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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.

Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

CHAPTER 8

MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

MIDSHIP SECTION

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Midship section design is in accordance with Ice class Rules given by


Finnish Maritime Administration, Sept 2003 and the rules for classification of ships
given by Lloyd’s Registrar of Shipping July 2001. Fig. 8.1 is a typical midship section
of a double skin ice class tanker.

Figure 8.1 - Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker

8.1.1. Definitions
(1) L : Rule length, in m, is the distance, in meters, on the summer load water
line from the forward side of the stem to the after side of the rudderpost
or to the center of the rudder stock, if there is no rudder post. L is neither
to be less than 96% nor to be greater than 97% of the extreme length on
the summer load water line.
97% of extreme length of LWL = 264.39 m
(2) B : Breadth at amidships or greatest breadth, in meters.
B = 48.7 m

(3) D : Depth is measured, in meters, at the middle of the length L, from top of
the keel to top of the deck beam at side on the uppermost continuous deck.
D = 23.76 m
(4) T : T is the Maximum Ice Class draught of the ship, in m = 16.75 m
(5) LPP : Distance in m on the summer LWL from foreside of the stem to after side
of rudder post, or to the centre of the Podded unit, if there is no rudder
post.
LPP = 263.00 m
(6) LPAR = Length of parallel midship body, in m (approx. 92.05 m)
(7) CB : Moulded block coefficient at draught T corresponding to summer
waterline, based on rule length L and moulded breadth B, as follows:

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Moulded displacement (m3) at draught T


CB = 0.84

(8) hG = Ice thickness, in m, defined in the table given by FSICR


(9) h = 1
(10) Awf = Area of the waterline of the bow in m2.
(11) α = Angle of the waterline at B/4 = 70
(12) φ1 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at the centreline = 24.2
(13) φ2 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at B/4 = 24.5
(14) DP = Diameter of propeller = 7260 mm
(15) HM = Thickness of the brash ice in mid channel, in m = 1.0 m
(16) HB = Thickness of the brash ice layer displaced by the stern
(17) ReH = Minimum yield stress, in N/mm2, of the material defined
(18) LWL = Load Waterline, at fully loaded condition.
(19) BWL = Ballast Waterline at Ballast condition.
(20) b : The width of plating supported by the primary member or secondary
member in m or mm respectively.
(21) be : The effective width, in m, of end brackets.
(22) bI : The minimum distance from side shell to the inner hull or outer
longitudinal bulkhead measured inboard at right angles to the centre
line at summer load water line, in m.
(23) le : Effective length, in m, of the primary or secondary member, measured
between effective span points.
(24) ds : The distance, in m, between the cargo tank boundary and the moulded
line of the side shell plating.
(25) db : The distance, in m, between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the
moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the
bottom shell plating.
(26) k : Higher tensile steel factors. For HT steels (Lloyd’s AH32, DH32 &
EH32), k = 0.78
(27) s : Spacing in m of ordinary stiffeners or primary support as applicable.
(28) S : Overall span of frame, in mm
(29) t : Thickness of plating, in mm.
(30) Z : Section modulus, in cm3, of the primary or secondary member, in
association with an effective width of attached plating.
(31) RB : Bilge radius, in mm.
(32) FD,FB : Local scantling reduction factor above neutral axis and below neutral axis
respectively. FD = 0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals
FB = 0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals

(33) dDB : Rule depth of center girder, in mm

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

(34) SS : Span of the vertical web, in m


(35) tW : Thickness of web, in mm
(36) tB : Thickness of end bracket plating, in mm

8.1.2 Class Notation

Vessel is designed to be classed as ‘+100 A1(ice) Double Hull Oil Tanker ESP.’
ESP means Enhanced Survey Program. This is for Ice navigating tanker having integral
cargo tanks for carriage of oil having flash point > 60o C. Where the length of the ship is
greater than 190m, the scantlings of the primary supporting structure are to be assessed
by direct calculation and the Ship Right notations Structural Design Assessment (SDA),
Fatigue Design Assessment (FDA) and Construction Monitory (CM) are mandatory.

8.1.3 Cargo Tank Boundary Requirements


Minimum double side width (ds)
ds = 0.5 + (dwt/20,000) or ds = 2.0 m
Whichever is lesser But ds should not be less than 1 m.
ds = 0.5 + (150000/20,000) = 8.0 m
Double side width is taken as 2.8 m to get the required ballast volume.
∴ ds = 3.0 m

Minimum double bottom depth (dB)


dB = B/15 or dB = 2.0 m
Whichever is lesser
dB = 48.76/15 = 3.25 m
A double bottom height of 3.0 m is provided to get the required ballast volume.
∴ dB = 3.0 m
Structural configuration adopted has a single centreline longitudinal bulkhead. For
length of cargo tanks and tank boundaries refer General Arrangement Plan.

8.1.4 Type Of Framing System [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 1.3.10, 1.3.11]

The bottom shell, inner bottom and deck are longitudinally framed (for L >
75m). The side shell, inner hull bulkheads and long bulkheads are also longitudinally
framed (L > 150m). When the side shell in long framed, the inner hull bulkhead is also
to be framed longitudinally. Primary members are defined as girders, floors, transverses
and other supporting members.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

8.2 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH


8.2.1 Minimum Hull Section Modulus [LRS Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5]

The hull midship section modulus about the transverse neutral axis, at the
deck or keel is to be not less than
Z min = f1KL C1L2B (CB + 0.7) x 10-6 m3
f1 = ship’s service factor, specially considered depending upon
the service restriction and in any event should not be less than
0.5 For unrestricted sea going service f1 = 1.0
∴f1 taken as 1 and KL = 0.78 (Grade DH32/EH32)
C1 = 10.75 – [(300-L)/100] 1.5 for 90<L<300m
= 10.537
CB = Block Coefficient = 0.84
∴ Zmin = 43.09 m3

8.2.2 Hull Envelope Plating

1. Deck plating
2. Sheer strake and shell plating above Ice
strengthened region.
3. Ice strengthened shell
4. Side shell below ice strengthening
5. Bilge
6. Bottom shell
7. Keel

Fig. 8.2 Itemization of parts

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

For longitudinally framed system the web structure:

Fig 8.3 Framing system

8.2.3 Minimum require Power


(R / 1000)3 / 2
P = K e CH [kW] ;
DP
Table 8.1 Values of Ka
Propeller type or CP or electric or hydraulic FP
machinery propulsion machinery propeller
1 propeller 2.03 2.26
2 propellers 1.44 1.60
3 propellers 1.18 1.31

Ke = 1.60

RCH is the resistance in Newton of the ship in a channel with brash ice and a
consolidated layer:

R CH = C1 + C 2 + C 3C μ (H F + H M ) (B + C ψ H F ) + C 4 L PAR H 2F + C5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ wf
2 ⎛ LT ⎞ A
⎝B ⎠ L

Cμ = 0.15cosϕ2 + sinψsinα = 0..546


Cμ is to be taken equal or larger than 0.45

C ψ = 0.047 ⋅ψ − 2.115, and C ψ = 0 if ψ ≤ 45°


⎛ tanϕ 2 ⎞
ψ = arctan ⎜ ⎟ = 30.17
o

⎝ sinα ⎠

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

C ψ = 25.89

HF = 0.26 + (HMB)0.5 = 7.2 m

HM = 1.0 for ice classes IA and IA Super


= 0.8 for ice class IB
= 0.6 for ice class IC
HM = 1.0

C1 and C2 take into account a consolidated upper layer of the brash ice and are to be
taken as zero for ice classes IA, IB and IC.

For a ship with a bulbous bow, ϕ1 shall be taken as 90°.

Given:
C3 = 845 kg/(m2s2)
C4 = 42 kg/(m2s2)
C5 = 825 kg/s2
3
⎛ LT ⎞
5 ≤ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ≤ 20
⎝B ⎠
P = 21.2 MW (approx)

8.2.4 Ice load

Height of load area


An ice-strengthened ship is assumed to operate in open sea conditions corresponding to
a level ice thickness not exceeding ho. The design height (h) of the area actually under
ice pressure at any particular point of time is, however, assumed to be only a fraction of
the ice thickness. The values for ho and h are given in the following table.

Table 8.2 Values of ho and h


Ice Class ho [m] h [m]
IA Super 1.0 0.35
IA 0.8 0.30
IB 0.6 0.25
IC 0.4 0.22

8.2.5 Ice pressure

The design ice pressure is determined by the formula:


p = cd · c1 · ca · po [MPa], where

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

cd = a factor which takes account of the influence of the size and engine output of
the ship.

It is calculated by the formula:


a⋅k + b
cd =
1000

Δ⋅P
k=
1000

a and b are given in the following table:

Table 8.3 Values of a and b


Region
Forward Midship & Aft
k ≤ 12 k > 12 k ≤ 12 k > 12
a 30 6 8 2
b 230 518 214 286

Δ = the displacement of the ship at maximum ice class draught [t] = 183376.12 t
P = the actual continuous engine output of the ship [kW] 38250 KW
K = 83.75
a =2
b = 286
c1 = a factor which takes account of the probability that the design ice pressure
occurs in a certain region of the hull for the ice class in question.

The value of c1 is given in the following table:


Table 8.4 values of c1

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Table 8.4 values of c1


Ice Class Region
Forward Midship Aft
IA Super 1.0 1.0 0.75
IA 1.0 0.85 0.65
IB 1.0 0.70 0.45
IC 1.0 0.50 0.25

c1 = 1
ca = a factor which takes account of the probability that the full length of the area
under consideration will be under pressure at the same time. It is calculated by the
formula:
47 - 5 l a
ca = ; maximum 1.0 ; minimum 0.6
44

la shall be taken as follows:

Table 8.5 Values of la


Structure Type of framing la [m] la [m] Ca [m] P
Shell Transverse Frame spacing 0.35 1.028 2.612
Longitudinal 2 ⋅ frame spacing 0.7 0.989 2.511
Frames Transverse Frame spacing 0.35 1.028 2.612
Longitudinal Span of frame 4.25 0.585 1.486
Ice stringer Span of stringer 4.25 0.585 1.486
Web frame 2 ⋅ web frame spacing 8.5 0.102 0.260

po = the nominal ice pressure; the value 5.6 Mpa shall be used.

8.3 Calculations for Ice strengthened part

8.3.1 Vertical extension of Ice Belt

The vertical extension of the ice belt shall be as follows:


Ice Belt is from 7.00 m to 17.35 ma long d ship’s depth from keel.

Table 8.6 Extension of Ice strengthening at midship

Ice Class Above LWL Below BWL


[m] [m]
IA Super 0.6 0.75
IA 0.5 0.6
IB 0.4 0.5
IC 0.4 0.5

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

8.3.2 Plate thickness in the ice belt

For transverse framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the

f1 ⋅ p PL
t = 667 s + t c [mm]
σy
formula:

For longitudinal framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the
formula:

p PL
t = 667 s + t c [mm ]
f 2 ⋅σ y

S = the frame spacing [m]


pPL = 0.75 p [MPa]
p = 1.88
4.2
f1 = 1.3 − ; maximum 1.0
(h/s + 1.8) 2
= 0.764

0.4
f2 = 0.6 + ; when h/s ≤ 1
(h/s)

f2 = 1.4 - 0.4 (h/s); when 1≤ h/s < 1.8


= 1.0
h = 0.35
σy = yield stress of the material [N/mm2]
σy = 235 N/mm2 for normal-strength hull structural steel
σy = 315 N/mm2 or higher for high-strength hull structural steel

If steels with different yield stress are used, the actual values may be substituted for the
above ones if accepted by the classification society.

tc = increment for abrasion and corrosion [mm]; normally tc shall be 2 mm


t = 20.05 mm
Taken t = 24 mm

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Table 8.7 Vertical extension of ice strengthening

Ice Class Region Above LWL Below BWL


[m] [m]
From stem To double
to 0.3L 1.2 bottom or
abaft it below top of
floors
IA Super
Abaft 0.3L
from 1.2 1.6
stem
midship 1.2 1.6
aft 1.2 1.2
From stem
to 0.3L 1.0 1.6
abaft it
IA, IB, IC
Abaft
0.3L from 1.0 1.3
stem
Midship 1.0 1.3
Aft 1.0 1.0

The vertical extension of the ice strengthening of the framing shall be at least as
Vertical extension of ice strengthening in framing is from 5.41 m to 18.55 m.

8.3.3 Transverse frames

Section modulus

The section modulus of a main or intermediate transverse frame shall be calculated by

p⋅s⋅h ⋅l 6
Z=
mt ⋅σ y
10 cm 3 [ ]
the formula:
p = ice pressure
s = frame spacing [m]
h = height of load area
l = span of the frame [m]
7 mo
mt =
7 - 5h/l
σy = yield stress [N/mm2]

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

mo = values are given in the following table:

Table 8.8 Values of mo

Z = 580.4 cm3

8.3.4 Longitudinal frames

The section modulus of a longitudinal frame shall be calculated by the formula:

f3 ⋅f4 ⋅p⋅ h ⋅l 2 6
Z=
m ⋅σ y
[ ]
10 cm 3

The shear area of a longitudinal frame shall be:

3 ⋅f3 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅l 4
A=
2σ y
[
10 cm 2 ]
This formula is valid only if the longitudinal frame is attached to supporting structure by
brackets

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

f3 = factor which takes account of the load distribution to adjacent frames


f3 = (1 - 0.2 h/s) = 0.8.
f4 = factor which takes account of the concentration of load to the point of support,
f4 = 0.6
p = ice pressure
h = height of load area
s = frame spacing [m]
l = span of frame [m]
m = boundary condition factor; m = 13.3 for a continuous beam; where the
boundary conditions deviate significantly from those of a continuous beam,
e.g. in an end field, a smaller boundary factor may be required.
σy = yield stress

Z = 1076.5 cm3

A = 48.62 cm2

Scantling selected 330x15 HB


A = 65.9 cm2

8.3.5 Stringers within the ice belt

The section modulus of a stringer situated within the ice belt (see 4.3.1) shall be
calculated by the formula:
Z= 5
f ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅l 2 6
m ⋅σ y
[ ]
10 cm 3

The shear area shall be:

A=
2σ y
[ ]
3 ⋅ f5 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅ l 4
10 cm 2

The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30.


f5 = factor which takes account of the distribution of load to the transverse frames;
to be taken as 0.9
σy = yield stress
Z = 2153 cm3
A = 53.34 cm2

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

8.3.6 Load on Web frames in Ice Belt

The load transferred to a web frame from an ice stringer or from longitudinal framing
shall be calculated by the formula:

F = p ⋅ h ⋅ S [MN]

The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30


S = distance between web frames [m]

F = 0.76 MN

8.4 Dimensions of non Ice strengthened parts:


8.4.1 Deck plating: [Design Ice class and steel grade, RS]

t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade DH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.

8.4.2 Sheer strake: [Design Ice class and steel grade, RS]

t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade EH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.

8.4.3 Side shell below Ice strengthening:

The greatest of the following is to be taken:


t = 0.001s (0.059L1 + 7) √ FB/kL
= 11.81 mm
But not less than
t = 0.0042 s√ hT1k
s = spacing of shell longitudinals = 700 mm

hT1 = T + Cw m but need not be taken greater than 1.36T


hT1 = 23.12
Cw = a wave head, in meters, 7.71 x 10–2Le–0,0044L
Cw = 6.37

∴t = 12.48 mm 
Selected t = 20 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

8.4.4 Bottom shell and bilge

√h kT2
t = 0.0052s 1.8-FB
hT2 = T + 0.5CW m but need not be taken greater than 1.2T
= 19.93
FB = 0.67 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴t = 10.27 mm
Selected t = 18 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)
8.4.5 Keel Plating

Keel plating should not be less than thickness of bottom shell + 2 mm


∴t = 20 mm,
But need not exceed t = 25 √ k = 22.08 mm
Selected t = 22 mm

Width of keel plate is to be not less than 70B mm, but need not exceed 1800
mm and is to be not less than 750 mm. (LRS part 4, chapter1, and table 1.5.1)
70B = 3409 mm
Selected w = 1800 mm

8.4.6 Inner bottom Plating


t = t0 / √ 2-FB

t0 = 0.005s√ kh1
s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm
k = 0.78
h = distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest
point of the tank, excluding hatchway.
R = 0.354
b1 = B/2 = 24.35 m
h1 = 0.72 (h+Rb1)
= 21.15

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

t0 = 14.22 mm
t = 12.33 mm Selected = 14 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

8.5 Hull Framing [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 5]


8.5.1 Bottom Longitudinals

The section modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be
less than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sle2F1FS cm3
K = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
(0.00L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater & need not be
taken greater than (0.75 D + D1/8), for bottom longitudinals.
= 19.82m
h0 = distance in m, from the midpoint of span of stiffener to
highest point of tank, excluding hatchway.
= 22 m
D1 = 16 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
s = spacing of bottom longitudinals = 700 mm
le = effective span of longitudinals which are
assumed to be supported by web frames spaced at 5s,
where s is the basic frame spacing in midship region
(850 mm ) not to be taken less than 1.5 m in double bottom
and 2.5 m else where.
le = 4.25 m
F1 = Dc1/(25D-20h)
= 0.133
c1 = 75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship.
FB = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴c1 = 0.667
h = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters
= 23.76 m
D = 23.76 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴F1 = 0.133
FS = 1, at upper deck at side and at the base line.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

∴Z = 1459.5 cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h3 = 75D+Rb1
b1 = 24.35 m
R = (0.45+0.1 L/B)(0.54 – L/1270) = 0. 354
D1 = 16 m
h3 = 26.44 m
F2 = Dc2/ (3.18D-2.18h) = 0.785
c2 = 165/ (345-180FB)
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25 m
∴Z = 1044.8 cm3
Greater of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 1459.5 cm3
Selected 400 x 18 HB
8.5.2 Deck Longitudinals (LRS, Part 4, Chapter 9.5.3.1)

The modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less
than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sl2eF1FS cm3
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m.
h0 = 0 ( for deck longitudinals)
D1 = 16
(h0 + D1/8) = 2
L1 = 190
L1/56 = 3.39
0.01L1 +0.7 = 2.6
∴h1 = L1/56 = 3.39
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
F1 = Dc1 / (4D + 20h)
h = 0 (for deck longitudinals)
c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck
FD = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴ c1 = 0.595

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

∴F1 = 0.148
Fs = 1, at upper deck at side and at baseline of ship
∴Z = 277.06 cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
R = 0.354
bi = B/2 = 24.35 m
h3 = h0 + Rb1 = 8.62 m
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
F2 = Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)
c2 = 165 / (345 – 180FD)
FD = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴c2 = 1.0
∴F2 = 1.0
∴Z = 433.5 cm3
Greatest of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 433.5 cm3
250 x 12 HB section is selected

8.5.3 Side Shell Longitudinals (LRS Part 4, Chapter 9. 5.3.1)

From standardization point of view the side shell is divided into longitudinal fields as
shown in fig 8.3. Design of the longitudinals for each field is done using the information
for the lowest longitudinal in each field.

8.5.4 Inner hull and CL bulkhead longitudinals

The modulus of side shell longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not
to be less than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sle2F1Fs cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
Where,
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
0.01L1 +0.7 m whichever is the greater.
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
k = 0.78
FD = 0.75
D1 = 16
L1 = 190m

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

L1/56 = 3.39
h = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters
h3 = h0 + Rb1
For side longitudinals above D/2,
F1 = Dc1 / (4D + 20h)
F2 = Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)
For side longitudinals below D/2,
F1 = Dc1/(25D-20h)
F2 = Dc2/(3.18D-2.18h)

c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck


= 1.0 at D/2
= 75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship
c2 = 165/(345 – 180FB) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 165/(345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

Fig 8.4 Side shell regions

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Table 8.8 – Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals

ITEM REG 1 REG 2


ho 5.21 20.76
D1 16 16
h1= h0+D1/8 7.21 22.76
h3 13.83 29.38
F1 0.113 0.0777
F2 0.702 0.5468
Fs 1 1
a) Z 450.405 976.925
b) Z 488.61 808.12
Taken Z (cm3) 488.61 976.92
Section HB HB
Scantling 260 x 11 340 x 13
Z of taken 488.61 976.92
3

8.6 Inner Hull, Inner Bottom and Longitudinal Bulkheads


(LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 6)

The inner hull, inner bottom and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally
framed.
The symbols used in this section are defined as follows:
b1 = the greatest distance in meters, from the centre of the plate panel
or midpoint of the stiffener span, to the corners at top of the tank
on either side.
c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship
c2 = 165/(345 – 180FB) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 165/(345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship
h = load height, in meters measured vertically as follows:

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

(a) for bulkhead plating the distance from a point one third of the height of the plate
panel above its lower edge to the highest point of the tank, excluding hatchway
(b) for bulkhead stiffeners or corrugations, the distance from the midpoint of span
of the stiffener or corrugation to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
h1 = (h + D1/8), but not less than 0.72 (h + Rb1)
h2 = (h + D1/8), in meters, but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
(0.01L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater
h3 = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters, but is not to
be less than 0
h4 = h + Rb1
h5 = h2 but is not to be less than 0.55h4
t0 = 0.005s √kh1
t1 = t0(0.84 + 0.16(tm/t0)2)
tm = minimum value of t0 within 0.4D each side of mid depth of
bulkhead

8.6.1 Inner Hull Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating

For the determination of scantlings of longitudinal bulkhead plating and


inner hull plating’s areas follows. (Refer fig 8.4)

ITEM Region 1 Region 2 ice belt


h 5.41 19.09 15.35
D1 16 16 16

h1 10.101 21.09 17.35


h2 7.41 21.09 17.35
h4 14.029 27.7099 23.96
h5 7.7164 21.09 17.35
t0 9.824 14.195 12.875
t1 10.952 13.7928 12.875
taken 12 14 13

8.6.2 CL Longitudinal Bulk Head Longitudinals and Inner Hull Longitudinals

Inner hull and longitudinal bulkheads are to be longitudinally framed . The modulus
of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:
(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3

202
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

The inner hull and bulkhead plating is divided into various strakes for the
determination of center line bulkhead longitudinals and inner hull longitudinals.
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
Table.8.9 Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead
longitudinal and inner hull longitudinal.

ITEM Region 1 Region 2 Between 1 & 2


b1 5.41 19.09 15.35
h1 24.35 24.35 24.35
h2 16 16 16
h3 10.10 21.09 17.35
h4 7.41 21.09 17.35
c1 6.5 17 13.5
c2 14.03 27.71 23.97
F1 0.7 0.7 1
F2 0.87 0.87 1
Z1 456.380 912.923 751.030
Z2 405.448 435.494 692.703
Taken Z
(cm3) 456.380 912.923 751.030
Section HB HP HP
Scantling 250 X 13  325 X 17  325 X 12 

8.6.3 Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals

The inner bottom is to be longitudinally framed and the inner bottom plating
thickness is to be
t = t0 / √ 2-FB

t0 = 0.005s√ kh1
s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm
k = 0.78
h = distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest
point of the tank, excluding hatchway = 20.76 m
R = 0.354 (refer previous sections)
b1 = B/2 = 24.35 m
h1 = 0.72 (h+Rb1)
= 21.15
t0 = 14.21 mm

203
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

t = 12.32 mm
Selected = 14 mm

The modulus of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:


(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
h = 19.38 m
D1 = 16 m
h2 = h + D1 / 8 = 22.76 m
F1 = 0.078
∴Z = 985.2 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3
h4 = h + Rb1 = 27.709m
F2 = 0.316
∴Z = 440.67 cm3

Selected Z = 985.2 cm3.

Selected HB 330 x 13

8.7 Primary Members Supporting the Hull Longitudinal Framing


8.7.1 Centre girder (LRS Part 4, Section 9.3.3)
(a) Minimum depth of centre girder
dDB = 28B + 205√ T mm
dDB = 2202.6 mm
dDB = 3000 mm
Given 3.0 m.
(b) Minimum thickness of centre girder (LRS, Part 4.9.3.4)
t = (0.008 dDB + 1) √ k
= 22.07 mm
Given thickness = 22 mm
8.7.2 Floors and Side Girders
t = (0.007dDB + 1) √ k
= 19.43 mm
But not to exceed 12√ k = 10.6 mm
Given thickness = 10.6 mm
∴t = 16 mm

8.7.3 Deck Transverses (LRS Part 4.10.2.8)


Section modulus of deck transverses is not to be less than

204
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Z = 53.75 (0.0269sL + 0.8) (ST + 1.83) k cm3


s = 4.25 m
L = 229.8 m
ST = span of transverse
= 8.116 m
∴Z = 12871.3 cm3

Taken T section 1500 X 14 +600 X 20 is selected.

8.7.4 Vertical web on centreline longitudinal bulkhead


Section modulus of vertical web is to be not less than
Z = K3shsSs2k (sm3)
K3 = 1.88,
s = 4.25
hs = distance between the lower span point of the vertical web
and the moulded deckline at centreline, in meters
= 20 m
Ss = span of vertical web, in meters, and is to be measured
between end span points.
= 12.75 m
∴Z = 18476.0 cm3

Taken T section 1250x 12+ 500x 18


8.8 Primary Members End Connections [LRS Part 3, Chapter 10,
Section 3]
The following relations govern the scantlings of bracket:
(a + b) ≥ 2l
a ≥ 0.8 l
b ≥ 0.8 l

l = 90
√ (14 +Z√ Z)
2 -1 mm

8.8.1 Bracket connecting deck transverse and inner hull

l = 90 √ (14 +Z√ Z)
2 -1 mm

Z = 12871.3 cm3

205
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

l = 90 {2 (√12871.3 / [14 + √ 12871.3]) – 1}


= 1718.8 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1375 mm
b ≥ 0.8l = 1375 mm
Given a = 2300 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 12871.3 / 1000)
= 554 mm
Taken 750 mm

8.8.2 Bracket connecting deck transverse and center line bulkhead web

l = 90{ 2
√ (14 +Z√ Z) - 1} mm

Z = 14602 cm3
l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}
= 1783.1 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
b ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)
= 624.08 mm
Taken 750 mm

8.8.3 Bracket connecting centre line vertical web and inner bottom plating

l = 90{ 2
√ (14 +Z√ Z) - 1} mm

Z = 14602cm3
l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}
= 1783.1 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm

206
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

b ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)
= 624.08 mm
Taken 750 m

Table 8.3 Section Modulus Calculation

2
L AREA L*A
ITEMS (m) t(m) NO (m2) LEVER A*L (4m) (4m)Iown
Deck Plate 23.5 0.02 2 0.94 23.76 22.334 530.6653 1.57E-05
Sheerstrake Plate 3 0.02 2 0.12 22.26 2.6712 59.46091 0.045
Above IceBelt Plate 2.5 0.02 2 0.1 19.51 1.951 38.06401 0.026042
Ice Belt Plate 12.5 0.024 2 0.6 12 7.2 86.4 3.90625
Below Ice Belt Plate 3 0.02 2 0.12 4.26 0.5112 2.177712 0.045
Bottom Shell Plate 19 0.02 2 0.76 0.01 0.0076 0.000076 1.27E-05
Bottom Bilge Plate 6 0.02 2 0.24 1.25 0.3 0.375 0.36
Keel Plate 1.8 0.022 1 0.0396 0.011 0.0004 4.79E-06 1.6E-06
Margin Plate 4 0.014 2 0.112 4.5 0.504 2.268 0.074667
Inn Bot Plate 18.35 0.014 2 0.5138 3 1.5414 4.6242 4.2E-06
Centre Girder 3 0.022 1 0.066 1.5 0.099 0.1485 0.0495
Side Girder 3 0.015 6 0.27 1.5 0.405 0.6075 0.03375
CL bhd reg 1 5 0.012 3 0.18 21.26 3.8268 81.35777 0.125
CL bhd reg Bb/w 1
&2 13 0.013 1 0.169 12.26 2.0719 25.40198 2.380083
CL bhd reg 2 2.76 0.014 1 0.03864 4.38 0.1692 0.741285 0.024529
IB hull plate reg 1 5 0.012 2 0.12 21.26 2.5512 54.23851 0.125
IB hull plate reg b/w
1&2 13 0.013 2 0.338 12.26 4.1439 50.80397 2.380083
IB hull plate reg 2 2.76 0.014 2 0.07728 4.38 0.3385 1.48257 0.024529
Wing Tank Girder 1 3 0.012 2 0.072 6 0.432 2.592 4.32E-07
Wing Tank Girder 2 3 0.012 2 0.072 9 0.648 5.832 4.32E-07
Wing Tank Girder 3 3 0.012 2 0.072 12 0.864 10.368 4.32E-07
Wing Tank Girder 4 3 0.012 2 0.072 15 1.08 16.2 4.32E-07
Wing Tank Girder 5 3 0.012 2 0.072 18 1.296 23.328 4.32E-07
Wing Tank Girder 6 3 0.012 2 0.072 21 1.512 31.752 4.32E-07
Deck Longitudinals 250 x 12 68 0.26316 23.6 6.2106 146.5696

207
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

Inner Hull Longls 1 250 x 13 2 0.0084 23.06 0.1937 4.466814


2 250 x 13 2 0.0084 22.36 0.1878 4.199745
3 250 x 13 2 0.0084 21.66 0.1819 3.940907
4 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.96 0.1761 3.690301
5 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.26 0.1702 3.447928
6 250 x 13 2 0.0084 19.56 0.1643 3.213786
7 250 x 13 2 0.0084 18.86 0.1584 2.987877
8 325 x 12 2 0.0108 18.51 0.1999 3.700297
9 325 x 12 2 0.0108 18.16 0.1961 3.561684
10 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.81 0.1923 3.425718
11 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.46 0.1886 3.292397
12 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.11 0.1848 3.161723
13 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.76 0.181 3.033694
14 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.41 0.1772 2.908311
15 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.06 0.1734 2.785575
16 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.71 0.1697 2.665484
17 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.36 0.1659 2.54804
18 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.01 0.1621 2.433241
19 325 x 12 2 0.0108 14.66 0.1583 2.321088
20 325 x 12 2 0.0108 14.31 0.1545 2.211582
21 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.96 0.1508 2.104721
22 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.61 0.147 2.000507
23 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.26 0.1432 1.898938
24 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.91 0.1394 1.800015
25 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.56 0.1356 1.703739
26 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.21 0.1319 1.610108
27 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.86 0.1281 1.519124
28 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.51 0.1243 1.430785
29 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.16 0.1205 1.345092
30 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.81 0.1167 1.262046
31 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.46 0.113 1.181645
32 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.11 0.1092 1.103891
33 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.76 0.1054 1.028782
34 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.41 0.1016 0.956319
35 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.06 0.0978 0.886503

208
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

36 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.71 0.0941 0.819332


37 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.36 0.0903 0.754808
38 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.01 0.0865 0.692929
39 325 x 12 2 0.0108 7.66 0.0827 0.633696
40 325 x 12 2 0.0108 7.31 0.0789 0.57711
41 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.96 0.0752 0.523169
42 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.61 0.0714 0.471875
43 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.26 0.0676 0.423226
44 325 x 17 2 0.0134 5.76 0.0772 0.44458
45 325 x 17 2 0.0134 5.26 0.0705 0.370746
46 325 x 17 2 0.0134 4.76 0.0638 0.303612
47 325 x 17 2 0.0134 4.26 0.0571 0.243178
48 325 x 17 2 0.0134 3.76 0.0504 0.189444

Bottom Longitudinals 400 x 18 64 0.64 0.2 0.128 0.0256


Inner Bottom Longls 330 x 13 50 0.32 2.85 0.912 2.5992
Side longitudinals 1 250 x 13 2 0.0084 23.06 0.1937 4.466814
2 250 x 13 2 0.0084 22.36 0.1878 4.199745
3 250 x 13 2 0.0084 21.66 0.1819 3.940907
4 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.96 0.1761 3.690301
5 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.26 0.1702 3.447928
6 250 x 13 2 0.0084 19.56 0.1643 3.213786
7 250 x 13 2 0.0084 18.86 0.1584 2.987877
8 330 x 15 2 0.0132 18.51 0.2443 4.522585
9 330 x 15 2 0.0132 18.16 0.2397 4.35317
10 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.81 0.2351 4.186989
11 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.46 0.2305 4.024041
12 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.11 0.2259 3.864328
13 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.76 0.2212 3.707848
14 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.41 0.2166 3.554603
15 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.06 0.212 3.404592
16 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.71 0.2074 3.257814
17 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.36 0.2028 3.114271
18 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.01 0.1981 2.973961
19 330 x 15 2 0.0132 14.66 0.1935 2.836886

209
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

20 330 x 15 2 0.0132 14.31 0.1889 2.703045


21 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.96 0.1843 2.572437
22 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.61 0.1797 2.445064
23 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.26 0.175 2.320924
24 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.91 0.1704 2.200019
25 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.56 0.1658 2.082348
26 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.21 0.1612 1.96791
27 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.86 0.1566 1.856707
28 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.51 0.1519 1.748737
29 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.16 0.1473 1.644002
30 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.81 0.1427 1.542501
31 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.46 0.1381 1.444233
32 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.11 0.1335 1.3492
33 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.76 0.1288 1.2574
34 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.41 0.1242 1.168835
35 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.06 0.1196 1.083504
   36 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.71 0.115 1.001406
37 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.36 0.1104 0.922543
38 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.01 0.1057 0.846913
39 330 x 15 2 0.0132 7.66 0.1011 0.774518
40 330 x 15 2 0.0132 7.31 0.0965 0.705357
41 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.96 0.0919 0.639429
42 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.61 0.0873 0.576736
43 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.26 0.0826 0.517276
44 340 x 13 2 0.012 5.56 0.0667 0.370963
45 340 x 13 2 0.012 4.86 0.0583 0.283435
46 340 x 13 2 0.012 4.16 0.0499 0.207667
47 340 x 13 2 0.012 3.46 0.0415 0.143659
48 340 x 13 2 0.012 2.76 0.0331 0.091411
49 340 x 13 2 0.012 2.06 0.0247 0.050923
50 340 x 13 2 0.012 1.36 0.0163 0.022195
51 340 x 13 2 0.012 0.66 0.0079 0.005227
CL Longl Bulkhead
1 250 x 13 1 0.0042 23.06 0.0969 2.233407
2 250 x 13 1 0.0042 22.36 0.0939 2.099872

210
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

3 250 x 13 1 0.0042 21.66 0.091 1.970454


4 250 x 13 1 0.0042 20.96 0.088 1.845151
5 250 x 13 1 0.0042 20.26 0.0851 1.723964
6 250 x 13 1 0.0042 19.56 0.0822 1.606893
7 250 x 13 1 0.0042 18.86 0.0792 1.493938
8 325 x 12 1 0.0054 18.16 0.0981 1.780842
9 325 x 12 1 0.0054 17.46 0.0943 1.646199
10 325 x 12 1 0.0054 16.76 0.0905 1.516847
11 325 x 12 1 0.0054 16.06 0.0867 1.392787
12 325 x 12 1 0.0054 15.36 0.0829 1.27402
13 325 x 12 1 0.0054 14.66 0.0792 1.160544
14 325 x 12 1 0.0054 13.96 0.0754 1.052361
15 325 x 12 1 0.0054 13.26 0.0716 0.949469
16 325 x 12 1 0.0054 12.56 0.0678 0.851869
17 325 x 12 1 0.0054 11.86 0.064 0.759562
18 325 x 12 1 0.0054 11.16 0.0603 0.672546
19 325 x 12 1 0.0054 10.46 0.0565 0.590823
20 325 x 12 1 0.0054 9.76 0.0527 0.514391
21 325 x 12 1 0.0054 9.06 0.0489 0.443251
22 325 x 12 1 0.0054 8.36 0.0451 0.377404
23 325 x 12 1 0.0054 7.66 0.0414 0.316848
24 325 x 12 1 0.0054 6.96 0.0376 0.261585
25 325 x 12 1 0.0054 6.26 0.0338 0.211613
26 325 x 17 1 0.0067 5.56 0.0373 0.207121
27 325 x 17 1 0.0067 4.86 0.0326 0.158251
28 325 x 17 1 0.0067 4.16 0.0279 0.115948
29 325 x 17 1 0.0067 3.46 0.0232 0.08021
Total 30 7.75748 10.2374 79.416 1405.963 9.599469

Height of NA =10.237

I ref =1415.56
I na =602.54

Z deck =44.44
Z keel =58.85
Z Req 43.31 m3

Here ZDECK and ZKEEL are getting more than the minimum section modulus required. So
the design is satisfactory

211
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXVII

212