9 views

Uploaded by Rakesh Kumar

- Digital Communication Chapter4
- Wireless Communications With Matlab and Simulink
- Chapter
- 2015 DataCom HW3 Sol
- OFDM & QAM
- IRJET-soft storey, weak storey, strength and stiffness Criteria etc…
- Optimal Transmit Power in Wireless Sensor Networks in a Multipath Rician Fading Channel
- LAB2
- Information Tech
- Basic Radar Measurements_lecroy
- Digital Communication Systems
- Syllabus TCE
- Handout_COM202_Analog and Digital Communication
- 60GHz_Wireless_TX_0905.0317.pdf
- Lecture1_2p.pdf
- am
- Tems Parameter
- Drive Test
- EC305
- Tems Parameters1

You are on page 1of 108

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Goals in Communication System Design Pages 75-76

Chapter 3

Noise An information source (voice, music, video, text, signals or images) is modulated in the transmitter .

Chapter 3

Noise The output of the transmitter is inputted to the physical transmission medium (wires, fiber optics, wireless or acoustic) as a channel with additive noise.

Chapter 3

Noise The output of the channel is inputted to the receiver which attempts to demodulate the signal and recover the data.

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Pages 18-20

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator simulates a binary information source, bit rate rb = 1 kb/sec

MS Figure 2.1

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator from the Communications Blockset, Comm Sources

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator block from the Communications Blockset, Comm Sources binary random seed rb = 1 kb/sec Tb = 1 msec

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Binary data [0,1] Binary Polar PAM transmitter 5 V MS Figure 2.1

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channel provides a random noise source, mean = 0 V, variance 2 = 0.5 V

MS Figure 2.1

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) AWGN Channel block from the Communications Blockset, Channels

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) AWGN Channel block from the Communications Blockset, Channels

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Simple PAM receiver consists of a Sample and Hold block with synchronous timing at Tb /2 provided by a pulse generator. This induces a delay of Tb /2. /2 The Sign and Lookup Table blocks convert the received data to the correct format (see MS p. 19).

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) The Sign block converts the variable amplitude bipolar received data from the Sample-andHold block to trinary data [1, 0, 1]

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) The Lookup Table block converts the trinary data [1, 0, 1] to a replica of the bipolar transmitted signal [ 5] for comparison by mapping 0 to +5

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Baseband Modulation Using Rectangular Pulses and Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 76-88

Chapter 3

00 01

11 10

Chapter 3

PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Pulse Generator block outputs a 1 V pulse with a width of 20 msec and a nominal pulse period of 200 msec

Chapter 3

PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Transport Delay block delays the input by 20 msec using a sample data buffer automatically set

Chapter 3

11 Fig35.mdl 10

Chapter 3

= 20 msec

Chapter 3

= 20 msec

Chapter 3

00 01

11

10

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Spectrum Scope requires a discrete or sampled signal input. Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based signal. Integer Delay block used to delay the pulse.

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based signal. Sample time TS = 20 sec Pulse period = 500 000 samples (10 sec) Pulse width = 1000 samples (20 msec)

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Integer Delay block for sampled-based signal. Sample time TS = 20 sec Delay = 1000 samples (0.2 sec)

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Spectrum Scope simulation for N = 218 = 262 144 samples. samples Simulation time T = N / fS = 262 144 / 50 000 = 5.24288 sec Frequency resolution f = fS / N = 50 000/262 144 = 0.1907 Hz

Chapter 3

Data 00 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/2 1/ = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6a

Chapter 3

Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/ 50 Hz Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6b

Chapter 3

Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/ 50 Hz Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6c

Chapter 3

Data 11 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/2 1/ = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6d

Chapter 3

Sum of the equally likely simulated ESD | FFT |2 for data 00, 01, 10 and 11 unscaled by probability p = 0.25 S&M Figure 3.7 (f) = 2A2 2 sinc2( f ) 3/ 150 Hz

2/ 100 Hz 1/ 50 Hz

Chapter 3

Power of a Series of Pulses The power of a series of pulses is the energy in a series of pulses divided by the time to transmit the series of pulses (S&M p. 83). Power = Energy / Transmit Time This concept can be extended to find the average normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) of a series of rectangular pulses: G(f) = n A2 2 sinc2( f ) / n = A2 sinc2( f )

Chapter 3

The total power in a series of rectangular pulses is a function of the bandwidth of the data transmission. S&M Figure 3-10 (f) = 2A2 2 sinc2( f ) 3/ 96.5%

2/ 95% 1/ 90%

Chapter 3

The rectangular pulse width is the entire bit time Tb here and is optimum in the bandwidth sense. Table 3-1 Bandwidth of a Binary Rectangular PAM Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (S&M p. 86, MS p. 22) with = Tb = 1 / rb Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power 1/Tb 90% 1.5/Tb 93% 2/Tb 95% 3/Tb 96.5% 4/Tb 97.5% 5/Tb 98%

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density Pages 20-22

Chapter 3

For an ensemble (collection) of pseudo-random rectangular PAM data signals, the power spectral density (PSD) is used since the bit period Tb is finite and not infinite as for a single pulse with its ESD. The pulse width can be less than the bit period Tb but this is not bandwidth efficient. The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of a binary rectangular PAM transmitter (MS Figure 2.1) is modified for a variable pulse width Tb to verify these concepts.

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse train, 0 to 1 V, pulse period 1 msec, pulse width 0.5 msec (50% duty cycle) Multiplier

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse train = 0 to 1 V Pulse period = 1 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse width = 50% (0.5 msec) Phase delay = 0.5 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

Chapter 3

Top: Binary data source. Middle: pulse train. Bottom: rectangular PAM transmit data output with 50% duty cycle. Data Tb Duty Cycle Tb /2 Product with Gain

Chapter 3

PSD of rectangular PAM Spectrum scope block calculates the PSD of the output of the rectangular PAM transmitter with variable duty cycle / Tb

Fig21modspec.mdl

Chapter 3

Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM / Tb = 0.5, Tb = 1 msec The impulse spectral terms [(2n1) fo] where fo = 1 / Tb = 1 kHz are due to the periodic signal imposed by the product modulator with 50% duty cycle

Chapter 3

Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM / Tb = 1, Tb = 1 msec No impulse spectral terms in the PSD for the rectangular PAM signal because the signal is only random with 100% duty cycle ( = Tb)

Chapter 3

Performance of Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN Pages 66-69

Chapter 3

The performance of rectangular PAM ( = Tb, 100% duty cycle) in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb / 2) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The received binary data is compared bit-by-bit to the transmitted binary data by the Error Rate Calculation block

MS Figure 2.7

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis The Error Rate Calculation block delays the transmitted binary data to correlate it with the received binary data The BER output is displayed numerically

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis The computation delay allows the BER analysis to be delayed before starting if warranted (no delay is used here)

Chapter 3

Spectrally white Gaussian noise is added in the channel with variance 2 in volts by the AWGN Channel block The initial seed is the MATLAB variable randseed so that each simulation is unique

Chapter 3

The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the metric for the BER analysis. The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal is A2 / RL and the noise power is 2 / RL. The SNR then is: SNR = (A2 / RL )/(2 / RL) = A2 / 2 SNR = 10 log10 [A2 / 2] dB MS Figure 2.7

Chapter 3

The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal is A2 / RL W (watts) and the normalized power (RL = 1) is A2 V2 (volts squared). Although it is correct to use the units V2 for normalized power and then divide by RL to convert to W, the convention is to use the term normalized power W even though the units are V2. Here A = 5 V and the normalized power = 25 W.

MS Figure 2.7

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 24) Table 2.2 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an Unfiltered Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W. SNR dB 13.98 12.21 10.97 6.98 3.98 3.19 AWGN 2 V2 0 1 1.5 2 5 10 12 BER 0 0 0 2 10-4 1.24 10-2 5.64 10-2 7.43 10-2

Chapter 3

The BER performance of a rectangular PAM with AWGN can be improved with the addition of a low-pass filter (LPF) in the receiver. The LPF passes only the bandwidth required for the modulated signal.

MS Figure 2.9

Chapter 3

The low-pass filter in the rectangular PAM receiver is an Analog Filter Design block

Chapter 3

The available simulated analog low-pass filter types are Bessel, Butterworth, Chebyshev types I and II, and Elliptic. The Chebyshev LPF with fcutoff = 1200 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB displays the maximum roll-off attenuation with a trade-off of the in-band ripple.

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM performance in a LPF receiver with AWGN (SVU p. 73) Table 2.3 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 1.2 kHz) Binary Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W. SNR dB 10.00 0.96 3.01 6.02 9.03 AWGN 2 V2 0 2.5 20 50 100 200 BER 0 0 0 1 10-4 6.3 10-3 3.63 10-2

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary rectangular PAM in an unfiltered and LPF receiver: Unfiltered Receiver SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.98 5 1.24 10-2 3.98 10 5.64 10-2 LPF Receiver SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.02 100 6.3 10-3 9.03 200 3.63 10-2

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM 5 V, 1 kb/sec with AWGN, 2 = 10 V2 Simple receive data sampling occurs at the mid-point Tb /2 Tb + 5V

Chapter 3

Pulse Shaping to Improve Spectral Efficiency: Sinc Pulses Pages 89-101

Chapter 3

A practical sinc-shaped pulse has a finite duration T = 4 Tb. Zero-crossings occur at n / rb = n Tb MS Figures 2.15 and 2.16 binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec binary 0

2/rb 1/rb

3/rb 4/rb

Chapter 3

Bandwidth of a sinc-shaped PAM pulse is rb / 2 Hz which is 50% of the first-null bandwidth of a rectangular PAM pulse (rb Hz). +5 V binary 0 2/rb 0 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec

Chapter 3

Since the practical sinc-shaped pulses have zerocrossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb. MS Figures 2.17 and 2.18

Chapter 3

Sinc PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 90, MS p. 29-30) The power spectral density (PSD) for a sinc PAM signal is derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a single sinc pulse. The ESD (f) for a sinc pulse with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb is: (f) = (A / rb)2 = A2 Tb2 rb/2 f rb/2

As for rectangular pulses earlier, the normalized PSD G(f) of a series of sinc pulses is: G(f) = n A2 Tb2 / n Tb = A2 Tb rb/2 f rb/2 where 1 / rb = Tb

Chapter 3

Sinc Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 27-33

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink generation of a practical (finite duration) sinc PAM signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 27-29). MS Figure 2.14 sinc impulse filter

Chapter 3

The Random Integer Generator block data has an amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The output is offset and scaled to provide a 1 V data source.

Chapter 3

The Pulse Generator block has an amplitude of 1 V, a period of 1 msec or a frequency of 1 kHz (rb) and a pulse width of 2% of the period (20 sec) which is the Simulink simulation time.

Chapter 3

Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter which can generate a sinc when the rolloff factor = 0.

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block generates a sinc with a rolloff factor = 0. The group delay of 4 symbols specifies the 4Tb duration.

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block upsampling factor 50 specifies the duration of a symbol Tb = 50 x 20 sec = 1000 sec = 1 msec, where 20 sec is the Simulink simulation time. The filter gain of 5 sets the peak amplitude to 5 V.

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink sinc PAM transmitter can be used to verify the PSD. MS Figure 2.19

Chapter 3

PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec first null bandwidth rb /2 = 500 Hz sinc2 shaped PSD non-ideal sinc(t)

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

The performance of practical sinc PAM in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc PAM is used to assess performance. MS Figure 2.20

Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.20

Chapter 3

The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) with fcutoff = 600 Hz to improve BER performance. The bandwidth is rb /2 = 500 Hz, rb = 1 kb/sec here. MS Figure 2.20

Chapter 3

The signal power of the practical sinc PAM is problematical because of the complex shape and finite duration. A Simulink simulation can be used to compute the root-mean-square (RMS) of the sinc PAM transmit output. MS Figure 2.21

Chapter 3

The Simulink RMS block from the Signal Processing Blockset, Statistics computes the RMS.

Chapter 3

The measured normalized power of the practical sinc PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.9342 = 24.3 W. The normalized power of the rectangular PAM signal is 25 W exactly. The sinc PAM power is required for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis. MS Figure 2.21

Chapter 3

Sinc PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 31-33) Table 2.4 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 600 Hz) Binary Sinc PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power 24.3 W. SNR dB 0.85 3.13 6.14 9.15 13.13 AWGN 2 V2 0 20 50 100 200 500 BER 0 0 4 10-3 3.5 10-3 2.14 10-2 9.31 10-2

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and rectangular PAM with an LPF receiver: Sinc PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.14 100 3.5 10-2 9.15 200 2.14 10-2 Rectangular PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.02 100 6.3 10-3 9.03 200 3.62 10-2

Chapter 3

Pulse Shaping to Improve Spectral Efficiency: Raised Cosine Pulses Pages 101-111

Chapter 3

The raised cosine PAM pulse has a finite duration by definition. Zero-crossings occur at n / rb = n Tb +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

Chapter 3

Bandwidth of a raised cosine pulse is rb / 2 + Hz where is the damping factor and 0 rb / 2. +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

Chapter 3

The rolloff factor of a raised cosine pulse is related to the damping factor : = 2 / rb 01 = rb / 2 0 rb / 2 +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

Chapter 3

Since the raised cosine pulses have zero-crossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb. MS Figures 2.25 and 2.26

startup

1/rb

binary 0

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 102, MS p. 36-38) The normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) for a raised cosine PAM signal is derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a single raised cosine pulse with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb = 1 / Tb is: G(f) = A2 / rb | f | rb / 2

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 81-87

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink generation of raised cosine PAM signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 33-36). MS Figure 2.22 raised cosine impulse filter

Chapter 3

The Random Integer Generator block data has an amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The output is offset and scaled to provide a 1 V data source.

Chapter 3

The Pulse Generator block has an amplitude of 1 V, a period of 1 msec or a frequency of 1 kHz (rb) and a pulse width of 2% of the period (20 sec) which is the Simulink simulation time.

Chapter 3

Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter which generates a raised cosine filter when the rolloff factor 0 < 1 ( 0)

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block is generated with a rolloff factor = 0.5 The group delay of 4 symbols specifies the 4Tb duration.

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink raised cosine PAM transmitter can be used to verify the PSD. MS Figure 2.22

Chapter 3

PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, = 0.5, = 250 first null bandwidth rb /2 + = 750 Hz = 2 / rb

Chapter 3

PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, = 0.5, = 250 first null bandwidth rb /2 + = 750 Hz

Chapter 3

The performance of raised cosine PAM in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The Simulink simulation of binary raised cosine PAM is used to assess performance. MS Figure 2.28

Chapter 3

The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of raised cosine PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) fcutoff = 900 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB to improve BER performance. The first null bandwidth is 750 Hz.

MS Figure 2.28

Chapter 3

The computed normalized power of the raised cosine PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.672 = 21.8 W. The normalized power of the sinc and rectangular PAM signals are 24.3 and 25 W. The raised cosine PAM power is required for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis. MS Figure 2.21rcos

Chapter 3

Raised cosine PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 38-40) Table 2.5 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.01 dB ripple, fcutoff = 900 Hz) Binary Raised Cosine PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power 21.8 W. SNR dB 3.38 0.37 3.61 6.62 9.62 AWGN 2 V2 0 10 20 50 100 200 BER 0 0 4 10-4 5.8 10-3 2.48 10-2 6.75 10-2

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and raised cosine PAM with an LPF receiver: Sinc PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 3.13 50 4 10-4 9.15 200 2.14 10-2 Raised Cosine PAM SNR dB AWGN V BER 3.61 50 5.8 10-2 9.62 200 6.75 10-2

Chapter 3

- Digital Communication Chapter4Uploaded byHalim Hazem
- Wireless Communications With Matlab and SimulinkUploaded byyesme37
- ChapterUploaded bytinhs2cop
- 2015 DataCom HW3 SolUploaded bydou
- OFDM & QAMUploaded bynikky234
- IRJET-soft storey, weak storey, strength and stiffness Criteria etc…Uploaded byIRJET Journal
- Optimal Transmit Power in Wireless Sensor Networks in a Multipath Rician Fading ChannelUploaded byArnab Nandi
- LAB2Uploaded byLuan Le
- Information TechUploaded byJinu Madhavan
- Basic Radar Measurements_lecroyUploaded byTran Vu Trung
- Digital Communication SystemsUploaded byAnonymous mWT8r3nG
- Syllabus TCEUploaded byyyyyyyyy
- Handout_COM202_Analog and Digital CommunicationUploaded byBIsht Narendra
- 60GHz_Wireless_TX_0905.0317.pdfUploaded byrfidguys
- Lecture1_2p.pdfUploaded byUtku
- amUploaded bySzutyok97
- Tems ParameterUploaded bychlaxminarayana
- Drive TestUploaded byanthony_obiora
- EC305Uploaded byapi-3853441
- Tems Parameters1Uploaded byCharles Weber
- DG4000 UserGuide EnUploaded byAnonymous xTGQYFr
- USRP Hands-on Presentation 22 Mar 2013 (3).pdfUploaded byprincessdiaress
- Ch_04NewUploaded byReetika Arora
- cnss_fw_logs_000.txtUploaded byKANNAN SURESH
- Tems ParametersUploaded bySteven Poh
- HybridUploaded byNicolasHoracioToma
- Grad Handbook 2013Uploaded byArsalan Jumani
- Analog vs Digital CommunicationUploaded byYOGESH
- Energy-Efficient Image Transmission over OFDM Channel Using Huffman CodingUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- adc 1Uploaded bynithyajothi

- What Are Set Up Time & Hold Time Constraints_ What Do They Signify_ Which One is Critical for Estimating Maximum Clock Frequency of a CircuitUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Chapter 3 _ Combinational Logic Circuits (Part 1) _ Digital ElectronicsUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Full TextUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Digital Logic Functions _ LADDER LOGICUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Digital Logic Functions _ LADDER LOGICUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- What is MetastabilityUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Setup and Hold Time CalculationsUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- l1.pdfUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Algorithms and ComplexityUploaded byFajri Julisyah
- Fundamentals of Communications Access TechnologiesUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- flip flopUploaded byNeryo Condori Q
- Difference Between Verilog and VHDL _ Difference Between _ Verilog vs VHDLUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- CA Q&AUploaded byRavi Teja
- XCS 234Uploaded byBalaji Venkatesan
- Thesis Neo Ubc 2007Uploaded bynicolas
- 10.1.1.153.3264 (2)Uploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Chapter 3 _ Combinational Logic Circuits (Part 1) _ Digital ElectronicsUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Setup and Hold Time CalculationsUploaded byRashmi Periwal
- Setup and Hold Time CalculationsUploaded byRashmi Periwal
- BLACK BOXUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Clock Skew AnUploaded bySandeep Chaudhary
- wbfUploaded byPete Grif
- DE09_solUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- AE05_solUploaded byVipul Mahajan
- Matlab Tutorial3Uploaded byAsterix
- chap08_6Uploaded byRakesh Kumar
- ch04Uploaded byRahul Gupta
- Appendix – Design of the 11011 Sequence DetectorUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- Frequency MultiplierUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- 08Tutorial_4Uploaded byRakesh Kumar

- What is Spread Spectrum Multiple AccessUploaded bySukesh Kr
- DOC-20161114-WA0013.pdfUploaded byRahulPatil
- Large Format PrinterUploaded byglobalsigns
- MT Jaringan-Komputer 1 STIKOMUploaded byirwin andriyanto
- Scan Pal 2Uploaded byNamal De Silva
- Ericsson Bss CommandsUploaded byGreg Morris
- ADDITIONAL NOTES.docUploaded byDenaiya Watton Leeh
- Apogee PSX 100_Datasheet[1].pdfUploaded bysalvaes
- Cisco Voice MessagingUploaded byisamadin
- Camera Adapter Bmw ManualUploaded byMirancea Vio
- 17-Mac Mini AppleneedtoknowUploaded bysuperlucy
- Dell Precision M6500 Review and SpecificationsUploaded byΈνκινουαν Κόγκ Αδάμου
- ADCS Question Papers (1)Uploaded byritu0588
- Jvc Lcd Lt-26ed91u Lt-26dc9b Lt-26da9b Lt-26db9bUploaded byngoclinhdtdd
- Brochure - WorkCentre 7830/7835/7845/7855Uploaded byCristian Stan
- CCN Manual Jayesh RaneUploaded byPrabhatGSingh
- DSKcam User ManualUploaded byjacher_unam
- Chap 3Lesson22EmsysNewUploaded byShiva prasad
- [2010] Stereophile Magazine (March 2010)Uploaded byeverrain
- BROTHER Dcp4120dw Uke Busr Leu827004Uploaded byJ
- MplayerUploaded bycrazydman
- Or TenUploaded byicasella
- Yeastar Certified TechnicianUploaded byjmiguelcd
- GuideUploaded bymacondejan
- N220 (1).docUploaded byEman DeCastro
- DIR-120Uploaded byfrox123
- LCD Panel Basic Concepts.pptUploaded byshafiuddinkagzi
- NetAgent Utility 5 Manual EngUploaded byp3r0x1
- Samsung UDC and UEC Series Video Wall DisplaysUploaded byWebAntics.com Online Shopping Store
- 2007.MW.02.UKUploaded byArun Sharma