational and human capacities through the use of participatory and adult learning approach. As experience in facilitating and training for human resources, he served as a consultant and facilitated various themes of consultancy, including Cornerstone Leadership Training, Building Community Leadershiop to Take Civic Action, Leadership, Problem Mapping, Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation, Mind Mapping, Strategic Planning, and Integrated Coastal Zone Management for Small Island Management. By his education background in Industrial Engineering, specilisation on Human Resources Management and Industrial Planning from University Pasundan-Bandung, he developed his expertise on facilitating participatory communitybased planning, community-based information system, and strategic planning through Puter Foundation in Bogor West Java, Institute for Public Private Parthnership in Washington DC, and The World Fish Center in The Phillipines. And facilitating community leadership through Leadership Plenty Workshop Indonesian Version as a part of his involvement in Cornerstone Program from Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise based in Washingtong DC. oka andriansyah Executive Director ,Yayasan Ulayat Bengkulu, 2008 current Graduate, Forest Management Major, Agriculture Faculty, the University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung on 2004. A member of Perkumpulan Telapak, as Coordinator of West Indonesia territories for the Capacity Building on Integrated Water Resources Management (started from October 2009 until now). Active on WIN Development, Yayasan Wahana Indonesia Membangun (www.win-development.org). Interest on leading and develop people self-reliance in multi-sector community developments such as water and environmental health, community health, education, micro finance, and any other related sectors through improving people potentials and local managerial capacity. Some projects that have been involved are: Good Governance in Water Resource Management Project (GGWRM-PMU Lampung) on 2005, Civil Society and Water Users Capacity Building on River Basin Management by LP3ES, Both ENDS and Telapak (funded by WASAP-World Bank) on 2008-2009,WIN Development, under sub-contract of CWSP NAD-NIAS on 2009.