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GRAMMAR

WITH

TABLE OF SIGNS, BIBLIOGRAPHY,


EXERCISES FOR READING
AXD

GLOSSARY
BY

ADOLF ERMAN.
TRANSLATED
BY

JAMES HENRY BREASTED.

WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE,


14,

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.
1894.
,tlT>

>-

Authorized Translation.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction,
this

book

is

designed to facilitate as far as possible,

for the beginner, the acquisition of the

Egyptian lanand writing, and is also intended for those who guage must dispense with the assistance of a teacher in
the study.

aims to acquaint the learner with those grammatical phenomena which are well established, and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts.
It

It further

aims to afford him as correct a picture as

possible

of the general structure of the Egyptian

language.

For those who are familiar with the peculiar


situation of Egyptian philology, I need not premise

with the remark, that something else


the study of Egyptian

is

grammar

if it is

necessary to to be at all

a fruitful study,
Coptic.

viz.
is

the simultaneous acquisition of

One who

not familiar with this, the only

phase of the Egyptian language which we really understand, will never properly

comprehend

it

in its older

IV
periods, nor, at the
ficial

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

most ever attain more than a super-

capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote. I would therefore request the student of my book to work through Steindorff's Coptic Grammar a book
parallel with this

and

especially, to note also the

constant cross references in both.

The
material

selection
offered

and limitation of the grammatical especial difficulty. The Egyptian

language as we find it, presents quite different stages of development, and even leaving Late Egyptian and
still

later

idioms

out of account, fifteen hundred


still

years of the history of the language

remain

to

be dealt with.

These

difficulties

have been surmoun-

ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B)


the peculiarities of the

ancient religious literature

and those

and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand, of the popular language of the middle
empire on the other. The paragraphs therefore deal with what may be caUed the classic language, the language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle
empire, with which the idiom later employed as the

learned and official language is practically identical. The material in the chrestomathy is also taken from
texts of this character in order that the beginner

may

accustom himself to their linguistic usage and especially to their consistent orthography, I have tried

AUTHOR

PREFACE.

to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy

by division into sentences, clear print and explanatory remarks.


In the use of the book
it

has seemed to

me

that

the beginner should

first

familiarize himself with the

most important paragraphs, designated by an asterisk, and should then work through the first part of
the Chrestomathy.

doing this he not only looks up the paragraphs indicated, but also tries to form a connected idea of the sections of the grammar thus
If in

referred to, he will then be sufficiently advanced to

take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy,

where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical forms for himself. The appendix to the chrestomathy
contains "the most important of the formularies from
the
list

which must now be mastered,

in order to

understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly. It further behoves me to state, that in this book, much which is not so designated undoubtedly belongs
to Steindorff

and Sethe.

But we have so often


ourselves,, that

dis-

cussed these things

among

we could not
if

separate our "intellectual property" even


it

we deemed

at all important to do so.


SUDENDE, August 19th, 1893.

ADOLF EEMAN.

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
The peculiar
lator,
difficulties

experienced by the trans-

in transferring into English the results of the

grammatical investigations of his honored teacher, Prof. Erman, render a word of explanation necessary. These difficulties were due firstly, to the unique character of the

that the

language investigated, and secondly to the fact new science of Egyptian Grammar, as it has

been created by the German grammatical school in the last fifteen years, does not yet exist in English.*
*

that the

The above statement may seem strange to one who knows grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An

Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. Le Page Renouf, Bagster & Sons, London, 2nd. ed.). But this
venerable scholar, the Nestor of English Egyptologists, has not followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. His book is therefore entirely obsolete. Ex. gr. on p. 1 you will find the

Egyptian consonants I, 3, C &c. classified under a list of vowels! and the statement added, that the "vowels were very commonly
omitted", and this about a system of orthography exclusively consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings).

On

p. 50

the In of the

m-form

of the verb

is

stated to be inse-

parable from the subject and separable from the verb, an assertion in direct contradiction of the facts, and due to a confusion with

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

VII

There were therefore no termini

technici of

Egyptian

grammar ready
facility

at

hand

in

English.

The ready
is

with which the

German

lends itself to the


enti-

expression of

compound

ideas in one word,

rely foreign to English

for

which a

felicitous

and the peculiar phenomena compound was always ready in


the despair of the

the flexile

German were sometimes


In.

the particle

Or turn

to p. 18

where the absolute pronoun

st is

called a suffix, the author being misled by the confusion purely orthographic in late and corrupt texts, between st, sn and s, for
in the classic language st
is always used absolutely, i. e. separably. In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old absolute pronouns. Those of the 1 c. and 3 m. s. are incidentally

mentioned, the latter being called an "independent personal pronoun", but the 2 m. s., 2 f. s., 3 f. s., and all the plurals are wanting. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to
this

grammar would be

to repeat a large portion of the

work

though Mr. Le Page Benouf has stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian language suffered many changes during its enormously long history, no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical forms and syntax. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable as would be a grammar, which, without any distinction of time, should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the present day. If the end of the period thus included were two thousand years removed from us, the parallel would be complete and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally inflected declensions. In France the new science is equally disregarded, as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of
here translated.
Further,
Victor Loret

may

testify.

VIII

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

translator. It

is

hoped, however, that such terms have


intelligible to the

been made at least

English reading student and the indulgence of the reader is craved wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the
sake of clearness.

One word has been With the

coined, viz.

"substantivized", being simply the transferred


"substantivirte".

German

translation "uninflected

passive" for

the

German "endungsloses
consultation

Passiv" the

writer was not at all satisfied, but could find nothing


better
stands.

and

after

with the author,

it

The term "pseudoparticiple" is another directly transferred word for which nothing better could
be found;
both in conjugation and meaning, very similar to the Assyrian "permansive", but to have used this term would have been a liberty not justified
it
is,

in translating.
It

only remains

to be

achieved within the last

hoped that the results, fifteen years, which render the

grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolerably intelligible, and which are herewith presented for
the
first

time in English,

may be

as interesting

and

in-

structive to the English

have been to
to

and American student as they the translator, from the lips of the man

whom

they are almost solely due.

BERLIN, Nov. llth, 1893.

JAMES HENEY BREASTED.

CONTENTS.
GRAMMAR.
INTRODUCTION

13
412
1327
28
32
31

So

OETHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.


1.

In general

2.

Phonetic Signs. a. The Alphabet


b.

Special Points in Phonetics


Syllabic Signs

c.

35

3.
4. 5.

Ideograms
Determinatives

36

44
52 tr-

45

Orthography. a. In general
b.
c.

5^ 54
59
63

Orthography of the Ideograms Purely phonetic Orthography


Abbreviations
Inversion of the Order of

58 6^

d.
e.

68 69

Words

G.

Unusual Styles of Orthography Rules for Transliteration


f.

7071
72

PRONOUNS.
J.

Personal Pronoun.
a.
&.
c.

Personal suffixes

73

79

Old Absolute Pronoun


Later Absolute Pronoun
Expression for "self

8083
84
85

d.

2.

Demonstrative Pronoun.
a.
b.

Forms with m. pForms with n-

f.

t-

86
91

90

94

NOUNS.
1.

Substantives.
a.
b.
c.

Forms

Expression of Gender of the Substantive


a. Plural
/?.

95
99

98

103

Expression of Number.

y. d.
e.
/".

Dual Use of the Singular, Plural, Dual.

The Article The Absolute Substantive


Apposition and Coordination

104106 107109 110112 113116


117

118
121

119 122
125

g.

The Genetive.
a.
/3.

Direct Genetive

124
127

Genetive with n

2.

Adjectives
a.
b.
c.

Adjectives without Ending Adjectives in


'i

128

131

132

137
139

Appendix

(ir'i,

Imy, ns)

138

3.

Numerals. a. Beal Numerals


b.

Appendix

to the

Numeral

140145 146147

VERBS.
1.

In general.
a.

The
a.
/3.

Classes of the Verb.

Usual Classes

148154
155

y.
b.
c.

Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs The Causative


. .

160
161

Voice
.

162

2.

Expression of the Subject (Inflection). Usual Inflection.


a.

163169
170
171

In general

CONTENTS.
b.

XI

The Formation sdmf. a. The Forms of the First Group.


A.
B.
Its

Formation
as Indicative

172

173

Use

174
177

176 178

C. In the Conditional sentence

D. As a Subjunctive E. In a Final Clause


F.
ft.

179

180
181

As an Optative The Forms of the Second Group.


Use as an Indicative
In Conditional Clauses

182183
184 186
187

A. Its Formation
B.
C.

188 189

D. Dependent upon Verbs


E. Dependent
y.

upon Prepositions
191

190
193

c.

Appendix The -Form sdmnf.


a. Its
ft.

Its

Formation Use

194

195

196199
200
203

<J.

The <'-Form sdminf.

e.

The />r-Form

sdmlirf.

3.

The Uninflected Passive


Old Inflection.
a. Its
b. Its

204205 206207
208215
Form Form
216

4.

(Pseudoparticiple.)

Formation
Use.

a.
ft.

In the Active-Transitive

In the Passive-Intransitive

217

219

5.

Compounds with Forms


a.

of the Usual Inflection.

Introduced hy
a.
ft.

"it is".
.

The Forms iw sdmf and Iw sdmnf. With the Auxiliary Verb wn


Subject.

220

222 223

b.

With Double
a.
ft.

Iwfsdmf.

224227
.

y.

The Forms wnf sdmf and wntnf sdmf. The Form Jirf sdmf.

228
229

XII
c.

CONTENTS,

88 oo

With a Verb
a.

of Motion.

ft.
(I.

With ChCn and ChC With in, prn and iw The Form sdrnf piv
ir

230234 235236
237

6.

Compounds with

"make"
or Infinitive.

238

239

7.

Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple


a.

Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal


Sentence)

240245
246 249

b.

Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs.


a.
ft.

With the Auxiliary Verb iw With the Auxiliary Verb wn


Infinitive

250252
253
255

8.
9.

Compounds with r and the The Imperative


The Nominal Forms
a. Participles
b. Infinitive.

254
257

10.

of the Verb.

258

261

a. Its
ft.

Formation
Substantive Nature

262268
269
271

Its

y. Its
c.

Use

272281
282

Substantivized Forms.
a.
ft.

In general

y.
d.

To Denote the Action Itself. To Denote a Person or an Object.


to the

283288 289292
293 295

Verbal Adjective

11.

Appendix

Verb the Object


:

296299

PARTICLES.
1.

Adverbs

300

2. Prepositions. a.
b.
c.

In general.

301

305

Simple Prepositions

306

314

Compound

Prepositions

315317

CONTENTS.
3.

XIII

Conjunctions.
a.
b.
c.

In general
Enclitic Conjunctions

318

319 323

322

Non-enclitic Conjunctions

326

THE SENTENCE.
1.

The Nominal Sentence.


a.
b. c.

The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 The Nominal Sentence Introduced by iw and wn. 332 The Nominal Sentence with pw 334

331

333
335

2.

The Parts of the Sentence.


a.
b.

The Order
Emphasis.
a.
/3.

of

Words

336342
343

In general Without Introduction

344
347

346 350

y.
C.

With

ir,

ir-,

r and In

The

Ellipses

351355
356
363

5.

Kinds of Sentence.
a.
b.

Interrogative Sentence Negative Sentence.


a.
/3.

y.
c.

With and nn The Circumlocutions with The Negative Adjective

364
im-,

372

m, tm-.

373377
378 380

d.
c.

Dependent and Substantivized Temporal Clauses


Conditional Clauses
Relative Clauses.
a.
/3.

Clauses.

381383
384
386
385

391

f.

Without Connective

392 394
401

393

y.
8.

With the Substantivized Verb With the Passive Participle With the Adjective nt'i

399

400
404
Page 171

TABLE OF SIGNS
BIBLIOGRAPHY.

194

XIV

CONTENTS.

EXERCISES FOR READING.


FIKST PART.
1.

2.

From

Canalizing of the First Cataract the Address of Thutmosis'

3*
I.

to the Priests of

Abydos
3. 4. 5.

Medicinal Receipts Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts From the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep
Story of Sinuhe Story of the Eloquent Peasant
to the Authorities of El-

6*
I

11*

SECOND PART.
From the From the APPENDIX.
1.

17*

2.

28*

1.

Writing of Thutmosis'

I.

phantine.
2.
3.

37* 39*
.

Examples of the Royal Titularies . Examples of Grave Formulae.

40*
42*

GLOSSARY.

ABBREVIATIONS.
A.Z.: Zeitschrift fiir agyptische

Br. Gr.
Br.

W.
:

Sprache (Bibliography C.) Brugsch, Die agyptische Graberwelt, Leipzig 1868.


(Bibliography Ab).
p. 28*).

Wb. Brugsch, Worterbuch


Steindorff, Coptic

utler:

Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Reading

Grammar.
Be).

)opt.
b.:
:

Coptic.

Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Feminine. iE.: Late Egyptian.


iD.:

ieps.
I.

Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). Ausw. Lepsius, Auswahl (Bibliography Ba). or Merenre Pyramid of Merenre' (Bibliography
Lepsius,
: :

Bf).

masculine.

Ab. Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). Cat. d'Ab.: Mariette, Catalogue des monuments (Bibliography Bd). liar. Mast. Mariette, Mastabas (Bibliography Bd). lath. Hdb.: Eisenlohr, Mathemat. Handbuch (Bibliography Be). i. e. Middle Empire.
lar.
:

lar.

e.:
e.
:

New

Empire. Old Empire.


:

Reading p. 28*). Pepy I. Pyramid of Pepy I. (Bibliography Bf). 'risse: Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). 'yr. Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf).
'.

'easant : Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for


L, or

R.IH.
lin.
:

Rouge. Inscriptions hieroglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). Sinuhe (Exercises for Reading p. 17*).
(Bibliography Bd).
Bf).

siut: Griffith, Inscriptions of Siut

Totb.:

Totenbuch, ed. Naville (Bibliography CFna: Inschrift des Wni (AZ. 1882, Isq.). SVestc. Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be).
:

INTRODUCTION.
The Egyptian language
is

related

to the
&c.),

Seto

1.

mitic languages (Hebrew, Arabic,

Aramaic

the East-African languages (Bischari, Galla, Somali

and

others),

and to the Berber languages of North-

Africa.

as far

The language of its oldest monuments belongs back as the fourth millennium B. C. and did

not entirely die out until three centuries ago. We distinguish the following chief periods of
the language:
1.

2.

Jin

this

The Old-Egyptian, the oldest language treated book, the employment of which as the learned,

literary language continued into


culiarities of its oldest

Roman

times.

Pe-

form (found in the so-called "pyramid texts") are noted in the remarks "A" under
2.
3.

[the different paragraphs.

The Middle-Egyptian, the popular language

the middle empire and .the Late-Egyptian , the po[of mlar language of the new empire the most important
;

livergences found in this period are noted in the reErman,


Egypt, gramm.

INTRODUCTION.

2.

3.

marks U B".

It

is

more

fully

treated in:

Erman

Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and

Erman, Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig 1880). ^. The Demotic, the popular language of the last
pre-Christian centuries, written in a peculiar ortho-

graphy.
lin 1855)
5.

Cf.

"Grammaire demotique", Brugsch (Berthe language


of

of course obsolete.
Coptic,

The

the
Cf.

Christian
the Coptic

Egyptians written with Greek letters.

grammar,
3.

parallel with this book,

by Steindorff, which
are
all

I hereafter cite as "C".

Since the idioms cited, from 1

4,

written

without vowels,
tian language.

(cf.

14) the Coptic affords the only

possibility of understanding the structure of the


It is therefore necessary,

EgypOnly

even for the

beginner, to acquire a knowledge of Coptic.

one who

already proficient in Old-Egyptian and should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic. Coptic
is

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.


1.

IN GENERAL.

*4.

Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men,


animals, plants,
&c.
;

their

number

is

very large,

though only about 500 are in frequent use. The alphabetic and syllabic signs of ^13, 33 -35, and the
determinatives of

47 are sufficient at the start for

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.

1.

IN GENERAL. 5

7.

the beginner;

the

other signs

he will best learn

through usage.

The writing properly runs from right


rative purposes)

to left,

and

5.

only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco-

from

left to

right; nevertheless, for


it

reasons of convenience we always write


direction.

in the latter

Whether an
left,

inscription
is

is

to be read

from

the right or the

easily determined
figures,

heads of the animal and


face

human

by the which always

toward the beginning.

The
J.

signs

stand in part vertically as

(1

'

*>

yf'

>&*$' almost the n part horizontally <^> ones used in both positions are the especially only
/

^^

tequent signs o-=> or


cf.

C3 "great"

and

i-~-.

or

47).

The frequent abbreviation ^=i I m3C-hrn>


or
1

'justified" is preferably written

1.

Caligraphy demanded that a number

of conti-

7.

guous signs should together form an approximate rectangle. Hence the words rpQ'i "hereditary prince",
smr
tvQi "nearest

friend"

and hs "praise",
1
f

could

only be written as follows

?
I

arrangements
)e

like

<^>
^
*'

T"<
I
I

C ~I=ll~'
Q /\

barbarous.

At the present day we do not always


law but to the Egyptian
;

ilosely follow this caligraphic

A*

4
it

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.

1.

IN GENERAL.

8. 9.

was so important, that out of respect for it, he sometimes departed from the correct orthography.

For example,
"prince",
<
TibC,

in almost all cases he wrote for sCh

1\Q)

"to play" and

rmt_

"man"

(I

\shc,

rt,

because the correct writings


g
*

a
jj

'

^
jj

Jj>
is

<i^>

^^

were unpleasing.

Similarly

^o

often written for the


rvt

more correct but unpleasing


lift.

and

for

q^

g.

customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly, only in large ornamental inscriptions; in most cases
It is
it

ventional

regarded as sufficient to outline them in a conmanner with a few strokes. The beginner should take as his pattern practically the writing in
is

Brugsch's Dictionary, and should especially familiarize thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds
there employed.
9.

From the earliest times the individual signs were very much shortened and rounded off, when written
upon Egyptian paper.
rate writing the

We have

accustomed ourselves

to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa-

so-called

"hieratic"

with

the
in-

writing

of

the

monuments.

This

is

however

correct, for they have

no other points of distinction


letters.

than are presented by our printed and written

2.

PHONETIC

SIGNS.

tt.

THE ALPHABET. 10

13.

knowledge of the Hieratic

is

not an immediate

necessity for the beginner.

The
two

hieratic writing

is

subdivided further into

10.

varieties,

a more angular uncial, in which the

individual signs remain for the most part separated,

and a more rapid cursive, which often contracts an entire word into one ligature. It was this cursive
writing, out of which the

Demotic (cf.
fall into

2,

4) finally grew.
11*.

The hieroglyphic signs


cording to their
1.

three classes ac-

meaning:

Phonetic signs, which are alphabetic or syllabic.

2.

Ideograms, which represent a certain word, but

are also very often employed for another


the

word having

same consonants
3.

as the first.
i.

So-called determinatives,

e.

signs placed after

a word, to indicate

its meaning in a general way. As may be seen from the table of signs these

12.

classes are often not to be sharply defined, for ori-

ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms


original ideograms into syllabic signs.

and

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.
a.

THE ALPHABET.
arrangement of which
is

The alphabet
ern)
is

(the

mod-

13*.

as follows:

2.

PHOXETIC SIGNS.

O.

THE ALPHABET.

14.

(Eagle)
fl

&

I
a

(Beedleaf)
c

Ajin)

^
J

To these are further


signs:

to be

added two secondary


.

B. Since the

ew empire

is

also written for w,

for

m
14*.

and

for n.

Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded


only as an approximate equivalent of the respective

sounds

but by means of the Coptic

(cf.

C.

15)

and

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

d.

THE ALPHABET.

15.

16.

the

manner

in

which Semitic words are transcribed


it is

in Egyptian,

and Egyptian words in Semitic,

an

established fact that all signs represent consonants.

The vowels, just as in Semitic writing, are not indicated. For the exceptional use of some few consonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings
cf.

15

16; 18;

on

\\

cf.

27.
tf.

probably corresponds approximately to

15**

But

in

many words ^b\


often indicated
'

early

became % a pronun(][]?/,

ciation,
e - g-

by the addition of

m
a,

*"TL

f"

E)

K^S

^&
(I

h3 "husband" (*#:?), since the

n. e.

written ra ~V\ n

v&

h3y

i.

e.

*haj, copt.

g Al
(cf.

(cf.

C
\s\

15

2).

In the later syllabic writing

70)

is

also used for indication of a vowel.

M I etymologically

corresponds to
i,

and

in

many

16*.

words always remained a


EICOT.
<\

e. g.

(U

It

"father", copt.
lost,
tt
I

But with most words


*r

it

was early

cf.

U ^^ Imn copt.
I

"wine", copt.

won

(from *lerp), or
Cf.

A^AA^/^

AMOyN "Amon"

(from ^imon^
(1

15

a,

and Rem.)

In certain endings

was used

in the

oldest orthography to indicate an

?',

which the later

orthography indicates by

(cf.

27).

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS,

a.

THE ALPHABET. 17

22.

*17.

corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun;

was very long preserved Cf. C 15 Rem. disappeared.


ciation
*18.

but in Coptic

it

has

^b>

corresponds to Semitic
70)

1,

Copt,
in

oy;

in

the syllabic orthography (Cf.


ings,

and

a few end-

^K

is

also used to indicate a vowel (something

like u).
19.

a^>_

to the Semitic s.
20.

/about corresponded to our English Cf. C 12 be.


r,

f\

Up
In

<^>
like

represented

as well as

r, cf.

8.

certain words /WW\A n also was probably pronounced

an
fiJ

/;

8 a,

2.

2i *

is

Heb. n, arab.

s.

h and

h differ like

arab.

(something like hh) and


ch in acA); nevertheless in

(something like

German

many words O

have also possessed a softer sound, for it ** => was interchanges with s. originally a special
appears to

but both were so early sound, standing very near to merged into one sound that we transliterate them with
;

one and the same sign O


22.
~~*~~ an<^
I

h. w

Cf.

O 14.

were

likewise

originally

different

sounds

sound that
sign
s.

but they were also so early merged into one we transliterate them both with the same
s

dsn

corresponds to

tj

our

sh.

Cf.

13.

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

THE ALPHABET.

23

27.

9 ^ s a sound corresponds to p, v_^& k to D; very near to p, but not to be defined more closely.
Cf.

Ak

23.

10,24.
t

&

corresponds to Semitic
of the
like

fi;

s=>

is

a special 24.

modification

sounded about
period
ints ^.

same sound, which must have o in the n. e. But at a very early

s=>
Cf.

had, in most words already passed over

11 a, 2.

cz^3 d corresponds for the most part to Semitic 25.

B:

1-=,

is

a special modification of the same sound,

which must have sounded something like s. But in most words ^1-=^ very early passed into g-=-^. In the
latest

period

<=^>
Cf.

becomes

so that

it

coincides

with
(1(1

in Copt.
is

11 a, 4.

still

the indication of two (rs in the oldest 26*.

texts, e. g.
cf.

(1(1

msii (something like *meslol "I bear",


*mesios "she bears").

mil

msis

i.

e.

From

the m.

e.

down
i, (cf.

it is

written for
(],

in so far as this has

remained

16), only,

in

certain endings;
N\
'i

however, at the end of word stems and we then transliterate it with y.


e.

is

a sign used since the m.

for the fre- 27*.


;

quently recurring grammatical ending

it

cannot

stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word.

Concerning

its

origin

cf.

108.

10

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

6.

PHONETICS.

C.

SYLLABIC SINGS. 28

32.

6.

SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS.


is

28.

Certain sounds, for which a sign

wanting, are

Such is a expressed by a combination of several. kind of <=> r occurring as the final letter of many
words, which interchanges with
<::::>
(j;
(1

and
"

is

written
(1~

and further the combination


o.

and

for initial
29.

The weakness of the breathing "v\ 3 produces


peculiar phenomena.

In

many words

it

stands, some-

times as second, sometimes as third consonant; 13m

and Im3 "pleasant", k3m and km3 "create"; tvh$ "column" and tv3h'i "hall of columns" &c. Along with
these occur forms like

km3m

with km3 "create", sm3m


cf.

with smS "kill", rvhlh with tvh3 "seek";


very

157.

In

many words

3 was

also

early lost.
(1

Similar

phenomena appear sometimes with


30.

I also.
s;

further interchange

is ss, ss

and

also hs

and

sh, e. g. ssp, ssp

and Sp

"receive", ss3

and

s$3 "wise",

31.

shm and hsm "holy of holies". Remarkable is the writing of \\^lt "father" (copt.
ElODT) which since the oldest times appears also as
A
(I

or
c.

SYLLABIC SIGNS.

32.

Along with the simple consonants, syllabic signs were also used which, according to 40 have become

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

C.

SYLLABIC SIGNS.

33. 34.

11

pure phonetic signs from original ideograms. Thus ^^, really an ideogram for wr "great", appears as a syllabic sign in swri "drink", rvrs "spend time", rvrh
,,anoint" &c.
;

^>, really an ideogram for mn "re-

main", appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron",

mnh
of

"wax"

etc.

For further examples

cf.

the

list

hieroglyphs.

The

syllabic

signs,

whose second consonant

is 33*.

^\

-3*,

are of importance for the beginner, for such


for

syllables

the most part must be

written with

these signs.

To be noted are:

D
fer

tf

M
Of these k3 and
t3

LTJ &

occur also in syllabic writing


/?^;

\5 ^ vK

occasionally also

with

all the

others the syllabic sign must be used.


ceptions (like

The rare ex-

Jls\
.<!

_M^

in sbl

"door" and db3 "restore")

probably indicate peculiar phonetic conditions in these words.

The

syllabic signs in
;

rv

are almost as frequent as 34*.

the above

for these, however, the alphabetic writing

may

also be used:

12

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

35

37.

z>

nw
3rv

w and
*35.

_$=&

rw

sw
n
Q7\

Note further the


I
f

syllabic signs

perhaps

or sometimes also
(]

probably

rs*.

used in many words as

initial yn (cf.

102).
(cf.

1\
for
ti.

(like the sign for 2) or


tint

^K

43),

the
also

sign of the ending

(cf.

133), incorrectly

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

*36.

The ideograms originally denoted the objects which they represent:


cr^]

pr house,
nt city,
^ c sun,
& heart,

v^*- ht wood,
i@>

Jir

face,

O
Qi

y|

s^ soldier,

&c.

*37

Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot be sketched, concrete objects in some way suggestive of them are used as ideograms for them:

? Scepter

is

the ideogram for hk3 "reign",

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

3840.

13

8 Staff of office for hrp "lead", A


|sU

Plant used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs

"south",

C\ Sacred
*

falcon for
st

Hr "God Horus",

Target for

"shoot".
38.

In a few cases more than one sign are found united


to

form one ideogram, as j^2

smZwt'i

"the

uniter

(of Egypt)"

11 nn "this"
is

etc.

An ideogram
word but

used not only for one specific

39*.

also for all forms derived

from

it, e. g.

not only for nt "city" but also for the plural nrvt "cities", as well as the adjective nt'i "urban" and all
its

forms.
|

likewise, is used for all forms of the


Iik3 "ruler"

verb MJ? "reign" and the substantivs


"ruler"
(fern.).

hk3t

The ideogram therefore denotes only

the consonants forming the stem, and not in any a special vocalization of it.

way
40*.

Although, according to the above remarks, only words belonging to the same stem may properly be
written with the

same ideogram,

nevertheless the

Egyptians from the oldest times transferred many signs to such words as accidentally contained the same
consonants, without belonging to the same stem.

14

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

41. 42.

Thus

e.

g.

pr "house" transferred to pr

"go out",
"rest"'.

htp "offering" transferred to htp

nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good".


3

mBCt "flute"
lipr "beetle"
,,
,,

m&t

"truth".

hpr "become".
s3 "son".
rvr "great".

s3 "goose"
rvr

"dove"
&c.

In this manner ideograms for


stract

all sorts

of ab-

conceptions were obtained. Many of these signs were further transferred to so many words that

they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs,


thus
41.
e. g.

rvr

"great"

p3

"fly" &c. Cf.

32seq.

Since words like "good, truth, become, son, great"


&c. occur

much more

frequently than words

like

"lute, flute, beetle, goose, dove" &c. the original con-

42.

meaning in the case of many such ideograms was therefore nearly forgotten. A few ideograms really have double values, so
crete

employed for tpt "head" and d3d3 "head". In many cases however where a double value
e. g.

which

is

apparently occurs

it

has been caused by the subse-

quent merging together of two originally different


signs.

Thus, in the merging together of the signs

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

43. 44.

15

Q and YJ one of which meant hrp "lead" and the other


A
I

skm "mighty", one sign Q with both meanings found A


its origin,

&c.

similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43.


it is

frequently, that

o|ten no longer possible to detersign.

mine the correct form of a


difference in:
'

Note especially the

g.

gj

nst "throne",

fl\

hr "below,
"troop",

kd "build"

&c.,
i I

1st

hrrv "voice",
L
\

and

TV.

'v\

mdw ^

"speak"

tfw,

\\ and
in the inscriptions.
44.

which are regularly confused

The following frequently recurring ideograms are differently formed from all others:

J\

Irv

"go",

-TV" s& "walk


in

gp through", s^
i "go",
is

SOT

"come",
"rob",

which one sign of going

separated into different


Similarly

ideograms by the addition of consonants.


differentiated are:
l\

In "bring",
rs "south",

<

^-

a7

bs

"bring

in",

-^ kmC
j

"south",
{

rnpt "year",

tr "time",

rnp "bloom".

16

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

45

47.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.
latest part of the Egyptian

*45^

The determinatives, the

writing, are intended to facilitate the reading; with

very frequent words, which every one recognizes of


himself, they are not used,
Irt "do",
e.

g.

^^

rvr "great",
are

t\ m
still,

"in" &c.

A.

The determinatives
At a

far rarer in the

pyramid

texts than later.

B.

later period there

is

an inclination to attach several

determinatives to a

word

in this case the

more general

(of.

47)

comes
*46.

after the

more

special.

few determinatives represent exactly the object which their word denotes e. g. the determinative
of heaven and of crocodile in the words

and 1\
*47.

W*M A

s^

msh "crocodile".
far

But those determinatives are


and important, which

more numerous

indicate only in general the


(|
1
I

meaning of

their word, like that of the tree in

<r>.y A

Isr "tamarisk". Vir

Note especially:
Do
goddess,
animal,

man

woman,
people,

^5;^ bird, insect,

revered person,

plant,

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

48. 49.

17

000

Otree,
3i

dust,
fluid,

(late X>) land,

A/WWA
AAAAAA

water,
desert, foreign

J\

go,
see,

^^g7\

land,
city,

what

is

done with

the mouth,

cr^i house,

^
flesh,

(late

a)

that

barbarian,
(late
fire.
<?)

which demands strength,

""^
.

little,

bad,

~-. abstract.

time,

When

a determinative

is difficult

to write, espe- 48.


e. g.

cially in manuscripts, an abbreviation \ is used,


st "Isis" for

i
Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the
49*.
e.

m.

distinguish

still

closer differences

in
ill,

deter-

mination. They
to render its

mark a determinative with


e.

in order

meaning general,
"roast" but
"

g.:

Mr

iwf "flesh"
c w t "cattle"

pnw "mouse" but


hrrt "flower" but fl
i

^\ _^o

^ l&t
ill

"onion'Y?).

Erman,

Egypt, gramra.

18
*50.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

50. 51.

These scribes further add the sign


minative, in order to restrict
its

to a deter:

O
B.

rk "period of time", but

meaning, e. g. "Ll vk h rrv "day",

M "northern", but ^
<

(I (I

mryt "dyke".
1
1 1

In the

n. e. these

additional signs
e.

and

are often

incorrectly employed.

To the m.

belongs the rare practice of

occasionally furnishing the determinatives

@ and fv/VQ with the

feminine ending
"city',,

(^'

),

as if they -were the substantives nt

smt "land".

"51.

determinative which
are written with
determinative,
1

The stroke must be regarded is added to

as a special kind of

substantives, which

only one sign and have no other


:

e. g.

>
drv

"mountain",

r3 (?) "mouth",

c "arm",

"SxJ si "son",
I):

or (with the feminine ending

-^
I

(\S\J~\

dt "hand",

smt "desert" etc.


I

Nevertheless the usage varies


ceptions to the
*"

much

here and two exall texts:

law here given are found in

hr
is

1.

"face", 2.

"upon" with

even when the


|

word

a preposition, not a substantive.


s

"man" with

notwithstanding the other


cf.

determinative which follows.

also

58.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

<Z.

IN GENERAL.

52. 53.

19
52*.

determinative

is

frequently transferred from

one word to others, which have the same consonants,


even when
it

does not suit their meaning.


is

Thus,

e. g.

the syllable kd

written

or

because of

kd

"circle"

and kd "make pottery";

Ib "to thirst"

written: n

S<2^\ because

of Ib "calf"; ^"eternity"
etc.

written: 3T1
A.

because of dt "landed property",


is

Especially to be noted in the old texts

the writing
flesh

iwf "he

is"

which has taken on the determinative of

'rom iwf "flesh".

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
a.

IN

GENEKAL.
53.

The orthography,, which experienced great transformations in the course of time, determines in an
often arbitrary

manner how

far phonetic signs, ideo-

grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing different words. The most widely spread and important system of orthography which
as classic,
is

may be

designated

found

in the greatest purity in the


;

manu-

scripts of the

m. e. with this system the beginner should seek to make himself as familiar as possible,

before he approaches texts in another orthography.

20

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

6.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.

54. 55.

A.
able,

The orthography of the pyramid texts is exceedingly variand renders the understanding of them very difficult indeed;
it is

hut for us

of importance, because

it

often

consistently

distinguishes grammatical forms

even though not which the classic


of the
o. e.

orthography leaves undistinguished.


seeks the greatest possible brevity.

The orthography

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS.


of

54.

The majority
gram, to

words are written with an ideoits

which

is

added an indication of

pronun-

ciation in alphabetic signs.

Whether

all

the conson-

ants of the

word are

to be written, or only a part;

whether they are to stand before or after or on both sides of the ideogram, is decided by usage for each

The following paragraphs present separate word. the usage of the classic orthography. Caligraphy
(cf.

7) is

moreover often the motive

for the selection

of a given writing.
*55.

Usually
added.
is

it

is

only the final consonant which

is

To

biliteral
e. g.:

ideograms the

final

consonant

subjoined,
I
I

"

ms "to bear",

^
CD

lid
e.

"whit^",
g.
:

to triliterals the final consonant,

Sf hpr "become", U f A Che "stand",


-cr=
fl

? A | n>3h S A
U
*? ^l

"lay",

=v
**}

rv3d "green",

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.

56. 57.

21

or also
e. g.:

but more rarely

the last two consonants,


U C\

Cnh "live"
f/W\AAA

'

<::I>

wsr "strong",

~
nfr "good".

More
$

rarely all the consonants are written,


"feast",

e.

g.

56*.

|^L7/?&

n (^

P
p

"times" (germ. Mai),

JL, t\

spd p re P are ">

mw

"

fieid "'

and

still

more
\
'
'

rarely only the initial consonants, as in:

<~-->
l>k:

\\ff U

"

s i eze

possession",

sb3 "star".

A.
frequent,

In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are


~~
cf. e. g.
:

<^>

and

nfr "good",
AAAAAA

y
A

J\

H fm
classic writings

CliC "palace",

"Lord'' instead of the

^' A <H> y J\ A

'

""""
'

^I^7

^ui.
*\

Finally in soine isolated cases the initial conson- 57.

ant of the ideogram or


placed after
a

its

entire phonetic writing

is

it, e. g.

wcl "to

command",

^^

dmd

"unite",

r "storehouse",

T 1\

^^^ mr

"be sick",

mr "pyramid".
A.

This

is

also a

remnant of the

oldest orthography; in the

pyramids such writings are frequent.

22
*58.

5.

ORTH03RAPHY.

C.

PURELY PHONKTIC ORTHOGRAPHY.

58. 59.

the abbreviations of
netic addition, as:
Jir

Only a few especially frequent ideograms except 67 are left without any pho-

"face",

pn^T
^^7

s*

^
rib

"scribe",

pr

"house",

rib

"every",
"lord",

ntr "god",
e

^=^^
#
:

"army",

"fill",

and the feminines

Q
Q crz]
rj^J
59.
lit
'

"house",

mrvt "mother",

st "Isis",

Imt "woman",

etc.

c.

PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY.

All words for which the orthography possesses

no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs These are in part very i. e. without ideograms.
frequently recurring words, like:
.

f)

f\

^VW\A

Im "to be",

Jl^e,
jt f^
"*\\
r^S-

bln
n
1

"

bad "'
"lion",

^ rn
<^
^>
I

"name",

^ mil

CMJ**/ olVi It "fll'Mnlz" , A/ f* CLI111K. Oulj.

C-L

A.
is

In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing

very frequent.

Note the rare cases


(^

^\
Q

for

V\

^^

wd3

"sound, healthy", |

^^

for

^^

^
3lit "field",

which

also occur occasionally later.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

C.

PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 60

62.

23

Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*. 40, originally ideograms, the were, according to

pronunciation
is

is

added to them
^~
WTX

in the
is

same way.
written,
tvn,

It
:

mostly the
.Hiumii

final
*.

consonant which
mr,

e. g.

ms,

mn,

hr,

-^*

&c.

But

in

many

cases the initial consonant also

is

written (and such syllabic signs are thereby

dist:

inguished from the real ideograms,

cf.

56)

e. g.

As a rare writing note that of the


i^
*

syllabic sign

>X n which the phonetic value is indicated by means of another frequently recurring
nrv:
^

sign for nw.

few syllabic signs moreover are

often also 61*.

employed without phonetic addition, thus

e. g.

^\

t'irv,

To^

fc?,

ATJ",

^
s:?,

nrv

those derived from sub51.


(I

stantives then receive a stroke according to

Note the writing of the words


and
is to *
In

mm

and

sl3:
AAAAAA

62.

0^\

I]

mn-i, s3-i, in

which the subjoined

be inserted within the syllabic sign.*


according to Sethe.

24

5.

OBTHOGKAPHY.
d.

d. ABBREVIATIONS.

63.

64.

ABBKEVIATIONS.

63.

Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended only for such as were familiar with the language, the

Egyptians omitted much as dispensable, which seemed


to

them

self-evident.

therefore which

grammatical changes take place within a word are left


plur. of

Almost

all

unindicated,

e. g. Jimrvt

JJ Jimt
\
-I

"woman"

is

written

JJ

oilil

(that

is

without indication of the n>\

But further, the grammatical endings are also often omitted, where it is supposed that the reader himself
will perceive

them from the connection: l<cn>r$ 2T


I
I

ji

for the plural sr(w} "princes",

JJ

^z

for Jimt nb[t]

"every
64.

woman"
is

&c.

Further with

many

phonetically written words a

consonant

regularly or often omitted. Note especi-

ally the frequently


Ci

used words:
9

for Iff
(j

"father", n

for
v

sms "follow",
for tvsr "desolate

for Iht "thing",

^K

^J

for

rmt "man",

JQ
f\

for

htm "to

seal",

AAAAAA

for hCp "Nile",


for

ft

for inr "stone",

hrd

"child",

for ptr "see", for Ck3 "correct


J J
7

for smt "land",

',

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

d.

ABBREVIATIONS.

65

67.

25

for df3 "food",

fl
I

fl
I

J\

for shsh "walk, run",

&c.
A. Belonging to the earliest period, but sometimes occurring
later also, are:

for

[1

it

"father",

<H>

for (I

ifI "be-

longing to",also n

^^"

for

[1

%> *^T~

Iwf

"flesh".

Here belong also the cases where only its second consonant is added to a triliteral ideogram in violation
of
55, e. g.
:

65.

T
^
*

for

AAAAAA
"?

stn "king of

upper Egypt".

"?
f

A
3
r\
I

for
f r

"k
z3

v\ M:?

"to reign",

"o
i)

oD A
u
I

''^ "offering",

for

<=> wsr

"strong",

(j

for s^m^

"name of a goddess", &c.


titles

In frequently used
arbitrary
"prince",

and formulae,
like:
<

still

more
jiCfi

66.

abbreviations

occur,

*=^

f or

for rpQ'i "hereditary prince", the beneI

diction nr
1

&

for Cnh

wd3 snb

"living, hale, healthy",

?O A

for nhh "eternity".

Further, the old divine names, titles &c., which 67.


are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations,
like:

^X T

rvp rv3rvt

"opener of ways" (a divine name);

26

6.

INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS./. UNUSUAL STYLES. 68

70.

hCrvf-RC
i

"his

68.

diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c. Finally, a word which is obvious from the connection, is very often so abbreviated that only its deter-

minative
n

is
/VAAAA

inserted,
11

e. g.

;ys

for
n

_IJTA
o
_

k3t "labor",
*\
,-.

n
1

for

^p^

nht "strong",

for
(j

v\

trvt

"statue" &c.

(For the most important cases

cf.

the

table of signs).
e.

INVERSION OP THE ORDER OF WORDS.


formulae, names &c. words which desig-

*69.

In

titles,

nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing before the others belonging thereto; in reading, the
correct order

must of course be

restored,

e. g.

sin "son of the king",

hn-ntr "servant of the god, priest",

Si 1 {

hn-ntr Hkt "priest of the goddess ffkt",


"like ReC".

OQ
/.

ml RC

UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.


e.

70.

Since the m.

there developed along with th(

usual writing, a syllabic orthography, which nevertheless was only used for the writing of foreign words,

proper names &c.

It consists of the syllabic signs

/.

UNUSUAL STYLES.

71. 6.

RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION.

72.

27

treated in
rv.

33
:?

35 and of other syllables in ^ and

The sounds

and w evidently serve as the approx;

imate indication of the vowels


tw-p3-ir3
for

cf.

e. g.
*ffib

s=>

f\

"

the

Hebrew

"scribe" &c.

The

syllables <_^| ?>:?(?)

and

^^ n
in

employed therein,
which ideograms

seem to correspond to er and en. Sportive methods of writing,

71.

serve as simple consonants, determinatives and un-

precedented signs are used as ideograms, are found


as early as the m.
a.
>~\
/~\

e. cf. e.

g.

ffif^i
.O

\\

for

'

MJ

=^
tive

_S^III

^\

msdmt

,,cosmetic",

wherein

(3j)

as determina-

JT

ofms "child" represents


tt

this syllable,

c^ drv "mounthe syllable

tain
mt.

represents

d,

\\ mwt

"mother"

But this wanton method first attains importance from the fact that such an orthography gradually superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period.

A summary
1872).
6.

of these signs

may be found

inBrug"sch,

Verzeichniss der Hierogtyphen mit

Lautrvert (Leipzig

RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION.


72.

The orthography so often leaves the phonetic form of the words uncertain, that a transliteration
free

from some arbitrariness

is

impossible.

One should

accustom himself to the following rules:

28 PRONOUNS.
1.

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,

d.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.

73.

Since most %==>'$ and


e.

'^'s according
I

to

24,

25 had, in the m.
texts of the m.
e.

already
n. e.
t

become-^ and d^a,

in

and d should always be transliterated in cases of doubt, and / and d only


and

and -=^ are actually written out. employed when ^ Hence J) ntr butT^? ntrt.
<=t
I

s=
I

\_i

2.

In the case of omitted consonants

64, 65)

and grammatical endings ( 63), only those should be supplied which occur in parallel cases really written
out,

and rather too

little

than too much should be


133
tm'i,

restored.

Hence

-V\-

f\
i

according to

but

yi^
3.

on ^ * mt ( no *

*i

m *ty-

Words in which

the order of consonants changes-!


,

29, 30) should be written, when in doubt, with the form

in

which they oftenest occur. Hence

f)

first
j

im3

am

only l3m when this reading is phonetically written out. 4. In compound words the component parts shoulc

be separated by a hyphen:
"Ramses".

(Tl

'1

v^T ^C m
~

PRONOUNS.
1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,


a.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.
suffixes,

*73.

The personal

which are subjoined to

tl

noun, the prepositions and the verb, to express pos-

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,

a.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.

74.

29

session or the subject

(e. g. pr-k "thy house", hr-k sdm-k "thou nearest"), according to the "upon thee",

classic

orthography are:
>

Sing.

lc.i
2m. ^3^ k
f.

Plur.

1.

c.^J
1 I '

o
2. C.

\
I/
\
)

/WWVA

s=>

(^)
C\

AAAAAA

3m. *^ /
f.
[1

/^~*
\l
I

-- M
I

3. c.

snf /WW\A>
AAAWA/

They are written

after the determinative of the


e.

word

to

which they are subjoined,


^

g.

^<^5'

rdk (copt. pATK) "thy foot",


lovest".

g7\

^i^> mr/r "thou

The
(e. g.

suff.

sg.

is

according to the Coptic an


in the o.
23wt[i]
e. it

74.

X0)l

"my head");

is

always

left

o
m.
e
-

"my

office",

from the

e.

down
"^te

it

is

mostly indicated by determinatives,

rif

or

^*Jj

or

^^=J|

accor ding

as

man, a woman or a god speaks, read s3l "my son". Nevertheless it is sometimes left unindicated here
also, especially in the

n-form of the verb


it
[I,

(cf.

194).

A. The pyramids aways write


as

and

this writing occurs

an exception later
B.

also.
falls

After consonants the suffix later


foot"
cf.

away

(e. g.

copt.

my

5).

30
75.

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,

a.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.

7579.
pi. al-

In the m.

e.

z=>

of the 2 sg.
t:

f.

and 2

ready * passes over into

nevertheless

z=* and ^ AAAA/V\


in Copt.

are often written later also.


B.

Late writings of the 2


has lost the
t

sg.

f.

are

Jl|

and

_||

this suffix

(-E), cf

50.
f.

76.

The

m.

sg. is

sometimes and the 3


"it", e. g.

sg. often

used for the neuter


of
it"
;

hrs "on account

the 3

f.

occurs even for

more than one person,


were early superceded

where we would expect the


77.

3 plur.

The

suffixes of the dual

by those of the plural, nevertheless


imitrv-srii

^
still to

\\

"between them both"


**
]

is

be found.*

A. The pyramids have 3 du.


78.

ww

fl'

snl, 2 du. AA/WVA^U.

On

the other

hand the

suffixes of the singular,

when they

are subjoined to a

noun

in the dual or

having the dual meaning, very strangely take the dual ending i, though it is not always written out,
~~

e.g.""
I

"v\
_/l
\\

C-rvif'i
_

"his

two arms",
<?

^Juu^

xx

\\

sptrv'ik'i

"thy two lips", ^o"~" ^^, ~


legs",
'

$
second".
suffix *

rv^rt'if'i

"his

two

\\ OJl
.

snnrvf'i "his
\\

A
79*.

The pyramids write such a

[1

ft.

These suffixes are not used as object. Nevertheless


as

possessive
* Todtb.
7,

suffixes

attached to infinitives

(e.

g.

5.

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,


'
fl

b.

THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN.

80. 81.

31

^
I 1

*
xo

t=>

Av

hr Ithk "when they draw thee"

lit.

"at

thy drawing") they represent the object to our gram-

matical

sense and the Egyptians

themselves later

conceived them as such.


B.
Since the forms of. the copt. verb are

mostly

made

with the infinitive, these suffixes have therefore become real object suffixes in Copt.
(cf.

174).

b.

THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN.


which externally at least are identical
80*.

Its forms,

with the suffixes in the plural, are:


Sing.
1

c.

rvl

Plur.

1. c.

2i.

c. AA/W\A tn A/WWV tn
I I I

III

f.

(im or

t_n

?)
3. c.

3m.

1%i> T Jl
o
[l

fl"
I i

Neutr. 3

c.

st

They

are

still

employed
(cf.

as

subject,

almost

only in a certain few cases

166, 328, 369, 383),

on the other hand regularly as object.

The
and the

K\
1

sg.

is

written in the

o. e.

^\.

The
trv

2 m.

trv 81.

2 pi. tn in the
f.

m.

e.

are already

and
si',

tn.

-The 3

is

when the

^\ is

of course always to be read not written.

even

32

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN.

C.

LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 82

84.

A.

The pyramids write the

1 sg.

V\
2

(I.

For the
in.

m. they

have two forms tw and kw, and for the


*82.

f.

tm and

The form l^sZ perhaps originally belonged


the 3
f.
;

to

but

it

is

nevertheless regularly used, from


e.

down, for neutr. "it". It is used with decided preference and may even refer to a number of persons (cf. 76); the pron. 3. pi. sn is
almost entirely superceded by it. Cf. e. st "they turned themselves about". (lit. "it")
83. g.

the time of the m.

Cnnsn

Along with the above, the pyramids have also further forms of these pronouns which they employ
with special emphasis, like
tmt,
1 sg. wit,

2
<1

m.
^\

twt,

f.

3 m.

stvt,

f.

stt.

Of

these, only
e.

v\ a

swt

is

still to

be found in the m.
c.

LATEE ABSOLUTE PEONOUN.

*84.

These forms are only employed as emphatic subject, and correspond to the emphasizing of the substantive by
Sing.
1 c.

means of

In (cf.

350).
1.

They
c.

are:

Plur.

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS,

d.

WITH

p-, t: 86.

33

As may be

seen, the

1 sg. is

an exceptional form,
103)

the others consisting of a

little syllable nl- (cf.

and the possessive


B. There
is

suffixes.
still

A. In the pyramids they are


later

rare.
1 sg.,
(I

an inclination to write the

1^Z^>
cf.

Vw. From
C
51.

these forms the copt. pronouns have descended,

d.

THE EXPRESSION FOR


p|
ds-

"SELF".

The word

with the

suff.

means

"self,

e. g.

85.

(hi "myself", dsk "thyself", dsf


B.

"himself

etc.

The word

1]C "body" with or without

suff.

occurs rarely

for "self"*; this expression,


(cf.

52), later

from which the copt. becomes more frequent.

g,(to(Jb*

descends

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS,
a.

FORMS WITH MA SO. J9-FEM. t-. The most common demonstrative "this",
Q-

is:

86.*

omg. m.
Plur. m.
(1

pn
AA/vAAA

f
^
f.

AAAftAA

Ipn (pn)

f.

(I

iptn (ptri)

The plural forms are, in the m. e., already obIt always solete, and are replaced by nn (cf. 91).
stands
after

the

substantive:
I

pr pn
AAA/WV

"this

house ",
UJ
i
I

__

lit
I

in

"this castle".

In cere-

AAA/WV

Sin. 66.

Ernian, Egypt, gramm.

34

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOrNS.

WITH p-,

t-.

87

90.

monious language

it

also follows proper

names of
before the

persons, especially in direct address. A. The pyramids use it with especial emphasis
substantive also;
B. In n. *87.

m pn gs

"on this side".


lost.

e. it is

almost entirely

The weaker word


1.

for "this" (following its noun)


this

pw, occurs almost only in


in the cases in
2. in
3.

one form and then only

237, 239, 334;


!

ceremonial address: Ppy prv "o Pepy" in apposition; C-mwi-n-si, hh3 prv n Tnrv "Cmrvt-

n-l, the prince of


tw

Tnw"
Iptw.

(lit.

A. In the pj'ramids
f.

it still

survives: sing.

"this prince"). m. pw

(also p, pi),

plur.

m. Ipw

f.

B. In the later language

it is

entirely lost.

88.
trvy

In the archaic language m.


also

Q^Knn pwy,

f.

occur,
prv.

and are properly perhaps identical


for "that" is sing.

with the old


89.

The

old

word

m.
^

pf,

f.

tf (properly /?/:?? f/2?),

which

is

also later written

*^*~,
tive

/^x^^

*-g*

p3f'i-

It follows the

substan-

and often adds an implication of despicableness. 93. The plur. is replaced by nf3, cf.
A. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place
it

(like

pn

8 6 A) before the substantive.

*90.

The usual

later demonstrative

is

sing.

m.

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

6.

FORMATIONS WITH

U-. 91. 92.

35

p3)

f.

^K^

t3,

which, differing from the others,


"*9

is
\\
i

/rf 'TL

always placed before the substantive: nAr<C vx,

c-Wyx*5"^ p3 /dw

"this.-

bo ok".

It
is

is

also used

as a substantive (p3 prv

Wslr "this

Osiris")

and

then has also a plural, DATX


the plural
B.
is

^\ ^>
94.

i.

Usually

replaced by

n:?, cf.

A. In the pyramids

p3

does not occur.

The

article

is

later
c.

developed from p3,

cf.

113; the

later demonstrative also p3'i


b.

TTAl (C

58)

is

descended from p3.

FORMATIONS WITH

n-.

4-4- nn
AAAAAA
*\ "S

is

properly a substantive, "this":


said this" 1
.

<=s\

~*|

91.

II ddnf nn "he

But

it is

for the

most part connected by the genetive n with a following singular or plural:


I

/WWNA
jj ni|j]

^ nn
86).

sht'i

"these peasants"

(lit.

"this of peasant"); this combi(cf.

nation replaces the plural of pn


B. Later the genetive

falls

away: nn (_LJ_) i3dt "these

W1
and
incorrect writings for nn.
AA/WV\

1
I

are
A/VWW

D v\ (older
nn] as a substantive
1

-^\

JV

-^\

v\)
it

nw

is

used precisely

like 92.*
it

means
75.

"this", in raw
3

n ...

Sin. 32.

Bauer

Westc.

5,

12.

C*

36

NOUNS.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES, a. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 95.


/wwv\

replaces
c3 ca ca
I

the plural
I
I

of ptv

(cf.

87):
It is

fi\

Jj

nrv n ntrmr

"These gods".

more archaic

than nn.
B. In

LA

it is lost.

if3 in

the same

way replaces the


2

plural of pf,
AAAAAA

e. g.

w/? n (*3wt ''those swellings


is

(?)"

*94.

n3 "this"

also

a substantive,

"this";
it

in

the combination n3 n with following plural,


as the plural of ["'""i Ofv
P

serves

v\

p3

(cf.

90, 113),

e.

g.
.

X_Zf

n3 n gmhrvt "these wicks" 5


is still

A. To the pyramids n3

unknown.

B. Here also the genetive n

falls

away
n3,

in the n.
cf.

e.

hence

the

article

is

for

the most part

**2\

113B.

NOUNS.
1.
a.

SUBSTANTIVES.
EXPRESSION OF GENDER.
and denotes
-t

*95.

The masculine and feminine are distinguished. The feminine has the ending
1.

the naturally feminine;

2.

various inanimate objects, which are conceived

as feminine, like nst "throne", w^rt "leg";


Eb.
2,

5.

Eb. 108,

20.

Siut

I,

297.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES. d. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 96. 97.

37

3.

Collectives, like C$3t "multitude", rhyt

"huma-

nity"

4.

Expressions in the neuter, like ntt "that which",


like;

and the
5.

Abstract conceptions,

like

stnyt

"kingdom",

hrvttf) "evil".

The masculine originally had an ending


was denoted by w.
written, chiefly
r\

u,

which

96.

It is nevertheless

only rarely

A/WV\A

1.
,11111111

with divine names


^.

^\

etc.:
^,

(I

~~^

^\lnpw Anubis,

=> v\
21

/WVW\

Mntrv Month,

Pj *-'

v\ Hnmrv Chnum.
fl

2.

with substantives which denote a person and

are derived from an adjective or verb:

X
Jiwr "poor"),
$

M
9
cf.

Jirvrrv

"pauper" (from

^^^^.
'^A

V" S\

smsrv "follower" (from D


282, 292, 258, 395.

ms "follow")

also
3.

with various substantives like


c.

\\

\\

itrrv

-'stream" (pronounce *jotru,


'"
AA/V^W
\

Fioop), especially

also those with n like hnrv "interior".

O^\S
_/<-

hntv "jar",

^^O^\
AAAAAA
_,J*-

A. In the pyramids this ending is still more frequent. B. In the n. e. the ending was probably already lost.

The ending of the feminine,

-f,

is

always written,

97.

38

a.

EXPRESSION OF GENDER.

98. 6.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 99.

and only disregarded


ht

in abbreviations (like

for
collective

ntr

"house

of god").

The

->

2C

rmtt "humanity", which seems to have super-

ceded the plural of

rmt "man",

is

written

almost without exception


B.

g=3

down, the feminine ending loses its t, and feminine substantives end in e or a long vowel (cf. C 61). Hence
the n.
e.

From

the

fern,

ending

is

often omitted in the n.

e.

or added in the

wrong
98.

place.
*"^1

f_"_\y

"i

The names

of foreign lands, like

^z^ v\

K3s

"Ethiopia" are treated as feminines, although they do

not have the feminine ending; probably because


smt "foreign land"
b.

is

understood with them.

99.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. perceive from the Copt, that the noun possessed various definite formations (cf. C 63 seq.); but

We

these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho-

graphy, because they are for the most part distinguished


only by different vocalization.
*sim (CIM) "herb",
AAA^\A
g\[) >*V
}

E. g. ~
--

W\\.

"*'

sm

rC

*reC
(1
I

(pw)

"sun",

rn

*ran (DAM) "name",

^& irp=*ierp

(won) "wine",

PggE^7 dnh

A/W\AA /\

*denh (TNg) "wing",

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

6.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 100.

101.

39

51

jHf
=

ffrh

== *ffdrh (tftopg)- "night",

~~D~^^

spr

*spfr (CTTtp) "rib",

f^

snf

=
is

*snof (CNOq)

"blood",

o^

ftf*to0j (TOYCDT)
of substantives
I',

"statue, figure".

A
ical

large

number

derived from 100.

others by the ending

this

ending

is

probably ident132.

with

the adjectival ending of


t,

The old

writing of this ending,

is

found later only in proper

names, like

v\

(1

Hrl "the one belonging to Horus"

(German "der Horische") from v\


in their orthography: in the o.

Hr "Horus".

In

most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form


e.

they end in m. w,
e.
,

wt (pronounce So e. g.:
f.

ui,

wzY?), in the

m.

in

m.

?/,

f.

yt.

n
I

^\->lc l<

dw3rv ntr
;

]
\

>k^\ u rrvS

>^c
1

Jr drv3y ntr
\J.

"mor-

ningstar"

Imlhtv

t\

.Sl\

fl

imShy "revered" ;

mrrvt

^^^Lfi n
I]

(la mryt "love".


101.

On
tives in

the other hand, with the numerous substan-

m.

if,

f.

yt,

the question seems rather one of


;

belonging to the stem, than of an ending in the older period the ending of the masculine is in most

an

cases not written:

\^

s^'i

"sand"

(O)(JD),

40

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.
\

6.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.


AAAAAA
!\ t\

102. 103.

AA/WW
8
fl
1

N\
I

nhs'i

"negro"
V
{>

X
\\

(J
1

(J

nhsyi "negress".

Those

in

rv'i

like

^\

^Z^ JL

v> i=pp=i kkni "darkness", are *

perhaps old duals.


102.

A number
is

of substantives

is

derived from verbs


e.

by means of a prefixed m. Since the m.

this prefix

written preferably with the syllabic sign J|vi


35):

(cf.

PR U
103.

mhst "scales" (from h3 "measure"),

msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c.


Note further the prefix
(like the
nt-,

which

is

used

German

".

wesen",) to express the nature


it
is

or practice of that to which

prefixed (nt-hsb

"Rechnungswesen")

and the expressions, made with

J^\

v\

brv
i.

"place", for abstract ideas (brv nfr


e.

"good
is

place"

"the good").

A
-

remarkable form
t\

the

frequently recurring

-^ ^7
fl

mn m ^c

(properly,

probably: "it
tive "truth".

is

true"),

which

is

used like a substan-

A. The prefix

"belonging to"
-V "I
-f\

is

entirely obsolete;

it

is

nevertheless found in the


to him",
i.

title

ft

U
e.

v\
n.

tl-siv

"the one belonging

follower of the king.

1.

SDBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER,

a.

PLURAL. 104. 105.

41

c.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. a. PLURAL.


is

Apart from the ending, the plural


cally indicated:
1.

orthographi-

104*.

by a threefold writing of words written with


j

an ideogram:
sV*j,

ntrn "gods",

prrv

f^\

"houses",

%^
\&s

nrvt "cities" (archaic,

but

still

retained

with some words).


2.

by threefold

writing

of

the determinative:

*=^V&V&M^
3.

hQjtv "princes" (obsolete).


III,

by means of

i,

(more rarely
k

),
r 1
1

which

follows the ideogram standing alone:


i

jri
1.).

hhrv "mil-

ntrrv

^l
4.

"gods" (abbreviation of
III,

by means of
n
"fx.

i,

which follows the detersrrv


i

minative:
of
2.).

l<=z>v\rw at
Jl
IJi
i
i

i&

\$L

"princes" (abbreviation

A. There

is

often found in the pyramids also the threefold


c

repetition of phonetic signs,


1\
i

*-=s\

e. g.

^ ^^ ^^

df3to" victuals",
also

l|miJ^

X LJ ooo
. .

8t n

hlt3w "charm", ~vwv\

OOO

mnw

"monument"; they
(I

put

after purely phonetic writings:


(pi.).

v>o

o o

tkrw "ex-

cellent"

Such writings

also occur sporadically later.


j

The plural of the masculine ends

fV

in

v\

rv

(about 105*.

42

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.

<X.

PLURAL. 106.

like erv

cf.

109 seq.), which


e. g.

is

consistently written
_ smrv "herbs".

in

good manuscripts,
:

Note especially
1.

The w

is,

for the

most

part, not written with


signs, so
i

words which contain no phonetic


"heads",
2.
1
i

dSdSrv

ntrrv mrrv "gods",

|^VraM3 hkBrv "rulers".


end
not written out:

With words which


the
rv

in the singular already


is

in
i

jN,
(
l

of the plural

v\^
3.

JIIII

hrrv plural of hrrv "day".

The

adjectives

in
t'i

'i

(cf.

133)
it

take plural

ending,
t'itv

^i,

those in

write

with the sign

(cf.

133 and 43, 61).

4.

On

the plural of

cf.
o

97; that ofl


I

AAAAA

stn

"king of upper Egypt" has the form


i

(1(1

^K
Jl

/WVW\

Jv
in

stnyrv,

probably because the word already ends

in the sing.
B. In the n.
e.

there are also plurals in


-fl
fl

(I

(I

that of the

adjectives in

ti

ends later in \s\ M

fl

y^i

(I

fiy.

i in

o
rvt (*rvet,

The plural of the feminine ends


cf.

109, 116 seq.),


Eb.
58, 12.

e. g.

"necks" 1

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.

(3.

DUAL. 107. 108.

43

(from nhbt),
AA/VWA

D \vj-N 7T
I
I

rnprvt "years"

(pMTTOOYB.
2

from rnpt pOMl"TF),


(from

"v\

C3wt

"swellings (?)

C3t)

&c.

In classic orthography these


J|
i

endings are nevertheless rather seldom written,


being usually written for hmrvt

"women"

&c.

P.

DUAL.
107*

The dual
-Z.

is

orthographically indicated:
repetition
of the sign,

by
^O^>-

the

with words
t3rvi

written with only an ideogram:

"the two

lands

"the two eyes". <s>- wr/(?)


is

In this case the

ending
2.

not written.

With other words the determinative is repeated:


thnrv'i

"the two obelisks",


>

~"

x
legs".

Q'i

"the

two members",
ending
is

^A^A^A^ <?

o JO
is

mnt'i "the

two

The

written for the most part. a determinative,


ill,

Just as there

in the plural, 108.

by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or


determinative
is

avoided, so also in the dual there


sign,
|
|

was a corresponding

or

\\,

which

is still e. g.

used
or

as a determinative in the oldest texts,

Grave in Assuan.

Eb. 108,

19.

44

Y'

U8E OF THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DDAL. 110. 111.

^\

f~

~\

v\
m.

L)

gmhwll "the two door jambs".


this

But since the


it

e.,

meaning of

I,

is

forgotten and

has

the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending i, which is then also employed for every similar ending i.
*109.

properly an i which, in the masculine is joined to the masculine ending w, in the feminine to the feminine ending t. The older writis
*^V
f\ f\

The dual ending

*^V

*"\

ft

ings of these endings are m. v\(|(| or v\

tvii,

f.

Jin

or
or

o
\\

tl;

from the m.

e.

on, they are written

Y.

USB OF THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DUAL.


is

110.

The singular

often employed collectively, where

we expect
is

the plural, especially where

^^^

rib

"every"
(select1
,

subjoined to the substantive, e. g. "600

men

ed) from

^M 2T

kn

rib

/www Vj N^_-7 "from all the brave".

"every brave one"

i.

e.

111.

Differently from our conception of


is

it,

the plural

used:
1.

with abstract nouns,

e.

g.

ra"v\

y^

LU

II 122 b.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES,

rf.

THE ARTICLE.

113.

45

"time",

D %,%(1! J^JT'Oi

*
t3rv

"heat",

A
g. A/W^A
AAAAAA

"reward" &c.
2.
"

with names of material

e.

mtv "water",

D But plurals of

Irprv "wine" &c.

this

singulars also

(e. g.

sort are early treated as mnrv "monument", hrrv "height",

mw
the

"water").

With words of

material, which, like


in the singular,

names of the metals, are used


ribrv

the plural denotes separate pieces of the material;


e. g. rib

"gold",

"gold nuggets".
or things in
121.
112.

The dual
pairs.

is

only used of persons


extinct;
/
d.

It early

became

of.

THE ARTICLE.
to
113.

The older language has no expression known


us for the
stantive,

definiteness or indefiniteness of a sube. first

and the popular language of the m.


(cf.

begins to employ the demonstrative p3

90) as

an

article.

The forms

are:

Sing. m.
/W

Plur.

T2\

w/w* nS n ("the of

with following

singular or plural.
AAAAAA

B. Since the m.
instead of

e.,

"^\

*?:?

with following plural

is

written

n3

n.

cf.

112 sq.

46
114.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES, d. THE ARTICLE. 114

116.

This popular language of the m.

e.

further, re-

gularly omits the article with certain words.

These

are

1.

the

names of

all

parts of the body, 2.

many

designations of localities, 3. the expressions of the cult and the kingdom, 4. a few words occurring with
especial frequence.
i

115.
(lit.

In the later language, the expression p3yf "his"


"the his") copt. C 54), originates from TTO)q (cf. the combination of the article with the possessive
suffixes.

Before a substantive

it

denotes the possessive


73)
e. g.

relation

in all cases,

and replaces the possessive suffixes (cf. where the article would be used,
I

(really "the his house")


"~

for

"""as

prf

"his house".
.

The feminine

is

t3yf,

the plural

nSyfn
e.

B. In the n.

the

plural

is

nByf\ in Copt, this


(cf.

is

the

"possessive article" T7ECJ-,


116.

TEq-, NEq-

55).

The

later "indefinite" article also, does not yet

exist in the popular tongue of the m. e.; the

combina*

tions

"*"

~^\|AAAAAA

W CjV H.
"
.

"OUC of

.",

(maSC.)
t

rvQ nt "one of
B.

(fern.) still

mean "any
(cf.

The

indefinite article

wC

copt.

OY

122)

grew out

of this

wCw n

in the n.

e.

6.

THE ABSOLUTE SDBSTANTIVE.l 1 7 ./. APPOSITION A. COORDINATION. 1 19. 47


e.

THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE.


1.
AAA/VNA

The substantive stands absolutely:


r\
r
\

very often
fr*

117.

for designation of time,

e. g.

ft

"at

the time of", ^

K
i

w& "every day"

(lit.

"every sun"),

ro
1

(7)

rnP* ^

n the fourth year".


of place in

2. for

designation
"in front",

expressions like

r$jjh
3.

g<

^S mht

"northern".
|||
III

in expressions with sp "time": n ^> Jj

\sprv

"four times".

Here

also,

belong the numerous cases where a

118.

substantive follows an adjective in order to specify that to which the quality of the adjective refers:
Ikr shrrv "excellent in plans".
1

/.

APPOSITION AND COORDINATION.


apposition,

In

an

the

substantive

explaining

119.

stands after the one explained. The following peculiar


cases are important:
r>

VWAA
I

i
A

/\

r\
|

1.

it

specifies material:

(I
i

..

<d>
i.

13
I

N
e.

==^lnr
a sarco-

hd, krs "white stone,

a sarcophagus",

2 phagus of white stone;

2.

it

specifies locality

tZL ?

J^%

Sin. 49.

u Da

5.

48
B'bdrv

/. APPOSITION

AND COORDINATION. 120


1

121.

"Thinis, Abydos",

i.

e.

Abydos situated

in the

nomos
3.

of Thinis;
it

specifies

number and measure:


i.

5zi
]

(1(1

8
Oo

nn
Q

MZ

Kby 22 "Beer, 22 jars",


'

e.

22 jars of beer2

anumber ^ s& rm a? number consisting of 600 men.


120.

fa (p (p

>

60

men",

i.

e.

In

series

of

coordinated words,
J)
i

they

are

usually left unconnected:

^^iKstf Jefcll JL
-

i^/vX

ufl

^X^O)
I

i&
I
I

hmwt

Things which are to be closely connected (dc hr Jiwyf "storm and wind")
tjtyw

"women and men". 4

are joined by the preposition


Q
sition
fi

'
lir,

while the prepo-

AA/WSA

hnt permits each of the connected words

to stand forth individually (Iff hnC mrvtf "his father,

as well as his
A.
1st,

mother" 6 ).
cooi'dinate also

The pyramids

by means of the particle

which comes after the words

to be connected.

121.

The expression

for "or"

Q^\ r-pw (older

D^\) comes

after the

words to be separated by "or":

w&,

m
7
.

sn,

hnms r-pw "as lord or as brother or as


is

friend"

In rare cases r-pw

repeated after every

word.
i

AZ

29, 120.
14.
6

Siut

I,

293.

LD

n, 122
7

a.
9,

Sin. 132.

Westc.

11,

Leps. Ausw. 8

d.

Prisse

9.

ff.

THE GENETIVE.

a.

DIRECT GENETIVE. 122

124.

49

ff.

THE GENETIVE.

a.

DIRECT GENETIVE.
122*.

This older kind of genetive is apparently expressed only by the position of the two substantives, in which the governing word stands before the governed:
(I
I

jv
AAAAAA
Jk-J.

pr Imn "House of Amon." The connecwords


is

tion between the two


loose, that they

for the
e.

most part so
^-,(1
I

may

be separated,

g. ^JUr,,

V
pr-hCft
is

NT n

ty wt i$

P w P r -h c fi "but they
1

are not
Ihrvt

things of the prince's house"

where the genetive

divided by

Is prv.

On
i

the other hand, in other cases the two words 123*.

in the combination cannot be separated,

ed as a compound word,
mr-sht'iw

in

and are treat**r^

^k.

<=~-**>

n n n

M^

e.

g.

mnh "an

excellent

overseer

of peas-

ants".

B. This last case persisted

down

into the Copt.

(cf.

140);

the Coptic forms


suffered

show that the former of the words


as in

so joined

shortening,

the analogous form

of the Semitic

"status constructus".

The
1.

direct genetive

is

especially preferred:

124.

After general designations of locality:


288.
2

Siut

I,

Sin. 244.

Erman,

Eg-ypt.

gramm.

50

j3.

INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH M. 125.

m
i

hCt hrdrvf "at the

head of

his children".
2. V
3.

After general designations of time: v\

m
mr
:?

rk hnf "at the time of his majesty".

After certain frequently recurring words, like


"overseer",
e. g.

^^
v\

rib

"lord",

pr "house",

"son":

'

'

JA mr k3t "overseer of

the works".
4.

Where

sin
r\

T /WW\A
wJ-j

"king" and

j
I

ntr "god" are the

governed words:

hmt

stn "wife of the king".


cf.

On

the written order of these words


B.

69.

The

direct genetive

was gradually superceded by the


123 are preserved,
cf.

later indirect; in Copt, only the cases of


140.

P.

INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH

n.

*125.

formed by means of an adjective *m, which, 135 means something like "belonging according to
It is

to"; "the priest belonging to


of

Amon"

for "the priest

Amon".

This adjective agreed in gender and numit

ber with the noun to which

belonged;

its

forms,

according to classic orthography, are:


i

Sin. 78.

3.

INDIRECT QENETIVE WITH H. 126.


A/VWVA

51

Sing. m. A/WWN n (*ni)


7T

f.

nt (*nil),
w* (*niwt,
cf.

Plur. m.

nw (*nw),

f.

106).
once

A. The old writings are:

sg.

m.
fj

nt (in the m.
* ne

e.

/WWW
also
1
),

J\

AA/WV\

pi.

m.

O Y\,
mv'i.

%>

nM7t

-^

older period there

was further a dual m.


B. This word

early lost

its inflection;

it

first
e.)

lost the dual,

then (already in the popular language of the m.


also the feminine.

the plural, and

Since the LE, /WW\A


cf.

n became an unchange-

able particle, like Copt, fj;

C.

141.

The
1.

indirect genetive must be used:


vww\ /"
AA/WV\
tp'i

126.
rii

to designate a part:

/VWW\

smrvf

^""""^''

"the

first

of his harvest,"

2
rt

0-=^
AAAAAA
3

N/

2. to

designate material

:
I

htp C3
/^^v

rii

sst

"a great offering tablet of alabaster."


3.

to subjoin that which will

more nearly

define

the noun, where


tf
I

//& 6

AAWAA
i

we would often employ an adjective: ?Q ^ 4 T T W ^c n 3000 "an army of 3000," c=s> x i x


^'

TV

\/

*^1
'

^^

^ rii

KMirv "the
"a

city of Coptos,

"

man

of truth".

LT>

II, II,

138d.
149 d.

smt

I,

310.

Una
6

43.
II,

LD

LD

II,

122

b.

Mar. Ab.

24.

52
127.

2.

ADJECTIVES,

a.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 127. 128.

On

the further optional use of the indirect geneit is

tive,

note especially, that

preferred:
C3
[~"|
I

1.

'

^^ J

to designate the possessor: ht ntr nt

ILD

<=>!

" 1 Wnn-nfr "the temple of W.

2. to

express the idea of appurtaining to or hav-

ing source in a place:


rii

.wwv,^^^ WBrvZt "Acacia wood from Nubia".2

AA/WW

jQ
(

Jtj
I

2.
a.

ADJECTIVES.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING.

*128.

These adjectives, perhaps derived from verbal stems, had various forms also common to substantives (cf.

99)

e. g.:
ft

A/AAAA

P] **I2S^^

nfr "good
c

*nofr (NOyciE), ] U "^.bm ^j ^X^


\

"bad"

*l)6in (BO)U)N),

^\ ndm _S^

"sweet"

*nodm

(NOYTM).
2.

^^ wr

"great" *rver (-oyvip).

3.

^Z7 w& "every" *m& (NIM).


^ "large" *Co3 (-0).
Cf.

146 sq.

Eb. 75,

13.

Una

46.

2.

ADJECTIVES,

a.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 129. 130.

53
it

in

They follow their substantive and agree with number and gender:
Q.<dO<S0v
Q
o

129*.

v\

M
^*
,

wtfw

,,

., ,51 'sweet beer ,

111

Cs3rv

"many

ten thousands", 2

^
3

^
I

-I

Jj>

\\

Ihtvt ribwt hrvrvt (?) "all w

bad

things",

J^^
A/WW
VV

&wrt' wr^af

Z]

^^

"two great towers". 4

\\

NeA-ertheless

most

texts are not exact in the writself evident of course to the

ing of these endings,

Egyptian reader; the ending of the


wanting, that of the plur.
fern,

sing. fern, is often

always, and for the


C

most part the sign


B.

also.

Most adjectives the plur. fern, was first

later
lost,

become unchangeable

(cf.

147);

being replaced by the plur. masc.


fern.

Of ^I^7 nb "every" only the

survives.

Rarer combinations of the adjective are:


1. it
AA/\ftAA

130.

forms one word with the substantive:


t3-hd-sn "their white bread". 5
Cf.

/v^
1.

C8121,
is

2.

The possessive
"^
<

suffix of the
I

noun

repeated

with the adjective:


son'.
i

^ *^~
t
2 5

&
r&

H^_

s3f rvrf "his great

Eb.

11,

15.

Una
Siut

14.
I,

3 6

Eb. 30,

15.

LD

HI, 24 d.

225.

LD

II,

124, 54.

54
131.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

?.

131

133.

It

is

employed

also

as
I

substantive,

e.

g.

^^Vva <cn>l

fvr

"the great one",


111,
1).

ral according to

J 000 On

nfrw "beauty" (Pluthe employment of

the adjective as predicate and


331.

its

ending

^^
cf.

rv'i

cf.

On

the

employment of the adverb


b.

300.

ADJECTIVES IN

i.

*132.

They are all derived from substantives or prepositions by

with

'i

and in

means of an ending, which is written Coptic has the sound of e; if the adjec-

tive is derived
syllable,
-t
ft',

from a feminine, there arises a final from the junction of the feminine ending
of the adjective.

and the

'i

As may be seen from


cf.

the Copt, this ending was accented,


*133.
'i

93.

This ending is only written, where it really forms the end of the word, that is only in the sing,
masc.:
Sing. m.
f.

\v

('),

derived from

fern.

(it)

Plur. m..

%
//

^ g
1L rrv^

(ti)
(tit)

(in>)

(tin, cf.

43.

61.)
f.

(iwt)
o. e.

^^
the
i

(tiwt).

In the

was

left

unindicated even in

the sing. masc. and such writings are often found in


later texts also.

Thus:

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

I.

134.

55

Iri

"existent at"

hnti "existent before"

WVWV
Sing. m.
f.

-**-(-

AAAAAA

(j^,
(T
1

(]

m oo
i

Plur. m.
ly-

AAAAAA

f.

Id
(I

A.

The Pyramids write

for

ft
,

(1

^*

for

fi,

and

and

^,.

^\ V\
m.
e.

for

^V

(according to

104 a).

B. In the

v\

^
;

already occurs incorrectly for the sing.


is

in the n.
r\

e.
r

the plur. masc.

also written

^
. ,

and

^n

A
(I

11

or

fi

r\

^
\\

r\

^C\

rr^

(1(1,
I
|

(1(1.
1
I

confusion between

o
V\

'

and

o
^-^

begins in the

n. e. also, since

they were pronounced about alike according to

97 B.

Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub- 134.


stantives were identical in form with the dual of these

substantives

(e. g.

from nt

"city"

nt'i

"urban", and

nt'i

"two

cities"),

such duals, in the oldest orthography,

are often written for the corresponding adjectives:


\l\

ntl "urban".
r~i

A few such writings o-ccur


"the

later also

note:
I

gVj '
vci?

ntr

nt'i

urban

(i.

e.

native)

god",

or o
y\

\^v

^r

tytftf)

"Horus dwelling in the

horizon."

56
135.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

I.

135.

Those adjectives which are derived from a preposition, like:

ir
(1
>

l^Cs ir

vek'

Tin) * mi

" ex ^ stent

n"

(fr

mm

)j

\WJ
\v

" " ex i stent at * ri

(from

r),

) #r? "existent
)

upon" (from

7/r),

^(
,

"existent under" (from $r),


"existent upon" (from
(p),

(paf
/-

AA/VW,

-jHff

\\

\fYYn

^ ^ -n^

"existent before" (from hnt) t

w? (cf.

125) "belonging to" (from w),

likewise a few others, like:


2wtf "not being" (Copt. AT-,
cf.

89),

Eo
^\
<=<=><
x

m^rt'

"being like",

o\\

-ss.mhtt

"north of" &c.

very often govern a following substantive or personal suffix (like the prepositions etc. from which they are
derived),
e. g.
P

(M

lmtibf"ihQ one
Ir'i

(fern.)

existent in his heart".

n
LD

Ct

2 "belonging to the house",

III,

24 d.

Louvre C

172.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

'i.

136. 137.

57

=
hr'isstf
1

"one supervising (lit. "over")

secrets",

mlt'if

2 "resembling him".

All that

is

stated in
is
i

129, 130 concerning the 136*.

adjectives without ending,


tives in
Imirv
,

valid also for the adjec"fL


i

cf.

yio /
I

vft

fv

w
i

<

s>
1
1

Hh IT
5

_zr

v>i fD v\
i

J&

n~ m
1

/wwvA

mCbw
i i
i

h3wsn "the priests serving in their times" 3


P^^^i
'),
I

(lit.

"existent in their times

CX^K xi
"

smrvt mht'irvt
*

"northern lands", 4
I

.-,

upper

side

,,

r likewise
,

^=

" AAAAAA c==^

t=3
\\

gssn

hr'i

"their

<

^s

hn-sn

"their upper-side".

Very frequently they are employed


stantive,
e. g.
"*"

like a sub- 137.

-=^> _Zl o o o
e.

^N._

hr'iw $c

"those existent upon


XV

the sand"
i

(i.

the Bedouins), 7 41U

^\ >ws

/WWVA
fl

dii_ms-

imi n dSrt "the interior of an onion


mltirvk

(?)",

fV \/o v>
TT

|v\ o ^
^.

___<z

"one like thee" 9 (with masc. substantive end96, 2).

ing according to In this

manner many new substantives


t'i\

originat-

ed, especially those in


1

e. g.

o ^ j&i
149e.
6

K^=^

Av

hft'i

"enemy"
I,

Mar. Ab.
Sin. 72.

II,

24.
5

LD

II,

Siut
^

311.
13.

LD
9

Eb. 35, 16.

III, 24d. Prisse 5, Ib.

Eb.

70, 4.

Una

58

c.

APPENDIX

(Iri,

Imy,

ns).

138.

139.

(O)A(]T),

ft

Imntt "the west"

(PMNT, from smt

Imntt "western land"),

"

w^

"nothing" &c.

c.

APPENDIX (H

to^, ns).

138.

The following remarkable unchangeable expressions are probably descended from adjectives:
1.
(1

Iri

[1

Ir'irv

(?)

"belonging

to,

correIr'i}

sponding to" (properly probably the adjective


expressions like

in

k
xov
2.

?^^ - >J

v^ HI]*
7T
U
I

m
^\

tsw'i
1

Ir'i

"as corresponding

reward, as reward therefor", ra <zi> , j

r>

J^JJCTZDl
AA/WV\
r\

st

ir'i

"in the corresponding

\v
2
.

place, in proper condition".

y^vSH nf
suffix, e. g.
f\ AAAA^VA
f\

t\

r\

im y "b e l n g in g to him
r

,.

with

changeable
<j

139.

(j^(J(J ir nsn Imy "the oldest W'S Jj cli one belonging to them, the oldest of them".3 On the other hand the word HS, which we also
TOnr'wwvA M
I

ps

r\

often translate "belonging to",

is

really an old verb

and
e. g.

in the old

language

is

still

construed as such,

LD

III,

24 d.

prisse 13, 11.

Westc.

9,

11.

3.

NUMERALS,

a.

REAL NUMERALS.

140. 141.

59

IT JH
zon"
r\

^n ns
H
f\

sw

lht(l)

"belonging to the hori1

(lit.
-<TV

"the horizon possesses him");


-vw\w

AAAAAA
nnni

>

JJ
i

(I

\S^
vfck.

Irv

ns

st

Inr rvC

"they
;

are from one stone"


*~^'

(lit.

"one stone possesses them")2

ns
(lit.

s^

mr ~P r "^ belongs

to the house3

overseer"

"the house-overseer possesses

it").

3.
a.

NUMERALS.
140*.

REAL NUMERALS.

The numeral
I

figures are:

units,

thousands,
I

n
<.

tens,

tens of thousands,

hundreds of thousands. hundreds, The greater number precedes the less:


12,635.
i

^^

In dates the units are indi-

cated by horizontal strokes ( &c.) In so far as they are known, the numerals run thus:
,

141.

rvC

4 fdrv
5 dn>3

1 sn

3 hmt
1

6 sis
2

Mar. Cat. d'Abyd. 999.

LD

III,

24 d.

Peasant

16.

60

3.

NUMERALS,

a.

REAL NUMERALS.

142. 143. -

7 sfh

100

S&
rf&C

8
9

to
psd

1000 hi

10000

10 mt

100000 A/w

Of the

tens, 30 is wQ:?; for the others the plural


Cf.

of the units was used.


*142.

157.

The numeral follows the noun and the


for the

latter is
VM i-i.
*
I
I

most part

in the plural:

><

AAAAAA

I I

71 /'

'

stoy/v 3 "three kings."

On

the other hand the noun

stands in the singular


_Z.

with the numeral

2.

wi3 2 "two ships" in specifications of measure and time, also in


2, >J>fS
1 1

accounts,

j
I

1(1

rwp^ iJO "110 years'',


.

ill

"4

ells".

A.

subjoin to

The pyramids treat the numeral as a substantive, and 4 it the numbered word as an apposition: fdwfipw ntrw 1
(lit.

"these his 4 gods'',

"these his four, the gods").

This construe- I
fck

r
tion has been preserved in the expression
\

a_
e.

fk
5 \^>

Miut

rnpt "the
days.

five,

the ones upon the year",

i.

the 5 intercalary 1

B. In

LE

the numeral precedes the noun, which

is

for the

most connected by n- only in the specifications of an account and with the numeral two, does the old construction remain. Cf. also 1 C
143.

162 sq.

The numeral

"*

~
rvC

"one", which

is

mostly writ

6.

APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS- 144

146.

61

ten out, agrees with

its

noun

in gender:

rnpt

tvQ "one year";

the other numerals perhaps did the

same.

On

rvCrv

cf.

116.
its

By

placing
is

n>C

before

an adjective jprjygrb,
lative:

meaning

rendered super-

41
/-^

tvC ty r

"^ e

on ty excellent."
as

The numerals are


Q M
*_E^/

also

used

substantives:

144.

^\

<

MI"hi m
snnrv

"

r\

t3

"thousand of bread".

The
nrv:

ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*.

"the second",

hmtntv "the third" &c.;


is

they

may

precede or follow their noun; "first"


tp'i (cf.

supplanted by

135),

which, as an ad-

jective always follows its noun.

They are

all

used

as substantives also.
A. In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written
out; in like

manner

w>Vlr snnw "*^ e second"

is

later, still

found. B.
"fill

They are

early supplanted

up" (the third"


6.

= "that which

fills

by a circumlocution with vnh up three"); cf. also C 165.

APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL.


(I
(1

The probably dual word: m. *^x


kt (for ktl) "the other" is

ky,

f.

146.

construed like the numerals


:

in the
i

pyramids
47.

(cf.

142 A)

Una

62

THE VERB.

USUAL CLASSES. 147. 148.

ky

gsrv

"another salve", 1
rvBt "his

other way". 2
55

The

real plural of the

word

is

\5

si.

kw'i (the

first \\ is

the old determinative of the dual);


is

more
1
1 i

frequently a circumlocution
kt-ht "another

used for
a

it
t

body" and

ouril

sT

kt-ll

another

thing",
147.

i.

e.

others.
tnrv

The substantive
plural or singular
IAA/WW
j

"number", with following


cf.
3

means "every";

*=$

nw

bsfsn

"every one of their revolts"

(lit.

"number

of their revolts").

THE VERB.
1.
a.

IN GENERAL.

THE CLASSES OF THE VERB.


a.

USUAL CLASSES.
into various classes,
a(

*148.

The verbs are divided


cording to the

number and character

of their con-

sonants, the so-called "radicals". These classes differ


in

manner
Eb. 26,

of inflection,
13.
2

and how considerable these


3

Butler 1C.

Una

28.

THE VEEB.
-differences were,

a.

USUAL CLASSES. 149

151.

63

may

still

be seen from the forms of


cf.

the verb preserved in Copt.


signation of these classes
is

that

C 185 sq. The decommon to Semitic

grammar. The most common


verbs (abbrev.
:

class is that of the bi-literal 149*.

II lit.) as e. g.

M unnnr rvn "to

^
their

AAAAAA

open",

mh

"fill",

Jd^[|p
all

kd "build" &c.

They retain
Cf.

consonants in

forms unchanged.

186 sq.

The verbs "secundae


gem.) are properly

(radicalis) geminatae" (II ae 150*.

triliteral
g.

verbs having the last

two radicals alike

e.

TJJ& rvnn "to be", AAAAAA


I

nvbv v\ W^ WCS
cool",

kmm "become

black",
m->->

kbb
JV

"become

^^
full
(tvn,

<K\

^\

"see".

But as these similar rad-

icals fall together

vowel, in

where they are not separated by a most forms they resemble the biliterals
Cf.

km

&c).

199.
"tertiae infirmae" (Illae 151*.
i

The very numerous verbs


inf.)

have as third radical an

or

l|

which neverthe(1(1;

less is visible

only in certain forms:


first
V-

in

most

cases they

show only the


~

two radicals or double


mrr.
e. g.

also the second:

mr,

Q]\
Rj'

mr

"love",
(tlfl

ms "bear", ^

^J\ j9r"goout",

64

THE VERB.

USUAL CLASSES. 152

154.

j\ hi "descend". Cf. C 213. The frequently recurring verb ir "make" writes the forms Ir and try.
and
written
A. With a part of these verbs the third radical was originally a u or

-<sz>-/J[h

on the other hand the form Irr

is

which

as a rule

became
lit.)

or \
lit.

*152.

The

triliteral

verbs (til

like the II

149)

f/WV\AA o
"live",

1\ Mf
Cf.

rihm "rescue

3tp "load".
153.

200 sq.

The verbs

"tertiae geminalae" (Illae gem.),

which

correspond to the II gem.


Illae
ed.

150), and the verbs ( "quartae infirmae" (IV ae inf.) which correspond to the
inf. (

151), as a rule are not to be distinguishin certain


'

Both double the third radical

forms
Sp *

spdd
"be revered":
in
I

Jr

|
is

spss)',

only isolated examples


(

which an

written out

2h
inf.

ps'i),

can be

safely classed with the


154.

IV ae

Cf.

227.

The
and

quadriliteral

lit.)

and quinqueliteral verbs (IV lit. correspond to the II lit. and III lit. and!
consonants rtmain unchanged. They

like these, their

(3.

RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. 155

157.

65

are mostly derived from II

lit.

and

III

lit.:

Rj

hmhm " low


)

'

roar

"
(

from * hm ^

ra

nhmhm (from
and V
lit.

nhm).

According to the Copt, the

IV
(cf.

lit.

seem

to have

had the same form

224. 226).

P.

BARE CLASSES AND IEREGULAR VERBS.


155.

Beside these ordinary classes there are apparently other, smaller groups, which, however, cannot be distinguished with certainty; e. g. the frequently
recurring verbs

dd j " c=A
III

=1^^

AA/VWV

"say" and

<^>

fgfe

ndr

"strike"

present
other II

many
lit.

points

which distinguish them from


lit.

and

Moreover, within the


exist,

above contrived classes, further subdivisions

by

reason of the special phonetic character of one of the


radicals.

The verbs mediae


second radical, like

:?,

which have an lk\


h3b
"send",

for the 156.

ru^\ 1-A Jar^-si)

I
v

w3d "become green", have apparently early


Occasionally
it

c^=\ lost the ^.

^^

appears

at least

orthographically

as the third radical: fO u'^x hb3 for h3b, rr^S>

"unite" along with

T,

^J\

s.

sBm.

Cf.
is

29.

The verbs
K
i

ultimae 3 (Ilae ^, Illae ^), as

also 157.

in a

Egypt, gramm.

66

P.

RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS.

158. 159.

evident from the Copt., had various peculiarities

(cf.

C
to

221. 222; 208).

especially, that (according 29) a few verbs Illae 3 (mostly those in -m3)
:?,

Note

repeat the second radical after the

in

certain

forms

km3

"create":

A
These forms are possibly to be read k3m and and the syllabic sign is only retained out of preference
for the
158.

customary orthography.
rv,

The verbs primae

like

^K

rvsh "be far"

are, in part, also written


rv,

by many texts without their


161.

in certain forms; cf. especially


TV

The verbs
and
in

mediae

write the
it;

rv

only

rarely,

part
is

probably early lost

hence

l^./-^

mt "die"

al-

ways written
for <=r>

for mrvt (cf.


"

192) and often

Jl 0\ verbs mediae I
Copt, because
to
tf

\\^

rrvd "grow".

The existence

of

may
is

only be conjectured from the

e. g.

the probable form rls (according

pOEIC wake")

always written
in

~\

rs.

159.

The verbs Ilae gem.


as a rule

like

~~ ps

"divide",
tvss;

make

the form

ps,

tvss,

insdead ofpSs,

P.

IRREGULAK VERBS. 160.

f.

THE CAUSATIVE. 161.


]

67

cf.

30. -

On

the other
1

hand
K^->

Q
psf.

ps (older

fs)

"cook" has
*^^-\

\\

and V pfs

ffl

Entirely irregular are:


In "bring" (properly Illae inf.) A AA/V/VNA

160*.

sometimes written

TJ

in, j] /WWVA

sometimes

A
-/-I

Int.
iCi
*^\.

p "go",
I

sometimes J\ v\
\\

*fY ^~^

2n>,

sometimes

_/^

v\

Irvt,

"go" sometimes

nj\

^(?), sometimes

',

and especially
^

rrf^ "give",

which has the form <cz>A


^
D

>
^
-_n

rrf/,

A,
iii

o,

and A A,
ilitlJ
.

A
,

__D

didlC?);

the

last

corresponds to the reduplicated

forms.

(.

THE CAUSATIVE.
I

By means

of the prefix

there

may be formed

161*.

from every verb, another verb with causative meaning. E. g. with intransitives hr "fall": shr "cause to fall",
nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful";
ly

more rareto

with

transitives
(i. e.

Cm "swallow"; sCm "cause

swallow"

know"

"wash down"), rh "know": srh "cause to inform against). These causatives do not (i. remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs;
e.

thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine


infinitives (hr "fall":

shrt

to fell",

cf.

231),

and

E*

68

b.

VOICE. 162.

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 163. 164.

the causative of

mn

(infin.

smni) furthermore doubles


cf.

the last consonant in certain forms (smnn

232).

The causatives of the


quadriliterals
(cf.

triliterals

are treated as
w,

238).

With verbs primae

the w, according to the old orthography, falls away;


e- g.

%P

wsA"befar, broad":

flfl

ssh "broaden";

a few of these writings occur later also.


b.

VOICE.
verb distinguish-

162.

It is certain that the transitive

ed an active and a passive, and not improbable that the intransitive verb was analogously divided
(1.

incipient, 2. continuous condition);

cf.

241. 242.

171. 182.

Nevertheless,

all

details

are

as

yet

obscure, and the beginner must be satisfied to familiarize himself

with the forms thus far known to us,

without being able to understand their systematic connection more exactly.


c.

163.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). There are two methods of inflecting the verb.
earlier,

The
is

which reminds one of the Semitic perfect,


classic

still

employed in the
later

language only within


cf.

restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple,


164.

208).
suffixes

The
73.

Cf. e.

method uses the personal g. sdm "hear":

of

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 165

167.

69

Sg.

c.

<^%^

*dml

PL

m.
c.

2m. ^1\

^z^> sdmk

^^sdmn
^^\^sdmtn
^lj\
'

3m. ^l\ *c^ sdmf

c.

sdmsn

On

74. 75. the writing of each suffix cf. A. Dual forms occur in the pyramids also, B. Apart from the uninflected passive
(cf.
1

206 A),

this

inflection

was

first lost

with IV

lit.

and

lit.

employed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected:

If the subject is a substantive,

no

suffix is

165.*

K QA *^*>
hears thy voice".
*$

sdm ntr

^\ ^

v V Oh ^^* sdmtrv
I

hrrvk "thy voice

is

heard".

An
also

absolute pronoun
as

(cf.

80) is, by exception, 166.

employed thus

subject:

hpr

si

ftsbt

"it

changes into worms"

(for hprs).
is

When

the subject

a substantive or an absolute

167.

pronoun, the verb frequently receives an ending


(with Illae
inf.
(](]):

^K

fit A
1

According to Sethe.

70

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 168. 169.

shdrv srv t3w'i r Itn "he illuminates the earth better

than the sun". 1


168.

The impersonal use of the verb (without subject), occurring in all forms, is frequently met with. Note
especially:
194) "that
cf.

(l^K
I

Irv "it is"

2
;

irn
AA/WAA

fl

(w-form,

cf.

amounts to" 3

W
.

f}prhr

($r-form,

204)

"that

amounts to" 4

The passives are


to express the
a

employed with especial preference,


indefinite subject v (Germ, "man", J
n/WVAAA

French "on"):
c h c ntrv

o ^\rhtn>
~1 dd

^\

L\

"it is

known" 5 9
,

^V

"one stands"

"it

is

said"

7
.

This impersonal subject

is

furthermore, often a respectful designation of the On the omission of the subject in animated king. < 8 narrative cf. rdlin "they caused" is 353: 1

probably also to be explained thus.


169.

A second
actor,
is

(logical)

subject,

to indicate the real

often

added to a passive or intransitive verb


This
is

which already has a grammatical subject. done by means of the particles in and hr:
vv
.

* 8

Mar. Abyd. II, Math. Hdb. 26. 41.


'

25.
*

Sin. 43. 225. 216.


6
'

LD

III 24 d.

Sin. 243.

Sin. 55.

Math. Hdb. 49.

Sin. 263.

2.

USUAL INFLECTION,

a. IN

GENERAL. 170.

71

nh'i

hr

"some

(of the fruit) is

chewed by the
"

man"

1
.

V--- AAAA/W siezed fry ReC" 2

Q
fl

Ssp

Ck

In

EC

thy

arm

is

<>

In the same
to infinitives
{] 1

manner the

logical subject

is

added
i

and participles by means of


Irt

-<2>-t

ln\

k3t In

hmt'i

"working
3
.

(lit.

making

work), on the part of the artificer"

2.

USUAL INFLECTION.
a.

IN GENERAL.

The

later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*.

of forms,

which are

in

part indicated by endings

attached to the stem (like sdmnf, sdmmf), but in part also, are distinguished by the vocalisation only.

These latter forms have orthographically, essentially


the same external appearance (sdmf), in the case of

most verbs, so that it is difficult for us to distinguish them correctly. Any exact separation of these various
forms,
is

therefore not attempted in the following,


fall,

and only the two great groups into which they


are distinguished. A. The most important

aid for the recognition of the verbal

Eb. 47,

19.

p py

i}

97.

Br. Gr.

W.

139.

72

b.

THE FORMATION Sdmf.

K.

THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 172.

forms,

is

afforded by the pyramids,

which often
e,

prefix a

[I

for

the indication of the prosthetic vowel

to the forms beginning

with two consonants:


c

'

(I
1

/(

V\
is

wSleft

pronounced something like


unindicated by the classic

mok.

This prosthetic vowel


'

orthography
of the
*171.
trv],

('

/(

\V\

>vV

);

on the other hand the manuscripts


it

new empire

again indicate

by means of (I

^JA.
t

The passive of the which is attached

later inflection ends in


at the

(tl,

end of the word, but


',

precedes the suffix: sdmtrvf, sdmntrvf


first

sdmlntrvf.

It is

made with

transitives and causatives, then also

impersonally with intransitives, for the expression of an impersonal subject (Germ, "man", French "on"):
Ti

Vc
t

nhtrv "they (impers.) live".


trv

The ending
in

is

written,
Irv.

or

in

the m.

e.,

and

the n.

e.

always

A. The pyr. write the ending


B.

ft

tl

or

t.

The Copt, has

lost this passive.

a.

b. THE FORMATION sdmf. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. A. ITS FORMATION.

*172.

apparently includes three or four frequent forms, the differences in which, are no longer to be determined. Its most important classes are as
It

follows

6.

THE FORMATION Sdmf.

<X.

THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 173. 73

II

lit.

'kd*f "he builds"

III

lit.

s'dmf "he hears":


"

III ae inf. m'ri'f "he loves":

~*^=^;

the

is

nevertheless, only occasionally written by the pyra-

mids
(

J!

i]

and by the manuscripts of the


it is

n. e.

(1(1

*^_). In classic orthography


sg.
' SM^T m r ^^ c ^

only written

in the

^6.

The position of the vowel, indicated


"

in

170 A,

is

this vowel was in one case (with the denoted by verb dependent upon rdl "cause that'', cf. 179) an
;

6 ('kdof, s'dmof, m'riof,

cf.

C 234
it.

sq.)

with the other

forms nothing
cf.

is

known about

(Concerning TTPXAC]

247).

That

this

may

be seen

e. g.

group really includes different forms, in the case of the II ae gem. which

173.

in certain cases separate their like radicals:

^^^=^.
XXX

tvnnf "he is"


*L*=^_

(cf.

178),

but in others, do not:


/W\A/V\

-^>
A/VWVA

tvnf

(cf.

180).

Furthermore, with irregular


Q

verbs: In "bring" sometimes has


180),

*^
178),
.c\

Intf

(cf.

sometimes
Irv

Inf

(cf.

sometimes
f~\

both forms:

"go" varies between

J\ v\

Irvtf

74

&.

THE FOEMATION Sdmf. B.

ITS

USE AS INDICATIVE. 174.

and
rdif(

J\ v\ ^=_
174)

irvf;

rdl "give", between


dlf
(cf.

and
B.

178. 180).

ITS USE AS INDICATIVE.


I.

*174.

In the old language sdmf of the

group,

is

the

usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative: n AftAAAA r\ \@/ ^
pjS

\\ V A^vn A
1 .

1\ To ww
I

7-j

I
I

Z$ r dl

rvl J\nf

llrvt

Eli

nt smr "His majesty established

me

in the

rank of a

friend"

In the later language, which prefers other


(cf.

forms and constructions for narration


230. 239),
is

222.

tences, in
gress.

sdmf descriptive senwhich the action makes no essential prois

retained in

more

This

especially the case at the close of a

short paragraph:
rvnln

mr-pr

Jir

srht "the

house overseer complained

of (the peasant)

ddinsn nf

they said, ("he

is

justly punish-

gr-prv irn mr-pr

ed &c".) the house overseer was there-

upon

silent.
A/WVAA

JX
X
srw, rvsbf n
sht'i

AAAAAA

IT
\\

<

--

--,

V?\

^jA

SP
I
I

Jl
v,,

JT

n wsof n nn n

pn "He

did not answer the princes,

Una

2.

C.

m THE

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 177. D. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. 179.


1
.

75

(but) answered this peasant"

(The last two clauses

simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already


stated.)

Here belongs also the formal


said", "he says",
It is further

"^K^^
is

ddf "he

175.

which introduces direct discourse.


used where a fact
expressed, in
snrvtt
its

176.

descriptions, assertions
c=

and the

like:
it

"The plant

^^

'X\
H
I

rwds hr
2
.

nts

grows upon

II

belly

(i.

e. it

creeps)"

C.

IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE.


used in conditional clauses introduc<=^>
(j

It is further

177.

ed by the particle
C
'-=^v
i
.

(cf.

389): (]<^>/
st
.

^^t^
"If

^|

^*
. .

lr

gmk
3
.

ddhrk

you
m33k

ind

... then say &c." The Ilae gem. are doubled in


it

this case (lr A AA/NAAA


;

178.

"if

you see"); In "bring" has the form A

rdl

"give", the

form
D.

A
.

AS A SUBJUNCTIVE.
179*.

It is very frequently dependent upon rdl "give, cause that", a combination which led to the formation of a new causative in Copt., cf. C 230b. E. g.:
1

Bauer

50.

Eb. 51,

16.

Eb.

37,

18.

76

E. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 181. F. AS AN OPTATIVE. 182.


C\ /""N

/Vj

AAAAAA

^
II A
l\

rdlnf stpl nl "he caused


.

that I choose for myself (of his land)" 1


180.

In this

case

the

gem. are not


AAAAAA

doubled; In
A
ft
,

"bring" has the form

rdl "give"

Iwt
0,

"come"

j^^>

The
cf.

vowel

was

here

an

according to the Copt.,


E.
*181.

234 sq.

IN A FINAL CLAUSE.

This very frequent form is probably identical with that of the subjunctive and optative. It stands

without introduction
**?\

"You might allow your servant


I"!

AAAAAA

^r\

to

come
Jirs

^x

C\
'

to me, FQ
I

^\ JLA Mf
therefore send

1 \>

h^bl nk

sw

that

may
F.

him

to

you

AS AN OPTATIVE.
QA

*182.

Probably identical with the preceding:


^=^>
r~\ \

J) ^zi^> J

mrk hmtk "Love thy

wife"

3
.

It is often

introduced by means of the particle


AAAAAA

Ih:

(1

"^

v^

Ih dds nl "let

4 her say to me" or by means of a

preceding Ir "do" (impv.):


"see"
i

-cs>-

^
*

Ir

5
.

Sin. 79.
12.

Peasant

38.

p ri sse

10, 9.

Sin.

Eb.

75,

THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. A.

ITS

FORMATION. 184. 185. 77

B. Since the n.

e.

(I

V\ *5oT ]_M^_m^.

Imi (imperative
is

of rdl

"cause that",
for it: Imi

cf.

256) with following verb


"let

often substituted
(lit.

mdicf ni

him speak with

me''

cause that he

speak with me).

The word for "behold" undoubtedly belongs


the optative:
Sg. m.
*

to 183.

fs^*, |\
(and the

f\

t* mk

(mtt?

cf.

35),

like) mt,

(and the like) mtn.

P.

THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. A. ITS FORMATION.


this
184*.

group may be recognised with certainty, only with those verbs which are marked by the doubling of the last consonant according to
In the case of most verbs they are not to be recognised from the orthography.
185.

The forms of

A. There are also found forms of this group in


y, especially in old texts, e. g.

v\

10

and

[Q

v\ J^ _Z1^I^5

V\ -J

h3wk "thou

comest down",

e=>\ 1
the last radical 1

"^

(I (J 1

^
.

ddyk "thou
I

sayest", but probably

only with verbs which have a


.

or (according to

151 A) a

as

The form with the


According to Sethe.

final

consonant doubled,

is 185.

78

A. ITS FORMATION. 186. B. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. 187.

found in the case of the Ilae gem., Illae gem., as well as the Illae iuf. and IVae inf. With the last

two

it is

especially easy to recognise

it,

for they are

not doubled except in the case of 259. 289. It is to be noted that, in the case of the frequently recurring verb Illae inf. Ir "make", the form Irr is
indicated by
186.

In place of the form with final consonant doubled,


the

irregular
fl ,
_

verb
i.

rdl
e.

(dl)

"give" has
(cf.

the form

A
f

A,
/

i\

i\

im

fl

or *-", ^n
A

dldi(?)

160).

B.

USE AS AN INDICATIVE.
of

187.

The
emphasis
;

significance

the

form

is

apparently

with reference to the future

it is

used very

often, in promises, threats, directions, questions &c.:


<:

<^-^>

^:> <^>OI
sndt'i rib

|1

A/W\A/\

~*] Jj& ' AA/WV\ <Ci\\\ x

prr

ffrt hrtv

3 -pn

''These three days (rations) will be delivered


(lit.

to every s.-priest"

come out

for)

'

"

X
"3

2 nn pssf "he shall not divide"

-An/77

ft

J3J? ,.

hj

u let

honey

drop in

Siut

I,

296.

Siut

I,

311.

Eb.

7,

22.

C.INCONDIT.CL. 188. D.DEP. UPON VERBS. 189. E. DEP. ON PREPS. 190.

79

C.

IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
Ir

It is further

the particle
precede:

used in conditional clauses, where (cf. 389) does not immediately


I

188.

gmmk

htf

ddhrk "If you find that his body

.,

then say &c."'.


D.

DEPENDENT UPON
verbs

VERBS.
jl

<=~>
It further follows the

rh "know", 189.
likewise

"v\

ml

"see",
(lit.

fvj\

lj\

gm

"find";

mr "wish"
rvd

"love"),

(& QJ\
<^>

swrf"fear", Y

^\

"command" and ^ ^
1

the like:
<^^^:>

A
i^

^\ AAAAAA A *^=* y /T
^w
.

A
_/_!

A/WW\

wdn hn/prrl
go to this

"His majesty commanded that

mountain" 2

ntrrf

"My

majesty knows that he

is

a god" 3

"I desire that you say"


E.

4
.

DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS.


190.
;

dependent upon various prepositions, which govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions the usage seems to vary. E. g.
It is
:

lEb.

36, 15.

LDII,

149e.

LD

III,

24d.

Westc.

9, 8.

80

7-

APPENDIX.

191193.

"let the patient drink this


"till

<d>"v\
_jfl
^V
I

r rvssf
^~^

he urinates"

1
.

hr m33f

rvi

"because he

ml h^Cf
in the region of light"
3
-

I3ht (?) "as

he shines

hft

"Be not haughty toward him 4 hssf when he is wretched"


.

K^=

Y.

APPENDIX.
172
190, the forit

191.

Beside the cases cited in

mation sdmf

is

found elsewhere,

where

is

not

possible to state anything definitely concerning the

On the substantivized forms forms employed. 282 sq., on the relative forms 394.
192.

cf.

The form sdmf,


tive sentences,
cf.

in contrast with

sdmnf

197), is

sometimes present in meaning; so especially in rela396.


193.

All that

is

stated in

172191,
lit.

as far as
t

may
171).

be seen,
In the

is

valid also for the passive in

(cf.
e
:

first

group the II
>k r\

make

the form

kd~trvf,

the Illae inf.:

(n

Q v\*
sin. 117.

'f\.

mslrvf, rdl:

olr

^>v

ditwf;

Eb.

6,

15.

LD

IU, 24 d.

Prisse

6,

c.

THE W-FORM sdmnf.

a. ITS

FORMATION. 194. 195.

81

in the second ~

group however rdi has the form

didltrvf.

c.

THE n-FORM

sdmnf.

a.

ITS FORMATION.
n,

In this form the stem receives an ending


is

which 194*

written after the determinative:


It

V^^__

nt

AAAAAA

QA

mrnf

"he loves".

may
it:

be seen from
/f~~^^
pr)

belongs inseparably to the stem, as 338 sq. the passive ending follows
;

/^T)
Note

N,

^%

AAAAAA

f\
I

gmntrvs "she

is

found".

further,

that the form began with a simple 195.

consonant (that
cf.

is to say,

without the prosthetic vowel,

170 A), and that:


1.

the II ae gem. contract their consonants: ^J?7

-<2>-

AftAAAA

m3nf "he
2.
^^^^t
/"}

sees

the III ae
WiAAAA

inf.

show only the second consonant


Ir

QA
according to
3.

mrnf\

-<s>-

"make" has the form

-^"O""^-

AAAAAA

151,

the verb rdl "give"


<
-

--^

(cf.
i

160) nearly always


<^,

AAAAA^ /

AA/VSAA

has the form


B.

^ AA/VW\~v
j.

^<z>A
for the

The M-form had,

most

part, already lost its

in

the n.

e.

Erin an, Agypt. Granim.

82

P. ITS

USE.

196198.

P.

ITS USE.

This form, which


iginally
e. g.

is

only used independently, or-

served

to
text,

narrate events

with animation;

in

an old

which otherwise usually employs

sdmf for narrative, the events of war are recalled with


liveliness
[-]

>a

Awwx by means of the w-form: f^ yf yf ^f AAAAAA |0 00 ^ ^ ^\ **=?= ln msC P n nf i^i r Y>


V
I

V\

'

t3 Hr'irv-sC

"This army came,


1

it

cut to pieces the land

of the Bedouins."

Thence further

also, in asseveration, explanation

and the

like, e. g.

"Lay
^^~~~^

this
^(\

upon the place of the


nrrvdnf"-\\> (certain-

AAAAAA

extracted hair,
ly) will

^-a-^,
2

not grow (again)".

min

rhntn
3

"behold,

ye

know
*197.

that etc." (in ceremonious style).

It often indicates the past, especially in relative

clauses

(cf.

396),

but occurs elsewhere also


with a preceding verb:
""""
fl
I

(cf.

220. 283)

in contrast

"His
i i

majesty came in peace

/Q.

^z^

wSj
4
(i.-

shrnf

hftirvf "he

had overthrown

his enemies"

e.

after he
*198.

had overthrown them). Since the m. e. the n-form


different
3

is

used for the most


it

part, in an entirely
i

manner;
I,

adds to a

Una

22.

Eb.

63, 17.

Siut

310.

LD

II,

122

a.

|3.

ITS USE. 199.

83

preceding word or sentence, an accompanying remark

more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause).


So
in descriptions:

S
''The

& ^j^,
is silent

c-^3

^K

r gr, n mdrvnf
1

mouth

and he does not speak".

He found
D

the canal obstructed

^^i^,

^
it

<=> And

*
2

n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed

upon

(longer)".

likewise in narratives
/f~^
ra

"Then
/WWVA
<~j

this
.e\

peasant
[
|

xx

/^\

went to implore him A/f?* ^\

gmnf

srv

A <ZI> VA T 77 _/ A- _S^ hr prt and found him as he came out &c".3


L

^^-

v\

As may be seen in the case of the last clause, the question is no longer one respecting an unimportant
accompanying circumstance, but the second occurrence (he found), overagainst the preceding important event (he went), is pushed into the background
in a stylistic

manner

only.
also.

A. The pyramids already employ the above ~


It is

a remarkable

fact,

that T

nfr "be good" 199.


Irv

seemingly always takes the w-form:


place
is
4

nfrn
5

"The

good",
4.

nfrn Ppy "P.


2

is

well".

Prisse 4,

Inscription of Sehel.

Bauer

34.

Prisse

9,

10.

p epy

].

169. 170.

F*

84 d THE

IW-FORM sdminf.
d.

e.

THE AP-FORM sdmJjrf. 200


sdminf.

204.

THE Jn-FOEM
stated in

*200.

That which

is

194,

195
C5

is
f\

valid also

AA/NAAA

for the formation of the


201.

Originally this

m-form: ^v$\ u form was ceremonial;

sdminf
it

is

there-

fore especially preferred where the subject


to

is

a person
rdiin

whom

respect

is

due,

e. g.
1

(1

A/WWA

hnf "the king occasioned"


with other forms).
202.

(sentences of the context

But many texts of the m. e. also employ it elsewhere in narrative, especially in the case of the com-

mon

words:
jj

t-=^j \

"^ dd "speak", <s>In "bring".

Ir "do",

J\

"v\
77

iw

"go" and
203.
r\

AAAAAA

It is further, often
A/^A^A^

used in directions,

e. g.

^^*
I

jy

IN

(I
1

AAAAAA
AA/^AA^

QTV y^

M /wwvv
1

vf^ Si.

srvrlln s

"Let the
of
it,

man
|\

drink",
AAAftAA AAAAA^

or in

"when water comes out

^s>-

(I

Irlnk ns then

make
e.

for

it

(the receipt) &c".

THE Ar-FOBM

sdmhrf.

204.
its

This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in


formation.
It is

-^^ employed in descriptions:


AWAAA

y
_,_
I

wnhrf W
*

rvZd

ml rvnn
9.

tp

Sin. 243.

EJJ. 32,

21.

Eb. 56,

3.

THE TJNINFLECTED PASSIVE. 205.

206.

85
is

t3

"He was green


1

(i.

e.

throve) like one

who

upon
com-

earth".
jQj

Here

also, probably belong the formulae


is"
2

*^

hprhrf "that

(as result of a

putation) and

o ^\ <^>

(Ellipse for ddhrtrv rs


3

"they say to her") "her name is". It occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205.

m-form
to her",
4

203),

e.

g.

C=L^\<^>

^*

(1
I

ddhr k rs "say

o
3.

5 \ ddhrlrv "let there be said".

THE UNINFLECTED*

PASSIVE.
is
it

This formation, which when written,


like the active, leaves

exactly 206*.

one in doubt whether

should
It is

be

classified with the earlier or later inflection.

only to

be found with certainty, with nominal sub,

ject, e. g.

r
1 1

ms nk hrdrv 3 "Three child-

ren are born to thee",


*

The word

term used by the author,


the passive ending

"uninflected" does not adequately translate the viz. "endungslos" as distinguished from

in tw; but "endungslos" has absolutely no equivalent in Eng., and as this passive can with certainty be found only with nominal subject, it may be stated with the greatest
probability, (as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that was uninflected. It certainly is so, for the practical purposes

it

of grammar.
i

TRANSL.
2

Eb.

2, 4.

Math. Hdb.
5

41.
6

Eb.

9,

20.

Eb. 36. U.

Eb.

16, 3.

Westc. 11,5.

86

4.

OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE).

a. ITS

FORMT

N. 207. 208.

and occurs with unchangeable stem,

in one

form only.

168 also, are probably to be explained in part as uninflected passives.


of
A. There are a few obsolete passive forms with
e. g. Jcrss

The impersonal verbs

suffixes, like

and these may also belong here. The uninflected passive would then belong to the later inflection.
'

"she was buried",

207.

It often takes the

place of the passive in

especi-

ally

where the latter would be


(cf.

in the w-form, in a cir-

cumstantial clause
ChCn
(cf.

198) or the combination with

230).

On
t

the other hand,

it

cannot be

used in dependent clauses, so that, for example after


rdi, the passive in

must always be used.

4.

OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE).


a.

ITS

FOEMATION.

*208.

found in only one form, the so called pseudoparticiple, the formation of which, in the m. e. acIt is

cording to the usual orthography


Sing.
1 c.
AAAAAA
\

is

as follows:

\*^^^^v&mnkrvi(mnkiv'}} "I remain"


,/""^

2m.
A/VWXA
l

JUU
AAOA

mntl

f.

A/WSAA

W
j

-illtlwirf

3 m.
f>

mn

o
/wwv\
t

Mar. Mast. 201.

4.

OLD INFLECTION (PSEDDOPARTICIPLE).


1 1 1
1

ft.

ITS FORMT'N.

209

211.

87

n
ij

Plur.

c.
AAAAAA
1 1
1 1

iv
U
Jl

-e\u AAAAAA

mnrvin
I

'

n
l[

-c-1

,1

AAAAAA

2 3

c.

/WWVA U
c.
AAAAAA
i\

v\ -M^
mn.

mnt'iwrii
\\

A. The original forms of the 3


of the dual (m.

pi. (cf.

212) and the forms


lost.

mmvy,
e.,

f.

mntyiv, mnty) were early

B. In the n.
(cf.

other forms also begin to drop out; in Copt,


sg.

C
3

181) the 3
f.

m.

has supplanted

all

the others and only a

few

sg.

are preserved with them.


1

The ending of the

sg. is

also written
to use this AAAAAA ^
~i v!

^z^Vu*

209.

and many texts seem regularly


certain verbs

form with
)

-^a
(
,

^ggy

<^
3 c ^ "^ \ ,

~9^?~

AAAAAA

nWn *Ii
^\

C^

>T"< Lk^

Other
-Pv

writings are

^^^

(o. e.), ^z^?>

v\ and rarely ^-^* VS'


-k.

B. In the n.

e. it

was pronounced

In the case of the endings

ti,

the writing

is 210.
e.

customary,

especially in the

manuscripts of the m.
e.

B. Vulgar writings of the n.

are

>

and

c v\

tw;

the ending was at that time, already spoken

-t.

The
"^Y

m.
:

sg.

originally
r\

had the ending

(I

more
"*f\.

211.

~^>--^^

rarely v\

^o Q

r\

(I

rvrhl "(he is) anointed",

<|j\

B \>^f 3mirv "(he 1 Jl Jj


inf.

is) '

mixed"; in the case of the Illae


(I,

and IVae
1

inf.

the

with the final

I-

becomes (1(1

Details according to Sethe.

88

4.

OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPAllTICIPLE).

a. ITS

FORMT'N. 212

214.

msli "(he

is)

born".

In the m.

e.

the writings in

are frequent, those in "v\


(1

not rare, but those in

have disappeared; the ending of most verbs was

L\L.

probably already lost. UK ma also be wr itten for

Jr

^\
JL
i
i i

there
3 f
.

was originally
in
n(j

in the plural a 3 m. in "v\

and a

tl\

but both were already lost at a very remote

period and only the 3 m. occasionally occurs in the


f\

^?\

m.
*213.

e.:

(\

v\

Irv

"they come".
originally

The pseudoparticiple apparently had

two forms, an active-transitive and a passive-intransitive. But the first was very early lost.
214.

The vocalisation can be restored only in the passive-intransitive forms, which are retained in the Copt.
thus restored, in the most important cases
it

runs

about as follows, the endings being added according to the later pronunciation, as -e and -te:
II
II
lit.

m. mene,

f.

mente ("remaining")

III inf.
I

gem. m. kebe ("cool") m. mosje ("born")


lit.

III

(III

sdomte ("heard") m. sepdode ("prepared") gem. lit. m. hemhome, f. hemhomte ("roaring").


f.

m. sodme,

b.

ITS USE. a. ACT.-TRANS.

|3.

PASS--INTRANS. FORM. 215

217.

89
was

A. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II

lit.

pronounced something

like erliw ("knowing").

In the case of the Illae

inf.,

the forms
ITJ

lv\and
the more

215.

occur side by side, but the latter


frequent.

is

Of the irregular verbs, rdl "give" has the


c

form
didiw;

^\
I

rdlrv, also

\>

dlrv

and
otherwise

"go" makes the

3m.

QflfljOl,

b.

ITS USE.

THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FORM. The few old texts, which still make this form
a.

IN

of 216.

the pseudoparticiple, employ

it

as a narrative form,

and preferably at the close of a short paragraph, from which it draws a conclusion. It, seemingly, -^till occurs, only in the
1

sg.:
I

Irkrvl

"and

I did",

[jj

V\ im^-^s

-*J

shlkrvi

"and

caused to descend".

Only the

verb rh "know", although it is transitive, has preserved a living pseudoparticiple; its use corresponds exactly with that of the passive-intransitive

form

(of.

217sq., 241).
P.

IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM.


of the intransitives

The pseudoparticiple

and pasj

217.

sives, as well as that of the transitive

verb

rh

90

|3.

IN

THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM.

218. 219.

"know"

(of.

216),

is

still

used as an independent
O

T jQ

verb, almost only in the


hskrvi hrs
A. The pyr.
still

1 sg., e. g.

h^
1

"and

was therefore praised".

have,

e. g. slitpf ntrwu',

htpwil "he satisfies

the two gods, and they are satisfied" 2 (H m. du.) and the like.
*218.

it is

more frequently employed


for the

in order to

annex

to a substantive or

we would,
"This
l
3

pronoun a closer limitation, where most part, employ a participle. E. g.


^z3^>^\VQi r l

command came <zz>My


me,
(as)
I

to

stood (in the

midst of

my

tribe)".

/wvw\

~\

r\

kbti "If you find his jy/www \\\gmmk drmf sm, hlf J*7 /WWW U IA sole hot and his body cool" (lit. "if you find his sole,
I

it is

hot)".

srv stsy

"Look

at

him stretched
Cf.

out".

B. In Copt, the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entirely

gone over into

participles.

181. 182.

219

On

the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent


cf.

predicate

240 sq., 246 sq., 233, 234, 402.


2

LD
*

II,

122 a.
3.

Pepy

I,

348.

Sin.

199.

Eb. 37,

Eb. 36,

7.

5.

COMP. WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. 220. 221.

91

5.

COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL


INFLECTION.
a.

INTRODUCED BY "IT THE FORMS Iw sdmf AND


a.

IS",

ho sdmnf.

With the impersonal auxiliary verb


is",

(j'\\

Irv

"it 220*.

there are

made two

forms, which as a rule are

distinguished in usage as follows:

Iw sdmf "he hears (heard)",


Iw sdmnf "he (had) heard" (past, cf. 197). With the first, both passives occur with the second,
;

only the passive in

t.

With nominal

subject, the forms

run: Iw sdm ntr "the god hears", Iw sdmn ntr "the god
heard".
In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and

sdmnf, these have a certain independence (like other


clauses introduced by Iw
It is therefore used,
-ed
cf.

246, 332).
is

where a fact

to be express- 221.

in

a single independent remark:


(1

"This plant
UX /wwv\

is

used so and so
fi

^K
^
III

of

o "v\
made

J)

^_
means of

i^ytf

tw grt srtvdtw sn n

st

t3yf prt

"further, the hair of a


its fruit''.
1

woman

is

to

grow by
"v\ A
Jl

"The prince came

to the king
I

and

said,

(1
1

jJ/WWVA

Iw Innl Ddi
1

have brought Ddi hither". 2


'

Eb. 47, 19

(cf.

115).

Westc.

8,

8.

92
222.

a(3.

AUXILIARY VERB

ivn.

ba.

THE FORM iwf sdmf.

222

225.

It is

used especially at the beginning of a narra-

tive or of

one of
hzbn

its

paragraphs:

[1

^\ rD\j^
me

AAAAAA
1

"v\

Itv

rvl

nbl

"My

lord sent

out &c.

(Beginning of the narrative).


'

p.

WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB

wn.

223.

The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb

AAAAAA

wn

"it is",

is

far

more rare and probably


V\A

archaic.

There are found ^^*

"

v\

WvV

rvn

sdmf "he hears"J


i|

sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^


u he heard".

AAAAAA AAA/VAj

&.

WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT,


a.

THE FORM
J)
is

iw/ sdmf.
~

*224.

This form

(1
I

"%\

C\
_Hv^

^w/ 5</w/

(lit.

"he

is;

he hears"), means "he

accustomed to hear".
A
*^V
'"I
|
I

With
p3

nominal subject

it

runs as follows:

(I
1

v\
/I

5\

y ^-^M

JV */ J
\

^w n#r sdm/ "The god is accustomed to hear". a number of verbs in this form follow one another^

^\ _HK^A When

iwf
225
-

is

used with the

first

of

them

only.

It is

used (similarly, the forms of


149 e.

221) in re^

LD

II,

(3.

THE FORMS

wnf sdmf AND wulnf


is

sdmf. 226

228.

93

marks, in which a fact


A
_n

stated:

(j

"\>

^*\Jf
t3

^ "y\ n ^ R
"He who has
this

Iw grt prts

dltrvs

hr

"Further,

its fruit is

accustomed to be laid upon bread". 1

book

prf .... he knows

^w/"
all

rhf hprtvt nf

ribt

goes in and out

....
226.

that happens to him". 2


it is

But on the other hand


the forms in

also

246
Q

249) in descriptions
f\

employed (like and desQ

criptive narratives:
t\

^\
tl

O^

^J
I

v ^r i_l

AAAAAA

^r AA/WAA AAAAAA C__L

^^

e*
rj

/}
Fl

^i
I

^ll

^N^ y^.U ^r P^i Jf

^^

mn>

^& "I

3 gave water to the thirsty".

It is especially preferred in the case

correspond-

227.

ing to

249, for the continuation of a relative clause

or the like:

p
A
v.

JJ

n
fi

/Ci
,

/WWVA

\\

nlibtf

"A

s stf o ^^ nhbtf, irvf mnf Q'i n V\ _ffix^A^\ man on whose neck there is a swelling and

who has pain


p.

in the

two organs of his neck". 4


wninf sdmf.
is

THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND


/WW\A

The form -^^ *^=^


Eb.
51, 18.
2

v\ ^=^_ wnf sdmf


6.
3

very 228.
20.

Totb. 15 B,

gin. 96.

Eb. 51,

94

fey

THE FORM

/jr/

sdmf.

ca.

WITH cf*CW AND chC- 229. 230.

rare; another, rvnlnf sdmf, which only occurs where

one of the words for king, forms the subject:


AAAAAA
] I
i

-^
AAAAAA
(]
|

v^\

KX\

_y

_i

MU

Q.

9jm / ft IVtlviv

It II j

hw/

/fr-J

/)</)/ (//

w/

rtC'

" JLXX9 r^ a
i

1 majesty sent to me",

is

explained by
hrf sdmf.

346.

Y-

THE FORM
is

229.

This rare formation

evidently related to sdmhrf,

and

like

it,

is

used in directions:
rv3Jik

<= >^z^Yo ^ AA
2

ll^H u
Jj

hrk

dtk "lay your hand",


*

st

gss d3d3s im "Let the


3

woman

anoint her head with


dltrv

it",
4

o ^K A

"Let there be given".


c.

WITH A VERB OF MOTION. WITH chcn AND chc.


a..

*230.

The very frequent combination ^ A AAAA


QiCn sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?), originally marke

an occurrence in the narrative, as significant (something like 'then he heard"). In the popular language of the m. e., however, it is weakened to the usual form for narrative ("he heard").
ten archaically
1

i>

is

also writ-

OY~
2

Y
3

and
21.
4

Sin.

174.

Eb.

48, 3.

Eb. 47,

Eb.

44, 3.

co..

WITH chcn AND chC- 231234.


o. e. this

95
still

A. In the language of the


to be wanting.

compound

seems

In the case of the active of the transitives, Qif-n


U

always has the w-form following:


"""

<jp

_ <^:>
n

231*.

A/WVAA
-

A AAAAAA

'

A ^
L\

cjiCn

rdlnf "he gave",


said".

Ip

c=?|

QCn <Mw

7#

"The prince

No example
j

of the passive inis

occurs; the unin- 232*.

fleeted passive, however,

freely used after

Qin

D A 207): f n(l <=^> Jjo1\ A AA^VA l\ U 1 hpt ''The house was fitted out".
I

:^ J^^^cnn

(cf.

ChCn sspd

I?
A AAAAAA
fl

QC W

2 "they (impers.) occasioned".

The nominal sentence described


verb
is in

in

240sq., whose 233*.


in-

the pseudoparticiple,
I

is

employed with

transitive verbs: H __ -f\ Q A

JT "His majesty went


I

V /wwvv
J\

^=

"^\J\ GL

rt

\^

Pi

tiii

V\ ^\ _^ .M* Ck
3

Qi^n hnfwctt

'

htp

in peace".

If the subject is a

pronoun,

it is

attached to Ch

as suffix:

^
4

^ (Wyl
fi

^TTi^"

^ ^f c ^ Cw ^

hntkwl

"I sailed up".

i
4

^H
A/VWW
I

&
<~-

>

^"ji
1'

QCWS

^r/*

"She ceased". 5
is

(J

Other than in narrative, there


i

also used the 234.


U, 122 a.

Westc.

3, 8.

2 *

ib.

8,

4. 6,
3.

LD

LD

II.

122b.

Westc.

96

p.

WITH

in,

prn AND

Iw.

d-

THE FORM sdmf pw. 235

237.

form

A c^ c

which transitive verbs follow in the


fol-

form sdmf, while intransitives, just as with QiCn, low in the pseudoparticiple:
i i I

o
1

w&Z "then he discharges all worms".

@
f~7^flra'^l|(]
falls
2

-^
a

cs

Mtl lire "then she

immediately".
/*.

WITH
I

in,

prn

AND
C
<T
'

iw.

235.

The forms
derived from
^

M -A
./J

In

and
jt?r

-^
,

which

are

AAAAAA

^> AAAAAA

"come" and
it

than

c/^Sft,

but like

"go out", are far rarer in construction and original

meaning.
236
'

J\
Iwl mhkrvl "then I
d.

c
,

cf.
3

j\

am

full".

THE FORM sdmf piv.


in the first instance,

237.

The form sdmf pw,

means
;

87 on pw) something like "it is he who hears" (cf. but it further appears to denote also a condition at
r\

/WVAA
jl

tained:

"When you

find this or that in


is

him

D^K

snbf ptv then he

well".
cf.

The verb has

the

form of the second group,


Eb.
20, 7.
2

184 sq.
35, 36.
*

Eb. 51, 18.

Math. Hdb.

Eb. 37,

1C

6.

WITH

ir.

238.

7.

WITH PSEUDOPABTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 240. 97


Ir

6.

COMPOUNDS WITH
Ir
it

"MAKE".
infi- 238.

The combination of
nitive
is

"make, do" with an

dependent upon

as object ("he does hearing"),

used:
1.

Often with verbs of going:


1 .

-<s>-ME^p v\
<==*=>

iri smt "I went"


2.

With compound verbs


2
,

AAAAAA

<

dZZ^>

^J^

Irnl

dr-t3 "I journeyed"

-<a>3
.

<^z^>

<nr>
first

YX A 1H

r#rAI

w^-

d3d3 "you multiply"


IV
lit.

B. This combination

supercedes the inflection, with the


(cf.

and caus.

Ill

lit.*,

later with all verbs

249).

The strange combination


prv Irnf ("it

^ Y^\

D^>

sdm
is

239*.

was hearing which he did"?) which


e.

used since the m.


~*\

especially with verbs of going,


is

as a form of narrative,
|

much more

frequent.

E.

g.

*^\

.^O^^AA,

v$\

prt

prv Irnf "he

went

out", because

pr

is

a verb of going, while the parallel verbs are

expressed by means of sdmlnf or Ch^n sdmnf.


7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE,


a.

WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER NOMINAL SENTENCE).


(cf.

The model of the nominal sentence

327 sq.)

240*.

was early transferred to sentences with verbal predii

Sin. 19.

Una

30.

Math. Hdb.

41.

<

According to Sethe.

Erman,

Egypt, granim.

98

7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 241. 242.

cate; the subject (a

noun or pronoun) preceding, the


is

verb following. In general, the verb

in the pseudo-

participle in the case of intransitives

and passives;

and

in the infinitive with the preposition

#r, in

the case of transitives.


B. This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian

forms twfsdm
241.

(qCOTM) and twflir sdm ((]CO)TM).

Cf.

C253sq.

More
participle:
1.

exactly,

the following are in the pseudo-

the passives (ph3 "divided", shr "overlaid"


the verbs of going

etc.).
i

2.

(hi "descend", Iw "go",

"go", hr "fall"),
3. the verbs of condition when they denote the continuation of the condition (mh "be full", mr "be sick", frv "be broad" &c.); but also hpr "to be" even

where
4.

it
'

means "become".

>

J]

rh "know" w

(cf. 8

216),

even with following

object.
242.

The following, however, are


with hr:
1.

in

the

infinitive

the transitive verbs with or without an object

following, (rdi "give", ssp "receive", hrp "lead",

ml

"see" &c.),
2.

verbs

of

condition,

when

they denote the

entrance upon the condition,

(mlrv "recommence",

3k "diminish", hpr "happen"),

7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 243. 244. 99

3.

verbs of crying and weeping (nml "roar, low",


&c.).
lir

rmy "weep"
seem
ciple

A. In the oldest language the infinitive with


to

does not yet

have been usage here, for at that time the pseudopartiwas still made with all verbs ( 213).
Its

use corresponds to that of the real nominal


(cf.

243.

sentence

328

sq.).

It is used, therefore in asser-

rl

"No

contradiction comes out of


after

my mouth"

1 ,

and especially

mk "behold"
(

183) where the

old absolute pronouns

80) are used:

S3-nht

irv

m C3m
2
.

"Behold (thou woman), Sinuhe comes


\\

as an Asiatic"

tk

come" 3

It is further

used in descriptions and in the des:

244.

criptive parts of a narrative

13

h3rv

Ihtv

hr

m3w "Old age comes


.

on

.,

4 weakness(?) recommences"

S
LD
II,

MJ
Sin. 265.
3

136 h.

Westc.

8, 12.

Prisse

4, 2

3.

G*

100

b.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS.


j

<X.

WITH THE VERB

Iw. 246.

'-"

f\

AAy\AAA

Ksk >"?!
98)
itl,

'A

fy-

n ^'

^ww

(fern,

according to

hCfi rib

m3h

nl,

about:

"Day broke and now


burned
for

came the people

of Tnw, while every heart

me

"

(not narrative but description).


is

Such a description
conjunction
the
(1

often introduced by the


323).

ls=
_B^fc

1st (

Here

also,

belongs

use

of

^\

clauses :

1\

^~*

d
J\

A m

ht "after" in

temporal
*

Jjjwi

JB=&

^
fl

^f*^
2
.

ht

mlrrv hpr "After


245.
1

it

had become evening"


is

A
A.'

sentence of this kind


1
.

often also used as a


.

tk H A relative clause: v\ AWWV Jl ikil

J
.

J oA
i

rjAA^AAAQ
I I

AAAAAA/WSAAA
.

Li

J"v\X^v
"two obelisks
. .

/Mwi'
L

bnbntsn Jbhtv

hrt

3 whose summits reach heaven",

or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connection with which an action took place:

^
d^>

/WVAA/V.

^a^,
*L^_

^
246.

^^ j
it,
b.

^^

hdnf

hrf, Ibf fn>


4
.

"He

sailed

down

upon

his heart being glad"

a.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw.


<

Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc

ed by the auxiliary verb fi%> Iw


1

(cf.
3

220222),
LD
IH, 24
d.

Sin.

129131.

Westc.

3,

10.

Inscription of Sehel.

b.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS.

<X.

WITH THE VERB llO. 247.248.

101

so the nominal
treated,
is

sentence with verbal predicate just

also often introduced


Irv,

by
in

In.

The modifi-

cation introduced by this

is

both cases the


expressed by

same.

If the subject is a

pronoun,

it is

a suffix:

<=>
to

Sr-A
[]

&J but J 7A^>,


later

'

v therefore ^ *^ J\ ^ to
e.
;

corresponds

E. In the popular language of the m.

the forms Iwf

sdm

pronominal subject, are already 240 sq. the use of Iwf supplanting the nominal sentences of

and Iwfhr sdm,

in the case of a

sdm

especially,

becomes

still

more extended.
sdm) and

They are
(iwf

preserved in Copt, as

FqCOTM

(iivf

EqCCDTM

hr sdm).
It is

Cf.

251, 262 sq.


is

used where a fact


(cf.
it,

expressed in a single

247.

independent remark

221):

"Say concerning
Irv

(j^Kr

rH

Q**=*-

T^v
248.

1 mrstf(l} phltl his liver (?) is divided" .

It

is

further

employed at the beginning of a


its

narrative or of one of

paragraphs

(cf.

222):

Irv trvtl

shr

nb, Indrvtf
its

rv3sm

"My

statue
silver-

was overlaid with gold and


2

apron with

gold."

Even when the sentence


1

in

question,

expresses

Eb. 36

17.

Sin. 307.

102

(3.

WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB WH. 250.

only an accompanying subordinate circumstance, this

form

is

used like that without Iw

(cf.

245)

7>r/*.

Iw ms^ pn n stn hr

"she bore upon looked on"


1
.

it,

while

this

army

of the

king

249.

When

a number of relative nominal sentences

are joined to one

noun
(cf.

(cf.

245),

all

but the

first

are introduced by Iw

227):
<-?-<

>

]\

Ir

mB3k

hri-stt

nht htf hrs, Irvf

Jir

mn

r-lbf "If you


is

see any one with a swelling ....

whose body

there.

fore

stiff

and who

is

diseased in his stomach (?)" 2

p.

WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB

ton.

250.

Here belong the forms, distinguished according


to

241

242,

^^^=^^)
AAAAAA

v\

tvnf

sdm (the verb

is

pseudoparticiple) and

-^^^^_ ^
(

v\

WvV

wnf

tir

sdm:

-^^ *L=^ ^ d^3 -Jb] *k^> A


AAAAAA
I

li

M
|

^^7

rvnfhr dw3ntrw

lib

"He worshipped

all

gods"

LD

II,

149

c.

Eb. 25,

4.

fir-^/IIa,

14.

P.

WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB WU. 251. 252.


(~\

103
1

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

*^_
187).

V1

wnnf Cnh

'"He will live"

184,

A
verb

remarkable formation, in which the auxiliary


also in the pseudoparticiple, is

251.

is

found in ^&i
AAAAAA

^^^^<=^>^^ J\^^^^\^
myself down(?)"
2
.

rvnkl

dwnkwi "I threw

The forms distinguished according

to

241

242

252*.

nninf

lir

sdm, which represent an action or a condi-

tion as the result or conclusion of that previously

narrated,

are

more

frequent.

They

are therefore

employed
fl M

for the

most part,

at the close of a para-

graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king


S\ ^^^ _^J |U AAAAAA WHIH ID U fin/ KO _JJ A \1 IA AAAAAA and the heart of his majesty was (on that account)
AAAAAA <fV AAAAAA W
\
I

n,ff AAAAAA
\

~1

cheered

(lit.

cool)"

But they are further employed

at the beginning of a paragraph also, where they

then connect the latter with that which precedes

"The wise man had the children


the

called, gave

them

book and said


I

to

them
|

&c.".
I

New paragraph:
|

AAAAAA
I i i i
I

jf
i

Q
I

_ X
i

AAAAAA

~SSX1

AAAAAA
(

nil

/WVAAA!

LD

II,

149

c.

Sin. 252.

Westc.

6,

1.

104

8.

COMPOUNDS WITH T AND THE INFINITIVE. 253. 254.

<=^3
st

^,

__

.......

hr rdlt

st

hr

hrvtsn, rvnlnsn

2i/l

hr sdt
bellies
B. that

"And they threw themselves upon


it
1

their

and they read &C." Toward the end of the n.


temporarily the most

e.

this

becomes

so frequent,

it is

common form

of narrative.

8.

COMPOUNDS WITH
On
be something"
is for

AND THE

INFINITIVE.
. . .

253.

the basis of the construction Irvf r


(e. g.

"he
Irvf

will

(l'v\

jlj

1\

WH

a friend", i. e. "he will be a friend" 2 ), there developed a kind of nominal sentence, in which
r

smr "he

(cf.

240) the preposition <c=>


:

r, "to",

with following

infinitive, indicates the future

rvl

nhm C3k "Behold,


The auxiliary verb

I will

take thy ass" 3


Irv

>254.

(1

^\

was early prefixed


246
i

to this kind of sentence also (as in

sq.)

and the

form thus originating,

(j^

^^^v

wf

r s ^m " ne

will hear", has already nearly superceded the simple form in the popular language of the m. e.
B. In Copt,
it is

preserved as

F(|8CO)TM
3

(cf.

269).

Prisse

2,

5.

gi n

280.

Bauer

11.

9.

IMPERATIVE. 255. 256.

105

9.

IMPERATIVE.
in

^ mh
i-*-*-*

The imperative had no ending


"fill"
I

the singular: 255*.


it

(something like
or
rv

mho)\ in the plural

ended in

("mhorv}.

In classic orthography,

however, these endings are almost never written, and


the plural of the imperative
is

indicated only by the

determinative

i:

Q^N\ QA
lit.

shBn>

"remember" or

left

entirely unindicated.
A. In the pyr. the II
sing, according to

indicate the prosthetic vowel, in the


"fall"

170 A:

llir

(something like

hro; the

Ilae gem. are doubled,

p.
e.

The

plural of the Illae inf. in the

pyramids ends in

(I

[I, i.

the third radical


is

and the ending L

B. Since the n.

e.

the infinitive

also used instead of the

imperative; the Copt,


old formation,
cf.

still

possesses but few imperatives of the

305.

In detail note further:

256.

impv. of

"make, do",
iml incorrectly in the
,

n. e.

(1

older

v\

and the

like,

is

used as imperative of
cf.

rd"give, cause". (Copt.


n

MA,

305; the signs

and

_n

are the deter-

minatives of giving).

1\
'

m, more
Ab
II,

rarely \[J\, later J|vi lljh

and

Mar.

31.

106

9.

IMPERATIVE. 257.

the like, as imperative of the verbs of coming, (Copt,

m. AMOy, f. AMH, cf. C 305). The distinction in gender observable in the two Copt, forms just cited, was probably existent in the
old language also, but
is

not indicated in the ortho-

graphy.
A. The pyr. write mi "give" for the most part
(with the sign
D);
(I

_D

imi
rdl,

they have further a real imperative of


di.

which

is

written

A
Lu

K
(I

ra

B.

On

the employment of

V\

V\

"give" in clauses

182 B. From frequent usage since the expressing a wish, cf. m. e., imi loses its original meaning "give"; imi Altw "cause that

there be given" (in the


replaces
it.

LE. contracted

to

(I

V\

^H^vf

)>

257.

The imperative
solute

is

often followed by the old ab-

pronoun
^o

(cf.

80):

^\
X> Jl&
\

J\
i

^
i i

Y>

^s

"hasten (thou)",

P^I The words


emphasis
(cf.

VN\

AAWAA rvd^rv tn
I

"go (ye)"

1
.

r-

and

lr-,

employed with

suffixes for

348), often follow it also:

m
r-

rk "gehe",

cn>*A/wxA

wn

ir(n

"open

ye",
.

III
1

sdmrv Irf

tn

"hear ve" 3 J
27.
3

Sin. 282.

Totb. ed. Nav.

I,

LD

HI, 24

d.

10a. PARTICIPLES. 258. 259.

107

10.

THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB.


a.

PARTICIPLES.

The
follows
:

participles,

which as a rule are written as 258*

Sg. m.

^9vb\

sdm

Pl.m.

f.

^^|\

sdmyrvt^)

may part, had a vocalic ending z, as may be conjectured from the pi. m. The sing. m.
have, for the

most

furthermore,

often
rv

has
96),
e.

the

masculine substantive
it

ending "v\

(cf.

alone as a substantive,
1

especially where f ^ ^\ ^\
g.

stands

v\

v\

wttrv
.

"be-

getter"

*}>\

stP

" cn o sen one" 2

The

participles occur in active

and passive forms,

259.

of which, those of the present and future, and those


of the past

seem

to

have been distinguished. 3

Note

in detail:
II ae

L The

gem.

have

sometimes

separated,

sometimes contracted consonants:

-^*
AAAAAA

rvnn "being" "

or

-A;:Si5

tvn.

AAAAAA

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

LD

II,

122

a.

According to

fiethe.

108
2.

10a. PARTICIPLES. 260.

The Illae

inf. in

the active, sometimes double

the second radical (present), and sometimes do not


(past):

<z>^\
ffl

mrrrv "loving",

prr

"going out", but

"having born" (fem.),

J\

pr "having gone

Beside the forms with doubling (present) there occur in the passive, others in which
out.
I (cf.

the third radical

151) is visible (past):


(fem.) but

gmyt "found"

gmmt "being found"


do",
is

(fem.)

In the case of -<s>- "make,

written for
151.

Irr,

and

-ca>-(j(l

for

try,

according to
3.
""

The irregular verb rdl "give" has the active


^

form
260.

Hf,
c_i

dldl "giving".

The

participle

is

either used attributively like an

adjective:
-v

-?>^

ft

r\

/~N f

-*

ill

Irywt r/ "the
1

wrong done against him"

hr hQl "the kings who were before me" 2 or like a substantive:

Eb.

1,

13.

EIH

19 sq.

10a. PARTICIPLES. 261.

109

mst t3y "one


1
.

(fern.),

who

born a boy"

^^|\ [m'vx sT sdmyrv "the


\

listeners"

2
.

li^ ^^, jH>^ T^^

AA/WVA

"

C2>"

H 1

mr w
^1

^r

*\-r^

r/"

"pain

about that done to him."

A
A
(i.

remedy ^\ J
is

"**
ill

JJ^<n>

o
is

m
I

Irrrvt

n ht of

that which

made

for the

body"

substantive or a suffix
participle,

often
its

added to a
subject

261.

passive
e.

to

indicate

logical

the

one,

from

whom
IBiv'i

the

action in question

proceeds):
.

_=>

mry
(1 (1

"beloved by the two lands".


s3f

*^^.

*L=^_

mryf

"his

son beloved

by him". The grammatical subject of a verb may also be


retained,
especially
[I

when

it is

put in the passive participle,


:

cf.

400 and examples like


AAAftAA

(1

-o>- (1 (I T

^|\

i r ii

mr f rf i n

snf "He, to

whom

injury

is

done by his brother"


a fratre)
2

(lit.

factus

malum

contra

eum

5
.

Eb.

26, 16.

Prisse

5,

14.

Bauer

25.

Eb.

19, 11.

Merenre' 465 j the whole according to Sethe.

110

b.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 262. 263.

A. The old expressions

/wwv\

mr n

"beloved
of" are

of,
pro-

ms n "born
bably passive participles

of",
AA/WvA

Ir

n "begotten

also.

b.

THE INFINITIVE,
a.

ITS FORMATION.

*262.

The
vowel
ending
II

infinitive

has different forms in the different


classes
it

verbal classes.
o
:

With the following


first

has the

after the

consonant,

and no special

lit.,

-^"r

wn "open" oyCDN

(with suffixes

III

lit.,

^1\
V
lit.,

sdm "hear" CCDTM (with


*"

suffixes

COTM=); IV and
suffixes
263.

o>

Mht w w

(cf.

CoAcA, with

cAcO)A).
o is

An
III
lit.

found after the second consonant of some


like

which denote a quality,


(for *tsor~)

<nr>

^J\
kmom

dsr
II

TDOO)

"become red" and also of the


i

ae gem. of like meaning, like s

v\

1\

"become black".
II ae

Whether the
\\ 7f
c==
(
i

infinitives of the other

gem. like

iD

vv

rvU "urinate", are also

to be vocalised thus,

is

uncertain.

b.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 264

268.

Ill

The Illae
^v

j>,

most part an a
*i

according to the Copt, have for the 264. after the second consonant in the

infinitive:

v> n

&

v\
J!ES>

?\

n
i\

wd3 "be healthy" OYXAl,

n
I

%^-

sk3 "plow" CKAl.


O O
\\
'
i'

""
*i

f\

Certain infinitives, like

R X
/\ r\

A
-rf-J

hlu "seek",
AAAAAA

(1
1

265.

^
j

^
The
f~\
|

m' w ^

"land"

(i.

e.

die,

MOONE),

in careful

orthography, end in
III ae
inf.

'i.

have
i

infinitives
/k

with feminine 266*.

ending and the vowel


[

or

e:
jjj

1^ mst "bear" MICE


-<S>*r#

prl "go out"


do", FlpF, nj"^\

mpe, nppF,
'-descend"

"make,

^^

F &c.
infinitives, 267.

_^\s>_y_i
lit.

A
like

few III

have likewise feminine


"sit" B.

dh hmst
Q
fl

gEMCt,

as well as the

irregular verbs
"give".

Mf (?) "come" und

<~

rdlt

The causatives of the

II

lit.

have likewise femiI

268.

nine infinitives (according to

161):

^^^
c^\
\y/

s fy rt

"overthrow"

(from

hr

"fall"),

0"^^
I

il

smnt

AAAAAA

"establish" from

mn MOyN "remain") CMINP.- Among


inf.

the causatives of the Illae

are found
s

sms'i

lj||

"unbind", but also

Pru"|^(](|/\

"cause

to

112
descend".

(3.

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269

271.

The causatives of the


lit.

III

lit.

are classified
/>

with the IV
up", Copt.

in the infinitive,

II?

s^hc "get

COOgF
0.

(from *soCh'C).

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE.
was originally a substantive with
and governs no obrendered in possessive form by
79),

*269.

The
no

infinitive

the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs


to
definite voice of the verb

ject; "to kill

him"

is

hdbf "his killing"

(cf.

and

Mb

hft'i

"to kill the

enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the


killing of the enemy",
270.
(cf.

173.)

Of
*A*VWV

itself,

hdbf "his killing"


killing,
EL 3i^-^ "

may

also
in

have the
I

meaning "the
A
I

which he does", as

JT|

*$~*-~]
I

P^^^\
is

msdr nds sdmf "an ear whose


e.

_B*v5t
l

hearing
is
is

small"

(i.

a deaf ear), but such usage

practically rare (the substantivised form of

283

preferred in this case)


is

and a possessive

suffix

on

the infinitive

always

first to

be translated as the

object of the latter.


271.

The substantive character of the

infinitive

is

evidenced also by the fact that a plural is made from In contrast with the singular it is best rendered it.

by a substantive:
i

Eb. 91,

2.

Y. ITS

USE. 272.

113
Plural

Singular
/""\

4?

*^V

/""^

i^'to bear"
ffl|'

_^
msrut

\
1

'birth";

c
3

mrt "to love"

2 ^"vN mrrvt "love";

r-*

ac

"to stand"

i
fi

"^ -A IN
Ji
3

c/c;

"standing

place";

^^> hkr "to hunger" Q


With many verbs however,
and of
the singular.
Y.

^\

^^

likrrv

"hun-

(e. g.

those of going
also used like

rejoicing) the plural infinitive

is

ITS USE.

It stands, precisely like a substantive, as the

sub-

272.

ject of a sentence:

"My wish was


subject,
cf.

to

make

it

5 for him" (irt

is

335),
:

or as part of the genetive relation ^ /o r\ <->( ^ n\ ra cq r~i

|o

AAA^V^I

(T LJ v
J 1

A ^ ILDLnn v^^r
st

hrn> n

st tk ^

ht1

ntr,

"The day of the lamp-lighting


jj
i

in the temple"/

^ni^u^l
2

hrs "place of burying", 7


H, 122 a.
Siut
I, 3
"

LD

Westc. 10, 8. & LD n, 122b. Erman, Egypt gramm.

LD
d.

III,

24

291.

Westc. 6, 13, Westc. 7, 8.


j[

114

ITS USE.

273275.
118):

or for the qualification of an adjective


T
A

(of.

c^^ ^\ QA
1

nfr

mdw

"excellent in speak-

mg
273.

"

Further, as object after verbs of willing, like


""

"v\
|

rvd
j

"command",

mr

"desire",

^p> nA snd
a
1J

"fear", as well as ^=^&

\\ nA k3 "think" and ymH/


C
si)

rh "know, be able"
n U

(cf.

314):

!1

^y--^ J]^ 1K
"
2

X
|H U
I

^==

-/J.

JIE^ ^~x

w( jtrvnf
2

"It

was commanded him to pay


189

it".

Beside

the above, the construction in

is

also in use

with these verbs.


274.

The
position
;

infinitive

may be dependent upon any prewith the more common prepositions these

combinations have in part taken on special meanings, which are noted below:
275.

The

infinitive with

^S\

"in",

denotes for the

most part time,

"They were astonished ^\^ Q


came",
3

(j

A milt when they


e.

but nevertheless occurs with other meanings,


"*
2

g.

fi^>

1L
Peasant

^OP ^"^^ o
75.
2

Sn>

Irtlsft "free

from do-

ing sin
Peasant 48.
3

Prisse

2, 4.

Mar. Ab. n,

24.

-.

f.

ITS USE. 276. 277.

115
276*.

With <^i>
pose (as
.ope

still
AA/VW\

almost always indicates purin Copt, with e cf. C 315):


r "to", it
S&"-,

-!

r\

g&

^^ /^

/Q

|||

hntf r shrt

Jift'irvf (cf.
1

7)

"He

sailed

up

to

overthrow

his enemies",

"He went <=>

QA

/www

v\

_
^)

TO r s/>r n mr-

2 pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".

In the

common

expression <zr>

dd ''in order

to say" the idea of in the

purpose had already disappeared


it,

m.

e.,

so that

(like its derivative XB,

370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse,

"I wandered through the

camp
nhm

._

^^

QA
ml

<=>

=s\^
With

Tk

L y \^ P T T % i_E^
_.

(]

^r

r dd: Irtrv nn
3

m?, while I cried,

'How

is this

done?'".

^
vr

Jir it

denotes simultaneousness ("while")*,


tni
fir

277*.

AAAAAA .,
I
I
'

/)

tea

Srnsf"! went, follow-

ing him",

found him going out"

On
*
i

he was going out"). 5 the use of this combination as a substitute


(''as

LD

Best rendered in English by the present participle. TEANSL. 2 Bauer 33. 3 Sin. * LD 202. II, 122a, II, 122 a.
34.

Bauer

H*

116

f.

ITS USE.

278

280.

for the pseudoparticiple

with transitive verbs,

cf.

240. 242.
278.

The prepositions
scripts)

/www n (the

of good

manudenote

and

i^T""

#&c,

with the infinitive,

cause

^
"I lived, honored by the king
3

"

JKfl
Wv^
f~\

/^
I

^J^
1

r~\

LWWVA

/WWVA \

jv
i

Irt
1

m3Ct n stn because

wrought

truth for the king".


e\mr\

279

O
-

/WVAAA
linf-

"with" connects the infinitive with a


it

preceding verb whose meaning


" r
f\
i

now
e e
t3

adopts:

_B
c
'

2
(g

AA/VAAA

(I
I

AAAAAA

W\

^O O

^/]

??

u
I I

^3

W/WV\ ?^

X lO

^
I

^w/

/;r

ww

500 ....

srvrl

hkt ds 100

"He
2

eats 500 loaves ....

and drinks

100 jars of beer".

This method of continuation

is

especially prefer-

red with imperative and optative expressions:

rf

hnC rdlt nf phrt


3

"Make

for it ...

and

give

him

the remedy".
280.

An

absolute infinitive

is

subjoined to a sentence

for the addition of

an explanation:
2

Prisse 19,

8.

Westc.

7,

3.

Eb. 40,

8.

C.

SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS.

IN GENERAL. 281. 282.

117

$X
i

'

mnrvs n
as her

Itfs

'Imn, Irt

nf

ihnrv'i rvrrv'i

"She

made

(it)

monument

for her father


1

Amon,
I

having made two great obelisks for him"

(var.

1^ u

"having set up"). D A <> AAAAAA v^-fl-s/ <^


JJI
II

\7

AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA

C
(it)

nn rdlt Sfryf "Cook


seethe
2

in water, without letting

ijt

(?)".

The

logical subject

may be added

to
;

an

infinitive 281.

(especially for the sake of intelligibility)

in this case
In,

a nominal subject

is

introduced by the prepositin


is

but a pronominal subject

expressed by means of
84:
P3

the later absolute pronouns of

<C__^>

"Agreement made with so and


p
AAAAAA

so
AAAAAA

||
.

_B^>
1

v\

a ^=__ ai
A
f\

AAAAAA

/^\ AAAAAA
f\
/\
I

AAAAAA

...

Q
X

<^>
.

(\

AAAAAA

j^O
\

rdlt

nf

hnC prt ntsn


. .
.

hnC rdlt In
. .

"that (they) give

him
.

and that they go out


3

and that

the priest give


c.

.".

SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS. a. IN GENERAL.


later formation (of.

The verbal forms of the

170) 282*.

sdmf and sdmnf, can be converted into masculine and


1

LD

in, 24 d.

Eb. 42,

7.

Siut

I,

307.

118

|3.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 283.

feminine substantives by adding the substantive endings m. w,


f.
t,

to their stem.

The "substantivized"

forms thus made, denote in part the action itself (the fact that he hears), in part a person or an object, to which the action has reference (he who hears, that

which he hears and the


B. In the n.
e.

like).

the substantivized forms have disappeared.

[3.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF.


itself,

*283.

The forms which denote the action


especially:

are

sdmtf "the fact that he hears",


^.y~-

/wwvv

sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with


cf.

the meaning of a perfect,

197).
(cf.

The formation sdmf


is

of the first group

172)

used in this case with the form sdmtf; with the

II ae
inf.

gem.

it is

therefore

-^u
AAAAAA ^^~-.

wntf, with thelllae

,x

K^_

prtf, with Ir
a

"make, do"
rditf.

J!

^^

irtf,

with rdl "give"

*^^

Only

in the case

of a future

meaning do forms of the second group

seem to be employed here,


tr

-^^
<d^!>
I

AAAAAA

AAAAAA
1

C^
(lit.

n wnntk "the time when you will be" time of the fact that you will be").
1

"the

I'risse 10,

10.

(3.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 284

286.

119
284.

like substantives

These substantivized forms are treated precisely and are used with special frequency

after prepositions,

where we would expect a conjuncE. g.


Srv

tion with a dependent clause.


Jy^tllll

f\ fflOOB^>J m \ Y Ji \1
I

msts

"when she bore

Srv

<~r

"1
.

"on
hft rdit

New-years-day

<cz> A

[3^3

AAAAAA

pr n
2

ribf

when the house


-*^-

gives '(presents) to
AAAAAA
i

its lord".

They gave him


AAAAAA
I

this piece

rmh

<cz>A

AAAAAA

AAAAAA
3

hnt r dltnf HSU before he

had given to

them".
\

Note, further, the absolute use of this substan- 285.


tivized form.
If it follows a sentence, it

adds to

it

an explanatory limitation:

"Agreement, that they give him a loaf <zr> A L\


AAAAAA
AAAAAA
f\
I

^
4

AAAAAA

rffitnf nsn firs he,

having given

them

... for

it".

however, it precedes the sentence, a temporal qualification:


If,

it

contains 286.

s]

g\

0|
i
i
'-

fzijy
i
I

rdlti

rvSt

n rdrvlL
3

dmlnl
276.
*

iribrv

hk3
274.

^11
8.
2

Eb. 95,

glut

I,

289.

giut

I,

Siut

I,

120

Y-

TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. 287

i89.

"When
came
287.

had given the way

to

my
1

feet,

(i.

e.

fled), I

to the wall of the prince".

It

sometimes stands independently at the bee. g.

ginning of a text after a date,


I

in
j

~n

o-n

r-Tv-i

-n

=^D
as: "In the year 18 (octhe cirumstance, that his majesty made the curred)

probably to be understood
southern boundary",

i.

e.

"his maj.

made

the southern

boundary."
288.

As may be
most

seen, the use of this

form

is

for the

part, identical with that of the infinitive.

In

general they are distinguished as follows: the infinitive is

used where

its

(logical) subject is identical

with the subject of the preceding sentence, whereas the substantivized form is otherwise chosen. Thus,
''They were astonished

when

they came"

lb\
Ja*v&

(j (I
\

m
r\

lit,
f\
I

but "/ was astonished when they came"

N|\

/WW\A

A J\\ 111
Y.

Itsn.

TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT.


the person

*289.

The substantivized forms which denote


ence (he

or thing to which the action of the verb has refer-

who

hears, that

which he hears

etc.)

are

theoretically as follows:
i

Sin.

15.

LD

II,

136h.

Y.

TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. 290. 291.

121

m. sdmrvf
f.

m. sdmwnf
f.

sdmtf
is

sdmtnf

in which the w-form

The again used for the past. formation of the second group ( 184) is used for the
(in contrast
inf.
it is

forms sdmrvf and sdmtf


283); with the Illae

with the form of

therefore
Irrtf,

^.^

mrrtf, with Ir "make, do"


diditf.

with
lit.

rdl "give"

In the case of the II

and

III

lit.

as well as with all verbs in the n-form,

these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished from those of the first kind.

On
cf.

the use of these forms in relative sentences 290.

394.

Certain of them are furthermore employed

with definite meaning, precisely after the manner of


real substantives as subject, as object, in the genetive,

or after a preposition.

The forms

^b\

sdmtf and

1\

/wvv>A

291*.

sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and "that which he heard" are the most frequent:
I
<=*

v&

nfr Irrtl nk "That which I do

thee

is

good".

Vv

A ^X$Z

fi

a
2

mr

Innt h^p "Overseer of that

which the Nile


i

brings''.
2

Sin. 77.

LD

II,

149 c.

122

d.

VERBAL ADJECTIVE.

292. 293.

hft

ddtnflm "according to that


1

which he had said about


ing).

it"

(while he was
fl

still liv-

AAAAA/Vv

The not infrequent masculine""


ol
2
i i i

dldlsn

"that which they give"


292.

is

noteworthy.
is

The form sdmrvf denotes persons and almost only with nominal subject:
9

used

"v\

hssrv ribf

"he

whom his lord loves". 3


i

^^
smrvt "he,

'K

jp>^a^_
d.

J\

rvnnw
4

sndf ht

whose fear comes

after the lands".

VERBAL ADJECTIVE.
:

*293.

The archaic forms


Sg.
PI.

m.

sdmt'if'i,

f.

sdmtts'i,

sdmtisn

almost always mean "he (she), who will hear" and are employed both as adjectives and substantives:

s3l

rib srrvdtjf'i

t->

pn "every son
increase".
'

of mine

who

shall

make

this

boundary

m
(i.

**

"as something brilliant

e.

useful) for

him who

will

hear
i

it".

LD
II,

LD

II, 34d. 136h.

2
6

sin.

187,
5,

LD

II,

113f.

<

Sin.

44

Prisse

8.

11.

APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT. 294

297.

123

In classic orthography, the endings are for the 294.

most part written:


Sg. m.
PI.
\\l
i

>^_ \\
/~\ r\
i

or

^^_
or

f.
r\

^M\\
i
i

or

oR

/WW\A
i

o
I

/WWVA
i

in the singular, however,

2
*,
2

f.

l\\
\v
I

also occur.
to be noted, 295.

C-~^

In respect of the formation,


that

it is

the II ae gem. always double the second radical,

^O
^=**

A/WV\A

O
l\\

rvnnfisi,
inf.

/WWVA

\^

the Illae

in part take
/\

rv

for the ending of the

stem, HJ ^K\
,

^N
;

^=^ Mrvtifi (cf.

151 A); Ir "make,

do

^3=^

has

rdl "give" has

<=>/\

rdltifi.

11.

APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT.


direct object (accusative)
cf.

The

is

to

be recognisIf it is

296.

ed only by the order of words,


a pronoun
it

337 sq.

is
cf.

always expressed by the old prono30.

mina absoluta,

On account
finitive

of its substantive character, the in- 297.


it

could not originally govern an object;


2

is

Mar. Cat. d'Aby. 807.

gin. 75.

124
therefore,

PARTICLES.

1.

ADVERBS. 298

300.

according to

269,

combined with the


i.

possessive suffixes, r mrtf "for his loving",

e.

"in

order to love him".


st "it" (cf.

Only the neuter pronoun

1^

82) can also follow the infinitive, r mrt


it" fthem). verbs which have no special object,

st

"in order to love


Transitive

298.

t^

are often followed by the

word

Iht

"thing" as a

general object,
especially
:

not to be translated by us.

Note

M
i.

rh Iht "the one knowing (something)", 1

e.

the wise man,


-<2>2*
,
,

Irt Iht "to


i.

do (something")

( z

for the god,

e.

to

make

offering.
is

299.

The

of the preposition

indirect object (dative) "^A* n


(cf.

expressed by means

306),

which by good

manuscripts,

is

written

1_,

before substantives.

PAETIGLES.
1.

ADVERBS.
does not
exist.
(cf. 303) and absolute subthe adjectives are used as ad-

300.

special

adverbial formation

Beside the prepositions


stantives
(cf.

117),

verbs, thus:
i

Siut

I,

223.

glut

I,

271.

2.

PREPOSITIONS,

a. IN

GENERAL. 301. 302.

125

1.

With the preposition


:

r,

in

the masculine or

feminine

mnh

"excellently",

<^>
2.

a\

r C3t "very". 2

Alone, in the masculine;

or

more

rarely, in

the

feminine (especially
:

with the intensifying wrt

"very")
(1

V*^^\ fl/^V^* >ml 21


1

^ MI

IwfkSsfCtt "He

vomits often". 3
<

"He wept

"?\^ |
2.

" ^* C3wn>rl very sorely".

PREPOSITIONS.
a.

IN GENERAL.
in part simple (m "in", hnC 301. s3 "in the hack",
i.

The prepositions are


"with"), in part

compound (m

e.

"behind").

as is still clear in the case of

Since they were originally substantives, many, they are com-

bined with the possessive suffixes (hrf "upon him"


lit.

"his face").

They are
that
Cf.
is

in part

employed

like conjunctions also, 302.

to say, verbs

may be dependent upon them.


306 sq.

190 and for details


*

Eb-

66, 18.

Eb. 37,

20.

Eb.

37, 17.

Peasant

25.

126
303.

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 303

306.

They are very often used as adverbs also, i. e. with the suppression of the suffix, which, according to the connection, they should properly have, e. g.
referring to brv "place":
("into" for

smnf Im "he had gone

into"

Imf "into

it").

304.

The prepositional phrase (i. e. the preposition and the word dependent it) is frequently subjoined to a
substantive, where

or an adjective.
"entire"
(cf.

we would employ a relative clause Note especially the expressions for

152):

<n>
I

MAAAA

T* <C_>
1

*^_

t3

pn

r cJrf "this land

up

to its boundary",
f

i.

e.

"this entire land".


gsrv'i
2
i.

~\]
4?

M
i

IM/WSA
I

mi kdsn "the two sides


e.

according to their extent",


305.

"the entire sides".

The prepositional phrase


vi i like a substantive also, e.g.
i

is

sometimes treated
vwwv
i

Tifi
I

y
I

A ^ Q]\
y^V

"|

a
AMAAA -C__J>

^~\

hsrvt nt
i.

hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king", 3

e.

the rewards on the part of the king.


b,

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS,

*306.

A/VW\A

is

pronounced before nouns, something


(cf.

like * e n, with suffixes *na-

C
e.

349); manuscripts

dating from the end of the m.


of the n.
i

e.

distinguish each as
7.
2

and the beginning c and ( n)


Sin. 310.

Priase

2,

jj na 14.

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 307.

127

(n-).
of any
1.

The

original

meaning
it

is

"for the advantage

one"; in particular
to do

then means:

something
(dative),
2. to
3.

to

something for some one, to bring or give some one, to say something to some one

come

to

some one (only with

persons),

because of a thing,

4. in

a period of time.
infinitive (cf.

As a conjunction and before the


it

278)

means "because", "because

of".

1\

is

pronounced before nouns something


(1

like 307*.

**w, before suffixes *emo-, written


350).

v\

Im-

(cf.

The original meaning


of place; existent m,
'

is

"within", without any

accompanying idea of direction; itisused in particular:


1.

into
;

something, out of

something (inexact for

W)

2. of time, in the year,


3.

on the day and the like;


to

among a number, belonging


of something, made

something, con-

sisting

out of something; provid;

ed with something, empty of something


4.

in the capacity of, #s; in the


to

manner

of,

like'

according
5. in
6.

command; make
some-

a condition;
(into)

after the verbs "to be" or "to

128

6.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 308.

things",

fl
i

% *^. l\
_ZL
l

WYS "^

(1
I

^> v&
2ii

Iwf

nds

"He

is

*>

a citizen"
7.

(cf.

350, 4)

occasionally for the introduction of direct disit

course, where
8. ~by

remains untranslated;
tool.
cf.

means of a

On m
junction
it

before the infinitive

275.
(

As a con-

means "when" and


(1

"if"

391).

As an
"therein

adverb

it

has the form

v\

and means

(there), thereinto, thereout, therefrom, therewith (by

means

of)";

it

is

also joined to a substantive,


J)k

e. g.

<^^
_/-l

Man v\
^TJ.
1

_X-P^^

Im "the servant there" 2 (humbly


*

for "I").

>
*erof
t

*308
ally

<i^> (*'r, with

suff.

cf.

348) origin-

meant "at" or "by" something, without any accomIts

panying idea of direction.


1.

usual meanings are:

existent at or by something;

2. thither to

something (the most frequent mean; ;

ing)

into

3.

to speak to

something (inexact for m) as far as some one


;

4.

hostile toward

some one

(in contrast

5. distributively

of time, ''per

with n); day", ''every four

days" and the


6.

like

especially after adjectives ''more than",


7,
1.
2

where we

Westc.

gi n . 175.

6.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 309.

129
=

would employ our comparative,


nfr r Iht
ribt

~"<i^>

"more beautiful than everything". 1 As a conjunction it means "until" and "so that";
use before the infinitive
cf.

on

its

276.

Cf. also

253.
A. In the pyr.
the suffix.
it is

also written

(I

<^Z>

with or without

hr

(lit.

"face"),

with suffixes

is

written

309*. es-

hr- in correct orthography (C


pecially:
1.'

351), and

means

existent upon

something (the most frequent

meaning); also in inexact specifications of place


time, in the north

and and

and the

like,

at the time of

the like;
2.
3.

down upon something,


and the
like;

in addition to

to pass by something, to deviate

something from some;

thing,

4. distributively,
5.
6.

upon each one;

anoint, cook &c. with something;

pleasant for the heart, and the like;


because of something (frequent).
its

7.

On
junction
i

use in the co-ordination of substantives


cf.

cf.

120; on hr with the infinitive


it

277.

As a con-

means "because".
12, 8.

Westc.

Erman,

Egypt, gramm.

130

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 310

313.

*310.

hr,

lit.

"under" (also of direction),

is

also

used of being laden (because the bearer is under the burden) and therefore often means ''carrying or possessing something".
311.

Of.

352.

hr, originally, existent with

some one and the

like; also, to receive

obsolete

and

still

something from some one; it is used almost only in specifications

of reigns (under King X.).


cf.

On

its

use in the passive

169.

312.
jT"~

(perhaps arising from

mc

in the arm")

means
1.

in the possession of]

2.

take something from some one, receive from


one,

some
3.

and the
is

like; rescue

from some one;

something

done by some one;

4.

because of a thing.

On mC
313.

with the infinitive

cf.

278.
7) originally

hft (on

orthography
is for

cf.

meant

"m

front of\ but


to,

the most part employed for,


to
it

according

corresponding

and

also for, simultane"in front", as

ously with.

As an adverb

means

conjunction, "when".

Note further the simple prepositions:

C.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.

314. 315.

131

i\

o ^\
of".

imitrv (in

the pyr. imrvti), "between, 314.

in the
(1

midst

AA/WVA

In only for the expression of the subject


Cf.

with the passive and the infinitive.


\)
(1

169.
"like".

ml

(in the pyr. often


if" (cf.

\)

<^> mr)

As

a conjunction, "as,

391).

h3
JinC

(lit.

occiput), "behind".
Cf. also

"together with".

120; with

the infin.
-W-t-

279.

A/WAAA

rmT\

hnt

(lit.

nose) "before" (rest or motion)

as an adverb, hntrv "before".


tp (lit.

head or the

like)

"upon"

it is

obsolete.

dr "when, since".

c.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.
compounded with a subof a part of the body).
315.

Many

prepositions are

stantive (usually the

name

Note especially:

l^H pSb vl m
ward
for".

* srv

( as

com P ensa ti n )5

"

as re-

I*

132

C.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.

315.

m
skin",
cf.

359), "before

some one"

(also as

an ad-

verb).
QOOO

dr b3h as an adverb, "formerly".

m
/WWNA

m,

vb\

J|vi

m m "among

persons".

^~^K^
m

n mrtvt, in the m.

e, AAAAA*

00

(for love), often as a conjunction, "in order that".

k~==^ o
I

hct (cf.
r A^^ as

356), J>

<=>

~=^

hr hCt

"at

the summit";
1h\

an adverb, "formerly".

^
If

mhr

"in front of",

/7

^r "in front

of".

hr-ib: "in the midst of".

357),

^i^"afterward"
;

J\

Jit

"behind, after"; as an adverb,


(cf.

as a conjunction, "after" s3 ("in the back")


s3, is

244, 385).

m
s:?

r $,

hr

"behind, after"; r

also used as a conjunction,


r
sj*,

"after".

As an adverb "afterward",
1

hr s3 are

used, also /wwvAtQ

s3.

C.

COMPOUND PKEPOSITIOXS.

316. 317.

133

midst

of".

~
r gs ("at the side"),
side".

hr gs: "be-

"together with"; in the m.


in the

e.

very rare,

LE. frequent

cf.

(C

359. 338).

^\
far as".

r drrv ("up to the boundary"),

u as

*
With

hr d3d3 ("upon the head"), "upon"

cf.

361.

others, there is prefixed to the preposition, 316.


it;

a word more exactly qualifying

thus in:

X \N n

rvprv
|

hr "except" (also for "but" con-

junction),

and the old

rvprv r "except".

^
l(|(j

^\^=<cz>

hrrv r "apart from".


as".

^ <rz> n/ryf r "as far

vi^s.

^ m "^ e ^ore

some
I

o ne
(1

>

something"; as an

adverb according to

307

1\

1 _1_J'

(p

w "formerly".
317.

Finally, there are such peculiar formations as:

<==>

l^
(cf.

j>

r fad

("i n

order to separate"),

"between"
1

C
Wb.

354).
Suppl.
s.

Brugsch,

v.

134

3.

CONJUNCTIONS, a. IN GEN.

6.

ENCLITIC CONJ. 318. 319.

<n> Jtf$7 *\
1
1

"

v\

s& m

("in

order to begin

with"), "from" (cf.


1 1 1 1

ri

355).

mw m
"as far as".

("in

order to remain with"),

3.

CONJUNCTIONS.
a.

IN GENERAL.
enclitically joined

318.

to
its

The conjunctions are in part the first word of the sentence,


also.

in part

appear at

beginning used as conjunctions,

On

those prepositions which are


302. 306 sq.

cf.

Apart from
there are

the conjunctions noted

in

the following,

others which are treated elsewhere, thus


<

and
121,

257. 348. 349,

(j<=>

347,

^D^

I
6.

363.

ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS.

319.

(11 is serves for the

most part

(like

our "namely")

to introduce

an explanatory addition:

"I

made
LD

it

for

him

... (I) the king

"
.

.".

II,

124, 35.

LD

IIJ,

24 d.

b.

ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS.

320. 321.

135

On

the other hand

-n-J
i
i

Is

means "but

not". 9

as a restricting adjunct.
A. In the pyr. this
later language cf.
is is

very frequent; on the

is

of the

323 B.

)wv J\ I the opposite of that which precedes: press


"All

j\

srvt

and

hm
'

(like

our "but") ex- 320.

men who
i^r
i

injure the tomb,

who

&c.

(1

<d>

"v\
_zl

c\

M c
it,

& srvt
who

rmtt
&C.)".

(cf.
1

97)

ribt

but

all

men

(who preserve

But

this contrast is

sometimes so weak that these

conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the


clause only.

<rz> grt, also properly means "but",


Ci
f\

e. g.
AAAAAA

"If the 321.


F\

eye bleeds, then


ir grt

(l^1
if

^
it

7~^

o Rj

**?\*

v\

-J^

*"w*
it

Q^

f\
I

(I
1

rr^- /vww\

h3 mrv Ims but


rule,

water comes out of

_ci^ &c. 2
5'

^\

As a
of "but":

however,

joins an explanation or

a continuation, like "further"

or our weaker

use

"This plant
Qrv A
ta[
fl

is
"
(_

employed so and
'

so,

(1

^K
t3

^ ^
but
f.

r\

N^ W% JT
Illl

TA \_/
I

^ f-^

"^

im
I

9 rt P rts
&c."
3

dltrvs

hr

its
is

fruit is laid

upon bread

(or "Further, its

laid

upon
Siut
I,

b.").
225.
2

Eb. 56,

8.

Eb. 51,

18.

136
322.

C.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 322. 323.

Rarer conjunctions of
1.

this kind are:

The archaic

^\~~

wC 1

which seems to intro-

duce the sentence as the result or consequence of that which has been previously narrated;
j/ r\

j>

2,
(T|

\\Qh

ms

in direct discourse; designates that

which has been stated as something self-evident or well known.


c.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC.

323.

flp^

&! flP^

lder P

*=*

**$ specifies the

circumstances under which anything happens:

ml m

s3b

.,

rdl ml hnf

smr
2

"I

his majesty

maj.

made me made me f.).

friend"

e. (i.

was judge ., then when I was j., his


.

ist, is

especially used, where these circumstances

are to be emphasized as remarkable. Since the m.


e.
it

is

employed

for the introduc-

tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks, especially

with following rf

(cf.

348, 349):

n
\\

>

ist

rf ddn

sht'i

pn

peasant said (this) however, at the time of king Nb-k3"?


"this

Una

5. 45.

2 ib. 8.

Bauer

71.

C.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC.

324326.
120 A.
is also,

137

A. The pyr. use


B. In
-)

1st

enclitically also, cf.


ist-w;

LE

it is

written

the late Egyptian


1st.

Copt.

seems to have arisen from


I

[1

^z^s Isk (older

^^z>
tsf)

Isk)

mostly

designates 324.

(like the

more frequent

the circumstances under

which, or the time at which something occurs:

"He erected

this

tomb

for his son


child".
1

^i^* 1

^\ v\

2J)

sk

stv

Tird

when he was a

Sr^,

older n

2?^

Ihr originally intro- 325.

duced a substantiating clause (like for or because). Then, with much weakened significance, it also introduces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes
especially temporal clauses:

>o J *<=>Jf\\\A
hrrv srv3
this,
Jir

ht

nn "Now, after the days had passed by


hr
is

then &c." 2
B. In
:

LA

very frequent, with


is

many

varied meanings.

^=^>

N\ ^A

k3

used in promises, threats and 326.

directions, in order to strengthen that


>
B

which

is

stated:
tt

O
Vfo

SSt

w$

^i <dZ>

/wwv\ /wwvs A/WWV

k3rduhprmtv Sure-

ly, I will

cause water to be". 3

Mar. Mast. 200.

Westc.

12, 9.

ib.

17.

138

la.

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE.

327. 328.

Occasionally

it

receives the suffix of the 2 m.

^l^)
throw".
1

^^l l^^T^^"^
is

***

&ck

"

Tllou

A. In the oldest language k3

also used enclitically.

THE SENTENCE.
1.
a.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE.


is

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE.


understood a
is

*327.

By

the (pure) nominal sentence

sentence without a verb, whose predicate

then a

substantive, adjective or prepositional phrase, while

a noun or absolute pronoun. ject precedes the predicate.


its

subject

is

The sub-

328.

It is

used in assertions

^^ A
2

Inrvk rib

ImBt

"I

am

the lord of graciousness";


rrik

^=^>t

nfr "Thy

name

is

beautiful";
(

and

is

especially frequent after

mk

"behold"

183),

where the old pronouns of


as subject:

80 are then employed

b3hk "Behold

(am) before thee";

Westc.

3.

3.

Louvre C

172.

p ri sse

5, 14.

Sin. 263.

a.

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 329. 330.

139

11 AA/W\M "^ = iTT


.J
1

/I\

rl

"^

L.

[I

m
.
.

"-

^^

hrk "Behold these things are under thy charge" 1 (lit. are under the place of thy
n ihwt
.
. .

hr

st

face).

It

is,

further, often used in descriptions:

329.

A <=s. <=>
fruits are

^i^^ d
o
I

^'
2

'

'

1*^-

dkr nb hr

upon

its trees",

and often also as a

relative clause (cf.

393):

man on whose neck

are swellings". 3

Occasionally, in violation of the rule, the predi- 330.


cate precedes the subject; the predicate
is

thereby

emphasized.
1.
r\
'

Thus
<z^

in expressions with rn "name", like


I

A/wwv

,\

^~\

v
is

^
4

^z>

jQ

r\

^ \\ ^ JS^lll

QA

'

sm snw M rns an herb whose


i

"

name
2.

Snwtt"

(for: rws snwtt);

when the

subject

is

a demonstrative or an ab-

solute pronoun:

^
^AAAAA

QA 1\ ]^k
iv"
I

j.

dpt mrvt nn

"This

is

the taste of death". 5


^"*

^^ l^^
v
i i

9\

f\

r\
I

/^

^-^-^
g

2TSli
i

Z!

(] 1

^=

r\

S.
I

'

w r/w^
:

!s

w# sft st
ft).

"They are not people of strength" (for n


i

st

rmttnt

Slut

I,

269.
e

Sin. 23.

LD

II,

Sin. 83. 136 h.

Eb. 51,

19.

Eb. 51,

15.

140
*331.

b.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY

ilV

AND WU.

331. 332.

This inverted order


the predicate
is

is

especially frequent, where

an adjective:
A

nfr mtnl

"My way

is

In this case the adjective often receives an ending


-s\\\

v\

rv'i,

which perhaps lends


1

it

a special emphasis:
is

J- Ul v <n> Jl
face!"

^_^>

nfnv'i

hrk "How beautiful

thy

A. In the pyr. this ending

is

written

v\

or

b.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY Iw AND


The nominal sentence
is

ivn.

332.

sometimes introduced by
"to

the auxiliary verb

(1^

trv

be"

(cf.

220 sq.
a preposi-

246 sq.), especially when the predicate


tional phrase:

is

T
mrv "His one
B. In

<

<-<">

n\

wBtf

hr

way was under

water".

"

the popular language of the m.

e.,

the pronoui

where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence


are superceded

by the forms

of this verb

(I

V\ M

for

inwk &c.
1

Bauer

3.

Butler 16.

C.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH pw. 333


it is

335.

141

More rarely
tvn (cf.
y^v

introduced by the auxiliary verb 333.


e. g.

223, 250 sq.) as

in

&*

'

/WWNA /WW\A

1*""
<C__^>

a^n
I
I

MWV\K

wnln nfr
I

st

hr Ibsn "It was good for


cf.

their heart", 1 (for st nfr

330, 2),

where

rvnln

precedes.
c.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH


'

pw.
2

Sentences like

>O

n^\ EC pw
3

"It is Ret",

334.

f
c

J)

%>

JW*

pw

"It is Bast",

|
4

^^

^\ ^^

^K

Jirvrrv

ptv "They are paupers",

properly have as

subject, the demonstrative ptv "this",

which follows
is

the predicate according to

330, 2

but this prv

now

weakened
ing "he",

an unchangeable word having the meanIf the predicate is a long "she", "it" or "they".
to

expression, ptv
/W\AA* <xgft

may be

inserted within

it:

a^\
a remedy of

n
i\

-^x><=^7
/wwv\ 5

phrt ptv nt rvn-mBC

"It is

truth"

(cf.

103).

B. This
t3'i,

pw

is

already supevceded by the demonstrative p3'i,

nB'i in

the LE; the similar word TIE,

TE,

NE

probably

arose from this.

then used to emphasize the 335. predicate of a nominal sentence; in order to render
This construction
is
i

Prisse

2, 6.

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

3 ib.

LD

II,

136h.

Eb. 75, 12.

142

2 a.

THE ORDER OF WORDS. 336


Iht "horizon" in

339.

emphatic the word


is is

Ipt Iht
is

"Karnak

the horizon", the sentence Iht pro "It


first

the horizon"

made, and
C2J
<z

pro "it":

n D%[] Ju.

Ipt then follows as apposition to D


r|

Iht
III

prv

Ipt

"It
is

is

the

dl
1

horizon, viz. Karnak",

i.

e.

"The horizon

Karnak".

2.

THE PARTS OF THE SENTENCE.


a.

THE ORDER OF WORDS.


is
it

336.
it is

The order of words


often the case, that
is

to be especially noted, for

alone indicates

how

a sen-

tence
337.

to be analysed.
is

The sentence
direct object;

divided into two parts: one pre-

ceding, containing the verb, subject, direct and in-

and one following, containing

specifi-

cations of time and place and the like.


*338.
is
4.

In the preceding part of the sentence the order


in principle:
1.

verb,

2.

subject,

3.

direct object,

indirect object

(cf.

299).

E.

g.
j-ram

<=>
a

'}
I

F^\
AAA/VAA

/WWW

O O O

'JL^'**.?* SL-^ vra /WWVA (^j. ^^ -/-i

stn

no

n\

bkf "The king gave his servant gold".


*339.

4 are partly substantives and] partly pronouns, the pronouns precede the substanif

But

parts 2

tives.

E. g.

LD

III,

24 d.

a.

THE ORDER OF WORDS. 340

342.

143

rdln nl stn
I

rib

AAAAAA O O O

,,The king

gave

me

gold".
a AAAAAA

1
I

vi
J>
I

/WWVA
AAAAAA

^^
_7J.

^^~~-

^ ^n
r

sw

stn n

bkf

"The king gave


a

it

to his servant".

2^

AAAAAA

v& SL

rdlnf nl
O O O

rib

"He gave me gold".


340*.

If

both objects are pronouns, the indirect precedes


is,

the direct, that

the pronominal suffix precedes the

absolute pronoun:
a

SA

"v\

rdin nl sw stn "The king gave

it

to me".
<d^^> AAAAAA AAAAAA O
.C\

xA 1 v^ rdlnf nl

srv

"He gave

it

to me".
341.

Except for the sake of emphasis (cf. 343 sq.) the above laws are inviolable; under certain circumstances,
however, for

an expression which belongs in the latter part of the sentence, may be inserted by exception, in the part which precedes: t ^ AAAAAA V < O Jf\ lj
stylistic purposes,
/^i.
.

"

^~ ^

rdlnl

sn>3
1

nrl

"I

caused that his weapons pass by me"


hrl).

(for

vocative stands as a rule at the end

of the 342.

sentence:

Sin. 136.

144

ba. IN GENERAL.

0.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 343. 344.

Sr

~ir

SO *^ m k w i
2

r n ty

m ^k,

sht'i,

hr

wmf

"Be-

hold, I will take

away thy

ass,

peasant, because he

devours &C."
If it

be placed at the beginning of the address,


.

as in
lord, I

have found", 2

it is

somewhat ceremonial;
(1

it is

then often introduced by an interjection, like

QA

b.

EMPHASIS,
IN GENERAL.

a.

343.

Emphasis consists in placing before the sentence, a word to which it is desired to attract attention,
and as a rule resuming
ence.
to
It is

by a pronoun in the sentvery frequently used and often contrary our sense; thus, e. g. the word 'king' is often emit

phasized without reason.

Of. also

330. 331. 335.

(3.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION.
method of emphasis
leaves the
e.

344.

The

original

emg.
:

phasized word without further introduction,

Bauer

11.

Bauer

74.

(3.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 345. 346.

145

D
it

hsti

phs pt "My praise,

l reached heaven" (for ph hsti pt).

k3tnf Irt
to do
it

st

rl Irnl st rf "That which he

had thought
k3tnf

to me, I

had done

it

to

him"

(for Irnl

Irt st rl rf).

ra

vA

(I

v\

smt

ribt rrvtnl rs, ln>

Irnl

hd Ims "Every land


(for

to which I went, I

was a hero(?) therein" 3


rs).
is

Iw

Irnl

hd

smt nbt, rrvtnl

The resumptive pronoun


especially in poetry:

occasionally omitted, 345.

Itrrv srvrif,

mrk "The water


4

in the stream,

he drinks

(it) if

thou wishest".

If the sentence has

forms as

its

one of the compound verbal the auxiliary verb with which it is verb,

346.

formed, stands before the emphasized word:


a
>lt'i
.

AAAAAA
. .

^hCn hn n sin rjj% J&> ^^~^ mlnnf "The majesty of the king of upper and
V

AAAAAA G*

TSR
^=>

AAAAAA

i]

' I

lower Egypt
i

5
.
.

expired".
2

LD

II,

122 a.

Sin. 144.

Sin. 101.

Sin. 233.

Prisse 2, 8.

Erman.

Egypt, gramm.

146

Y-

WITH

ir,

ir-,

r-

AND

in.

347.

rvnln

hnf bf

rv3 r hrvt(?) firs


it".
1

"The heart of his

majesty was sad concerning

AAAAAA

U rv V
Pi

^ 7m/",

ww hprni ml kd

"All that his majesty


2

commanded me,
Of. also

I entirely

completed".

228.
Y.

WITH

ir,

Ir-,

r-,

AND
Ir is

In.

347.

The emphatic

particle

^1

used with every

kind of sentence; the resumption of the emphasized word by means of a pronoun is only occasionally suppressed, in the case of the subject of a nominal
sentence,
zr>
e.

g.

AAAAAA X.

_S

YP>
1=1

P3

H
ir ntt nbt
I

a ^^
I

v\ fiR^ V\ \\c\ >WS fflv^l


it"
3
-fv

s,

"All that is written, hear

" u qn<^>nnn n
/T\

VAv/wv^J
I

ra
i

AA/W^

lii

ee nnn

Ir hrrv
1

Jit

Jr

ntr,

r 360 prv n rnpt "A temple-day, (that)


4

is

/360

of the

year".

Here
to
m.
346.
B.
e.

also,

an auxiliary verb
is still

is

treated according

This construction

regarded as ceremonious in the


e. it

(often in legal style);

but in the n.

superceded

all

the

other methods of emphasizing.


i

"Westc.

9,

12.

Una

42.

p ri SS e

2,

4.

Siut

I,

30C

y.

WITH

ir,

lr-,

r-

AND

in.

348

350.

147

The emphatic word


(like that of

(I

irf,

which, in many texts 348.


rf,

349), is written
(1

follows

the

word
self".

to
1

be emphasized -TT|

dsk irf "thou thy-

It is often

used in interrogative sentences

(cf.

356)

and with imperatives and optatives; in the last case it often still has the archaic form rk (cf. A):
J

^^_
AA/WV\
J-l

irf tn "hear ye",


I
I I

>

-M -v

-M

dik rk ni "give me". 3


J

"

A. In the pyr. this lr takes the suffix corresponding to the


subject of the sentence:
Irl, irk, Irf, Irs.

That

rf,

which

is

added

to the verb (espe- 349.

cially those of going)

at the beginning of short sec-

tions seems to be different

from
rf
t3

irf, rf:

**
ZT|
4

Mn

"The earth became

light",

J\

(1

/wwvs
5

W>

in in

rf

sht'i

pn

'This peasant came".

A. This r- had originally changeable suffixes also.

The subject of a sentence


i

is

often emphasized by 350.


4

Westc.
52.

7,

8.

LD

III.

24 d. '3 Peasant 29.

Sin. 248.

Peasant

K*

148

C.

THE ELLIPSE. 351.

means of
tive

ij

In (old writing
is

(1
I

AAAAAA

J>

J\

In)

the resumpself

pronoun
^^AAAA W

for the

most part omitted as

evident:
[I

A caused that

~^S~ In Jinf rdl Irtf "His majesty


it

be made"

(for In

Imf rdlf
is

Irtf).

If the subject to be

emphasized
84:

a pronoun, the

pronouns

ntk, ntf &c. are substituted for In

and the

pronoun

according to

leads me",
AAAAAA
C\
I

A
/wvwv -<2>I

AAAAAA

o
who do

/WVAAA

v^ ST

ntsn Irsn nl "It is they

it

for me".

3
e
(i.

B. In

LE

this in is written:
4
c.

V\

e.

n according

to late

pronunciation).

THE ELLIPSE.

351.

tive

The frequent ellipses (i. e. the omission of effecwords as dispensable) often render the under-

standing of the text very difficult. They are found first of all in the parallel members in poetry, where,
in the

second member, one or more indentical words

are suppressed:
3T AAAAAA
I I
I

AAAAAA

2i/ JU J5*^
III

'"A" III!
I I

Sin. 308.

LD

III,

24 d.

Siut

I,

289.

Sethe.

C.

THE ELLIPSE. 352. 353.

149

imi rnl

r n

hnwhi

sh3l hr msrvtn w w

"Establish

my name in the mouth of your servants, (Establish) my memory with your children".
1

^ ~^~^
J\

*_<

f ^^r

tms Jirf r

dd m&t, mkh3

ddrv

grg

"Turning his countenance to


(turning) the back of (his)
lies".
2

him who speaks truth, head (to) those who speak

Similar is the ellipse in comparisons, where found in the second compared member:

it is 352.

/^

sfrvf ib n

bk im ml hk3 n.smt

ribt

"He

re-

joices
(i.

e.

broadens) the heart of the servant there 3 mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land".
(lit.

When
ject,

several successive verbs have the


is

same subfirst

353.

the latter

sometimes written with the

only; thus in animated narrative:

_Q
Q
2

h3knl hmrvtsn,
26.
3

Mar. Ab.

II,

31

Louvre C

gi n

176.

150
Inni hrrvsn,

C.

THE ELLIPSE. 354. 355.

pr

r hnmrvtsn, hrv k3rvsn, wh-> Itsn, rdl sdt

Im

"I

went

captured their women, I led away their people, to their wells, slew their steers, cut down their
1

barley, set fire thereon".


354.
it

An
is

object

may

likewise remain unexpressed, where

clear from that which precedes.


stole his ass, he drove (him),
(
()

Thus,

e.

g.

"He
sCk

"|^

s^k for

srv,

with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into

his village". 2

"She takes Egypt like the god


,-~ (

^Ir-sn

[iVrf
\

*c=^_

V*X AAAAAA

<=>

_V jff

ll

^=- shprnf
1
1

(for

shprnf

s'i)

rv[s

hCrvf
3

he created (her) to wear his diadem


355.

(lit.

to lift up)".

Another form
pressions like:
fv ^^K
^,

is

the ellipse of

"^|

dd "say" in ex-

hrtrv "it is said".

/vwws
(I

O in R

"saith Re",

n "*"*

"~

Insn "they

say",

p
[\

ntrrv lir "the


fiir
is

gods say"
7

These stand
jQ AAAAAA

ddhrtrv. ddlnsn, ntrrv hr dd. ^


.

B.

(I

n7\

later written for inf.

i 5

LD

II,

136h.

Peasant

24.

LD

III,

24 d.

Eb.

9. 20.

Stele from

Kuban.

3 fl. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE.

356358.

151

3.
a.

KINDS OF SENTENCE.
356.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE.

is

The indication of the question by the accent alone very rare; as a rule it is externally marked. Freis

quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the


interrogative particle,
characteristic of the inter-

rogative sentence.
If the sentence contains
it is

no special interrogative,
(|A/VW\A

357*.

introduced by means of

fa or

AAAA
(1 (]

Vs\

Cw3twl rf
1

m
r\

tf

"Shall

be

robbed

upon

his

land(?)?".
r\
I

AAAAAA
2

|0 \
truth?"
B. in iw
is

D
| |

^H

In iw

m&t pw
C
394.

"Is it

perhaps preserved in

FNF,

cf.

As a

rule, the interrogatives stand at the end of 358*.


(cf.

the sentence

C
is

392).
1b\

The most common

inter-

rogative pronoun
ing,

m(? m?

cf.

on the read-

34) "what?,

who?":
S\fl

phnk nn hr m? "Why (on


3

ac-

count of what) have you reached this (place)?"

^o J. .1. y
is

(1

l^r~~

trtrv

nn mi

m?

"Like what

this

done?"

Peasant

18.

Westc.

8,

3.

sin. 35.

ib. 202.

152
B.

C.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. 359

361.

la
cf.

LE. C

fl

is

already

superceded by

(I

Ih

"what?";

60.

VfckT

as su kJ ec t

w ^h
In

the

mean i n g "who?",
350):

is

usually emphasized by in
/vwwv
(1
ft

(cf.

v\~~
ra

"^
fl

^\
A

m ddstv? "Who says it?"


-F\

(I

/WWVA

ft

<dl> O
2

AAAAAA
^]
|

^^

(I

VS\

in

irf inf srv {

"Who

brings it?"
is

(with double emphasis).


A/WW\
v^ST""
3
,

B. This in Wl
of the m.
AAAAAA
e.; in

already written

at the end

LE

there has arisen from In m, a

new word

2
|A

mm

"who"

NIM

(cf.

60, 2).

\\
360.

Other old expressions for "who?,


;?).

what?"
e.

are

Cf.

g.
is

"What
D
isy(1) pn>

is it?

who
5

it?"

"Who
^ry

is

it?"

/WW\A

Here belongs also ~TT


(lit.

O^O
52

Is

"

(?)-nw

When?"

"What

of the time?").
C
*

361.

The interrogative for "where?" is

<
fl
I

^>
//

ft
|

^==

AAAAAA

}
I

T&
<T^

^^

AA/VvV\

T^^Sto. Cf.: Cf^


I

fw irftn ? "Where

is it ?"

(with emphasis).

C
i

^^z^
(lit.

'

A^/^/^A^

)~^f ^3 Cc^
I

Irt r

tn?

"Whither goest
2
f.

thou?" 8
5

"Toward where makest thou";


35.
2

sg.).
Sin. 35.

Math. Hdb.

Eb. 58,

10.
9, 15.

Math. Hdb.
7 ib. 9, 4.

30.

Totb. 126, Schlr. 46.

Westc.

ib. 12, 14.

6.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.
A. In the pyr.

tt.

WITH

AND

W.

362

364.

153

it is

written, tnl, tn, and even without a pre-

position, means "whither?, whence?" B. In LE. tmc, Copt. T(DN. Cf. C

364. Q7\,

The common word, archaically written

362.

(1|

SA <n> 2A/
i
I

ptri. pir,

but generally J

a \\

\
i

2i/

^A

pt'L *

ispro-

bably not an interrogative, but something like an It always stands at imperative, "show" or the like. the beginning of the sentence D u ^^^ pti hat is his f !sk I ^:

'

*w ^
Wnat
is

field?"

D {

^ ^I'V

pfi rf

sw

"

it? "

( with

emphasis). As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence, 363.

note further the particle trw, which follows the

first

word:
Ln

"Didst thou remember?"


A. B. In the pyr. and in LE.
b.

it is

written

tri.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.
a.

WITH

AND

nn.
\)

The usual negation v^w (more rarely/


good orthography: ^/w, and
Math. Hdb.
49.
2

appears

304*.

in two different forms, which are usually distinguished


in

^^.

Their pronun3

Totb. ed. Nav. 17, 31.

Eb.

2,

3.

154
elation

b.

NEGATIVES SENTENCES.

a.

WITH U AND nn. 365

367.

was perhaps

approximately

and nn or

similar.
A. In the pyr. both forms are written
B.
as
^-A-^,.
is

N-.

LE. always has %^%', (Of. C 389).

in Copt, the negation

preserved

365.

v^-iw, is

as

it is
:

used with the verbal form sdmf, in so far not future in meaning, and always with the

tt-form

n rhl sw "I

know him

not".

"Lay
(1

this

upon the snakes


it

hole,

ww,

J\

^^

n prnf Im then
"

will

2 not come out".

366.
AAAAAA

however,
it

is

used with the form sdmf, when


is,

has the meaning of a future (that


cf.

belongs to the

second group,
H

184sq.):

*^

nn pssf "He shall

(will)

not di-

vide".
367.

3
'

Before the absolute infinitive


used.

(cf.

280)
"

is
AAAAAA

Especially frequent in this case

is
AAAAAA

ann
t^

rdlt "without giving, without causing":


*
I

;<?,
I

nn rdlt hr gs "Judgside"
4
(i.

ing, without putting

upon one

e.

without

being partisan).
Sin.
114.
2

Eb.

97,

19.

Siut

I,

311.

LD

II,

U9e.

b.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

a.

WITH

11

AND nn. 368

370.

155

"Set
"\\ see

it

where

it is

cool

"

a^^

$^.

\^

'

nn rdlt m33s
1

sn>

without permitting the sun to

it".

In this combination, rdlt has sometimes lost

its

causative meaning, and only means "without"

(e. g.

nn rdlt pssf
^-^-^

"without his dividing it"). stands before the nominal sentence, and in 368.
sfi

this case

when the

subject

is

a pronoun, the later ab84):


a

solute pronouns are used


o-H-o
is

(cf.

^\
3

vb\

**2

n ntf pw

m m^t

"It

not really he". however,

is

very frequently used with a fol- 369.


~"

lowing noun or old absolute pronoun


does not exist".
the same meaning:
AAAAAA AAAAAA

^^

(cf.

80) for

"it

nn

rvn

also appears with

A/ AAAAAA AAAAAA

lm "There
"v\
_zi
I

is

no water there,

am
I I

not there". 4

.-cgv.^
<i

"^^ ^\ ^V
ywv
\i
5

wsht, nn ^

hms "A ship

which has no rudder".

Note further the combinations


not" and
^-n.^

-n-^(l

Is

"but 370.

^ ^
2

n grt "however not" (weaker

than the former):


i

Eb. 43,

17.

Siut

I,

272.

Sin. 267.

Eb.

69, 6.

Sin. 13.

156

a.

WITH n AND nn.

|3.

THE CIRCUML. WITH im-, m,


~
7

tm-. 371

373.

/wwv

w ws$

Is

prv "It

was narrow, but

it

was not wide".


n
Is

"His skin grows.

v^wO p^^o II <^>


:

rvrt

but not

much". 2
371.
v

^ru
"

c/

n sp means "never"
H

u-~^ x D ^-y Jas& A/WV\A h3 mifif hr smt tn dr rk ntr "One like him never came
2i
I I

~J L-

"?L

r^ HJ

V\

n V

o x/x/ ^ ^^^ O Y ^ ^_
f

"^

n sp

down

in this land, since the time of the god".3

A. In old texts, the subject of such a sentence is often emphasized by means of the demonstrative p3, f. p3t: n sp p3t irt
mitt

"The

like

was never done". 4


(cf.

^A-& v\ _a D
378).

hut sn

with

an old negative Iwt also occurs


372.

strengthening of the negative, probably obsolete

in the classic language, is

found in nfr

n\

In nfr n
"If it is

wnn mQn

not in your possession". 5

/WWSA

yC ^

nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like

done".

p.

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH

im-,

m, im-.
certaii

373.

The usual negatives are avoided with

forms of the verb, and replaced by circumlocutions


i

Butler 15.

Eb. 104,
pi.

8.

LD
6

II,

149 e.

Una

37

Grebaut, musee Egyptien,

18.

Mar. Mast. 390.

(3.

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH

I'M-,

Wl,

tm-. 374. 375.

157
fol-

with the obsolete verbs Im- and tm-.

These are

lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb, in which


the II ae gem.
are doubled, the Illae
inf.

are not

doubled and rdi "give" has the form


Im
is

used when the verb to be denied

is 374.

optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal


subject:

"Treat

it

with cold
(j

|\
>

""^na |\ f^fi
1

smm
(1

that
1b\

it

may

not become hot".

J^^Hx&

~"<g>-r-^-.
I I I

Imk
*

Ir iht rs

"Do not do

anything for

it".

The imperative
v\

of the old verb, which

is

written 375.

m, serves for the negation of imperatives and

optatives with a nominal subject:

1\
be proud". 3

1^1

^^
1

m c^

ibk "Let not thy heart

mtrrv

"Do not stand against me as a witness". 4


ELvWW/
it is

A. In the pyr.

written

V^

they

have

also

Eb.

91, 6.

Eb.

110, 3.

p r sse
i

5,

8.

Totb.

ed.

Nav. 30

2.

3.

158
B.

P.

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH


Instead of
pr)

im-,

AND
e.

tm-. 376. 377.

the language of the n.

employs the

cir-

cumlocution

V\
C

-<S>-

Ir

"do not", from Avhich arose the Copt.

MlTp.
376.
is

Cf.

305, 7.

^101 v\

tm-, the use of

which
in

is

more extended,
the
conditional

found,
:

among

other

uses,

sentence

=>ta
"

_M^

IA^^^ ^f=^\^lr tmfwst _a


r-^-i
1
I

st "If

he does not discharge it"; in the form sdmhrf (cf. 204)

*=*t^ t^ P S^*_B^<^>!P <z>_B^XI-J


i
I I

tmhrs *Pr

hsbt "If

it

does not become worms";


(cf.

and

in the verbal adjective

293):

J\

\\

fhtf'i srv, tmtf'i

^-T _" Qi3 lirf "He who unlooses


for it";
3

^^ -^

^ A <=>
it

(the boun-

dary) and does not contend

further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses.


377.

The circumlocution ^nnr v\

tm rdl,

which

according to the above means "not to cause that", is very often employed to substantivize a negative clause of intention since tm is then an infinitive, this com;

bination
,,mi

is
-i

also construed as such:


T
i

"The boundary
Eb.
25, 7.
2

is

erected <=ii>'^=^ vs,


6.
3

pL

<^

_B^A

^* D

/WWW

A J Jl T

Eb. 25,

LD

II,

136 h.

(.

THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 378.

159
in order
"to cause

r tm rdi sn

srv

nJisi rib

that no negro at

should overstep that not any negro should overstep D


all

it"

(lit.

it").

^^l^s'
rdi hnp drtvyt prv "It
is

VQ^ j^ ^
D
(i.

tm

something

e. 2

a remedy) in
rdi occurs with
I

order that the vulture


weakened meaning,
did not see thee". 3 .
Y.

may

not steal".
e.

B. In the popular language of the n.


for simple negation:

tm

tm rdi tn3ni tw "that

THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. ^^,


irvt'i,

The

adjective

which belongs to the

378.

formations of
gative iwt of

132 sq. and

is

derived from the ne-

371 A, originally meant something like


e. g.
:

"not having",

^^ ^Jfi ^n IS c*d
W/
c::

$ct Irvtt sss


i.

"A book

which has not


writing.
<=>.

its

writing",

e.

a book without

V ^^^\ rD * V jP^iJ.
The
pyr. write
it

A.

Iwfimtvtffae motherless one". f!1k v\ ^-fi-^ 1 iivti; the rare writing h (I


old.
it

sti also

seems to be

\\

B. In such combinations
Copt, as
1

has also been preserved in the

AT-.
U,

Cf.

89.
2

LD

1361.

Eb.

98, 5.

Westc.

8, 11.

Eb. 30,

7.

Peasant 64.

160
379.
It

C.

DEPEND. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. CLAUSES. 379

381.

is

a remarkable fact that this

Iwt'i is

used in

the old language as a negative companion to the relative adjective nil


(cf.

401 sq.) and like the latter


kinds
^
:

attaches clauses of

all

I-

trvy nt

>Aw(?), iwtt skdrvt hrs "This place(?)


is

of the spirits, on which there

no navigation"

(with

junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt Jirs "Navigation


is

upon
""

it").
i

V\ O -^st

r-^-.

J&JL&\\ C

vS

_S^

l^\

Iwt'irv

rh

brv nt'i

Im "Those whose place is not known", (clause: rh 2 Tjrv "The place is known").

380

As

is

observable from the examples cited,


is

this

often

employed as a substantive

also;

where
dition

it (cf.

stands in the feminine entirely without ad95, 4), it


PI

means "that which


is

is

not":
is

AAAAAA
(Ci

"that which
(i.

and that which

not"

e.

everything).

c.

DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES.


the usual case of the dependent clause, where
is

381.

On
a verb

dependent upon
c,

rdl

"to

cause"

cf.

Totb. ed. Nav. 149

17.

2 ib.

79, 5.

LD

II,

149.

C.

DEPEND. AND SUBSTANT1VIZ. CLAUSES. 382. 383.

161
cf.

179. 189.

On On

clauses dependent

upon other verbs

the dependence

upon conjunctions

cf.

190. 302.

The substantivized forms of

282 sq. take the 382. another method


viz.

place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our

own language;
by prefixing
ntt,

parallel with these,


is

of substantivizing

used in the same manner,

every sentence

a substantive and
positions:

may made dependent upon

be converted into
verbs or pre-

iwi rlikwi

ntt Hit
1

pw

ipt "I

know
I ,"*

that

Karnak

is

region of light".
A^/w\A
*

n
I

r\ A
A/WVAA

I \_7 i Li AAAAAA C Ui 2 pn "Because they give this white bread".

<i^>

Cl

/\

Q
fir

ntt

rdisn tB-hd

If
^
L

a sentence of the kind treated in


^

246

(1

^\

383.

U means of this

h^^ Jr ^1 \>V\?*
ntt,

irvi rhkrvi)

be substantivized by

the subject is not expressed by the but by means of the old absolute auxiliary verb,

pronouns of

80:

V^T
cause of the fact that

1i^ V cir^ r nttwlrhkwi "BeI

know"

(i. e.

"because

know"),
5.

LD

HI, 24d.
Eg^ypt.

glut

I,

311.

Totb. ed. Nav. 72,

Erman,

gramm.

162

d.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
d.

384. 385.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
is
it

384.

If no conjunction the temporal clause,

used for the introduction of

only by means of the connection.


cedes the principal clause,
5S

can be recognized as such As a rule it precf. e. g.

n
|

'

./A

2
light, I

"As the earth became

came

to Ptn".

m
"When
those

who
it

are in Egypt heard


earth".
2

it,

they laid

their heads

upon the

More

rarely

follows the principal clause

Iwf hr mdwt bmt "Be not

silent,

when he
3

is

at (? as

385.

we say "at work") a wicked speech". The temporal clauses which are introduced by
the conjunctions (really prepositions)
'

hft
4

"when.

as ">

1^

J\ty

"after",

oRlP

r si

"after", as

a rule, follow the principal clause:


smsl
"I
i

followed
2

my
149 f.

5 lord as he sailed up".


3

"

Sinuhe
II,

20.

LD

II,

Prisse

5, 14.

Siut

I,

298.

LD

122 a.

e.

THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 386

388.

163

On

the other hand the clauses with


after" so

J\ hr mht "now

common
(cf.

at beginning of

paragraphs, always precede


e.

325; 244).

THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE.


386.

The conditional clause precedes the principal clause. It may be introduced by means of a particle
like Ir

and

mi,

but

may

also stand without such in-

troduction.
It is

always

left

tains any other verbal

without a particle, when it conform than sdmf (frequently


is

337.

sdmhrf

cf.

204) or

a nominal sentence:

x
rvlimhrk

mB

ddhrk
.
. .

"If

you examine again


1

(lit.

repeat

the examining)

then say &C.".

Jiri,

iwi mlikwi "A third of


full".
2

me

(added) to me, then

am
it

If the conditional clause contains the

form sdmf,

388.

can likewise be

form then
(cf.

without a particle; the verbal always belongs to the "second group"


left

184. 188):

D
Eb. 36,
15.
2

Math. Hdb.

35. 36.

L*

164

6.

THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 389

391.

s
389.

nnn

psstn grt Iht nbt


. .

hprt prv

r 360
1

"If

now

ye divide all

.,

it

(the result) is

i/seo"-

As a

rule,

however, a conditional sentence conis

taining the form sdmf,


this case the verbal

introduced by

<::::>

ir\ in

form always belongs

to the "first

group"

w\~~

^\

Ir

gmk
. .

d3lsw
.

h3m

(-rvik

"If
-

thou findest a wise


(out of reverence).
A. In the pyr. a
[I

man
/www

then bend thy arms"

In is used instead of

Ir.

390.

If a

number

of conditional clauses are connected,


is,

the construction with ir

as a rule,
is

employed only

with the
to

first,

while the second

treated according

388:

nr>

mn r3-ibf, gmmk st lir psdf. "If you examine a man who is diseased in mach (?), and you find it upon his back
(abbreviation)
s

hr

ddhrk

his sto. .

then

say &c.".
391.

means
i

The introduction of the conditional clause by of mi or 1\ m, is far more rare:


I)
(1

Siut

I,

286. 300.

Prisse 5, 10

11.

Eb. 40,

5.

/. REL. CLAU8.

WITH. A CON.

|S.

WITH SOBST. VERBS.

392/4.

165

AWvV\

j^Xsi

<^^>

n
Ifd n 3ht n ht

^i

Ksk $

'

*^

'

$d nk:

10 r ht 2, pti 3htf "If there be said to you: 'A square of field of 10 measures by 2 measures', what is its
content?" 1
(lit. its field).
=
>

m mrrtn
WSAA
.

'Inprv

fldtn "If

ye love Anubis
/.
a.

2
.

say".

EELATIVE CLAUSES,

WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE.
392.

The custom of joining one of the usual verbal forms as a relative, directly to a noun, is rare and
doubtless
obsolete.

The pseudoparticiple

is

thus

"The land in which

was born".3
are frequently joined 393.
329. 330. 245. 249

Nominal
to a

clauses, however,

noun
227.

in this

manner;

cf.

and

0.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS.


relative 394.

The peculiar verbal forms of the usual


clause,

are identical with the substantivized forms

treated in

289 sq.

noun
1

as an apposition,
Math. Hclb.
49.
2

They are co-ordinated with the at the same time agreeing


3

Mar. Cat. d'Ab. 711.

Sin. 159.

166

|3.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 395

397.

with
love"

it

in gender

hence, for "the

woman whom
the one I love"

I
;

is

said hmt mrrtl "the

but "the brother


mrrrvl.
395.

whom

I love",

woman, must be written

sn

As was remarked

in

289,
(

the forms sdmrvi,


184) of the form
it is

sdmtl belong to the second group


sdmf;
AAAAAA

in the

case of the Ilae gem.


rvnntf, Illae
inf.

therefore
prrtf,

^^
Ol

*^~~

<^__>

r2i

J\

rdl "give"
culine ending
rv

diditf&Lv.

Furthermore, the masis

in

the form sdmrvf

not usually

written out (most frequently with a nominal subject,

when

written), just as in other cases,


(cf.

it is

not everyId
'

where uniformly inserted


A. In the pyr. the
tv is

96).
e. g.

frequently written,

pw n

CnJj,

Cnhwsn imf "that


396.

tree of life,

from which they

live"

Corresponding to the statement in forms derived from the w-form have here
always the meaning ending
rv,

197,

the

also, nearly

of the

past.

The masculine

which
is

in the n-form, stands quite within

the word,
397.

here never written out.

In those sentences in which the subject of the relative clause would be indentical with the substantive to

which the relative clause


is,

is

connected, an at-

tributive participle
1

as a rule, used in its stead

Merenre' 616.

(3.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 398. 599.

167

(cf.

260).

There

are,

however, examples, in which,


to be sure, omitted: ng
">

even in this case, a relative clause seems to be used,

whose pronominal subject


<^=(p(p "

is,
c3

I
II

!<=> C^ 300. Itptmsntr


oo
o

"300 asses, which are laden with incense". 1

^n

hr psdf "li

is

the

ills(?),

which have invaded his

back" 2 (for

thnsri).

The pronoun which


which the relative clause
wanting,
-<3

refers to the substantive to 398.


is

joined,

is

almost always

if it is
*yi

[/>&

^ J^\J ^A
^-y

the object of the relative clause*:


(S
i

f\

A
I

T A

A/A A

n fN

't

A^VWA

\> v^ OJI/WWSA ^f

p3 tB-M,

dldl-

^"this white bread, ye give


(IAA^VVS
I

me" 3

(for didiwtn nlsw).

nwt hkltsn

"the

villages,

they

govern".
i

\\

y A

n ^\ Jm>l

t3s

pn

irn
5

1ml "this

boundary which
ft

my
ft

* ikllcz^ O y-fl
struction which he
(lit.)

majesty hath made".


xrtr>. AAAAAA

^
6.

S&J>

"^

ln "

made". 6
if it is

On

the other hand,

position, the

pronoun
2 6

is,

dependent upon a prefor the most part, expressed:


3

399.

Hr-hwf
5

C. 4.

Eb. 40,

Siut

I,

276.

Una

108.

LD
*

II,

136 h.

Mar. Abyd.

II, 25.

As

often in English.

TBANSL.

168

WITH A PASS. PARTIC.

0.

WITH THE ADJECT,

ntl. 400.

401.

A
<=>
i

Ji

A
./A
s*r

=:>

swtf
1

nbt*

rrvtni

rs

every land to which I journeyed". Only with the preposition m "in", "by means of" &c. it is often wanting:

J
"the place in which

yf

(]

^, bw wrsw
2

Ibi

Im

my

heart tarries".

7.

WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.


attributive participle for
also

400.

The substitution of an
a relative clause
397) to clauses
is

extended

(in violation

of

substantive to

whose subject is different from the which they are joined; this is the par261,
e.

ticipial construction treated in

g.

try nfmttt "There


is

is

no humble one, to
ei

whom

the like

done"

(properly, parvus factus


8.

idem).
nfi.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE

401.

The

adjective nfi "which", which belongs to those

treated in

132

sq.,

was originally used

in purely

nominal relative clauses without a verb, especially if the subject of the relative clause was identical with
the noun to which
it

was joined:

Sin. 101.

Sin. 158.

Sinuhe 309.

Ace. to Sethe.

6.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE


r>

ntt. 402.

169

r\
rj

/www
,0 N

&n

Vfo^i7
Si

\<=>

K^_
1

ir'i-Ct

nb,

nt'i

hrf

"every officer
=i
I

who was with


I
I

him".

00
are in his body".
2

ddft nbt, ntt

htf "all

worms which

ntirv Jir Jirt

"the overseers of the works,


3
T\

who

are

upon

the mountain".
n ^y
=O
Jl 'I

AAAAAA

r\

pa

O
_

\\ \\

MoU N
I I

YX}\.

rnW

bn>

nt'i

st

im "the place where


AAAAAA

4 they are" (with a different subject).


AA/VAAA

A. In the pyramids
f~\

is

written for
AA/WVA
I

nt%,

l^v rV'S.

forntiw.

Another archaic writing

for

nt'iiv is

^N
JT

I.
j

B. ntt early becomes an unchangeable particle;


the plural
(e.

it first

loses

g.

msw

nt'i

ChCf "the children

who

are in his

palace"

instead of nt'iw), later also the feminine.

The sentences of

of the pure nominal sentence,

240 sq. made after the analogy may also be so joined;

402.

their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the infinitive


vft

with hr:
I

2T

^ \\
/WAAAA

/WWNA

^.s, -

\\ v^
_
7

/(

ntt

hr

mn

"a

man who
I

suffers with heat".

T
\\

1\ ^.

s ntt

mr

"a

man who

is ill.

Louvre C
.

495

= P.

I.

2 Eb. * Sin. 303. * Westc. 172. 20, 8. 6 gin. 176. 7 Eb. 8 Eb. 262. 32, 21. 35, 10.

9, 3.

170
403.
nt'i

0.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE

nt'i.

403. 404.

was then further used to connect verbal

rela-

tive clauses also; with negative clauses, this is always

the case

but

it

occurs elsewhere also, where a misif

understanding might be apprehended no express connection


:

there were

A/WSAA

7-y

gl

<^"~^>

^"^ T
sick'V

vi^.

~^=6

*^~- n ^

mrf

"

w^
A
^AAA

*s

no ^

AAAAAA
>

!^

^
t$
hict^

IIP* JjU III

AAAAAA
r~\
\\

AAAAAA
AAAAAA ?*r

<=>/\ v&
/i\

f\
I

*\

Vs\
/T

AAAAAA

p3

lrrm n l tz

A-n&f, w^'

rrfm n^w sw

"this

bread and beer, which the

officials deliver to

404.

nt'i is

2 me, and which I have given you". also often used independently, as a substan(f.

tive "he

who"
I
I

ntt "that which"):


-/J
nt'trv

AAAAA^

ml
3

smsf "those who are in

his following".

ntt

nbt

ss

"all

that was in

writing"

(i.

e.

written).

srvriln

nt'i

mrwt

htf "Let
5

him drink

(it),

in

whose

body there are


i

ills".

Eb. 47,
2, 4.

18.
5

Siut
6.

I,

295.

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

Prisse

Eb.

14,

0.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE

ntt. 404.

171
also used 380. 382.

with the meaning "that which

is" is

alone, especially in the idiom cited in

On On

the use of ntt to substantivize clauses


v

cf.

the relative use of

""^^

cf.

379.

TABLE OF
The more important
signs

SIGNS.
in
list

and meanings are taken up,

the order and with the numbering current in the hardt even where this is probably incorrect.

of Thein-

The phonetic values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between d, d, t, t), but there are many details here which are still uncertain.

The feminine ending is separated from the stem. The abbreviations signify:
Prop., the proper
Trfd., the

36 39); meaning as an ideogram ( most frequent transferred meaning ( 40); it was not the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for which each sign can be used.

Ort. Com., orthographic

compound;

indicates the origin of the

sign by the combination of two others. Phon., the phonetic value as a syllabic sign or as an alphabetic

sign

32-35);
(

Det., value as a determinative

45

47), or the syllable

which

the determinative always accompanies ( 52). Abb., that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a

word

68).

A. Det. supplicate;

MEN.
SjTDet. high, rejoice; Abb. k3 high,
rejoice.

Abb. dtv3 supplicate,


tew adoration.
7
'jj

Det. 1m to praise.

10

y& Phon.

in.

173
15

174
110

B.

WOMEN.

C.

GODS.

Det. revered dead


(masc.).

Trfd.

s3

watch

over, s3 break.

129
113
Det. revered per-

Det. revered dead


(masc.).

son
to

(corresponds
131
89).

Trfd. sps glorious


or sim.

119

Det. king.
!

Det. fall;

128

Prop. s3 shepherd;

Abl).

lir fall.

B.
7

WOMEN.
a
14
/f Det. pregnant; dJ,

Det.woman (corresponds to

89).

Abb.
15

I)k3

pregnant.

Det. revered dead


(fern.).

Det. bear;

Abb. ms bear.
existent at.

12

Trfd.

Ir'i

C.

GODS.
31
QO

Det. and Abb. WsJr(?) Osiris.

Det. Abb. St Set. Det.

Abb.

Dhwtt

4
11

Det. Abb. Pth Ptah.

Thoth.
55
Det.

Det.Abb.'/wwAmon.
Det. Abb.

Abb

m&-t

goddess M.,
27

RC Re.

truth.

D.

MEMBERS OF THE BODY.

175

D.
1

MEMBERS OF THE
;

BODY.
Det. nose,
(cf.

@
$

Prop, tp-t head, d3d3 head Trfd. tp

breath

26 and

4);

upon; Det. head.


3

Abb. fnd nose.


29

Prop, hr face; Trfd. hr upon; Phon. hr.


Det. hair, color, wsr

Prop.

r-5>(?)

mouth;
r.

Phon.
31
lip;

destroyed; Abb. in

hair,wr destroyed.
10 <e>- Prop.mr-/(?) eye, m3
see;

Confusion

rib

with

Trfd. lr
lr, w^(?).

do;

Trfd.^r
arrive
at.

30.

Phon.

12-^- Det.

eye, see.

13:^>=Det. eye cosmetic.


Det. weep;

33

Det.

that

which

flows from the body.

Abb. rm weep.

35
|i

Trfd. mdtv speak.

ISC^BTrfd. CH beautiful;
Phon.
Cn.

37

>^

Det. the back, cut

up; Abb.
eye;

13-t

back.

17'^g

Det.
>

divine
rvd3-t

Abb.
eye.

39 ^7 Det. breast, nurse;

divine

Abb. mnC-t nurse.


40

Prop, lr pupil (of the eye) Phon. lr.


; i

() Prop. shn embrace;


Trfd. shn

happen;

28 /p) Prop, hnt nose;

Det. embrace, pg3.

F5

>

iibtr.

hnt in front;

42

Variant of

47.

176

D.

MEMBERS OF THE BODY.

46 [_J Prop. A9, kind of spirit Phon. k3.


;

63

&

nProp. dl give, mi
give (impu.).

47 _ru. Prop, n (nn) not,


Irvti not having; Phon. n (nn}
;

65

-Q

OProp.
(impv.).

ml

give

66

Prop. Jink to present.

49

W
^s/

Det. negation.
I

Trfd.tfsr splendid

Det.

that

which

or sim.

demands strength;
Abb. nht strong.

51

\^

Prop, hn to row;

Phon.
52

hn.
A-5>

72^
76
to

flProp. hrp to lead.


d-t

c^. Prop,

hand;
grasp
;

Q^y Prop.
Prop.

com-

82 ti Det.

fist,

bat; Phon. Ch3.


w>

Abb. 3m grasp.
84 \
)

reign.

Prop,

rf&c finger (cf.

59.

T
Phon.
c; Det. that

1);"

Tfrd. dbC 10,000.

which
strength

demands

Det. middle,
rect,

cor-

(=D69),
11

mtr

Abk. Ck3

(= D
62

63).

correct, wr middle,

"Prop. m,ft ell,

witness.
;

rmn arm ConTrfd. rmn fus;

90 r=a Prop, blh phallus

Phon. mt\ Det. masculine Abb.#^ mas;

carry; Det. that arm, which is done with the arm.

ion

with

culine, k3 steer.

17.

93

S-lfc

Incorrect for

20,'

12.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

17*

Second
From the Story of Sinuhe
(Epic
J.
(

Part.
Sl-nhf).
Published

ra

poem
12

of the middle empire in the archaic language. L. D. VI, 104 seq.)


34.)

(11.

Amen-em-he't

I. (c.

Sinuhe, a man of high position at the court of 2100 B. c!.), while on a campaign against the

Libyans, learns the death of his king; this news, for unknown reasons, so terrifies him that he immediately seeks flight to
Palestine.

o
r\
I

JO, ll

llinic=>i
r

"?
v<

jQ

s AWVAA^
1

LsJm^^
(r\
\S\

'^^^^T

"?i

^\

<^

P:

XP

(I

passed by the red mountain.)

S*

fl:

is

a n by means of" or sim. is wanting, b the peculiar ending explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the c Name of a fortification on the isthmus of Suez. suffix 1 sg.
is

hk3

written defectively in this old name.


Egypt, gramm.

Erman,

Bb

18*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

III

J
o ^
I

JL
I I

o
.f

(At the
211. 243

Km-wr

I fell

down

for thirst.)

OO\J. 330,2

286

=5
I

om^l'
1 1 1 1 1
1

1 1

>

V\

'

(]

QTV
s

* n ^.
f

"Ek

I'Tmli

^
i

a poetic for ,,I concealed myself". Z> the sentries, c construed as if it were fern, referring to a collective n the guard*. d like our vulgar ,,pull one's self together", or ,.gather one's self".
e

p3

like a

noun, in apposition with mtn.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

19*
A/WV\A

AA/WNA

^3z>

MWM
I

Vv

o ll*^

o
AAAA/NA

c=a
I I I

AAAAAA

7J.

(11.

78

94.)

Sinuhe, heaped with benefits by the prince of

Tmt,

lives

man}' years with him.

a perhaps to be corrected

,,he

cooked for me". 6 read whwt.

c cancel r in Irtnsn according to 151. d ,,a half year"? ,,a year and a half"? e probably ,,thou art prosperous with me"; 80. 330. f 125 B.

20*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

n^
I

^z

r=> o

AAAAAA
A/VSAAA

Dill

AA^VAA

C^ I
I

C^

(He also made

me

prince of a tribe.)

Q.

Qft/ww^Q

n<rz>O
D

^ t^

-n-

10
a the determinative applies
tvnt refers to the land,

The determinatives

to the entire expression, b 125B; of d3b can not be

read with certainty in the hieratic.

From

the Story of Siniihe.


deal.)

21*

(By means of the hunt I also gained a great


a

Ol
I
I

0|

P-IJ
i
i
i

AAAAAA f

AAAAAA
I
I

III.

(11.

109

145.)

Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat.

AAAAAA

AAAAAA AAAAAA

(I

accepted the challenge and prepared

my

weapons.)

210

3S

AAAAAA

a the word

is

wanting in the manuscript,


cf. 98.

scil. 7*pr,

351.

c the land of Tmo,

22*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

78

i\\

o\\
242,3

ill

iii

(He seized his weapons and the combat began.)

31

n ^^
|

(I
--.

stepped upon his neck.)

a like a relative, 397.


fell to]

after". c inexact s cf. 22. 161.

the ground useless",

m lit probably as an adverb n thered a verb is probably wanting: ,,[they he shoots him therefore from behind.

From

the Story of Siiiuhe.

M
AAAAAA

n
i

\\

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

AAAAAA AAAAAA

^
I I

00

A AAAAAA

JJ

^AAAAA ^-1 6

AAAAAA AAAAAA

JF.

(Z. 241

257.)

As an

old

man

Sinuhe-receives from King War-

tsn

I.

the permission to return

home and

goes to Egypt.

?^ J\ v&SP A<=J JE>


II

?
'

f^-n
1 I 1

r=s=i f\

AAAAAA^i

~^

JT j^^rH

V$\

MVQi

t\

d ^.B^
AAAAAA

J5

168
<T

<^-y

~3

yBo
I

^>
AAAAAA

^^ ^ ^
I
I I

^
AAAAAA
|

AAAAAA

1 AAAAAA
ffi

[_ _j

7\

a the people of the dead man.

b emphasis, 344.

24*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

vA
i

Ji

^
i I

/\
i
i
i

(He goes further to the city of the king.)

IE

a.

iS^s*
(I

A fk

qpi

trod the palace.)

^n? D
i 1
1

,o

AAAAAA /

fcjf
251

Q
I
I

AAAAAA

a
them,

,,-who

had followed me, while they

c Impersonal; one expects r 13.

led me". 6 he presents d indicates the action of

the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341.

From

the Story of Sinuhc.

25*

(then terror seized me)

~i&W
182 B.
I

V. (Z. 263
168

269.)

The king

presents Sinuhe to the queen, - A

ra

JJl'

JU II'
O
\
A/VWV\
I

AA/VAAA

A AAA/

\\

Ir^fl" 111
\
I I

vwv\

P
1

a Perhaps relative sentence:


b
hieratic

,,as

an Cj'm
c

whom
i.

the S. made".
n altogether".

d for
cf.

unknown meaning. they had brought them with them,


sign

of

e.

e n in their

hands"?

312. 76.

Bb*

26*
VI. (Z. 279
310.)

From

the Story of Sinuhe. intercession of the queen, Sinuhe

At the

is

pardoned and concludes

his life at the court in great prosperity.

I_CT<VS

^3

&

_ii

IA/WWVA

(and there were other good things therein)

J-FN.

5 1
III
I

^
AAAAAA

a for

mm

315. & passive, c read <=>'^

s>
"?

d 329 as accom-

panying circumstance, e read ni and C^-i'. f read mrrf? ,,P. whom the king loves"? # ,,they caused" (impersonal ,,they".)

From

the Story of Sinulie.

27*

iW
I I I

f:
\
I'

3S

/^-l

A. /wwv\

n _J 1_
I I I

(and there was built for


e

me my own
o
ra

house)
n

/wwv\ AA/VW\

-CT

fv-.-n

ra

tko

J
gave"; the sense is, ,,the dirt etc. I now resigned b i. e. the coarse ones, c upon which I had
liiikyt.

a
to

n they

the

desert",

hitherto slept, in contrast with

in contrast

with

tpti;

read nt.

e passive,

f read

Inus.

28*
(it

Prom

the Story of Sinuhe.

was furnished with the

best)

From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant.


(Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic; only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. Published LD VI 108 seq.; the beginning by Griffith, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archaeol. 1892.) Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him, before Mrwltns'i a prince of Herakleopolis, so charms the latter by his eloquence, that, with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair in order thus to prompt him to further discourse.
I.

(Butler 2

13.)

An

inferior official

meets the peasant as he


desires to

journeys

toward Herakleopolis,

and

rob

him

of

his ass.

D
v\

\\

a which he needs for his grave, b the statue; passive,


expects the plural,

one

d 50 B.

-T=7->

read

<

^>

f read

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

29*

II. (Butler 13

19.)

The

official

plans a stratagem for him.

1-CTZU ^"
I

^
\\

'

21

A^WVV

$ S

A/WAAA
AftAAAA

man
e

a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning. 6 the name of the wanting, c i. e. one of the peasantry, d temporal clause. the asses which pleased him or sim. f here he begins direct
is

discourse.

The following

is

probably an

elliptical
!"

oath:

may

every

excellent image [of a god] .... for me be: a narrow road; on one side water,

g The

situation

must
side

on the other, upper

field.

/*

n his

one way"

i.

e.

probably ;,one edge of the road".

30*

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

ffi

\\

I I

A/WNAA

'

^\

'

(and spreads out the clothes in the way.)

III. (Butler

2223;

Berliner Papyrus Z. 124.) robbed and derided.

The peasant
b

is

A Y\
U-

AAAAAA
I

M"&

^
I

^^a

vV C__L A^AAAA

C^

t-"=~a

^\

_/J

C_I AAAAAA

\\

\\

12
^-^v
f

.JK

""

\\

V\

<CZI> L

WvV

J AAAAAA

is

wanting,

a passive. & the middle of the road, c ,,have a care" or sim. d ,,[Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road".

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

31*

AAAAAA

AWWS
i

/wwv.
AA/WVV
| I
I

III

X
/WW\A,P
I I I I
I

"

^
i

/WW\A

B).

Jl

J
\\

\\

AWVAAA

AAAAAA

A/VAAAA

^1

li)

a [The lower part of the road is] under water, b you not let us pass by then!" c meaning something like:
one [lower path] d read mhtnl
is

,,Will

since

obstructed, I will go along

its

[upper] edge.

32*

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

\\
~\

AAAAAA

/WWW

'ft"

D
/WW\A
(T

^^*
r\

AM/W\ AAAAAA

ft

v /www

i\

>

flfl^^ 1
9

00353

/WWW
AA/WW
pa

_fi

<-=
<===
r

C?

J^

u)

JF.

(ib. Z.

24

32.)

The peasant implores the


f

official in vain.

of the poor

a relative belonging to hn. b probably a proverb: instead man one makes mention of his lord, c meaning:

though you should address me, you think first of d the tamarisk was not dry rf is probably corrupt,
;

my
e

lord.

read the

n-form.

e peculiar infinitive.

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

33*

d
D
AAAAAA

ol\\
iCV

A
|M
AAftAAA

A\

V S
I

s
<

Ml

F.

(ib.

Z.

3242). The peasant goes to the him his matter.

prince and relates to

^2
A\

D
"|

C_i /WW\A
\\

AAAAAA

a ,,you are to" for ,,you go


of the dead one must not

to",

b in the place of the

god

make

noise,

to be connected with the following,

c perhaps an invocation, 182, the meaning of the

sentence

is

not clear,

probably error for

O or O.

against

the injustice.

E r man,

Egypt, gramm.

Qc

34*

Story of the Eloquent Peasant

ra

l\\

D
ra

^J^fl
ra

D
I

YV

^J
(ib.

AAAAAA

VI.

Z.

4251.) The

prince questions his counsellors.

AAAAAA AAAAAA

D
AAAAAA
I

C?

AAAAAA
I

^T
I

O \\

o As the prince
detain him,
6

him,

who

away the peasant would not prohably a peasant subject to unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another.
desires to sail
it is

they mean:

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

35*

^_F*
r\

AAAAAA
I

-F\

'II
I

D^
I
I

^
1
1

f\

AAAAAA

n
1
1

^
-

7 -1

AAAAAA

2:1

AAAAAA

111
r\

o
x

^T
.-~-.
I

T
I

AA/VAAA

Ci

Fill.
I 1

"~ ^
/\^.

^l\\
AAAAAA AAAAAA

rn

AAAAAA

vii/

lU

i^i;
-j

1^1 O

/NAAAAA

j jx

\\

>$$
\\

^ mj X

VII.

(ib. Z.

5271.) The
i

first

complaint of the peasant.

D
AAAAAA,

a Sense probably, he must pay this as a fine; or, he should be punished because of the natron etc. (with which the asses were loaded)? b His reply is not given.

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

N
>TI

^
1
1

n^>i\ %c
I

-fcr\mj?-

(Thou
/3)AAAAA^ AAAAAA

*
I

^ 4*_$ J^J$^$' ^ ^ ^^J * HP AA^r-U w ^S^ 10


1

f\ f|

O
^^

wilt be fortunate in everything)


.

O 2
*

AAAAAA

,O
'

^~^

'

AAAAAA \J _CT*
ffl

r\ JJ

^"^ J

^
f\

>

n AAAAAA
V

-,

ff\

f)

vft

f/Ki

J4 yj

X
6

AAAAAA A/wv

TQ
pyb^^jaH
kAAAAA
I

AAAAAA

v7_

fW

^
D
rn

>^*S^
n
1

S AAAAAA

i
O ^^
<Z2>

>&>
AAAAAA

fl

^nnr

fiU?!
>0\
I

^
S96.89S
I
I

f sic

AAAAAA

ra
a read
nit.

b treat

me

so justly that I shall prefer thy

name
is

to all laws, c imperative,

d imperative,

imperative,
I

f ^&

5>

wanting,

sense

is

probably, prove,

how much

have to bear.

Story of the Eloquent Peasant. VIII.


(ib.

37*
it

Z. 71

77.)

The prince announces

to the King.

Supplement.
A
writing of Thutmosis
I.

to the Authorities in Elephantine.

(Stone in the Cairo Museum. Published Aeg. Ztscb. 29, 117 from a copy of Heinrich Brugscb.)
J.

Announcement

of the coronation.

(The king writes to you)


1

O
o_zr
II.

llf it XI
A,
I

(&

\\

The
,

titulary of the

new

ruler.

n ^^

\ff
,

JX
a passive.

'

6 sense optative.

38*
f$
g)

A
AAAAAA

writing of Thutmosis

I.

III.

What name

is

to

be used in the

cult.

At
JF.

What name

is

to be used in taking oath.

fk di^i_0 V\ AAAAAA "T"


AAAAAA
f\

AAAAAA

F. Concluding formula. a
AAAAAA

O
I

ra"kJ^

M
a read Q.
remain",
c 259,

lit.

,,cause

that one cause that the oath


written,
e

2 passive, defectively
,,this

d formula of
that which
is

correspondence for

communicated,

writing purposes", likewise further that etc.

Examples of the Eoj^al


VI. Date.

Titularies.

39*

m
i
i

il

Examples of the Royal Titularies.


(Written in
abbreviations throughout; for explanation compare the titulary fully written out in the preceding letter.)
I.

Wsrtsn

I.

(Lepsius,

Konigbuch

177).

/c^_M^

n
II.

1C

AA/WV\

Thutmosis HI.

(ib. 349).

nsn

Sill

Oi
frtrhtr

40*

Examples of Grave-formulae.
III.

Kamses

II. (ib. 420).

&
'8. iJl

CO

Examples of Grave-formulae.
(Filled with abbreviations throughout, and often in barbarous orthography)
I.
.

The

sacrificial

formula.

(Gravestone in

Alnwick

Castle).

Di

H. The same

in

another form.

(Gravestone in Florence).

'?J
^
a unintelligible formula,
b optative,
c relative clause.

Examples of Grave-formulae.
291
'

41*
291

O AAAAAA A AAAAAA X

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

III.

The same,

shorter (Gravestone in Turin).

u
IV. Invocation to the
6

visitors to the

grave (LD

II, 122).

a
n

t
I

<
I

&c.
V.

The same,

in different

form (BIH

16).

DIM

^n^ ^i^n^ ^11^


a 259,
c
2,

passive defectively written,


this

b 259, 2 active, plural.

Impv. d. the pronouncing of nourishment.

formula procures the deceased

Cc*

GLOSSARY.
PREFATORY NOTES.
The correct orthography occupies the first place', abbr. designates a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with 63 68;
arch, as archaic.

Compound words are

to be found under the first part of the compound. The endings are separated by -, and are not taken into considera-

To a considerable extent
The meaning of

tion in the alphabetic arrangement. the meanings can be only approximately determined; to such icords, or sim. has been added.
the causative has been subjoined, only ivhere it The does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem. The cited construction of the verb has been added by cc.

refer to the

grammar.

name of a a woman.

place, n. pr.

With proper names m. that of a man,

n.

I.

denotes the
f.

n. pr.

that of

^
3b-w

_B&\
T
1

<\ -\D (48

'

for

hour.
cease, or sim.

goose (abbr.

phantine.

3b-dw

n.

1.

Abydos.

GLOSSARY.

43*

perish (abbr.) to load.

to

outrage?

be

angry ?

0!

(abbr.)

month,

A J^

A A

f
(

count.

160) come.
Ifd n.
1.

im
J^branch,
orsim.
Im-'i

307.

grow

old.

existent in.
>

4k:
i

'U

old age.
fruit,
111

1\

cf.

wn.

orsim.
n) call,
157) tent.
(abbr.

\\

(cc.

someone.
IW
to be.
(

168. 220.
f.)

224. 246. 253

venerableness.

Iw

J^

come
(

160; cc.n) walk, to anyone. 378. 379)

he

100) honored (cc. hr:

who
Iwt-t

has not.

by anyone).
Iml
()

182 B.) give,

Ijj^
\
1

256>

twf
tb

64A) meat>

Imn

fl

^^ J

set, cause.

(abbr.

d)
\ U

Y heart.

AA/\AAA

Amon.

44*

GLOSSARY.

Imn-y

45*
<

isr-y

%(?)
itf
cf. it.

king or sim.

Issl

n. pr.

m.

istw

O
d
Ij

ltn-w
323.

"
AAAAAA

ikr
*

excellent or sim;

refractory
sim.
tit tt?

toward,

or

Z>U
It

be excellent.

o barley, o o o

"7r~V

ta ^ e

away;

^
it

spend (time).
(

31) father; Itn

ntr kind of priest.

O sun

strike

or

sim.

Y\
hr-C
t

arm.

hr-Cw'i '

immediaass.

tely;
tp'iw Cw'i ancestors.
-t

Q member.
chamber,
small

hr) to please?

Bedouin
-t

or

house

(as part of pr).

<?

hoof,

Lbbr.^"^,
uninjured, or sim.
great, large.

CCi

^
comb?

cry out, P*T sim.

or

Thutmosis'

I.

CCb

braid?

*46

GLOSSARY.

Cw-t
_
~~L

animals.

Crr-yt
lace or sim.

IL_^H

pa-

f\
Ch3
) rob, plunder.
robto contend.

V&
Cwn
AAAAAA

Ch3

a combat.

J>1 ber.

arrow, or

Cwn-lb
deceitfulness, or sim.

sim.

ChC

stand.

J
Cm-mw'inn-sl
-J -i

sacrifici-

J\
ChC-w
IV
Jr

ChC-n
a

230

ff.

al tablet.
fly,

or sim.

Q
i i

time, or sim.
(pi.)

AAAAAA AAAAAA

n ^

ChC-w

tk
Tf

<=?=>
I

quan-

tity,number,

\.

AAAAAA

or sim.

n. pr.

m.

1)

70).

ChC ChC
Chn-wtl

kind of ship,

Q
Cnli
1

AAAAAA

(abbr.
live (cc.

palace.

m on anything),
abbr.
.

Cr,

SoV)i U
V\A
../I

snb

"living,

sound,

(
109
)

AAAAAA.

healthy" (as adjunct to


royal name).

royal chamber.

Q
CnJj

AAAAAA

oath.
. I

numerous,

many.

Cnh
Cntiw

ear.
CA:

enter.

O
myrrh,
CJc-w
goat, or sim.

C=D
I i |

Plur.:
food.

Cr

GLOSSARY.

47*

(sic,

contrary to

wt

3S51) district, or sim.


(abbr.

wC
abbr.
|)

X
caus. cc.

^ by something.

hr pass

(116) one

(as

subst.).

(abbr.
rJ
")
I

wC
(

way, road.

143) one (as adj.).

wCb

Hr
1

T pure, Q
\>

clean.

w\^
^
I I

'
| | |

\
n.
1.

y^
wCb

abbr.

priest.

wCf
<~>

V
\i

^.

to bend,
^1

or sim.

A
h-i

to increase;

caus.

wbl

household

sif-sYi

to visit, or sim.

servant, cook.

Jo
I

\k\

(nfl)

wp-wt

Y^

QA
Ill

message.

chamber

in the palace.

Wp-t0.teA/3fec

^a.
<
v

(abbr.

(5^
late,

or sim.

V
<j>

<_ -^-ai

^.

name

of a

god of the dead.


Abes.

"*

finni
to praise, or sim.

aus

A praise,
-

applause, or sim.
(^i

GUI

tow^crj

green.
o

or sim.

wn
green cosmetic.

(Ilae gem.) to be

aux. verb.

223. 250 sq.

48*

GLOSSARY.

>u
wsrtsn
hour.
ivsh

(abbr.)

name
II.

of

Bamses
n.

f
i

pr.m.

AA/VAAA

\7
broad.
v*.

lay
I I
I

i.

wssC

bite, or sim.

priesthood, or sim. xgj& \


" i-nfr^x wnn-njr-^^" A AAAAAA XX/VvAA AA/WAA V
I
\
i

also of itching.

-f*

nam

to

wSb

/answer.

of Osiris.

magnate.
weakness, indolence, or

"^^
also

(^^
o

in titles

sim.

TO) great.

wd

^K^

'

(Illae

inf.)

throw, (also of emission


of a cry).
anoint.
'

wdn
"
'

wr
wrd

spend
day.
^
'

the

or sim.

wd

(57

Illae

inf.)

to rest, or

command.

sim.

be well, be fortunate; Sivd3 tb hr to rejoice the


100)
i

heart concerning something, polite phrase for

Bedouin

tribe.
Osiris.

communicating
thing.
fj

some-

silver- gold
1
1 1

A
forsaken

alloy.

-C
j

(abbr.) strong, or sim.

one??

GLOSSAEY.

49*

1 1
branch,

u.
blk
cf.
fcjfc.

bad.

or sim., thicket, orsim.

bw
bnrl

place

103).

(28)

date.

bnrl-w
/

date wine.
calf.

(abbr.

VI.

'

c==a
|

mm
.

dr b3h

315.
'

servant
oil.
Ill

bk
I

im
i.

"the
e.

servant

honey.
king of lower
bd-t

there"

e
|
I

bi-ti

^ ^^
3

"I."
8 P elt

(kind

Egypt.

o o o of wheat).

D
pt

^
heaven.

P a
Pr

C-D
.

/
(

\
C
]

house,

also for possessions.

pw

0%,
D (1 U

pr-hd
87.

[333 ?
A

[-

-,

silyer

house"
flea.

i.

e.

treasury.
inf.)

Pr
Cookerv
cf.
-

SLA
go
out,

(Hlae

depart (from

pn
*

AAAAAA

ps.

the way, &c.).


'\

8 86 "'

Ztf

Prom-

mouse.
AAAAAA

inent??

Erman,

Eg^pt. gramm.

Dd

50*
L

GLOSSARY.
:=
|

pr-t

^=^.r\ winter (one of ^


the three seasons).

^^
,
'

~
'

'

,.7

p/lr~(/

pr-t

(abbr.) fruits.
(Ul)
I

(abbr.

O) remedy.
troop, or sim.

"hair
Mil
phr-t(?)

fruit"
fruit.

as

name

of

^M g ^
I
I

D
ps
_

Q
'-(7

159) to cook
pfst.
bite.

cf.

prt-

(abbr.)

offering

D
finest

for the dead.

=-w arrive at, attain to


J\
ph-tt

pk-t

1o
D

'

linen.

Q?

~^^f

abbr

ptn
pth-htp

C=

dual: strength.

^
pjS

"Ptah

ph3

nl X

divide;
_c!c^
U
lit

is satisfied" n. pr.

m.

caus. sph3

purge.

f
.

fw

pr.
n.

{^\\^
glad".

belong, large,

m. ; pri

ffl

f> ^

i.

broad; of the heart "be

fnd
CJ
i;

go fur-

fw-tC

<f^k

~
pre-

J\
NX

ther, or sim.

sents, or sim.

fd

pull out.

m
307.

Negation

375.

GLOSSARY.

51*

mnew.

183 behold.

mUw
one
137).

like

135.

renew
M.
self,

ml' tt
(something); mitt "likewise".
cat.
is

recur.
(II

like

w:?

ae

gem.)

see.

in
j

rdimfCcc.

obj.

offer

~
up something.
1
i

daily (food),

"^
etc. of.

mni.

AAAAAA

true.

~"
312.
for

(111)

water.

mwt
truth, justice.
(abbr.) goddess truth.

of

mother,

fc

die.

lino

n
)

"true of

voice"

i.

declared

mn
remain.

abbr.)

just, appellation of

the

dead.

burn or
>

II
obj.:

\fc^.^,

suffer

(cc

with something.)
diseased
place.

ml

(abbr.

U)

314.

mn-t

Dd*

52*

GLOSSARY.

62)

mr-t(1)

eye.

(mm 1)

AAAAAA

marry, or sim.
anyone).

(cc.

m:

Thou (belongs perhaps to an other word


of mas. gen.).

mni
(mini)

mr
(euphemistic for die)

C
abbr.^ (Ulae
love,
inf.)

tnnl-t

Z^h
^ww H
,

fa kind
^11
.

of

to

(mlntl)

musical instrument.
tnn-tt,

desire;

mry

ntr

Ci
[[iiiii

104 A)

plur.

"beloved of god", priestly


title.

(wtme?)OOO monuments.
n
1 1 1 1 1

mnnrn-t
AAAAAA

mrl

to
>

Egypt.

ww/i
AAA/WA

A
sim.;
cellent.

excellent,

or
ex-

mrwi-

Jl

\r^

caus.

make

god of
war.

n. pr.

m.
dyke,

mry-t
mrh-t

overseer.
grease,
,

.O

fabbr.)
I

oil.

canal.

\>

mr mr

Ja SIM

people, sim.

or
fill,

be

full.

be

f
be sad.

sick,

mh-ti
\\

northern, north
(

137).

fnr

mournin g
suffering.

ms
(Illae
inf.)

mr

T _B^
I

bear, give

A <y.

py ramid

birth to.

GLOSSARY.

53*

mtn
/WW\A
[childj

ren.

way, road.

^
ms-yt
rn

mtn
I i

inn

kind

of

sheikh of the Bedouins,


food which was eaten
or sim.

on stated (?) evenings.

mtr
\

NN Jl
3

give gi
obj.

testi-

bring

mony
on or near; play (an
instrument).

(cc.

about
J3
\

anyone).
.

-ST.

to

msdm-t
cosmetic.

eye

IS

challenge?? to insult??

mdw
msdd
to hate.

md-t
speech,

mk
tect.

(mdw-tt)
matter,
affair.

organ (of body.)

n
n't

/WSAA*

306.
cf.

nd.

/wwv\ of the gen.

125.
,

'(?)
III

abbr. powder, or
f-\

O
* h

sim.

AAAAAA
r,

n-*(?)

city.

kernel, grain,

>]

III

or sim.

n-n

134 urban.

AAAAM

n*

94.

lord, master.

54*

GLOSSARY.

55*

triturate:

56*

GLOSSARY.

abbr
-)
hereditary
sim.
(title

rnp ~*
i

f? (f
year.

['

fo)

prince,

or

of the no-

rh

know, be learned.
^??i
*

bility).

caus.

de-

nounce.

r-pw
I

121.

rh

^=> scholar, wise man.

r-pn-t
local

unknown
rs

W
t south,

name.
rs'i

cf. tp-rs.

r-pr
I I

southern grain,
barley.

i. e.

temple.

rm
weep.

Joy
(Illaeinf.)
'

>

time of anything, epoch.


tf tf

rmt
rn

'^^
I

64.

97)
legs, feet.
J, J>

people.

\(

\ name.

.'\AAAAwy

( \&
ra
hi

_07
(

flJ

descend, (also

&
to

15) hus-

>T band.
of going on board ship) ;
enter.

hb

plow?

^
ra

jj^ ^>
J

Pi-

time

hp

ra

law.

or place of a thing.

hnw
send

earthen vessel.

ra^\

M^

send

as messenger.

(O abbr.)

day.

GLOSSARY".

57*

large house, castle.

lib

A^JJ vJL^
ntr temple.

Urn feast cf.hr-hb.


<
mourn for?

lit

B
aim.

^m^

Particle

(?)

of wishing: "if only", or

hbs

"yfto
hbs

clothe.

plur.

increase, addition.

h3k
hC
AC(?)

>

\]F

'^\
ll
I

^
body.

T.
I

\ garment.

ta ^ e

as

embrace.

serpent.

==^cc.
(as superscription).

Am

rudder.

JiC-t

^
I

beginning; and hr hCt

hm-t
hCt

woman,

wife.

315.
salt.

7tC-<i'

^ abbr. prince,
fl

(as title

of the nobility).
n AAAAAA

obstruct, sim.

or

AAAAAA Nile. AAAAAA

hn

majesty or sim.

(cir-

ACS

o\\ v
}

heart.

cumlocution for king),


slave, servant.
i

strike.

314. 120. 279.

hwr-w
pauper.

Attic

O
I I I

things,

or sim.

58*
/>

GLOSSARY.

hnn-stn

S)
JJ AAAAAA Jl

n.l.
AAAAAA/

"

cf.

(III

ae

inf.)

(Heracleopolis).

to praise.

^ws

V /\ AAAAAA

^X

[1
I

narrow.
c
I

hst

o
I

7m&

\J

a
I

/N AAAAAA

to

offer,

o^ / ^j)
"

approbair

present.
hrik-yt

tion, sign of favor.

X
c
I

hstf "do according to


AAAAAA

his wish".

bed?
hsst
,

praise,

Ci

hntSsw

or sim.

.4
lizard.

hsy
praised.

hr
hr-i

309.

existent

hs

approach, or

J\
hsb
3

sim.

above.
abbr.
cf.

reckoning,

hr-w
hr-dJdJ'Q
hr'i-d3d3

tp-hsb.
'1

Q
*

part.

315.

Q n r"^"!

/-i
I I I

XI
fy
chief; overlord,

AAAAAA

Alll
vi^

\M O
Vv!i,

abbr.

natron.

superior.

hk-t
^,

name

of a

J^D

goddess.

316.

hk-t
I

abbr.

hr
king.

beer.

hr-nb
title

O \
i

\J

of the king.

ruler, prince.

60*

GLOSSARY.
**

61*

D
be
first;

hrp
ib

hrp

possessed of a

good
dis-

understanding and

MH
pulse;

(cc.

obj.)

to re-

position, or sim.; offer,


sacrifice.

(cc.

n)

punish

anyone, or sim.

hr-hb

8
8

J
J)

/ft

V&(for

hsm

holy
holies in the temple.

of

kind of priest.
Jit

tree,
/^\
I

wood.

ht

111

abbr.

children.

^\mht yj \ Q ^ J\(^ o/
-

315 ; afterward, future.

neck.

hd
(niae
inf.)

^tjflf,

to

journey

hs

down

stream, journey

be wretched.

toward north.

and
man.
!

[st-lr]

cf.

(j-<2>-

Ws-lr.

8-t

M
| |

seat, place

st

^ back; m s3

315.

tr'i

correct.

J
s-t-C
ll

KSK)
imiw
st-C

sor

s3-nht

kind of
s-t-wrt

priest.

son of the sycomore.

a
daughter.
1

s-t-Hr

the

Jthrone.

goose

(cf.

62*

GLOSSARY.

*
ito

teach: cc.

defend one's self against.

r train

as. (trans.)

sb3-w

-^ \b\ ^c\ Ml teaching, (substantive?)

designation of anything

bad.
s
*

sbs

n
1
1

door.
-^J

land, arrive at.

cry out.

iLtk

draw

together, or sim.
slB
(

J
abbr
sp
-

time

62) recognize.

5, sign

that the
is

D
sip-t'i

..

Jl

inspection,

preceding

word

to

be repeated in reading;

sw
SMM?
swrl
n.

sp

pw

for

the intro-

duction of a courteous
1.

proposal ("here

is
.

an

opportunity to

.").

PS4
TT
4
II

to drink.

sb

A lead.
n
for

rive at.

sb-t

-^T-

A
\l

spr
lL*

(cc.

ri)

request

anyone.

sf

r^,

yesterday.

GLOSSARY.

63*

^=^-^5& be mild, or
'
'

/ om-i
.

^
|

5*\l sim.

ther;

desert,

foreign

companion.
to
AAAAAA

r\

land.
lit.
I

sm3-t3

1
M/s
land";

"uniting of
local

unknown

designation.

warm, cook, or sim. n AAAAAA n ^r>


(1

J |((Ub,)*e
of.

sm3-wt'i

J^j

uniter,

i.

e.

lord

healthy,

Cnh.

of

upper

and

lower

A
A

AAAAAA
|

P>

(I

n. pr.

m.

Egypt.
sm->

AAAAAA ^\

^Jl?
I

\\

to slaughter.

^n.

pr.

m.

smt
I

y
III

cream, or sim.

/^ fill
sntr

blood.

smwn

'

A proJ

AAAAAA <if

bably an expression of
deprecation
(like,

cpnsp

"Per-

1
to fear.

mit me") or of doubt


(like,

"perhaps").
fear.

a rank

at court.
.

ssn
prince,

<)

breathe.

or

sim. (desig-

nation of an officer of

sn

to trespass.

rank).
8l
-

sn-mv
(

the

second

1).

64*

GLOSSAET.

sh-tt

peasant.

**
\
\J2.

V
)

(cc

obj<)
1

y$r
1

Bedouins.

17
"^

remember anything.

si-f
I

swelling.
I

P
slim
()
11

memory>

^=J1 mighty, or

sim.
j

bring on.
to treat

slir

overlay

with.

l^^V^Q
"
stp
fl
I

J\ r-rc-i
cf.

open.

(medically) or sim.
(
.

nd.

abbr.)

r-^-.

w
ssm
ssm-w

select.

scribe.

^
stn

1
I
I

VJ
abbr.

D (\ V
I

1,
^~i

king of upper

Egypt, king.
leader.

stny-t

kingdom.
'
1

sd
sical

'"Vi'
i
1

clothe,

instrument of the
(sistrum?).

or sim.
hear.

women
skm

sdm

Kl growI

sdm
metic
to.

ing grey (noun).


82.

sdr
shoot.
to sleep.

be at night;

GLOSSARY.

65*

sms-w
sib
or sim.
dig, or

servant.

food,

sms-Hr
of Horus,
i.

foUower
e.

people

^^
i

1\

sim.

of mythic time.

\\

sC

sand.

^
AAAAAA

t
Tj

/i

(nae 8 em ')

-'I

Sw

(cc.

m)

free

revolve about, or sim.

from.
AAAAAA

&

hum-

abbr.J

hair.

ble one (not of highest


I I

"groundhair"

rank) ?

name

of fruit.

^-"-i
that which
I I I

>$ LA
courtiers.
i

^
i i i

coll.

is

splendid, or sim. as

designation

of

food

\*

furnished by the king.


sfw-t
I

snC

AAAAAA U-^-sl

designation
like,

O
I
I

of

the

locality

"margin" or sim.
sndy-t

itch, or sim.
1-77-1

9
(ATI* "V s
abbr.
/
)

(IHae
go, go go away.

-^
anj'one,
i

inf.)

to

apron.

\v

ihnw

AAAAAA AAAAAA

summer

be small.
(one
of
fine linen.
I
I I I

the three seasons).

Erman,

Egypt, gramm.

Ee

66*

GLOSSARY.

form,
cleverness, or sim.

figure

JSSc

of a god, or sim.
n. pv.
f.

receive;

Icsw crouch, or sim.

k
kl-t

A
km3

height.

01
abbr. ) create.
.

Ksb
315.

J
boat, or sim.

X
ksn

be strong.

bad, or sim.

ft/

form.

D
circle; personality.
!

HJ
d33
(lit.

" ~3
7

fed

A
r-=

Caus. skd to

sail.

perhaps "bath"?
kdtn

cooling, or sim).

east?)

kind
k-y
im.,
I

of

o
H6.

f.,

pi. another,

human

spirit,

\\
kt-lht

steer.

o o Ui

others,
i >

dung, or sha.

(cc. obj.)

black
cf.

skm.

think (of something).

67*

ks-w

^^\\^\rn Jl \J\
I

inoli-

Egypt.

nation of the body.

g
1

S
gr

gl't

*.

6-Sfcs.,

designation

s
nb-sgr

be

silent,

of something injurious,

Kaus. sgr to

silence.

perhaps, need, lack.


or. ivc/3.

name

of Osiris.

giw

gm

gmh

gmv

68*

tp
I

tp rs southern pro-

vince.

or sim.

tp hsb

o
tn
AAAAAA
I

80

correct

computation,
the-first, first

correctness.
tp-i
tp'iw-

O
I

^
D
\\

/
k

tnw
n.
1.

O^

f\

month.
tnl

ancestors.
T\

r\
head.

tr

tp-t

D<?
I

time.

tp-tt

olll
oil.

th

to trespass.

of

ra.

tkn
sim.
^rr-rr

(cc.

m) ap-

376,

^\ _cr^ tm rdl

Negation
377.

proach. /^ r\

tu
/^~\

(I
i

n. pr.

m.

take.
3

ts

A
E=
==1
I

raise, lift

up.

dress hair,

vertebra of the
spinal column.

ts

or sim.

highest

official,

tsw

v\
-Jf
I I I

proverbs.

(vizier, or sim.).

tsw

officer,

1 or sim.

man, male

child.

tsm

hound.

constrain, compel, or sim.

figs.

GLOSSARY.

69*

di

A
rdl,

&

D,

Q)

(also

J'
payment,
aim.

didi

160):

give;
;

income,

or

deliver over; give back

express; set down, lay

db3
stop up.
c

down; cause that; permit


that,

rdlt

in

order that.
cf.

dpi

,/
\

A taste.
i/

kind Apt
ship.

of

didiw

\ Jr

pr.

m.

dm
make mention,
dmi

to to name.

morning.

c^^ U

(I

fl

touch,

praise

meet with, or

siin.

Chnwtt dio3t
the palace.
/\

part

of

dmi

CIty

'

spread
out.
(cc. hr) expell from, vanquish, or sim.

**J\
restore, pay.

horn.

dkr

A <^= =>

'

fruit.

III

see.

at

eternity.

d-t

vill

^^| coll.

peasaut-

wise man, or sim.


"

ry, or sim.
sail across.

!^

X
a fruit.

name of
III

70*

GLOSSARY.

ds-

"^

85.

self.

kind of vessel.

A
dw
).,
?

dsr

wind.

^\ <z>

(Wabbr.) v
or
sim.

magnificent,
cf. db*>.

Caus. sdsr beautify, or


sim. tB-dsr
necropolis.

dfl
food.
,,

name

of the

speak, say.
to talk.

Caus.

dnv
boundary, end, or sim.
dr
ftft

w
n.
1.

&
(

& r drf as far as


i.

its

end)

e. all,
cf.

whole.

ol

(Busiris).

dr
dliwff-

314

b3h.
as
parallel

occurring
to
"as-

ms

Thutmosis.

semble".

UNKNOWN PHONETIC
name
of a musicalj

VALUE.
x /" ^ \ clothin g> 4 AvV&y/or sim.
I

'

instrument.

the

day

(only

in
village, or sim.

dates).

UNKNO WN READING.
kind of
cry.
official.

PRINTED BY W. DKUGHLIN, LEIPZIG.

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE

CARDS OR SUPS FROM THIS POCKET


UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO

LIBRARY

Erman, Adolf Egyptian grammar with table of signs... t. Breasted

\***&\^"