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Hermite

Bezier

More Curves Catmull-Rom

and Surfaces B-Spline

Thomas Funkhouser

Princeton University

COS 426, Spring 2004 Each

Eachhas

hasdifferent

differentblending

blendingfunctions

functions

resulting

resultingin

indifferent

differentproperties

properties

• Properties: V0 • Properties imply blending functions: V0

Local control Cubic polynomials

C2 continuity V1 Four control vertices affect each point V1

Approximating C2 continuity

V3 V2 1

V3 V2

V4 V4

0

V0 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 u

V5 V5

• How derive blending functions? V0 • Four cubic polynomials for four vertices V0

Cubic polynomials 16 variables (degrees of freedom)

Local control V1 Variables are ai, bi, ci, di for V1

C2 continuity four blending functions

V3 V2 V3 V2

1

b− 0 (u ) = a0u 3 + b0 u 2 + c0 u1 + d 0

b-1 b-2

b−1 (u ) = a1u 3 + b1u 2 + c1u1 + d1

b-0 V4 V4

b-3

b− 2 (u ) = a2 u 3 + b2 u 2 + c2u 1 + d 2

0

3 2 1

V5 V5

1

B-Spline Blending Functions B-Spline Blending Functions

• C2 continuity implies 15 constraints V0

Position of two curves same

Derivative of two curves same V1

Second derivatives same

V3 V2

V4

V5

• Solving the system of equations yields: • In matrix form:

−1 3 − 3 1 V0

1 3 −6 3

Q ( u ) = (u u 1)

3 2

0 V1

u

6 −3 0 3 0 V2

1 4 1 0 V3

In plot form: V0 • Blending functions imply properties: V0

m Local control

Bi (u ) = a ju j

V1 Approximating V1

j =0

C2 continuity

b-0 b-1 Convex hull

1 1

V3 V2 1

V3 V2

0 0

0 1 0 1

b-2 b-3

1 1

V4 V4

0

V0 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 u

0

0

0

0

V5 V5

1 1

2

Curved Surfaces Curved Surfaces

• Motivation • What makes a good surface representation?

Exact boundary representation for some objects Accurate

More concise representation than polygonal mesh Concise

Intuitive specification

Local support

Affine invariant

Arbitrary topology

Guaranteed continuity

Natural parameterization

Efficient display

Efficient intersections

• Polygonal meshes • Boundary defined by parametric functions:

x = fx(u,v)

• Subdivision surfaces

y = fy(u,v)

• Parametric surfaces z = fz(u,v)

• Implicit surfaces

• Example: ellipsoid

x = rx cos φ cos θ

y = ry cos φ sin θ

z = rz sin φ

• Advantages: • Surface is partitioned into parametric patches:

Easy to enumerate points on surface

u

• Problem:

Need piecewise-parametrics surfaces to describe

complex shapes Same ideas as parametric splines!

FvDFH Figure 11.42 Watt Figure 6.25

3

Parametric Patches Parametric Patches

• Each patch is defined by blending control points • Point Q(u,v) on the patch is the tensor product of

parametric curves defined by the control points

Q(u,v)

Q(0,1)

Q(1,1)

Q(0,0)

Q(1,0)

FvDFH Figure 11.44 Watt Figure 6.21

Point Q(u,v) on any patch is defined by combining P1,1 P1, 2 P1,3 P1,4

control points with polynomial blending functions: P2,1 P2, 2 P2,3 P2,4

Q(u, v) = UM B −Spline M TB −Spline V

P3,1 P3,2 P3,3 P3, 4

P1,1 P1, 2 P1,3 P1,4 P4,1 P4, 2 P4,3 P4,4

P P2,2 P2,3 P2,4

Q(u, v) = UM 2,1 M TVT

P3,1 P3, 2 P3,3 P3,4

P4,1 P4,2 P4,3 P4,4

−1 1 −1 1

6 2 2 6

U= u[ 3

u 2

u 1 ] V= v [ 3

v 2

v 1 ] M B −Spline

1

= 2

−1

−1 1

1

2 0

2 0 2 0

1 2 1 0

6 3 6

Where M is a matrix describing the blending functions

for a parametric cubic curve (e.g., Bezier, B-spline, etc.)

Watt Figure 6.28

P1,1 P1, 2 P1,3 P1,4

• Properties:

P2,1 P2, 2 P2,3 P2,4 Interpolates four corner points

Q(u, v) = UM Bezier M TBezierV Convex hull

P3,1 P3,2 P3,3 P3, 4

P4,1 P4, 2 P4,3 P4,4 Local control

−1 3 − 3 1

M Bezier = 3 − 6 3 0

−3 3 0 0

1 0 0 0

4

Bezier Surfaces Bezier Surfaces

• Continuity constraints are similar to the ones for • C0 continuity requires aligning boundary curves

Bezier splines

• C1continuity requires aligning boundary curves • Simple approach is to loop through

and derivatives uniformly spaced increments of u and v

DrawSurface(void)

DrawSurface(void)

{{

for

for (int

(int ii == 0;

0; ii << imax;

imax; i++)

i++) {{

float

float uu == umin

umin ++ ii ** ustep;

ustep;

for

for (int

(int jj == 0;

0; jj << jmax;

jmax; j++)

j++) {{

float

float vv == vmin

vmin ++ jj ** vstep;

vstep;

DrawQuadrilateral(...);

DrawQuadrilateral(...);

}}

}}

}}

• Better approach is to use adaptive subdivision: • One problem with adaptive subdivision is avoiding

cracks at boundaries between patches at different

DrawSurface(surface)

DrawSurface(surface) subdivision levels

{{

if

if Flat

Flat (surface,

(surface, epsilon)

epsilon) {{

Crack

DrawQuadrilateral(surface);

DrawQuadrilateral(surface);

}} Uniform subdivision

else

else {{

SubdivideSurface(surface,

SubdivideSurface(surface, ...);

...);

DrawSurface(surfaceLL);

DrawSurface(surfaceLL);

DrawSurface(surfaceLR);

DrawSurface(surfaceLR);

DrawSurface(surfaceRL);

DrawSurface(surfaceRL);

DrawSurface(surfaceRR);

DrawSurface(surfaceRR);

}} Avoid these cracks by adding extra vertices and triangulating

Adaptive subdivision quadrilaterals whose neighbors are subdivided to a finer level

}}

Watt Figure 6.32 Watt Figure 6.33

5

Parametric Surfaces Curved Surface Representations

• Advantages: • Polygonal meshes

Easy to enumerate points on surface

• Subdivision surfaces

Possible to describe complex shapes

Control mesh must be quadrilaterals • Implicit surfaces

Continuity constraints difficult to maintain

Hard to find intersections

• Boundary defined by implicit function: • Example: quadric

f (x, y, z) = 0 f(x,y,z)=ax2+by2 +cz2+2dxy+2eyz+2fxz+2gx+2hy+2jz+k

ax + by +cz + d = 0

• Common quadric surfaces:

Sphere 2 2 2

x y z

N = (a,b,c) Ellipsoid + + −1 = 0

Torus rx ry rz

Paraboloid

(x,y,z) Hyperboloid

• Advantages:

Easy to test if point is on surface

Easy to intersect two surfaces

Easy to compute z given x and y

• Disadvantages:

Hard to describe specific complex shapes

Hard to enumerate points on surface

6

Summary

Subdivision

Parametric

Polygonal

Implicit

Surface

Surface

Surface

Mesh

Feature

Accurate No Yes Yes Yes

Concise No Yes Yes Yes

Intuitive specification No No Yes No

Local support Yes No Yes Yes

Affine invariant Yes Yes Yes Yes

Arbitrary topology Yes No No Yes

Guaranteed continuity No Yes Yes Yes

Natural parameterization No No Yes No

Efficient display Yes No Yes Yes

Efficient intersections No Yes No No

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