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Submitted By: Missy May Q.

Cabrera Submitted To: Jeonedy Sarsonas

1.What is Architecture? At least 3 meaning with references.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek arkhitekton, from- "chief" and "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean:

The art and science of design and erecting buildings and other physical structures. A general term to describe buildings and other infrastructures. A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures. The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.[1] Design activity, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). The term "architecture" has been adopted to describe the activity of designing any kind of system, and is commonly used in describing information technology.

In relation to buildings, architecture has to do with the planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material, technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines

the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.

By Jackie Craven, About.com Guide


The word architecture can have many meanings. Depending on the context, architecture can refer to: 1. any man-made building or structure 2. a man-made building or structure that is important, large, or highly creative 3. a carefully designed object, such as a chair, a spoon, or a tea kettle 4. a design for a city, town, park, or landscape 5. the art or science of designing and building buildings, structures, objects, and outdoor spaces 6. a building style or method 7. a plan for organizing space 8. the flow of information on a Web page 9. the planned design of any kind of system 10. a systematic arrangement of information or ideas

According to Websters Dictionary Architecture is Art or practice of designing and building structures and especially

habitable ones. Formation or construction as (or as if as) the result of a conscious act. Architectural product or work. A method or style of building.[3]

If there are four different definitions of architecture, what exactly is it? Architecture may refer to the art of building products, or the building itself; like the architecture of a building. Generally considered an art, but is differentiated from it by one respect: function. Defining architecture is sort of ironic because there are boundaries set to such an idea as no one specific definition completely fits into the reality.

The meaning must take into account certain things in order to represent architecture. They may include, in reference to a candidate for a piece of architecture: it must be material, it must transcend mere function, it must be aesthetic and it must be designed by an architect. But taking a quick look at this, small arguments arise that challenge the validity of these claims.

2. Enumerate the types of Architectural construction and materials used.

Neolithic or "stone age"

architecture includes some of the oldest known structures made by humankind. Neolithic cultures are distinguished from earlier Paleolithic and Mesolithic structures by the domestication of plants and animals, and extensive making and use of stone tools. Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 b.c. to 6000 b.c., and Neolithic cultures had existed around the globe by 1500 b.c. By 3500 b.c., Neolithic cultures in the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys in the Middle East had developed into Bronze Age urban civilizations.

Modern concepts of architecture


The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.

Sydney Opera House, Australia designed by Jrn Utzon.

Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality". [9] Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management andlighting.

Origins and vernacular architecture


Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft. It is widely assumed that architectural success was the product of a process of trial and error, with progressively less trial and more replication as the results of the process proved increasingly satisfactory. What is termed vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the built world that people experience every day. Early human settlements were mostly rural. Due to a surplus in production the economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of atal Hyk in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in modern-day Pakistan.

Vernacular architecture in Norway

Ancient architecture
In many ancient civilizations, such as that of Egypt and Mesopotamia, architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, and many ancient cultures resorted to monumentality in architecture to represent symbolically the political power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself. The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Romanevolved from civic ideals rather than religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged. Architectural styles developed. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time. These texts provided both general advice and specific formal prescriptions or canons. Some examples of canons are found in the writings of the 1st-century BCE Roman military engineer Vitruvius, the Kao Gong Ji of ancient China[Notes 1] and Vaastu Shastra of ancient India and Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastraof Sri Lanka. Some of the most important early examples of canonic architecture are religious.

The Pyramids at Giza

Asian architecture
The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. In many Asian countries a pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape.

Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion), Kyoto, Japan

Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, incorporating a blend of architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium, but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and the Indian Sub-continent. The widespread application of the pointed arch was to influence European architecture of the Medieval period.

The Taj Mahal (16321653), in India

The medieval builder

Notre Dame de Paris, France

In Europe, in both the Classical and Medieval periods, buildings were not often attributed to specific individuals and the names of architects remain frequently unknown, despite the vast scale of the many religious buildings extant from this period. During the Medieval period guilds were formed by craftsmen to organize their trade and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings. The role of architect was usually one with that of master mason, or Magister lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents.

Renaissance and the architect

La Rotonda (1567), Italy by Palladio

With the Renaissance and its emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects Brunelleschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio and the cult of the individual had begun. There was still no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist.

Modernism and reaction of architecture


Main article: Modern architecture

The Bauhaus Dessau architecture department from 1925 by Walter Gropius

The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to Modern Architecture. Many architects felt that buildings had become overly decorated and burdened with various styles that they could no longer be honest to the function. They felt that architecture should not be an accumulation of past traditions but that it should be adapted toward the common man. The

Modernists wanted buildings that were beautiful not in overwelming decoration but beautiful in simplicity Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund, formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here. Following this lead, the Bauhausschool, founded in Weimar, Germany in 1919, redefined the architectural bounds prior set throughout history, viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesisthe apexof art, craft, and technology. The Bauhaus is credited as one of the birthplaces of the modernist movement. Many notable artists, designers, and architects taught at the Bauhaus such as Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer, and Walter Gropius. After the outbreak of World War II, the Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis. As a result, many of the teachers and students fled to other countries and spread their ideas. When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Immediately after World War I, pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining aristocratic order. The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details. Buildings displayed their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind decorative forms.

Fallingwater, Organic architecture byFrank Lloyd Wright.

Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed Organic architecture in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world with prime examples being Robie House and Falling Water.

The Crystal Cathedral, California, by Philip Johnson (1980)

Architects such as Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnsonand Marcel Breuer worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new means and methods made possible by theIndustrial Revolution, including steel-frame construction, which gave birth to high-rise superstructures. By mid-century, Modernism had morphed into the International Style, an aesthetic epitomized in many ways by the Twin Towers of New York's World Trade Center. Many architects resisted Modernism, finding it devoid of the decorative richness of ornamented styles and as the founders of that movement lost influence in the late 1970s, Postmodernism developed as a reaction against its austerity. Postmodernism viewed Modernism as being too extreme and even harsh in regards to design. Instead, Postmodernists combined Modernism with older styles from before the 1900's to form a middle ground. Robert Venturi's contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was better than a "duck" (an ungainly building in which the whole form and its function are tied together) gives an idea of this approach.

Architecture today
Main article: Contemporary architecture

Postmodern design at Gare do Oriente,Lisbon, Portugal, by Santiago Calatrava.

Part of the architectural profession, and also some non-architects, responded to Modernism andPostmodernism by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Christopher Alexander started searching for more people-oriented designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral, environmental, and social sciences were done and started informing the design process. As the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of structural systems, services, energy and technologies), architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary. Architecture today usually requires a team of specialist professionals, with the architect being one of many, although usually the team leader.

Green roof planted with native species at L'Historial de la Vende, a new museum in western France

Starting in the 1980s and into the new millennium, the field of architecture saw the rise of specializations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods. In addition, there has been an increased separation of the 'design' from the 'project' architect. The main reason for the shift is because architecture has become much more complicated. Architecture has become more than just building but has morphed into an extensive process involving durability, quality, money, and compliance to local laws. Every detail must be taken into account by the architecture firm. A great structure can no longer be the design of one person but must be the work of many. Moving the issues of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is a significant development in the architecture profession. Within the past several decades, architects have realized that buildings must take into account their effect upon the environment. Major examples of this can be found in greener roof designs, biodegradable materials,and more attention to a structure's energy usage. This major shift in architecture has also changed architecture schools to focus more the environment. Sustainability in architecture was pioneered in the 1960s by architects such as Buckminster Fuller, Frank Lloyd Wright, Sim Van

der Ryn, in the 1970s Ian McHarg in the US and Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand. There has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meetgreen building sustainable design principles. Sustainable practices that were at the core of vernacular architecture increasingly provide inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary techniques.] The U.S. Green Building Council's LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating system has been instrumental in this. An example of an architecturally innovative green building is the Dynamic Tower which will be powered by wind turbines and solar panels.

3. Describe the Philippine architecture and famous Filipino Architects.


The architecture of the Philippines is a reflection of the history and heritage of the country. The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are from the Spanish, Japanese, Malay,Hindu, Chinese, and American cultures. The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural materials but there are some traces of large-scale construction before the Spanish colonizers came but not well documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Maynilad although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros. There are also other minor pre-colonial walled cities like Betis and Macabebe. During three hundred years of Spanish colonialization the philippine architecture was dominated by the Spanish culture. During this period Intramuros, the walled city, of Manila, was built with its walls, houses, churches and fortresses. The Augustinian friars built a large number of grand churches all over the Philippine Islands. During this period the traditional Filipino "Bahay na Bato" style for the large mansion emerged. These were large houses built of stone and wood combining Filipino, Spanish and Chinese style elements. The best preserved examples of these houses can be found in Vigan, Ilocos Sur and Taal, Batangas. After the Spanish American war the architecture of the Philippines was dominated by the American style. In this period the plan for the modern city of Manila was designed, with a large number of art deco buildings, by famous American and Filipino architects. During the liberation of Manila by the Americans in 1945 large portions of Intramuros and Manila were destroyed. In the period after the second world war many of the destroyed buildings were rebuilt.

At the end of the 20th century modern architecture with straight lines and functional aspects was introduced. During this period many of the older structures fell into decay. Early in the 21st Century a revival of the respect for the traditional Filipino elements in the architecture returned.

Famous Filipino Architects


There are many great Filipino Architects but the following are among the Famous Filipino Architects who was recogrnized as the National Artists of the Philippines for their best and exceptional works:

Pablo Antonio - The facade of the main building of the Far Eastern University,
designed by Pablo Antonio in the late 1930s.

Juan Nakpil - He designed the International Eucharistic Congress altar and improved
the Quiapo Church in 1930.

Leandro Locsin - Church of the Holy Sacrifice, Cultural Center of the Philippines,
Philippine International Convention Center, Istana Nurul Iman.

Francisco Maosa - He designed The Coconut Palace. Ildefonso Santos (I.P. Santos)

4. What is music, and the main properties of music? Medium and Elements of music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Common elements of music
are pitch(which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, andarticulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives fromGreek (mousike; "art of the Muses").[1] The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics.

To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Greek philosophers and ancient Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2] Musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez summarizes the relativist, post-modern viewpoint: "The border between music and noise is always culturally definedwhich implies that, even within a single society, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus ... By all accounts there is no single and interculturaluniversal concept defining what music might be."

Four Properties of Music Notes

Sheet music records the language of music.

Music has been considered a universal language with much of its makeup based in math while at the same time having the ability to evoke a wide range of individual emotions based on style and the person playing. Music of all types is made up of individual notes which display four main properties.

Note Names
o

Notes are assigned one of seven letters ranging from A through G. Typically a musician uses middle C as a reference for all other notes available on an instrument. From middle C, the notes progress in alphabetical order until G, after which the notes go back to A and continue progressing to G. This sequence continues all the way up the scale, or reverse when heading down the scale.

Pitch
o

Pitch is another property of a musical note. Pitch consists of a perceived frequency of sound. The higher you progress up a scale, the faster the frequency vibrates, and the higher the pitch of the note becomes. The lower you progress down the scale, the slower the frequency vibrates, resulting in a lower sounding pitch.

Length
o

The length of the note is a property that contributes to rhythm. The most common lengths for notes are whole, half, quarter, eight and sixteenth notes, which are held for varying amounts of time depending on the time signature of a piece of music. Shorter notes are defined by how short they are compared to a whole note. Lengths can be extremely long through the use of ties, or can be as short as a thirty-second note or less.

Dynamic
o

Notes can also contribute different properties based on dynamics. Dynamics measure how loud or soft a note is played. The most common dynamics for a note range from soft or "piano" referred to by the letter "p," to loud or "forte" portrayed by the letter "f." The most common dynamics are piano "p," mezzo piano "mp," mezzo forte "mf," and forte "f." Dynamics can be louder or softer than these with the softest being pianississimo "ppp," and the loudest note being fortississimo "fff."
Music is an art form whose medium is sound Common elements of music include Pitch, rythym, tempo and dynamics Rythym, tempo, dynamics Music can be divided into genres and subgenres Although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle Sometimes open to individual interpretation And occasionally controversial

At the highest "level" of compositional thinking a composer begins a composition with Four areas of composition that must be determined: (1) the instrumental and/or vocal combinations that will be employed (media), (2) the basic model of composition that will be used throughout the work (genre), (3) the large and small sectional units of the composition including in some cases the entire composition (form) and (4) The (texture(s) of the work.

These areas constitute the Four Combinational Operations of Music. These "operations" are what a composer determines before any specific music making begins. Once these are determined, the work with the Eight Basic Elements and the Three Foundational Procedures begins and the Four Combinational Operations become a "road map" for the composer's general use. The term medium (pl. media) in music refers to the type of performing ensemble that is selected for a given work. There are three general categories of Western performing ensembles - (1) instrumental, (2) vocal and (3) mixed vocal and instrumental. Under each general category below there are sub-categories. Below is a list of the general categories and sub-categories of performance media found in Western music: Large ensembles are known appropriately as "large" ensembles while small ensembles are known as "chamber" groups. Music for one solo player (with or without keyboard or guitar accompaniment) is known as "solo literature".
5. Give the essence of music.
Music-isnt that something which is so close to all of our hearts. I just cant imagine life without something so important. Though you may not realize there is some part of you craving for music every time, but the only thing is that most of us suppress it. In todays modern world of rushing and hurrying music always proves to be an ideal stress buster. Music is one of the very few things which qualify among the things that I always keep close to my heart. While writing, while playing or while doing any damn thing I hum to myself (though not during lectures or classes as I am sure Ill be butchered if I hum when someone is teaching).Through experience I have found that music when it is playing in the background or when you are enjoying it helps you to be focused on your work. Music is something which just cant be discarded or disowned. Music belongs to everyone and it plays a vital part in ones character formation. Those who dont have time to spare for crooning or listening to melodies are often found to be gloomy, dull and short tempered. On the other hand music lovers are often those who are the most loved in gatherings and are very cheerful. Music will indubitably help us to transform into hip, fun loving teens.

Music is a very colorful thread woven into the entire fabric of our lives. Soon after birth we hear our first melodies as our mothers hum soothing lullabies to help us sleep. We learn nursery rhymes that are designed to both entertain and educate us in our preschool years, which help build the framework for the social and language skills we need to function in society.

6. Describe the History of Music.


Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies the composition, performance, reception, and criticism of music over time. Historical studies of music are for example concerned with a composer's life and works, the developments of styles and genres (such as baroque concertos), the social function of music for a particular group of people (such as music at the court), or the modes of performance at a particular place and time (such as the performance forces of Johann Sebastian Bach's choir in Leipzig). In theory, "music history" could refer to the study of the history of any type or genre of music (e.g., the history of Indian music or the history of rock). In practice, these research topics are nearly always categorized as part of ethnomusicology or cultural studies, whether or not they are ethnographically based. The methods of music history include source studies (esp. manuscript studies), paleography, philology (especially textual criticism), style criticism, historiography (the choice of historical method), musical analysis, and iconography. The application of musical analysis to further these goals is often a part of music history, though pure analysis or the development of new tools of music analysis is more likely to be seen in the field of music theory. (For a more detailed discussion of the methods see the section on "Research in Music History" below) Some of the intellectual products of music historians include editions of musical works, biography of composers and other musicians, studies of the relationship between words and music, and the reflections upon the place of music in society.

7. and give the kinds of music.

Rap
A lot of people like rap music, and rap a lot. Rap is a fast singing rhyming kind of music. It is the latest kind of music.

Country
Not a lot of kids listen to country music. If you do, you can listen to 98.7 FM in Washington D.C. They usually play country music with regular acoustic guitars.

Rock
Rock is a kind of music that you will usually use drums, keyboards, and electric guitars.Rock singers sing very loud.

Disco
A lot of kids liked this music 10-20 years ago. People take disco and mix it with rap, like Y Cleff Shawn.

Pop Rock
Pop is like a regular kind of music. Kids listen to it. Sometimes when you listen to pop, you can hear two of every kind of instrument from each family of instruments!