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A brief introduction to Continuous Time Fourier Series by Prof. Stephen Vadakkan

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Department of Computer Science & Engineering NMAM Institute of Technology Nitte, Udupi District Karnataka- 574110 INDIA

April 2009

1

Contents

1. Finite Waves 2. Finite Waves to Infinite Waves 3. Negative Waves and Eternal Sinusoidals 4. Negative Frequencies Analogy 5. Phase of Eternal Sinusoidals 6. Phase Sign and Value 7. Sinusoidals in Frequency Domain 8. Polar form 9. Periodic Signals 10. Harmonics 11. The Almost Square Wave (ASqW) 12. Fourier Analysis 13. The Orthogonal Property

1 2 4 6 8 9 11 14 15 16 17 18 21

1. Finite Waves

Any finite wave propagating in the positive direction in the time domain can be completely identified by three pieces of information (parameters): amplitude, frequency and phase. We shall denote these by the triple (A, +, ).

Time domain

one cycle peak +A phase

To

+t

T0 = fundamental period = frequency = 1/T0 Hz 0 = angular frequency = 2/T0 [rads/sec] = phase [rads] = fraction of a cycle With the triple (A, +, ) we can describe the wave. More precisely, to completely describe this finite wave we will need to know the number of full cycles as well. The first cycle is generally assumed to start at time t = 0 as shown in the diagram. We may embed n, the number of cycles, in the phase: = {n(2) + fraction of a cycle}. This is known as continuous phase. Frequency domain

a m p l i t u t e

+A

m a g n i t u d e

= 3(2) + 2

+o

+o

Amplitude spectrum

With the triple (A, +, ) we can describe the wave and depict the information using the frequency axis in the frequency domain as shown above.

3

Now we extend this finite wave to +. The wave now propagates in the positive direction from 0 to +. So the number of cycles becomes irrelevant. But what happens to the phase? When the wave extends to infinity there is no fraction of a cycle. Also the number of cycles is infinite.

Do we need the phase information? We can have two waves from 0 to + with the same peak amplitude +A and the same frequency +o as shown below.

+A

period To

period To +A

0 t+ +t 0 t+

+t

phase =

= t+

[rads]

phase =

= t+

[rads]

How can we differentiate between these two infinite waves? Both the waves have the same peak amplitude A and frequency +o. To distinguish between the two waves we need an additional piece of information. This information is t+ , the first positive peak in [0, To]. Hence we define phase as phase = t+ [rads]. This is known as modulo 2

phase.

So the two infinite waves may now be described as (A, +o, /2) and (A, +o, /4). In the frequency domain we have separate spectrums for the phase information.

Frequency domain

Frequency domain

+

+/2

0 o +

+

+/4

0 o +

Phase spectrum

Phase spectrum

Let us now look at infinite waves propagating in the negative direction: from 0 to .

Angular displacement: If an object is moving in a circular path (unit radius) with constant angular speed s and initial angular displacement , then in terms of variable t: y

When a body is in uniform circular motion we know that its horizontal co-ordinate or x coordinate describes a cosine wave and its vertical co-ordinate or y co-ordinate describes a sine wave. Counter-clockwise direction of rotation is defined as positive. In uniform circular motion this corresponds to angular speed +s. In wave motion this corresponds to angular frequency + or to cos(t) and sin(t) with t 0 progressing to the right. +s +

0

+

0

+t 0 t +

+t 0 t + sine wave

counter-clockwise

cosine wave

Clockwise direction of rotation is defined as negative. In uniform circular motion this corresponds to angular speed s. In wave motion this corresponds to angular frequency or to cos(t) and sin(t) with t 0 progressing to the left.

t t 0

0

s clockwise

t t 0 cosine wave

sine wave

Two frequencies: If we combine the intervals t 0 and t 0 we get the eternal (san-antana) cosine wave and eternal (san-antana) sine wave from < t < +.

t 0

0 t +

t 0

0 t +

Infinite waves from 0 to + are called sinusoidals. Infinite waves from to + are also called sinusoidals, more precisely eternal sinusoidals.

Before we proceed further let us see an analogy. We are so used to working with numbers in the decimal digital form. We can express numbers in analog form or digital form. The number twenty nine in analog form may be expressed using twenty nine strokes. In digital form the expression depends on the digital system we use. The number twenty nine in the . . . 102 101 100

DECIMAL DIGITAL SYSTEM

is . . . 24 23 1

3

2 22 1 82 21 0 81 3

9 20 1 80 5

is

8

OCTAL DIGITAL SYSTEM

is

We associate analog with the time domain and digital with the frequency domain. To transform numbers from time domain to frequency domain we need a base. The exponents of this base act as the digital frequencies. This set of frequencies has to be , the set of integers. All the frequencies should be present in order to express or represent any number (integer, rational or irrational) in digital form. This is the familiar place and place-value system we learned in class four. Here, we can think of the places: 100, 101, 102, as the decimal digital frequencies and the values in each place as the amplitudes.

10

3

632=

6 3 2 is decomposed into the sum of its frequency components. 6 3 2 = 6 x 102 + 3 x 101 + 2 x 100 The values 6, 3 and 2 are the magnitudes or amplitude coefficients an at these frequencies.

10

+2

= +

129/16 =

a+2

a+1

a0

a-1

10

Note the presence of negative decimal frequencies: 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, . Again, 8.0625 is decomposed into the sum of its frequency components. So for the sinusoidals in the time domain with t 0 the corresponding frequencies in the frequency domain are denoted by +. And analogous to positive frequencies for discrete numbers: 100, 101, 102, 103, we have positive frequencies: +0, +20, +30, for sinusoidals. Likewise, for the sinusoidals in the time domain with t 0 the corresponding frequencies in the frequency domain are denoted by . So analogous to negative frequencies for discrete numbers: 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, we have negative frequencies: 0, 20, 30, for sinusoidals.

t t+

+A

t t+

+A

phase =

3 2

= t+ [rads]

phase =

7 4

= t+ [rads]

Because the waves propagate in the negative directions we say they have negative frequencies denoted by . Again we can completely describe these waves by the triples (A, 0, 3/2) and (A, 0, 7/4) where t+ is the first positive peak in [0, To] and the phase is = t+ [rads].

Later we shall see that, analogous to representing analog numbers in the decimal digital domain, we will need a discrete set, dense set or complete (continuous) set of frequencies to represent a signal in the frequency domain. The type of set depends on the type the signal.

Let us now combine the corresponding positive and negative waves as depicted below:

t t+

0

t+ +t

phase =

3 2

= t+ [rads]

phase =

= t+ [rads]

t t+

0

t+ +t

phase =

7 4

= t+ [rads]

phase =

= t+ [rads]

Now we have what are called eternal sinusoidals (or sometimes just referred to as sinusoidals), that is to say: waves extending from to +. We can see in the diagrams that each sinusoidal has two phases. Which phase do we use?

2

In this situation we define the phase = t+ [rads] where t+ is the first positive peak in and so the phase lies between and +. See diagrams on page 3.

+ 2

Adding an integer multiple of 2 to this form of the phase does not change the sinusoidal. However, it can lead to discontinuities when depicting phase spectrum. For more information on this please refer to DSP by Steven Smith pages 164 to 168 and page 188.

10

We still have more work to do regarding the phase. Phase has both sign and value. Let us see some examples.

ADVANCED

ADVANCED

ADVANCED

t+

t+

t+

= +|t+|

[rads] = +

= +|t+|

[rads] = +

= +|t+|

[rads] =+

t+ = 0

= |t+|

[rads] = 0

DELAYED

t+

DELAYED

DELAYED

t+

t+

= |t+|

[rads] =

= |t+|

[rads] =

= |t+|

[rads] =

11

Given a sinusoidal cos(0t + ) the phase value = |t+| 2/T0 [rads] where t+ = first positive peak closest to t = 0. The phase sign in the single-sided phase spectrum (rectangular form) is defined by convention:

DELAY

ADVANCE

The phase sign in the double-sided phase spectrum (rectangular form) and in the phase spectrum (polar form) is defined by convention: (sign of frequency i) {phase sign in the single-sided phase spectrum(rectangular form)}

2

phase value = |t |

[rads]

+ 2

For the time being this is sufficient information on phase. We shall go into more detail on phase in another module.

12

We have two forms of representing sinusoidals and signals in the frequency domain: rectangular form and polar form. In the rectangular form there are two ways of representation: single-sided amplitude spectrum which has only the positive frequency axis (+ axis) and double-sided amplitude spectrum which has both the negative and positive frequency axii ( axis and + axis).

In the single-sided amplitude spectrum (as shown below) the symbol a is usually used to represent the peak amplitude of the cosine sinusoidal as in ai.cos(it). The amplitude coefficients ai may be positive or negative. Likewise the symbol b is usually used to represent the peak amplitude of the sine sinusoidal as in bi.sin(it). The amplitude co-efficients bi may be positive or negative.

Time domain Frequency domain

+a

+a.cos(ot)

+a

+t

+o

a.cos(ot)

+o 0 0 a +t a +

13

Frequency domain +b

+b

+t

+o

+ o 0 +

b.sin(ot)

In the double-sided amplitude spectrum the amplitude is equally divided over both the positive and negative frequencies as shown below.

+a.cos(ot)

+a

+t

+o

14

Time domain

Frequency domain

o 0 a.cos(ot) .cos(ot) +t

0

+o

+.sin(ot) .cos(ot) 0 +t o 0

+o

b.sin(ot) .cos(ot)

+o 0 +t o 0

double-sided amplitude spectrum (rectangular form) In the double-sided phase spectrum (rectangular form) the phase value is not divided because it represents the position of the first positive peak. Whereas the amplitude co-efficients in the double-sided amplitude spectrum (rectangular form) ai and bi represent energy which can be equally divided over both +i and i.

15

8. Polar form

In the polar form we have a magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum. The magnitude spectrum has both the negative and positive frequency axii ( axis and + axis). The magnitude m of a frequency component is m = sqrt(a2 + b2). Hence the magnitude m is always positive. However, the magnitude mi is the same for both the +i and i. In other words it is not equally divided like in the double-sided amplitude spectrum (rectangular form).

We have two types of eternal sinusoidals sine sinusoidal from - to + cosine sinusoidals from - to +

In rectangular form we need both types: sine as well as cosine. And the phase information is hidden in the amplitudes of the sinusoidals ai.cos(it) and bi.sin(it). This can be extracted: by tan = arctan(tan) = = arctan( ) In polar form we need only cosine type sinusoidals because when we add a cosine sinusoidal and a sine sinusoidal of the same frequency we get a cosine sinusoidal of the same frequency but with the different phase. The phase information is explicit. ai.cos(it) + bi.sin(it) = mi.cos(it+) where mi = sqrt(ai2 + bi2)

Here the addition is of the sine and cosine parts of a frequency component present in a signal. We may extract each frequency component as described in Convolution & LTI Systems page 82 http://www.nitte.ac.in/nmamit/articles.php?linkId=131&parentId=20&mainId=20&facId=131# For more information on polar form please read DSP by Steven W Smith pages 161 to 164.

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9. Periodic Signals

Let us see how we can form a periodic signal using sinusoidals. Are they any restrictions or conditions? Let 1(t) = sin(0t) where 0 = 2/1, here the fundamental period T0 = 1. Observe that 1(t) is periodic.

2 (t)

= sin(0t) where 0 = 2

2 (t)

is also periodic.

(t)

1(t)

2To

To

To= 2

2To

3To

t - axis

Is (t) = 1(t) +

(t)

periodic?

2

If (t) is periodic, then at some point in time, say Tf secs, the intercepts of 1(t) and fundamental period of (t). But this cannot happen. Let us see why. Proof by Way of Contradiction. Suppose 1(t) and

2 (t)

will coincide for the first time. This will happen again at 2Tf secs, 3Tf secs and so on. So Tf will be the

do coincide at some instant Tf on the time axis. This means that: m cycles of 1(t) = n cycles of

2 1 2 (t)

2 2

Therefore 2 = implying 2 is rational. But 2 is an irrational number. So this cannot happen. Let us look at the ratio of the periods of 1(t) and

2 (t).

1 2

is irrational

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10. Harmonics

If the ratio of the periods of the periodic functions is irrational, then their sum is NOT a periodic function. Hence we can say: Given (t) = g(t) + h(t) where both g(t) and h(t) are continuous and periodic

(t) is periodic

In other words: the fundamental frequencies of g(t) and h(t) must be rational multiples of each other. In general, we can form a periodic signal (t) by summing two or more periodic functions whose fundamental frequencies are rational multiples of each other. Composing a periodic signal from sinusoidals whose fundamental frequencies are rational multiples of each other is known as synthesis. These sinosoidals are called harmonics. Periodic (t) Hence we may write continuous periodic (t) as:

=0

HARMONICS

(t) =

cos(0 ) + sin(0 )

Let us now look at a periodic signal (the simplest type of signal) and see how we can extract the information of the frequency components present in it, that is to say the amplitude coefficients ai and bi of the sinusoidals of the frequencies i present in the signal.

18

Let us now compose the periodic signal ASqW from its three components.

A1

a m p l i t u d e s

T0 0 - axis

10

a m p l i t u d e s a m p l i t u d e s a m p l i t u d e s

1 1

b1 sin +o t

T0 - axis

0 T

1 3 10 1

b3 sin +3o t

T0 0

10 3

- axis

1 5

b5 sin +5o t

3 5 5 5 7 5 9 5

T0 0

2 5 4 5 6 5 8 5 10 5

- axis

t0 t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

t9

t10 [t1]

19

Given the periodic signal/function (t) = ASqW (in the TIME DOMAIN) how can we determine the components (sinusoidals) present and the (A, , ) of each component? The amplitude coefficients ai (of cosine sinusoidals) and bi (of sine sinusoidals) are called the Fourier Coefficients. The operation of converting an operand from analog form in the TIME DOMAIN to digital form in the

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

is knows as Fourier analysis. The conversion of an operand from digital to analog form in the

TIME DOMAIN

form in the

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

operation is known as synthesis. The transform and its inverse transform are called a transform pair. FOURIER SERIES: HARMONICS =

=0

cos(0 ) + sin(0 )

2 + 2

Periodic (t)

{(t) sin(0 ),

(t) sin(30 ), (t) sin(50 )}

CARRIERS

ASqW

LINEAR: HOMOGENEITY AND EXPANSION AS SUM OF SINUSOIDALS

OUTPUT PERIOD

We shall find the Fourier coefficients in five steps. The first two steps are not usually shown in text books. It is important to see the central role of the circular convolution operation and the orthogonal property of sinusoidals in determining the coefficients.

20

1. CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION

(t) sin(0 ) = (t) . sin(0 ) (t) sin(30 ) = (t) . sin(30 ) (t) sin(50 ) = (t) . sin(50 )

2. EXPANSION

(t) . sin(0 ) =

The minus sign in sin(0 ) on the L.H.S. will cancel out with the minus sign in sin(0 ) on the R.H.S. The amplitude coefficients b1, b3, b5 are unknown. 3. ORTHOGONAL Due to the ORTHOGONAL PROPERTY, on R.H.S. we have: L.H.S. R.H.S. 1 . sin2 (10 )

(t) . sin(1. 0 ) =

1

over one period

b1 sin2 (0 ) =

b1 2

over To

1 cos(20 ) =

b1 2

b1 2

cos(2 )

0 b 1 T0 2

over To

over To

= So: b1 =

2

0

b 1 T0 2

0 =

b1 sin2 (0 ) =

2 0

over To

(t). sin(1. )

0 0

CT-FS coefficient bk =

2 0

(t). sin(. )

21

over To

2

0

b3 2

cos(20 ) cos(40 )

0

2

0

over To

b5 2

cos(40 ) cos(60 )

0

over To

b1 Note: periodic signals have discrete amplitude spectrums

a m p l i t u d e

s

b3 b5

+10

+ 30

+50

- axis

Usually for frequencies 1 < 2 < 3 , we have amplitude coefficients 1 > 2 > 3 . That is to say: the lower the frequency, the larger the amplitude. This is exactly what happens in nature. Because high frequency with large amplitude requires more power. In the equation for period of the pendulum: = 2 , we see that 2 < 1 implies 2 < 1 . Now, 2 < 1 implies frequency 1 < 2 . But 1 > 2 means amplitude 1 > 2 . Hence frequency 1 < 2 implies amplitude 1 > 2 . The higher the frequency the smaller the amplitude.

22

cos(A+B) + cos(AB) = 2cosA. cosB Let A = m0 and B = n0 . Then cos(m0 ).cos(n0 ) = 2 cos (m + n)0 + cos (m n)0

1

cos(m0 ).cos(n0 ) dt = 2

cos (m + n)

0

+ cos (m n)0

dt

cos (m + n) dt = 0 when m n

0

cos (m n) dt = 0 when m n

0

sinusoidal over one period = 0 because of equal area above and below the time axis. When m = n : cos (m + n) + cos (m n) dt

1 2 0 0

= =

1 2

1 2

1.dt

In short, the Orthogonal Property states that: the circular convolution of two sinusoidals of different frequencies is zero and of the same frequency is non-zero. Recall that convolution by definition is the combined effect of each on each summed up over an interval. So from the Physics point of view we may say that when the frequencies of the sinusoidals are different they have no effect on each other. And when they are same there is some effect or response like resonance. This is what allows us to extract the individual frequency components present in a composite continuous periodic signal like the ASqW.

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