You are on page 1of 57

Enhanced Aquifer Recharge in the Coastal and Midland terrains of Kerala d Midl d t i fK l

Dr. C.P.Priju

Scientist B, Groundwater Division CWRDM, CWRDM Kozhikode - 673 571

HYDROLOGICCYCLE

VERTICALDISTRIBUTIONOFGROUNDWATER

RECHARGEANDDISCHARGEZONESINAQUIFERS

ARTIFICIALRECHARGE
y g g Processbywhichthegroundwaterreservoirisaugmentedatarate exceedingnaturalreplenishment

ENHANCEDAQUIFERRECHARGE(ManagedRecharge)
Anyengineeredsystemdesignedtointroduceandstorewaterinan aquifer

INCIDENTALRECHARGE
Rechargethatreachesanaquiferfromhumanactivitiesnotdesigned specificallyforrecharge

RATEOFRECHARGE

RECHARGESYSTEMS

HYDROGEOLOGYANDGEOMORPHOLOGY
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Totalarea 38,863km Totalarea 38 863km2

STRATIGRAPHY

AGE FORMATION Recent Alluvium Sub-Recent Laterite Warkali Quilon Tertiary Vaikom Alleppey Undated Archaean A h Intrusives Wayanad group Charnockites Khondalites

LITHOLOGY Sand, Clay Sand Clay, Riverine alluvium etc etc. Derived from Crystallines and Sedimentaries Sand stone, clays with lignite Lime stone, marl and clay Sandstone with pebbles, clay and lignite Carbonaceous clay and fine sand Dolerite, Gabbro, Granites, Quartzofeldspathic Veins Granitic gneiss, Schists etc. Charnockites and associated rocks Khondalite suite of rocks and its associates

HYDROGEOLOGY
Groundwateroccurrence phreatic,semiconfinedandconfinedconditions Phreaticaquifers weatheredcrystallines,laterites andthealluvialformations Ph ti if th d t lli l t it dth ll i lf ti Confinedtosemiconfinedaquifers deepfracturesinthecrystallines andthe g granularzonesintheTertiarysedimentaryformations y y MidlandAquifers Laterites (1 30mthick;phreatic) (130mthick;phreatic) Crystallineaquifers(Weathered;semiconfined) Alluvium(Loam,Riverine;phreatictosemiconfined) CoastalAquifers Alluvium(Sand,Clay,Marshy;phreatictosemiconfined) TertiaryFormations(Warkali,Quilon,Vaikom,Alleppey;semi TertiaryFormations(Warkali Quilon Vaikom Alleppey;semi confinedtoconfined)

FRACTUREGEOMETRYINCRYSTALLINEAQUIFERS (Semi confinedorLeakyaquifers) (SemiconfinedorLeakyaquifers)

COASTALSCENERIO

Consistgenerallyofthetypicalridge andrunneltopography Ridgeshavingmorethickcoastal sandyalluviumandrunnelswith lesserthicknessofsand

Alappuzha coast

Affectedbytidalinfluxandwillnot sustainexcessivepumping/deeper extractionwhichresultsinsalinity influxduringdryseason Generallythesandthicknessnearthe coastis13monlywhichisunderlain byblackorganicclayinmostplaces b bl k i l i t l Freshwaterisavailableonlyinsandy horizon Inmostoftheareassalinewater comesinlandthroughchannels

AquiferRecharge

SURFACESPREADINGTECHNIQUES
Theaquifertoberechargedshouldbeunconfinedandsufficientlythicktoprovide storagespace Thesurfacesoilshouldbesufficientlypermeabletomaintainahighinfiltrationrate Thevadose zoneshouldbepermeableandfreefromclaylensesthatmaycause perchedwaterconditions Groundwaterlevelsinthephreaticaquifershouldbedeepenoughtoaccommodate thewatertablerise,avoidingpossiblewaterloggingconditions. Theaquifermaterialshouldhavemoderatehydraulicconductivitysothatthe rechargedwaterisretainedforasufficientlylongperiodintheaquiferandcanbe usedatthetimeofneed Topographyplaysanimportantroleincontrollingtherechargerate Areaswithgentlyslopinglandwithoutgulliesorridgesaremostsuitedforsurface waterspreadingtechniques

FloodingTechnique

p g p Spreadingsurplussurface waterfromcanalsorstreams overlargeareasfora sufficientlengthoftimeto rechargethegroundwater body Thewaterconservedinthe groundwaterstoragecanbe pumpedforaugmentingcanal suppliesduringsummerorto provideirrigationwaterto adjacentareas

DitchandFurrowmethod

g Suitableinareaswithirregular topography Shallow,flatbottomedandclosely spacedditchesorfurrowsprovide maximumwatercontactareafor rechargewaterfromthesourcestream orcanal Requireslesssoilpreparationthan rechargebasinsandislesssensitiveto silting

St Streamwaterisdivertedtothefeeder t i di t dt th f d canal/ditch,fromwhichsmallerditches aremadeatrightangles

Waterisdivertedfromthemaincanal toaseriesofsmallerditchesspreadina dendritic pattern

Ditchesareexcavatedfollowingthe g groundsurfacecontourofthearea

DirectRechargeinshallowanddeepaquifer

RechargeBasin

Watercontacttimeislongerforthestoredwater Suspendedmaterialinthesourcewaterisreducedaswaterflowsfrom upstreambasinstothosebelow P i di i t Periodicmaintenancesuchasscrapingetc.torestoreinfiltrationrates h i t t t i filt ti t canbedonebybypassingthebasinconcerned

CoastalStratigraphy atAlappuzha region

RUNOFFCONSERVATIONSTRUCTURES Increasetheavailabilityofgroundwater
E h Enhancesustainableyieldofaquifers t i bl i ld f if Improvequalityofgroundwaterthroughdilution Arrestdecliningtrendsofwaterlevels Preventdepletionofgroundwaterreservoirsinareasof overexploitation Decreasefloodsonlocalandregionalareas Reducepressureonstormdrainsinurbanareas Enhancethequalityoftheenvironment

Contourbunding

Terracing

PercolationTank

PercolationTank PercolationTank Yethadka,Kasargode

RWHpond IIMCampusKozhikode (1.5acresarea)

RWHincoconut plantation Kannur

RoofwaterHarvestingPond
MedicalCollege,Thrissur (50mx30m)

Intakewelldownstreamsideofthepond

Rechargepit

Rechargeshafts

CoastalpondsatKodungallur controlgroundwatersalinity

CoastalPondatMararikkulam ,Alappuzha controlsgroundwatersalinity

CONTROLOFSALTWATERINTRUSIONBYARTIFICIALRECHARGE

DugwellrechargeexperimentatThrissur (Mazhapolima)

Rechargethroughabandonedborehole

Rechargethroughtrench

Gravityheadrechargewellorborehole

Borewellrecharge(CGWB)

Rechargepit(borewell)atCoimbatore

Rechargepitalongroadside drainatCoimbatore

Rechargethrough g g Pit/Dugwell/Bore

Groundwaterrechargethroughfractures

Earthdam

Sanddam

p , CheckdamatRamapuram,Pala

VCBacrossPamba atArattukadavu

Checkdamcumpercolationpond Coimbatore

Checkdam Ooty (highlandarea)

Checkdam cum RWHpond CheckdamcumRWHpond


Vetenery CollegeMannuthy Thrissur

Checkdam atPadikadavu (KWA),Thirunellai


Kannadi (Nila)RiverPalakkad

SubsurfaceClaydam

Subsurfacemasonrydam

SubsurfaceDyke(Masonry) constructedbyCGWBatKAUResearchstationKollam

AdvantageofGWR IncreaseinQuantity

AdvantageofGWR QualityRemediation

PONDSasGroundWaterRechargeStructures

Perlassery Kannur

Kodungallur

Cherpu,Thrissur

Vadakkechira Thrissur

FUTUREPROSPECTS

Wasterwaterrechargeandqualityremediation

ASR AquiferStorageandRecovery
(Stormwater)

Injectionwells
(Treatedwater)