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One-Way ANOVA (Between group).

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the technique when an F test is used to test a hypothesis concerning the means of three or more populations. The assumptions for the F test for comparing three or more means are as below :

The populations from which the samples were obtained muat be normally or approximately normally distributed. The samples must be independent of each other. The variances of the populations must be equal.

Although we are going to compared the means in the F test, but variances are used in the test instead of the means. Thats means two different estimates of the population variance are made. There are two types of analysis which is between-group variance and within-group variance. But, we will discuss the example of between group means which involves computing the variance by using the means of the group or between the groups. So, let see the example for One-way ANOVA between group.

Question:

A teacher would like to know the best teaching method that can be use to teach topic Trigonometry. The students are randomly divided into three different groups based on different teaching method. After finished the topic, a test were given to the students and their marks are shown below. At = 0.05, test the claim that there is a significant difference among the means.

Method 1 43 34 41 37 36 49 39 42 40 51

Method 2 53 49 61 57 42 45 54 51 52 49

Method 3 41 44 42 47 51 50 43 39 37 52

Solution: Step 1: State the hypotheses and identify the claim.

H0 : H1 : At least one mean is different from the others. (claim)

Step 2 : Find the critical value.

Since k = 3, N = 15, and a = 0.05 d.f.N = k 1 = 3 1= 2 d.f.D = N k = 30 3 = 27

So, from table F, the critical value is 3.35

Step 3: Compute the test value.

i) Find mean and variance for each sample.

41.2 5.412 29.29

51.3 5.519 30.46

44.6 5.190 26.93

ii) Find grand mean,

iii) Find :

SS B ni xi xGM
i 1

10 41.2-45.7 10 51.3-45.7 10 44.6-45.7


2 2

528.2

SSW ni 1 s i2 9 29.29 9 30.46 9 26.93 =780.12


i 1

MS B

(k 1)

ss

MS w

(n k )

ss

528.2 3 1
264.1

780.12 30 3

28.89

One-Way ANOVA Summary table

Source

Sum of squares

Degree of freedom

Mean of square (variance)

Between

528.2

264.1

9.142

Within (error) Total

780.12

27

28.89

1308.32

29

The result show in the table is the same with result shown in SPSS. Is just that in SPSS, it tell us the significant value for this test which is equal to 0.001.

Step 4: Make a decision.

In traditional method, we compare F ratio with critical value that we find in Table F. If F ratio is greater than critical value, we reject the null hypothesis. The result are as below :

Since 9.142 > 3.35 , the decision is reject the null hypothesis.

But, when we use SPSS, we just have to look at the significant value for this test. As we say before, the table show that the significant value is equal to 0.001. If the value is less than alpha which is equal to 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis. Since significant value is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis.( F(2,27) = 9.141, p < .05).

Step 5 : Summarize the results.

There is enough evidence to support the claim that there is a difference among the means.

Tukey Test.

When

is rejected, the researcher may want to know where the difference among the means is.

So, we will use another test to find where the difference exist. Since the sample size are equal for each group and we are confident that our populations variances are similar, then we will use Tuket Test. This is because the test is powerful enough to control over the Type I error rate. So, we will continue to make three comparisons which are between Method 1 and Method 2, between Method 1 and Method 3, and the last one is between Method 2 and Method 3. These are the steps for Traditional Method on how to find the difference among these three comparisons.

Step 1: State the hypotheses.

H0 : H1:

H0 : H1:

H0 : H1:

Step 2 : Find the critical value.

Since k = 2, v = 27, and a = 0.05 So, from table N, critical value is 3.77

Step 3 : Compute the test value.

MSW n xi and x j the means of sample being compared. n sample size for groups. MSW mean square within sample.

xi x j

Step 4 : Make a decision.

In traditional method, we compare F ratio with critical value that we find in Table N. If F ratio is greater than critical value, we reject the null hypothesis. The result are as below :

i. ii. iii.

Since 8.913 > 3.77, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis. Since 3.001 < 3.77 , the decision is do not reject the null hypothesis. Since 5.913 > 3.77, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

But, when we use SPSS, we just have to look at the significant value for this test. If the significant value is less than alpha which is equal to 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis. For the first comparison which is between method 1 and method 2, the mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level (p < .05). For the second comparison, which is between method 1 and Method 3, the mean difference is not significant at the 0.05 level (p < .05). For last comparison which is between Method 2 and Method 3, the mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level (p < .05) .

Step 5 :Summarize the result.

There is a significant difference between Method 1 and Method 2 and also between Method 2 and Method 3 (Sig. is less than .05). There is a non-significant difference between Method 1 and Method 3 (Sig. is less than .05).