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CHAPTER III REVIEW REFERENCES

3.1 DATA BASE Data is a representation of the facts of the world that represents an object that was recorded in the form of numbers, letters, symbols, text, images, sounds or combinations thereof. Information is the result of synthesis and analysis of data. A data base is organizing a collection of interrelated data so as to facilitate activities to obtain information [1]

3.1.1 Components Database The database contained all the components that support it. The components of the database include: 1. Hardware (Hardware) Hardware (Hardware) is usually a standard computer devices, secondary storage media and communication media for network systems. 2. Operating System (Operating System) Namely Operating System is software that enables, controls all resources and perform basic operations in computer systems. Shall be in accordance with the DBMS being used. 3. Database (Database) The database is a collection of related data with each other [1]. A database system can consist of more than one database.

4. Systems (Applications / Software) Business Management Data (DBMS) Database Management System is software used to manage databases. Example of a simple class: dBase, Foxbase, Rbase, MS. Access, MS. Foxpro, Borland Paradox. Examples of the complex:-Borland Interbase, MS. SQL Server, Oracle, Informix, Sybase. 5. User (User) The people who interact with database systems, ranging from the designing to the use at the end. 6. Applications (software) other. Complementary software that supports. Is optional. 3.1.2 Objectives Utilization Database. The use of a database is to have a variety of purposes. These objectives include: 1. Speed and Ease By using the user database can store the data, make changes / manipulation of data and display data quickly and easily than the manual way. 2. Efficiency of Storage Space With a data base can reduce the occurrence of redundancy (repetition of data), so that the storage media used space more efficiently and not much is wasted. 3. Accuracy (Accuracy) A good database is a database that is updated at each time. It relies on a database administrator, so that existing data in the database is accurate for the agency / company who need it.

4. Availability (Availability) A good database will provide data needed for the company / agency in accordance with the purpose of making the database during the manufacturing process.

5. Completeness (Completeness) Data in a database tends to dynamic, meaning changes depending on the objects in that database. To keep the database remains incomplete for the wearer to a change in the database either by increasing the number of data or with changes in database structure. 6. Safety (Security) A good database is a database with a reliable level of security. Database security is usually with the use of passwords or encryption and decryption techniques. 7. Togetherness (Sharebility) A good database is a database that can support the concept of multiuser, where the database is created can be shared for many users on a network for example.

3.1.3 Basic Operations Database. Basic Database Operations Operations are frequently used include: 1. Database Creation (Create Database) Creating a new database or database. 2. Elimination Database (Drop Database) Deleting a database that no longer used or unused. 3. Making File / Table into a new database (Create Table)

Creating tables in a database that can be interconnected between the tables to one another. 4. Removal File / Table from a data base (Drop Table) Deleting a table that is not used anymore in a database. 5. The addition of new data to a file / table in a database (insert) Activities add to the data on your organization into tables in the database that was created. 6. Retrieval of data from a file / table (Retrieve / Search) Activity displays data with criteria that can be specified for a particular purpose. 7. The conversion of data from a file / table (Update) Activities that change the data changes, so the quality of a database can always wake up with exactly the data they contain. 8. Removal of data from a file / table (Delete) Erase the data that was not necessary in a table. 3.2 Database Management System (DBMS) Database system is a computerized system whose main purpose is to preserve information and make such information available when needed [2]. Database Management System (DBMS) is a computer program used to enter, modify, delete, and manipulate the data or information obtained by a practical and efficient [3]. . DBMS can be an alternative use specifically for applications, such as data storage in the field and writing application code that is specific to their settings.

3.2.1 History of Database Management System (DBMS) The first-generation DBMS designed by Charles Bachman at General Electric Company in the early 1960s, called the Integrated Data Storage (Integrated Data Store). Formed the basis for the network data model is then standardized by the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL). Bachman then received the ACM Turing Award (sort of Nobel Prize in computer science) in 1973. And at the end of 1960, IBM developed the information management system (Information Management System) DBMS. STI was formed from the data representation framework called hierarchical data model. In the same time, the SABRE system was developed as a result of cooperation between IBM with American airlines. This system allows the user to access the same data on computer networks. Then in 1970, Edgar Codd, in the Research Laboratory in San Jose, proposed the relational data model. In 1980, the relational model DBMS becomes the most dominant paradigm. SQL query language for relational database developed as part of IBM's System R project. SQL standardized in late 1980, and SQL-92 was adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Standards Organization (ISO). The program used for concurrent execution in a data base called the transaction. Users write programs, and is responsible for running the program simultaneously to the DBMS. In 1999, James Gray won the Turing Award for his contribution to transaction management in a DBMS. At the end of 1980 and beginning of 1990, many areas of the developed data base system. Research in the field of data base includes a powerful query language, a complete data model, and an emphasis on complex data analysis support from all parts of the organization. Some vendors are expanding the system with new types of data storage capabilities such as image and text, and complex query capabilities. Special system / specials developed by many vendors to create a data warehouse, consolidate data from multiple databases. The most interesting phenomenon is the existence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and management resource planning (MRP), which adds a

substantial layer of application-oriented features. Packages that include include Baan, Oracle, PeopleSoft, SAP, and Siebel. These packages identify the set of common tasks (eg inventory management, human resource planning, financial analysis) and provide the application layer to handle general purpose. Data is stored in a relational DBMS, and application layers can be customized for different companies. Furthermore, the DBMS into the internet world. At the time of the first generation of Web sites store their data exclusively in the file operating system, then the current DBMS can be used to store data that can be accessed through a Web browser. Query can be generated via the Web form, and answer format uses a markup language such as HTML for easy viewing in a browser. All database vendors add these features to their DMS. Database management to consider the importance of an on-line data, and can be accessed through computer networks. At present this is manifested in areas such as multimedia databases, interactive video, digital libraries, such as project scientist mapping project, the project of NASA's earth observing systems, etc..

3.2.2 Components of Database Management System (DBMS) The main components of DBMS can be divided into 4 types: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4. Users

3.2.3 Advantages Using Database Management System (DBMS) The use DMBS to manage the data has several advantages, namely: 1. Freedoms of data and efficient access 2. Reduce application development time 3. Integrity and data security 4. Administrative uniformity of data 5. Concurrent access and improvement of the occurrence of crashes (collision of simultaneous processes). 3.2.4 Level-level abstraction in DBMS The data in the DBMS can be described in three levels of abstraction, namely conceptual, physical, and external. Data definition language (DDL) is used to define an external schema and conceptual. All DBMS vendors include SQL commands to describe the physical aspects of the scheme. Information about the conceptual schema, external and physically stored in the system catalog.

Figure 3.1 Abstraction Level Have some reviews (views), a single conceptual scheme (logical) and physical schema.

1. Illustrate how users view the data 2. Conceptual schema defines the structure of logic 3. Physical schema describes the files and indexes used schemes are defined using DDL (Data Definition Language), the data is modified by using DML (Data Management Language). Database used on the web PT. Light Medina is MySql. Here Database serves as data storage and data Customer data is admin PT.CAHAYA Medina.

3.3 Normalization The term comes from the normalization EFCodd, one of the pioneer of database technology. Besides used as a separate methodology to create the table structure (relationships) in the database (with the aim to reduce the wastefulness of data), the normalization provides a very helpful guide for developers to avoid creating the table structure is less flexible or reduce inefficiencies. Normalisai is the equipment used to perform grouping data into tables showing the entities and their relationships. Normalization is necessary to eliminate the repetition and simplification program. In the process of normalization, the requirements for a table yet to be broken down according to the difficulty of organizing data conditions, such as read, add, insert and delete data from tables. If there are still difficulties, then the table should be broken into multiple tables again, and carried back the normalization process to obtain an optimal table.

Various forms of normalization 1. The first normal form (1NF) A relation is said first normal form if and only if every single-valued attribute for each row. 2. Second normal form (2NF) A relation is in second normal form if and only if: a. Being in first normal form b. All attributes not fully lock has dependencies on the primary key. 3. The third normal form (3NF) Form of relation is said in third normal form if and only if: a. Being in second normal form b. All attributes not fully lock has no dependencies on the primary key.

3.4 Connectedness Model Entities (Entity-Relationship Model). Entity Relationship Model is a model to explain the relationship between data in the database based on a perception that the real word consists of basic objects that have a connection or relation between the objects (Astria Habny, 2009). Relationships between objects described by using specific graphic symbols. The components contained in the Entity Relationship Model among others:

3.4.1 Entity is a set or something that can be distinguished or defined uniquely. The set of entities (Entity Sets) can be: a. Physical objects: houses, vehicles, equipment. b. Object concept: jobs, company, plans. Entity symbol is persegi panajang

Figure 3.2 Symbol Entity 3.4.2 Associative Entities Is an entity that may be formed of a relation or formed by certain relationships and not stand alone.

Figure 3.3 Symbols Associative Entities

3.4.3 Relationship Namely the relationship between one entity or more. Relatioinship is a diamond symbol.

Figure 3.4 Relationship Symbols

3.4.4 Attributes Ie the set of data elements that make up an entity element. Entity symbol is an ellipse.

Figure 3.5 Symbol Attributes 3.4.5 Composite Attributes Is an attribute that can be broken down into other attributes. These attributes provide greater flexibility.

Figure 3.6 Symbol Attributes Composites

3.4.6 Cardinality Ratio Constraint Explain the limitations of connectedness one entity to another entity. Cardinality relationship occurs delivered two sets of entities can be: 1. Relationship one to one (1:1) In the form of this relationship, one entity can be correlated with one another entity. Which means each entity in the set A associated with at most one entity in the entity set B, and vice versa every entity in the entity set B associated with at most one entity in the entity set A.

Figure 3.7 Relationship Cardinality one to one 2. Relationship one to many (1: N) In the form of this relationship, one entity can have more than one relation in the other entity. Which means each entity in the entity set A can be associated with many entities in the entity set B, but not vice versa, where each entity in the set B associated with at most one entity in the set A.

Figure 3.8 Relationship Cardinality one to many

3. Relationship many-to-one (N: 1) which means that every entity in the entity set A was associated with at most one entity in the entity set B, but not vice versa, where each entity in the entity set A berhungan with at most one set of B.

Figure 3.9 Relationship Cardinality many-to-one 4. Relationship many to many (N: N) In this relation many entities can be correlated with many other entities. Which means each entity in the entity set A can be associated with many entities in the entity set B, and vice versa, every entity in the entity set B can be associated with many entities in the set of entity A.

Figure 3.10 Relationship Cardinality many to many

3.5 Definition of Data 3.5.1 About the Data Dictionary The data dictionary is a list of data elements that are organized with a fixed definition and in accordance with the system, so that users and systems analysts have the same understanding about the input, output, and data storage components. The data dictionary is very helpful in defining the systems analyst data flowing in the system, thus defining the data that can be done with complete and structured. The

establishment of a data dictionary implemented in the analysis phase and design a system. 3.5.2 Data Dictionary Notation Meaning = Consisting of, composed of, together with + And () Optional {} Iteration / repetition, eg, 1 {..} 10 [] Choose one of several alternative options, eg [A | B | C | D] ** Comments @ Identifier of a data store | Separator in the form [] Another name alias Description: 1. The notation "=" Elementary data element is a decomposition that has no meaning in the context of the user's environment. Example: Name = FirstName + LastName LastName and FirstName 2. The notation "()" Based on the above examples can be given the data dictionary as follows: Nama_Langganan = (title) + LastName + (Nama_Tengah) + FirstName

Customer_Address = (Shipping_Address) + (Billing_Addresss)

3. Notation "{}" This notation is used to describe a recurring component data. Example: Order = Customer_Name Shipping_Address + 1 + {item} 10

4. The notation "[]" Example: Jenis_Kelamin [Man | Woman]