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ME2356 - DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF VIBRATING TABLE USING CAM AND FOLLOWER MECHANISM

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SRINIVASAN.M GIRITHAR.R VIVEK SAMYNATHAN.R

- 21908114080 - 21908114303 - 21908114099

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Pennalur, Sriperumbudur-602 105.

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600025

APRIL 2011

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF VIBRATING TABLE USING CAM AND FOLLOWER MECHANISM

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SRINIVASAN.M GIRITHAR.R VIVEK SAMYNATHAN.R

- 21908114080 - 21908114303 - 21908114099

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Pennalur, Sriperumbudur-602 105.

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600025


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APRIL 2011

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600 025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF VIBRATING TABLE USING CAM AND FOLLOWER MECHANISM is the bonafide work of "SRINIVASAN.M, GIRITHAR.R and VIVEK

SAMYNATHAN.R" who carried out the project work under my supervision.

Dr.N.Nallusamy, HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT, Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering, Pennalur,Sriperumbudur - 602 105.

Prof.R.MURUGAN, SUPERVISOR, Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Pennalur,Sriperumbudur -602105.

Submitted for Viva-Voce held on EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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INTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We thank Dr. N.Nallusamy, Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering and all the staffs of the department for supervising the entire project and for the support and encouragement throughout the entire period.

We thank our project guide, Prof.R.Murugan, whose encouragement and faith in us,who gave valuable support and guidance at each stage of this design and fabrication project.

Last but not the least, we thank our friends and family for their support during the course of this project.

The knowledge and experience that we have gained during this Design and Fabrication Project will surely be an immense help in our future.

ABSTRACT

Vibrating table is a motorized unit consisting of a camshaft driven by a variable speed motor. The shaft runs in a double bearing. The free end of the camshaft has a facility to mount the cam easily.

One of the many potential problems with unwanted vibrations in high- speed machinery is the possible introduction of follower jump in a cam- follower mechanism. Jump is a situation where the cam and follower. When they come back together the impact introduces large forces and thus large stresses, which can cause both vibrations and early failure of the mechanism. Many companies are now conducting in - depth vibration analyses on their existing machines and rede-signing many stations to reduce the overall vibrations in the machine.

Our objective is to vibrate a table a table using cam and follower by using a motor for testing the cam performance for jump phenomenon during operation It is also used to study the transmissibility ratio by using load cell and we can study frequency response curve by using frequency sensor

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE NO ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4 ABSTARCT 5 LIST OF TABLES 8 LIST OF FIGURES 8 CHAPTER : 1 I 9 1.1 PROPOSED SETUP 10 1.2 FRONT VIEW 11 1.3 COMPONENT USED 12 1.4 CONSTRUCTION 12 1.5 THEORY 13 INTRODUCTION

1.5.1 MOTOR 13 1.5.2 BEARING 14 1.5.3 CAM AND FOLLOWER 15 1.5.5 SPRING 15 14 1.5.4 DISC

II FABRICATION

DESIGN AND

2.1 SELECTION OF MOTOR 18 2.2 DESIGN OF SHAFT 19 2.3 DETERMINATION OF SPRING 21 2.5 CAM PROFILE 22 2.6 DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAM CHAPTER : 2 20 2.4 DESIGN OF CAM

III ASSEMBLY 24

IV WORKING 24

CHAPTER : 3 V CONCLUSION

1. COST ANALYSIS 25

2. SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT 25

LIST OF TABLES

2.5.1

Data set displacement of cam

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1.1

Setup block diagram

1.1.2 Bearing diagram 1.1.3 Displacement diagram


1.1.4

Cam profile representation

1.1.5 Spring diagrammatic representation 1.1.6 Disc diagrammatic representation

INTRODUCTION

The concept of vibrating table using cam and follower mechanism has been implemented so that the analysis of cam and follower can be studied and it enable smooth operation of machine

In following section ,we have explained the theory, and design specification of each of the items used in the setup. A CAM changes the input motion, which is usually rotary motion (a rotating motion), to a reciprocating motion of the follower.

They are found in many machines and toys separate. When they come back together the impact introduces large forces and thus large stresses, which can cause both vibrations and early failure of the mechanism. Many companies are now conducting in- depth vibration analyses on their existing machines and redesigning many stations to reduce the overall vibrations in the machine jump is a situation where the cam and follower physically

PROPOSED SETUP

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FRONT VIEW OF SETUP

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COMPONENT USED

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Motor

Variac

Bearing

Cam and follower Disc Spring

CONSTRUCTION

1. Variable D.C motor is fixed which is get fixed so that it is made to run under a different speed. 2. Speed of the motor is get varied by using an variac 3. The shaft of the motor is get connected to the cam 4. The follower is get to be rest on the cam where it is giving its reciprocating motion . 5. Then the disc and spring setup is rested on them

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THEORY

1.MOTOR
In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field.

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes

2.BEARING
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Bearing means which bears or supports some moving element. Inbetween bearing and shaft we introduce some lubricant to minimise the friction or free rotation of the shaft. Ex: journal bearing, the latest technological bearings are hydrodynamic bearings.

3.CAM AND FOLLOWER

A CAM changes the input motion, which is usually rotary motion (a rotating motion), to a reciprocating motion of the follower. They are found in many machines and toys. There are different types of follower Flat follower Point follower Roller follower Offset follower

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4.DISC AND SPRING

The disc plates are used which is used to support the spring which is get placed in between two plates where it is made up mild steel A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually made out of hardened steel .When a spring is compressed or stretched, the force it exerts is proportional to its change in length. The rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring.

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DESIGN AND FABRICATION

1.SELECTION OF MOTOR

REACTION CALCULATION

11.5 *10^-2 Ra - Rb = 7.34 Ra+ Rb = 39 On solving the above equation we get

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Ra = 41.75 Rb = -2.5

Torque calculation
T = Ra max* d

T = 41.5* 19

T = 2.92 N m

Motor power calculation


Let N be the speed of the motor T be the torque
W .k .t P = 2NT/60

P = 2**1500*2.93*10^-3/60

P = 458.67 * 10^-3

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P = .5 HP P = .36 KW

2.DESIGN OF SHAFT
Based on the torque we are going to design the shaft

Shaft calculation
T/j = G/L = T *L/ (GJ) T torque of the shaft L length of the shaft G modulus of rigidity J polar moment of inertia of the shaft

= 0.070 rad T = 2.9 N-m G = o.8 * 10^5 N/mm J = /32 *d = t*l/G*J 0.070 = 2.92*26*10^-3/ .8* 10^5*(/32)*d d = 19mm

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Therefore the required diameter of the shaft is calculated which is 19mm

3.DETERMINATION OF SPRING

Let D be mean diameter of the spring = d be the wire diameter = G be the modulus of rigidity n be the number of active coils q be the deflection of spring c be spring index = 23 (assume) w.k.t q = load/deflection q = Gd/8cn 12*10^-3 = .8*10^5*d/ 8*23*7 d = 4.01mm c = D/d 23 = D/4 D =92 mm

Length of the spring

L =n + y + .15y = 7*4 + 12*10^-3 + .15 *12*10^-3

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L = 115 mm

DESIGN OF CAM
Total lift = 120 mm Base circle diameter = 40 mm Rollar diameter = 10mm out stroke = 0 to 90 dwell = 90 to 180 return stroke = 180 to 270 Dwell = 270 to 360

Types of follower motion = Simple harmonic motion

By using this specification we have drawn the profile of the cam

ONE CYCLE DWELL -

One rotation/revolution of the cam. When the cam rotates but the follower does not Rise or fall

THE RISE

- That part of the cam that causes the follower to rise

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CAM PROFILE

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DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAM

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ANGLE

DISPLACEMENT

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0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360

.4 .4 .4 .4 .4 .6 .7 .75 1 1.5 1 .75 .7 .6 .4 .4 .4 .4 .4

ASSEMBLY

The cam is mounted on a taper on the end of the


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shaft, and secured on the shaft by a nut.

The followers are of the flat face or roller type, and are mounted on the end of a vertical bar. A drilling in top end of the bar accommodates a steel ball, which is retained in position by a second bar carrying a spring and optional masses The presence of the steel ball ensures that only an axial force is transmitted to the upper bar. The top end of the spring is supported by a crossbar mounted on two vertical pillars on the base plate.

WORKING

Apparatus is a motorized unit consisting of a camshaft driven by a variable speed motor. The shaft runs in a double bearing. The free end of the camshaft has a facility to mount the cam easily. The follower is properly guided in gunmetal bushes and the type of follower can be changed according to the cam under test. A spring is used to provide controlling force to the follower system. Weights on the follower shaft can be adjusted as per the requirement

The apparatus is very useful for testing the cam performance for jump

Theses are already hardened to reduce the wear

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SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT
By using load cell we can also can find the transmissibility ratio. We can study the frequency reponse curve by using the frequence sensor.

COST ANALYSIS
. S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 COMPONENT Motor Variac Bearing Disc Spring PRICE 5400 6000 800 200 150

. .

RESULT
Thus the analysis of the cam is determined and smooth operation of the vibrating table is been perfomed.

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