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Mathematical Concept

Optimization of Truss Structure

P
Finding least weight structure by variation of crosssectional area of members and joint locations.

Mathematical Concept

Recall the Bridge Design Process

Specs
Type of Structure
Topology of structure
Configuration of
structure
Profiles of members
Member sizes
Product

Mathematical Concept

Structural Design and Optimization

The design of a structure is a repetitive process involving a
structural definition (synthesis) phase and an analysis phase
to meet a set of requirements.
Structural optimization is a strategy to obtain the optimum
structure. A structure is optimum if it has say, the least
weight (or other objective), and at the same time meets the
design requirement. The design requirement could be in the
form of strength, stiffness, or other requirement.
In addition to size of member, configuration optimization
involves the variation of structural joints to obtain the
optimum structure

Mathematical Concept

Optimization set-up
Example - Three Bar
Structures

L1

L2

2
2

Design variables: H, L1, L2, A1, A2, A3.

Objective function: W.
Design constraints:
o absolute(stress of member 1) - strength 0
o absolute(stress of member 2) - strength 0
o absolute(stress of member 3) - strength 0
o hmin < H < hmax
o l1min < L1 < l1max
o l2min < L2 < l2max
o a1min < A1 < a1max
o a2min < A2 < a2max
o a3min < A3 < a3max
hmin, l1min, l2min = min length for H, L1, and L2
hmax, l1max, l2max = max length for H, L1, and L2
a1min, a2min, a3min = min area for A1, A2, and A3
a1max, a2max, a3max = max area for A1, A2, and A3

3
P

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1
500mm
2

Member profile:
angle-profile

500mm
4

t
h

11

5
8
1

7
10

5
10000 N

E=71000 N/mm2

rho=2.8 kg/dm3

500
mm

Optimization through
variation of h and t

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1

500mm
2

11

5
8
1

6 design variables:
var-1 and 2: t and h elements-1,2,3,4
var-3 and 4: t and h elements-5,6,7
var-5 and 6: t and h elements-8,9,10,11

500mm

7
10

5
10000 N

E=71000 N/mm2

rho=2.8 kg/dm3

500
mm

design constraints/requirement:
|stress| 100 Mpa
5 mm at node-5
1.6 t 3.0 mm
25 h 40 mm

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1
Table-1 History of the design variable and structural weight
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Iter.
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
weight
(mm)
(kg)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0
2.000 30.000 2.000 30.000 2.000 30.000 2.0553
1
2.565 36.225 2.194 31.642 2.322 31.682 2.6890
2
2.614 35.083 2.188 31.602 2.317 31.675 2.6689
3
2.615 35.200 2.155 31.387 2.270 31.260 2.6242
4
2.607 35.115 2.098 31.005 2.192 30.597 2.5394
5
2.596 34.983 2.015 30.364 2.079 29.660 2.4187
6
2.573 34.774 1.923 29.471 1.963 28.641 2.2851
7
2.538 34.551 1.842 28.497 1.867 27.730 2.1649
8
2.492 34.479 1.777 27.616 1.793 27.011 2.0681
9
2.451 34.452 1.728 26.921 1.739 26.463 1.9955
10
2.421 34.448 1.694 26.412 1.702 26.081 1.9451
11
2.424 34.412 1.698 26.469 1.710 26.158 1.9521
12
2.426 34.385 1.697 26.454 1.708 26.135 1.9500
13
2.427 34.372 1.697 26.455 1.708 26.140 1.9505
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1
Table-2 The largest stress (absolute) of each element group and the
displacement of node 5.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Stress (N/mm2)
displ (mm)
Iter. group-1
group-2
group-3
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------0
133.36
39.06
66.68
-5.03
1
86.52
33.51
54.96
-3.61
2
87.83
33.66
55.09
-3.64
3
87.45
34.41
56.94
-3.68
4
87.94
35.77
60.17
-3.79
5
88.64
38.02
65.36
-3.95
6
89.97
41.03
71.64
-4.17
7
91.76
44.27
77.79
-4.39
8
93.63
47.31
83.14
-4.59
9
95.21
49.86
87.50
-4.75
10
96.39
51.82
90.74
-4.87
11
96.36
51.59
90.08
-4.85
12
96.38
51.65
90.27
-4.86
13
96.37
51.64
90.23
-4.86
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mathematical Concept

3
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

W e ig h t ( K g )

Case Study 1

Iteration

Weight History

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 2
member cross-sectional area, min 50 mm2
Area-init = 100 mm2
H = 300 to 700 mm, H-initial = 500 mm

Weight, Kg

Weight (Kg)

9
Iteration

11

13

2
2

Optimum

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
5

10,000 N

Weight History

500

Max. Stress = 100 MPa

Max. displ. = 5.0 mm

500

15

17

Weight = 0.239 Kg
Stress-1 = 26.6 MPa
Stress-2 = 98.9 MPa
Stress-3 = 26.6 MPa
Displ-4 = 0.42 mm
A = 303.1 mm B = 500 mm
A1 = 50.5 mm2
A2 = 87.0 mm2
A3 = 50.5 mm2

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 3

member cross-sectional area, min 50 mm2

Y = 300 to 700 mm
X1=A1,A2
X2=A3,A4
X3=A5,A9 X4=A6,A8
X5=A7
X6=Y

Initial
X1=X2=X3=X4=X5= 100
Y=500
Weight=1.38
sig1=0
sig2=0
sig3= -100
sig4=-100 sig5=-100 sig6=141.4
sig7=0
sig8=141.4 sig9=-100
disp2=-3.4

5
7

500

20,000 N

Max. Stress = 100 MPa

Max. displ. = 5.0 mm
Weight History
3

Optimum
X1=50.5 X2=108.6
X4=118.1 X5=79.7
Weight = 1.12
sig1=0
sig2=0
sig4=-98.9 sig5=-98.6
sig7=98.7 sig8=99.0
disp2=-2.4

500

2.5

X3= 101.4
X6=303.380
sig3=-98.9
sig6=99.0
sig9=-98.6

2
1.5

Weight (Kg)

1
0.5
0
1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Iteration

Mathematical Concept

Optimization Procedure (Mathematical

Programming)
Find the design variable values {X} hence the
objective function F({X}), e.g. structural weight, is
minimum
and meet the design constraints,
gj({X}) 0
j=1,m
through the iteration procedure,
{Xq+1} = {Xq} + Sq
X2

g1

X1

g4

S1

X0

S2

X2
S3

Two Variables Design

Space

optimum point
f = C1

g2
f = C4

f = C2
f = C3

g3

f = C5
X1

Mathematical Concept

Optimization Process
For a design/system (e.g bridge), observe:
What are the design variables and their values {X}
The objective function F({X}), e.g. bridge structural
weight, is to be minimized
But MUST satisfy the design constraints,
gj({X}) 0
j=1,m
Performed through the iteration procedure,
{Xq+1} = {Xq} + Sq
or
New X = Old X + X

Mathematical Concept

Observe the math scenario - 1

F=X2+Y2+40
250
200

150
100
50
0
10
5

10
5

-5
y

-5
-10

-10

Mathematical Concept

Observe the math scenario - 2

Z=1.8-1.5*(X2+Y2)[cos(0.5Y)*sin(X)]

0.4

-0.2

-0.4
4
2

0.2

-2
y

-1

-2
-4

-4

-2

-3
-3

-2

-1

0
x

Mathematical Concept

Observe the math scenario - 3

F=(X-5)2/25+(Y-1)2/4-1

400
300

30

100
0

20

-100
30

10

20
10

50

200

0
-10

-20
y

-30

-50

-10

-20

-30

-20

-10

0
x

10

20

Mathematical Concept

No design constraints!!!
X2
decreasing
objective
function

5
4

X1

Mathematical Concept

Mathematical Criteria - Unconstrained

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)
Optimality conditions/criteria of functions of single-variable
Necessary condition:
f(x*)= 0 or df/dx=0 or

f = 0

Sufficient condition:
f(x) 0 or d2f/dx2 0

f=2x-4,

f=2

Mathematical Concept

Mathematical Criteria - Unconstrained Optimum

(e.g. minimum of a function)

Find the minimum of

f=x3-x2-4x+4

Mathematical Concept

Mathematical Criteria - Unconstrained

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)
Optimality conditions/criteria of functions of multi-variables

Mathematical Concept

Mathematical Criteria - Unconstrained

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)