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ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

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GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IGNITION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARGING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STARTING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 21 38

GENERAL

GENERAL
SPECIFICATIONS Distributor Type
Advance mechanism Firing order MPI Contact pointless type Controlled by electronic control unit 1-3-4-2 FBC

Centrifugal and vacuum type

Ignition coil Type


Primary coil resistance Secondary coil resistance Identification No. Diamond Poong Sung Dae Joon

MPI Mold single-coil 0.8 0.08 CI 12.1 1.8 Kfi F-088 PC88 DSA-117

FBC

1.2 0.12D 13.7 2.1 Kfl PN22C -

Spark plug (MPI, FBC) Type


NGK Champion Plug gap BUR6EA-11 BPR6ES-11 RN9YC4 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)

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GENERAL

Starter motor (MPI, FBC)


A/T, Power Steering Direct drive type 12V 0.9 KW 30 sec 11.5V 60A or less 6,600 rpm or more 8 0.0197-0.079 in. (0.5-2 mm) M/T l2V 0.7 KW

Type
Rated output Rated time No-load characteristics Terminal voltage Amperage Maximum speed No. of pinion teeth Pinion gap

6,500 rpm or more

Alternator Type
Rated output Voltage regulator type Regulator setting voltage Temperature compensation Identification No. Melco Mando

MPI Battery voltage sensing 12V 75A (13.5V in case of Mando products) Electronic built-in type 14.4 0.3V -10 3 mV/C A2T09493 AB175015

FBC

13.5V 65A 14.7 0.3V -7 3 mV/C AB165014

Battery (MPI, FBC) Type


Ampere hours (5HR) (20HR) Cold cranking [at -17.8C (0F)] Reserve capacity Specific gravity [at 25C (77F)] MF 60AH-B (Maintenance-free battery) 48 Ah or more 60 Ah or more 420 A or more 92 min. 1.270 0.01

NOTE COLD CRANK AMPERAGE is the amperage a battery can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a terminal voltage of 7.2 or greater at a specified temperature. RESERVE CAPACITY RATING is the amount of time a battery can deliver 25A and maintain a minimum terminal voltage of 10.5 at 26.7C (80F).

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)

IGNITION SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ignition timing is controlled by the electronic control ignition timing system. The standard reference ignition timing data for the engine operation conditions are programmed in the memory of the electronic control unit (ECU). The engine conditions (rpm, load, warm-up condition, etc.) are detected by the various sensors. Based upon these sensor signals and the ignition timing data, signals to interrupt the primary current are sent to the power transistor. The ignition coil is activated, and timing is controlled this way.

TROUBLESHOOTING
Probable condition Engine will not start or is hard to start. (Cranks OK) Probable cause Incorrect ignition timing Ignition coil faulty Power transistor faulty Distributor faulty High tension cable faulty Spark plugs faulty Ignition wiring disconnected or broken Rough idle or stalls Spark plugs faulty Ignition wiring faulty Incorrect ignition timing Ignition coil faulty Power transistor faulty High tension cord faulty Engine hesitates/poor acceleration Spark plugs faulty Ignition wiring faulty Incorrect ignition timing Poor mileage Spark plugs faulty Incorrect ignition timing Engine overheats Incorrect ignition timing Remedy Adjust ignition timing Inspect ignition coil Inspect power transistor Inspect distributor Inspect high tension cable Replace plugs Inspect wiring Replace plugs Inspect wiring Adjust ignition timing Inspect ignition coil Inspect power transistor Inspect high tension cord Replace plugs Inspect wiring Adjust timing Replace plugs Adjust ignition timing Adjust ignition timing

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI) IGNITION TIMING


Adjustment conditions: Coolant temperature: 80-95C (170-205F) Lamps, cooling fan, and all accessories: Off Transaxle: Neutral (N or P for A/T) Parking brake: On

Adjustment Procedures 1. 2. Connect timing light. Start engine and run at curb idle speed. Curb idle speed: 700 100 rpm 3. With the engine stopped, connect a lead wire with alligator clips to the terminal for ignition-timing adjustment (located in the engine compartment), and ground it.

4. 5.

Start and run the engine at curb idle speed. Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary. Basic ignition timing: 5 2BTDC

6.

If the timing is incorrect, loosen the distributor mounting nut, and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct. NOTE The ignition timing will be advanced if the distributor is turned to the left and retarded if it is turned to the right.

7.

After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut. Tightening torque: 10-13 Nm (100-130 kg.cm, 7-9 lb.ft) CAUTION Be careful, when tightening the nut, that the distributor does not move.

8. Stop the engine. 9. Disconnect the lead wire connected at step 3. 10. Start and run the engine at curb idle speed. 11. Check to be sure that the idling ignition timing is the correct timing. Actual ignition timing: 10BTDC

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)

CHECKING IGNITION COILS


1. Measurement of the primary coil resistance. Measure the resistance of the positive (+) terminal and negative (-) terminal of the ignition coil. Standard value: 0.8 0.08 n 2. Measurement of the secondary coil resistance. Measure the resistance between the ignition coils positive (+) terminal and the high-voltage terminal. Standard value: 12.1 1.8 KR

POWER TRANSISTOR
1. Connect the negative (-) terminal of the 3V power supply to terminal 2 of the power transistor; then check whether there is continuity between terminal 3 and terminal 2 when terminal 1 and the positive (+) terminal are connected and disconnected. Terminal 1 and (+) terminal Connected Disconnected Terminal 3 and terminal 2 Continuity No continuity

2. Replace the power transistor if there is a malfunction.

CHECKING SPARK PLUG


Inspection and Cleaning 1. Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug. NOTE Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged. 2. Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs from the cylinder head. CAUTION Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the spark plug holes. 3. Check the spark plugs for the following: 1) Broken insulator 2) Worn electrode 3) Carbon deposits 4) Damaged or broken gasket 5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark plug

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)


4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust if necessary. Standard value: 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)

5.

Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque. If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of cylinder head might result. Spark plug: 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 lb.ft)

Analyzing Spark Plug


Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the electrode. Condition Description Dark deposits o Too rich a fuel mixture o Low air intake White deposits o Too lean a fuel mixture o Advanced ignition timing o Insufficient plug tightening

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)

SPARK PLUG TEST (When engine can be cranked)


Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In the atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak through the insulation.

CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES


1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks. 2. Measure the resistance. Unit: KO No.1 Resistance 10.1 No.2 11.8 No.3 11.8 No.4 14.2

NOTE Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot of cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS

TORQUE Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)

DISTRIBUTOR Removal
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the two distributor cap retaining clips and move cap to one side. 3. Disconnect the lead wire connector. 4. Remove the distributor mounting nut and remove the distributor assembly.

Installation
1. Turn the crankshaft so that No.1 piston cylinder is at top dead center. 2. Align the distributor housing and gear mating marks. 3. Install the distributor in to the engine while aligning the fine cut groove (or protection) of the distributors installation flange with the center of the distributor installation stud.

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF DISTRIBUTOR

DISASSEMBLY
1. Lightly clamp the distributor in a vise equipped with soft jaws. 2. Pull off the rotor from the rotor shaft. 3. Remove the packing rubber. 4. Lift off the cover. 5. Remove the rotor shaft by using a driver.

6. Remove the disc and spacer. 7. Disconnect the lead wire connector. 8. Lift off the plate and unit by removing the three mounting screws.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)


9. Remove the shaft bearing tightening screws. 10. Make a position identification mark (for the driven gear) on the distributor shaft. 11. Place the driven gear on a soft base (wooden block) to prevent damaged. 12. Punch out the roll pin by using a pin punch.

INSPECTION OF CAP & ROTOR


After checking the following, repair or replace if a problem is found. 1. There must be no cracking in the cap. 2. There must be no damage to the caps electrode or the rotors electrode. 3. There must be no carbon tracking. 4. Clean away any dirt from the cap and rotor.

REASSEMBLY Distributor Shaft


After coating the shaft with a small amount of engine oil insert it into the housing. CAUTION Do not use solvent or similar products.

Driven Gear
1. Align the driven gear with the mark made at the time of disassembly, and install the gear to the distributor shaft. 2. When aligning the driven gears mating mark and the housings mating mark, make sure that notch A at the shaft end is at the position shown in the figure, and then align the roll pin hole and drive in a new roll pin. CAUTION Drive in the roll pin so that the slits are at a right angle relative to the shaft.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI) Disc


Insert the disc into the sensor part of the pick up unit and install in alignment with the spacer. CAUTION The discs slits must not be restricted.

Cover
Install the cover so that the covers indentation A is aligned with the housings notch B.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)

IGNITION TIMING
Adjustment conditions: Coolant temperature: 80-95C (170-205F) Lamps and all accessories: Off Transmission: Neutral (N or P for A/T) Parking brake: On

Adjustment Procedures
1. Connect tachometer and timing light. 2. Start engine and run at curb idle speed. Curb idle speed : 700 50 rpm 3. Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary. Basic ignition timing : 5 1o BTDC 4. To adjust ignition timing, loosen the distributor mounting nut and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct. 5. After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut.

CHECKING SPARK PLUG


Inspection and Cleaning
1. Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug. NOTE: Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged. 2. Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs from the cylinder head. CAUTION: Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the spark plug holes. 3. Check the spark plugs for the follows: 1) Broken insulator 2) Worn electrode 3) Carbon deposits 4) Damaged or broken gasket 5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark plug.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)

SPARK PLUG TEST (when engine can be cranked)


Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak through the insulation.

CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES


1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks. 2. Measure the resistance. No.1 Resistance 10.1 No.2 11.8 No.3 11.8 No.4 14.2

NOTE: Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot of cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)


4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust if necessary. Standard value : 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)

5.

Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque. If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of cylinder head might result. Spark plug : 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 Ib.ft)

Analyzing Spark Plug


Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the electrode. Condition Dark deposits White deposits

Description o Too rich a fuel o Too lean a fuel mixture o Advanced ignition timing mixture o Insufficient plug o Low air intake tightening

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)

DISTRIBUTOR
COMPONENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Breather Cap Contact carbon Rotor Cable assembly Ground wire Igniter Spring pin Signal rotor Breaker base Vacuum controller-Dual diaphragm type Rotor shaft

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Spring retainer Governor spring Governor weight Distributor shaft Oil seal Packing Housing O-ring Washer Driven gear Pin

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)

REMOVAL
1. Disconnect battery ground cable. 2. Disconnect high tension cable and spark plug cables from distributor. 3. Disconnect wiring harness from the distributor lead wire. 4. Disconnect vacuum hoses from vacuum controller. 5. Remove distributor mounting nut and remove distributor assembly from engine cylinder head.

DISASSEMBLY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lightly clamp distributor in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Remove retaining clips and lift off distributor cap and seal ring. Pull off rotor from rotor shaft. Remove two vacuum controller attaching screws. Remove link of controller from pin on the breaker base, then remove vacuum controller.

6. Remove two screws and remove igniter. 7. Remove lead wire (black).

8.

Remove signal rotor shaft tightening screw and two breaker plate retaining screws. 9. Remove signal rotor shaft and breaker plate assembly.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)


10. Remove signal rotor shaft from signal rotor.

11. Remove two spring retainers with pliers and then remove two governor spring. 12. Remove two governor weights.

13. Mark location of drive gear on distributor shaft. 14. Place drive gear on soft base (wood block) so that roll pin can be removed. 15. Using a pin punch, remove roll pin. 16. Remove drive gear and washer. 17. Remove distributor shaft from housing.

REASSEMBLY
1. Clean and inspect all parts. 2. Install shaft into housing. 3. Install drive gear into distributor shaft at previously marked location. Then install new roll pin.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)


4. Install governor weights on the governor plate. 5. Install governor springs and spring retainer.

6. Install signal rotor shaft into distributor shaft. 7. Install breaker plate to housing. Fit the breaker plate so that the projection (A) fits into the groove (8). 8. Tighten two breaker plate retaining screw.

9.

Install signal rotor to rotor shaft. Fit the signal rotor so that the spring pin fits on the rotor shaft.

10. Install ignition to breaker plate and install two screws. 11. Connect one end of lead wire to igniter attaching screw and other end to breaker plate.

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IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)


12. Adjust air gap between signal rotor and pick-up of igniter.

Air gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.03 in.)

13. Connect vacuum control link to breaker plate and tighten two vacuum controller screws. 14. Install rotor to rotor shaft. 15. Install seal ring and distributor cap to housing and set the retaining clips.

IGNITION COIL
Inspection
1. Using a circuit tester, measure resistance. An open or short circuited coil should be replaced. [Standard value] Primary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 n Secondary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 K0 External resistor resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.35 a

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CHARGING SYSTEM

CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
The charging system includes a battery, an alternator with a built-in regulator, and the charging indicator light and wires. The alternator has six built-in diodes (three positive and three negative), each rectifying AC current to DC current. Therefore, DC current appears at alternator B terminal. In addition, the charging voltage of this alternator is regulated by the battery voltage detection system. The main components of the alternator are the rotor, stator, rectifier, capacitor, brushes, bearings and V-ribbed belt pulley. The brush holder contains a built-in electronic voltage regulator.

TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom Charging warning indicator does not light with ignition switch ON and engine off. Charging warning indicator does not go out with engine running. (Battery requires frequent recharging). Probable cause Fuse blown. Light burned out. Wiring connection loose. Electronic voltage regulator faulty. Drive belt loose or worn. Battery cables loose, corroded or worn. Fuse blown. Fusible link blown. Electronic voltage regulator or alternator faulty. Wiring faulty. Discharge battery. Drive belt loose or worn. Wiring connection loose or open circuit. Remedy Check fuses. Replace light. Tighten loose connections. Replace voltage regulator. Adjust tension or replace drive belt. Repair or replace cables. Check fuses. Replace fusible link. Test alternator.

Repair wiring. Adjust tension or replace drive belt. Tighten loose connection or repair wiring. Replace fusible link. Repair. Test alternator.

Fusible link blown. Poor grounding. Electronic voltage regulator or alternator faulty. Battery life. Overcharge Electronic voltage regulator faulty. Voltage sensing wire faulty.

Replace battery. Replace voltage regulator. Repair wire.

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CHARGING SYSTEM

INSPECTION OF CHARGING SYSTEM VOLTAGE DROP TEST OF ALTERNATOR OUTPUT WIRE


This test determines whether or not the wiring between the alternator B terminal and the battery (+) terminal is good by the voltage drop method.

Preparation
1. Turn the ignition switch to OFF. 2. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 3. Disconnect the alternator output lead from the alternator B terminal. 4. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series to the B terminal and disconnected the output lead. Connect the (+) lead of the ammeter to the B terminal and the. (-) lead to the disconnected output wire. NOTE Use a clamp type ammeter that can measure current without disconnecting the harness. The reason is that when checking a vehicle that has a low output current due to poor connection of the alternator B terminal, such a poor connection is corrected as the B terminal is loosened and a test ammeter is connected in its place. As a result, causes for the trouble may not be determined. 5. Connect a digital voltmeter between the alternator B terminal and battery (+) terminal. Connect the (+) lead wire of the voltmeter to the B terminal and the (-) lead wire to the battery (+) terminal. 6. Connect the battery ground cable. 7. Leave the hood open.

Test
1. Start the engine. 2. Turn on the headlamps and adjust the engine speed so that the ammeter reads 20A and read the voltmeter under this condition.

Result
1. It is okay if the voltmeter indicates the standard value. Standard value: 0.2V max. 2. If the voltmeter indicates a value that is larger than the standard value, poor wiring is suspected. In this case check the wiring from the alternator B terminal to the fusible link to the battery (+) terminal. Check for loose connections, color change due to an overheated harness, etc. Correct them before testing again.

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CHARGING SYSTEM
3. Upon completion of the test, set the engine speed at idle. Turn off the head lamps and the ignition switch. 4. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 5. Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter that have been connected for testing. 6. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator B terminal. 7. Connect the battery ground cable.

OUTPUT CURRENT TEST


This test judges whether or not the alternator gives an output current that is equivalent to the nominal output.

Preparation
1. Prior to the test, check the following items and correct as necessary. 1) Check the battery installed in the vehicle to ensure that it is in good condition*. The battery checking method is described in BATTERY.

NOTE *The battery that is used to test the output current should be one that has been partially discharged. With a fully charged battery, the test may not be conducted correctly due to an insufficient load.
2) Check the tension of the alternator drive belt. The belt tension check method is described in the section COOLING. 2. 3. 4. Turn off the ignition switch. Disconnect the battery ground cable. Disconnect the alternator output wire form the alternator B terminal. 5. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the B terminal and the disconnected output wire. Be sure to connect the (-) lead wire of the ammeter to the disconnected output wire. NOTE Tighten each connection securely, as a heavy current will flow. Do not rely on clips. 6. Connect a voltmeter (0 to 20V) between the B terminal and ground. Connect the (+) lead wire to the alternator B terminal and (-) lead wire to a good ground. Attach an engine tachometer and connect the battery ground cable. Leave the engine hood open.

7. 8.

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CHARGING SYSTEM
Test Check to see that the voltmeter reads the same value as the battery voltage. If the voltmeter reads 0V, and open circuit in the wire between the alternator B terminal and battery (-) terminal, a blown fusible link or poor grounding is suspected. 2. Start the engine and turn on the headlights. 3. Set the headlights to high beam and the heater blower switch to HIGH, quickly increase the engine speed to 2,500 rpm and read the maximum output current value indicated by the ammeter. NOTE After the engine startup, the charging current quickly drops. Therefore, the above operation must be done quickly to read the maximum current value correctly. Result 1. The ammeter reading must be higher than the limit value. If it is lower but the alternator output wire is in good condition, remove the alternator from the vehicle and test it. Limit value: 52.5 A min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75A alternator (MPI) 45A min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 65A alternator (FBC) NOTE 1) The nominal output current value is shown on the nameplate affixed to the alternator body. 2) The output current value changes with the electrical load and the temperature of the alternator itself. Therefore, the nominal output current may not be obtained. If such is the case, keep the headlights on to cause discharge of the battery, or use the lights of another vehicle to increase the electrical load. The nominal output current may not be obtained if the temperature of the alternator itself or ambient temperature is too high. In such a case, reduce the temperature before testing again. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Upon completion of the output current test, lower the engine speed to idle and turn off the ignition switch. Disconnect the battery ground cable. Remove the ammeter and voltmeter and the engine tachometer. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator B terminal. Connect the battery ground cable. 1.

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REGULATED VOLTAGE TEST


The purpose of this test is to check that the electronic voltage regulator controls voltage correctly. Preparation 1. Prior to the test, check the following items and correct if necessary. 1) Check the battery installed on the vehicle to see that it is fully charged. For battery checking method, see BATTERY. 2) Check the alternator drive belt tension. For belt tension check, see section, COOLING. Turn ignition switch to OFF. Disconnect the battery ground cable. Connect a digital voltmeter between the S(L) terminal of the alternator and ground. Connect the (+) lead of the voltmeter to the S(L) terminal of the alternator. Connect the (-) lead to good ground or the battery (-) terminal. Disconnect the alternator output wire from the alternator B terminal. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the B terminal and the disconnected output wire. Connect the (-) lead wire of the ammeter to the disconnected output wire. Attach the engine tachometer and connect the battery ground cable.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

7.

Test
1. Turn on the ignition switch and check to see that the voltmeter indicates the following value. Voltage: Battery voltage If it reads 0V, there is an open circuit in the wire between the alternator S(L) terminal and the battery (+), or the fusible link is blown. 2. Start the engine. Keep all lights and accessories off. 3. Run the engine at a speed of about 2,500 rpm and read the voltmeter when the alternator output current drops to 10A or less.

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CHARGING SYSTEM Result


1. If the voltmeter reading. agrees with the value listed in the Regulating Voltage Table below, the voltage regulator is functioning correctly. If the reading is other than the standard value, the voltage regulator or the alternator is faulty.

Regulating Voltage Table Voltage regulator ambient temperature C (F) -20 (-4) 20 (68) 60 (140) 80 (176) Regulating voltage V 75A alternator 65A alternator 14.2-15.4 13.9-14.9 13.4-14.6 13.1-14.5 14.4-15.6 14.2-15.2 13.8-15.1 13.6-15.0

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Upon completion of the test, reduce the engine speed to idle, and turn off the ignition switch. Disconnect the battery ground cable. Remove the voltmeter and ammeter and the engine tachometer. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator B terminal. Connect the battery ground cable.

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CHARGING SYSTEM

ALTERNATOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION

TORQUE : Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)

1. Disconnect the negative terminal from the battery. 2. Loosen the belt tension and remove the belt. 3. Raise the vehicle.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Remove the mud guard-LH. Disconnect the alternator B+ terminal wire. Remove the alternator assembly. Installation is the reverse order of removal.

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CHARGING SYSTEM

COMPONENTS (75A)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Pulley Seal Rotor assembly Rear bearing Bearing retainer Front bearing Front bracket Stator Plate Voltage regulator and brush holder Brush Brush spring Slinger Rectifier Rear bracket

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CHARGING SYSTEM

COMPONENTS (65A)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pulley Seal Rotor assembly Rear bearing Bearing retainer Front bearing Front bracket Stator

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Terminal Plate Brush Brush spring Slinger Rectifier assembly Rear bracket

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DISASSEMBLY
1. Remove the three through bolts. 2. Insert a flat screwdriver between the front bracket and stator core, and pry downward. CAUTION 1) Do not insert the screwdriver too deeply, as there is a danger of damaging the stator coil.

2) The rear cover may be hard to remove because a ring is used to lock the outer race of the rear bearing. To facilitate removal of rear cover, heat just the bearing box section with a 200-watt soldering iron. Do not use a heat gun, as it may damage the diode assembly.

3. Secure the rotor in a vise with the pulley side up. CAUTION Be careful that the vise jaws do not damage the rotor. 4. Remove the pulley nut, then remove the spring washer, then the pulley, and then the spacer. 5. Remove the front bracket and two seals. 6. Remove the rotor from the vise. 7. Remove the brush holder screws, the rectifier screws, and the nut from the B terminal. 8. Remove the stator assembly from the rear bracket. 9. Detach the slinger from the brush holder. 10. When the stator is to be removed, unsolder the three stator leads to the main diodes on the rectifier. CAUTION 1) When soldering or unsoldering, use care to make sure that heat of soldering iron is not transmitted to the diodes for a long period. 2) Use care that excessive force is not exerted on the leads of the diodes. 11. When separating the rectifier from the brush holder, unsolder the two plates soldered to the rectifier.

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CHARGING SYSTEM

INSPECTION
Rotor 1. Check the rotor coil for continuity. Check to make sure that there is continuity between the slip rings. If resistance is extremely low, it means that there is a short. If there is no continuity or if there is a short circuit, replace the rotor assembly. Resistance value: Approx. 3.1 fl

2.

Check the rotor coil for ground. Check to make sure that there is no continuity between slip the ring and the core. If there is continuity, replace rotor assembly.

Stator 1. Make a continuity check on the stator coil. Check to make sure that there is continuity between the coil leads. If there is no continuity, replace stator assembly.

2.

Check the coil for grounding. Check to make sure that there is no continuity between the coil and the core. If there is continuity, replace the stator assembly.

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CHARGING SYSTEM Rectifiers Positive rectifier test


Check for continuity between the positive rectifier and stator coil lead connection terminal with an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter should read continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity in both directions, a diode is shorted. Replace the rectifier assembly.

Negative rectifier test


Check for continuity between the negative rectifier and the stator coil lead connection terminal. The ohmmeter should read continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity in both directions, a diode is shorted, and the rectifier assembly must be replaced.

Diode trio test


Check the three diodes for continuity by connecting an ohmmeter to both ends of each diode. Each diode should have continuity in only one direction. If continuity is present in both directions, a diode is defective and the heatsink assembly must be replaced.

BRUSH REPLACEMENT
Replace the brushes if they are worn to limit line.

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CHARGING SYSTEM
1. Unsolder the pigtail and remove the old brush and spring.

Install the brush spring and a new brush in the brush holder, Insert the brush to where there is a space 2 to 3 mm (0.079 to 0.118 in.) between the limit line and the end of the brush holder. 4. Solder the pigtail to the brush holder.

2. 3.

REASSEMBLY
Perform reassembly in the reverse procedure of disassembly. Pay attention to the following: Before the rotor is attached to the rear bracket, insert a wire through the small hole in the rear bracket to lock the brush. After the rotor has been installed, the wire can be removed.

INSTALLATION
Position the alternator and insert the support bolt. (Do not attach the nut.) 2. Push the alternator forward and determine how many spacers (thickness: 0.198 mm) should be inserted between the front leg of the alternator and the front case (space A in the illustration). (There should be enough spacers so that they do not fall out when you let go of them.) 3. Insert the spacers (space A in the illustration), attach the nut, and complete the installation. 1.

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BATTERY (MAINTENANCE FREE TYPE)


The maintenance-free battery is, as the name implies, totally maintenance free and has no removable battery cell caps. 2. Water never needs to be added to the maintenance-free battery. 3. The battery is completely sealed, except for small vent holes in the cover. 4. The battery contains a visual inspection indicator. 1.

BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (1)

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CHARGING SYSTEM

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CHARGING SYSTEM

SPECIFIC GRAVITY CHECK CHART


The specific gravity of battery electrolyte changes with temperature. Heat thins the solution and lowers the specific gravity. Cold thickens the solution and raises the specific gravity. A fully charged battery should have a specific gravity between 1.260 and 1.280, with the electrolyte temperature at 80F, the specific gravity reading must be corrected by adding 4 points (.004) for each 10o above 80F or subtracting 4 points for every 10o below 80F. For example : The hydrometer reading is 1.280, and the electrolyte temperature reading is 10oF. By using the chart, the specific gravity must be lowered by 0.028 points. The true corrected reading is 1.252. 1 . 2 8 0 - 0.028 = 1.252 You should never take a hydrometer reading immediately after water has been added. The water and electrolyte must be mixed by either charging for a few minutes at a low rate or by allowing the battery to sit for an hour. CAUTION A difference of 50 points (0.050) or more between one or more cells indicates a defective battery. It should be replaced.

BATTERY CHARGE RATE


Charge method Specific gravity Below 1.100 1.100 - 1.130 1.130 - 1.160 1.160 - 1.190 1.190 - 1.220 Above 1.220 Slow charge (5A) 14 hours 12 hours 10 hours 8 hours 6 hours 4 hours Fast charge (20A) 4 hours 3 hours 2.5 hours 2.0 hours 1.5 hours 1.0 hours

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BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (2)


1. Make sure ignition switch is in the Off position and all accessories are Off. 2. Disconnect the battery cables (negative first) 3. Remove the battery from the vehicle. CAUTION Care should cracked or electrolyte. A type) should 4.

be taken in the event the battery case is leaking, to protect your skin from the suitable pair of rubber gloves (not household be worn when removing the battery.

Inspect the battery carrier for damage caused by the loss of acid from the battery. If acid damage is present, it will be necessary to clean the area with a solution of clean warm, water and baking soda. Scrub the area with a stiff bristle brush and wipe off with a cloth moistened with baking soda and water. 5. Clean the top of the battery with the same solution as described in Step (4). 6. Inspect the battery case, and cover, for cracks. If cracks are present, the battery must be replaced. 7. Clean the battery posts with a suitable battery post cleaner. 8. Clean the inside surface of the terminal clamps with a suitable battery terminal cleaning tool. Replace damaged or frayed cables and broken terminal clamps. 9. Install the battery in the vehicle. 10. Connect the cable terminals to the battery post, making sure the top of the terminals are flush with the top of the post. 11. Tighten the terminal nut securely. 12. Coat all connections with light mineral grease after tightening. CAUTION When batteries are being charged, an explosive gas forms beneath the cover of each cell. Do not smoke near batteries being charged or which have recently been charged. Do not break live circuits at the terminals of the batteries being charged. A spark will occur where the circuit is broken. Keep all open flames away from the battery.

STARTING SYSTEM

GENERAL INFORMATION
The starting system includes the battery, starter motor, solenoid switch, ignition switch, inhibitor switch (A/T only), connection wires, and the battery cables. When the ignition key is turned to the start position, current flows and energizes the coil of the starter motors solenoid. When this happens, the solenoid plunger and the clutch shift lever are activated, and the clutch pinion engages the ring gear. The contacts close and the starter motor cranks. In order to prevent damage caused by excessive rotation of the starter armature when the engine starts, the clutch pinion gear overruns.

TROUBLESHOOTING

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STARTING SYSTEM

STARTER REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Disconnect the battery ground cable. Remove the E.G.R. valve assembly (U.S.A. Cal. only). Remove the speed meter cable. Disconnect the starter motor connector and terminal. Remove the starter motor assembly. Installation is the reverse order of removal. E.G.R. valve mounting bolt tightening torque: 10-15 Nm (100-150 kg.cm, 7-11 lb.ft)

STARTING SYSTEM

STARTING SYSTEM

INSPECTION (After removal)


Pinion Gap Adjustment 1. Disconnect the wire from the M-terminal. 2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the M-terminal. 3. Set the switch to ON, and the the pinion will move out. CAUTION This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10 seconds) to prevent coil from burning.

4. Check the pinion to stopper clearance (pinion gap) with a feeler gauge. If the pinion gap is out of specification, adjust by adding or removing washers between the solenoid and the front bracket. Pinion Gap: 0.5-2.0 mm (0.0197-0.079 in)

Solenoid Pull-in Test 1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal. 2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and M-terminal. CAUTION This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10 seconds) to prevent the coil from burning. 3. If the pinion moves out, the pull-in coil is good. If it doesnt, replace the solenoid.

Solenoid Hold-in Test 1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal. 2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the body. CAUTION This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10 seconds) to prevent the coil from burning. 3. If the pinion remains out, everything is in order. If the pinion moves in, the hold-in circuit is open. Replace the magnetic switch.

STARTING SYSTEM Solenoid Return Test


1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal. 2. Connect a 12V battery between the M-terminal and the body. CAUTION This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10 seconds) to prevent the coil from burning. 3. Pull out the pinion and then release it. If the pinion returns quickly to its original position, everything is in order. If it doesnt replace the solenoid.

Performance Test (No-load)


1. Make the no-load circuit test as shown. 2. After adjusting the rheostat until the battery voltage shown on the voltmeter reads 11.5 volts, confirm that the maximum amperage draw is within the specifications and that the starter motor turns smoothly and freely. Current : 60A or less

DISASSEMBLY
To remove the overrunning clutch from the armature shaft, the stop ring must be removed. Move the stop ring toward the pinion and remove the snap ring, now the stop ring can be removed from shaft.

INSPECTION (After disassembly)


Armature Coil Ground Test
Using an ohmmeter, check to make sure that there is no continuity between the commutator and the armature coil core. If there is continuity, replace armature assembly.

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STARTING SYSTEM Armature Coil Short-Circuit Test


Test the armature coil in a growler. Replace the coil if there are signs of a short. If the blade attached to the core vibrates while the core is turned, the armature is shorted.

Armature Coil Open-Circuit Test


Using an ohmmeter, check for continuity between the commutator segments. If there is no continuity, the commutator segments are open. Replace the armature assembly.

Field Coil Open-Circuit Test


Using an ohmmeter, check the field coil for continuity. If there is no continuity, the field coil is open. Replace the field coil assembly.

Field Coil Ground Test


With the field coil mounted to the yoke, check for continuity between the field coil and the yoke using an ohmmeter. If there is continuity, replace the field coil.

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STARTING SYSTEM Brush


A brush worn down to the wear limit line should be replaced.

Brush Holder
Check for continuity between the (+) side brush holder and brush holder base. If there is continuity, replace the holder assembly.

Overrunning Clutch
Inspect the pinion and spline teeth for wear or damage. Replace if damaged. Also inspect the flywheel ring gear for damage. Rotate the pinion. It should turn freely in a clockwise direction, and lock when turned counterclockwise.

BRUSH REPLACEMENT
Remove the worn brush while taking care not to damage the pigtail. 2. Sand the pigtail end with sandpaper to ensure a good soldering, joint. 3. Solder the end of the pigtail. 1.

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STARTING SYSTEM

REAR BRACKET BUSHING REPLACEMENT


1. Before the bushing is removed, measure and record the pressed-in position (depth) of the bushing. 2. The bushing can be removed by the use of a puller as shown in the illustration. 3. Press a new bushing in, up to the position recorded under Step. 1.

REASSEMBLY
1. Install the overrunning clutch to the front end of the armature shaft. 2. Install the stop ring and the snap ring from the front end of the armature shaft. Push the stop ring all the way toward the snap ring.

3.

When the lever is mounted to the front bracket, pay attention to its direction. If it is mounted in a reverse direction, the pinion will remain in an outward position and fail to operate properly.

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STARTING SYSTEM

INSPECTION OF CLUTCH START SYSTEM (IGNITION LOCK SYSTEM)


Check clutch pedal
Check that pedal height, pedal freeplay and clutch pedal clevis pin play are correct. (Refer to clutch group)

Check starter relay


Remove the starter relay and check continuity between the terminals. If the continuity is not as specified, replace the relay.

Check ignition lock switch


1. 2. Check for continuity between terminals when the switch is ON (pushed). Check for no continuity between terminals when the switch is OFF (free).

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