You are on page 1of 526

(4)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.1

605
64.437.022800

1.1

1056

967.317400
900

1.1

1.1

1.1

2
(

1.1

()

1.1
4

1.1

,
___ ,
.

___ ,

1.1

**

1.2

1.2
2

1.2
3

C
F

1.3

1.3

1.4


F5

(1)m-m
F1

(2)

F2

(3)

F5

(4)

F1

F4

F3

F4

F2

F3

1.4

F
M

FSF

M Fa

FS

1.4
1.1
m-m

m-m

Y 0 FN P
M (F ) 0
o

FN

Pa M 0
M Pa

1.4
,

F4
F A
F
pm

C
A
F
F3
p lim
A0 A C
F4
p

F3

Pa 1Pa= 1N/m2
1kPa=103N/m2

1MPa=106N/m2

1GPa=109N/m2

1.5
1.

M'

MM'

2.

L'

M
o

x+s

M'
N

N'

1.5

3.

L'

s
xm
x
Mx

s
x lim
x 0 x
y , z

x+s

M'
N

N'

Mxy

lim ( LM N )
MN 0 2
ML0

1.5

250

1.2

0.025

200

a'b, a'd

ab m abad

a
d

a' b ab 0.025
6

m
125

10

200
ab

ab, ad

0.025
tan
100 106 (rad )
250

a'

1.6

1.6


(1)

2.1
2.2

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13

2.1

2.1

2.1

F F

2.1

2.2
1

F (1)m-m

F
m

FN

F
FN

(2)

(3)

FN F 0

(4)

FN F

2.2
2

F
m
FN

F
FN

FN F 0

FN F

2.2
F1=10kNF2=20kN
F3=35kNF4=25kN;

2.1
A

F1

1 B

2 C

1 F2

F3

F4

FN kN

FN 1 F1 10kN

FN2
F2

1
AB

FN1

F1
F1

3 D

BC

0 FN 2 F2 F1

FN 2 F1 F2

FN3

10 20 10kN

F4
25 CD

10

10

FN 3 F4 25kN

2.2

2.2

FN

FN dA
A

2.2

a
b

c
d

abcd

ab
cd

2.2

1
2
3

a
b

c
d

FN dA
A

dA A
A

FN

2.2
FN

A

FN

2.2

2.2
2.2

ABCB
F=20kNAB
1
20mmCB
1515
45
1
B
12
C
2
B
F
FN 1
y

0
F
cos
45
FN 2 0
x
N1
FN 2 45 B x Fy 0 F sin 45 F 0
A

N1

FN 1 28.3kN

FN 2 20kN

2.2

FN 1 28.3kN

1
45

FN 2 45

FN 1
28.3 103
1

A1 20 2 10 6
4
90 106 Pa 90MPa

FN 2 20 103
2
2

6
A2 15 10

FN 1

FN 2 20kN

y
B
F

89 10 6 Pa 89MPa

2.2
d

0.8m

2.2 AB
d=20mmW=15kNW
AAB
A

C
1.9m

WAAB
Fmax

Fmax

W
Fmax
FRCx

FRCy

Fmax

Fmax sin AC W AC 0
Fmax

sin

2.2
d

0.8m

ABC

1.9m

AB

Fmax

FN Fmax 38.7kN
W
Fmax

FRCx

FRCy

BC
0.8
sin

0.388
AB
0.82 1.92
W
15
Fmax

38.7kN
sin 0.388

Fmax

AB

FN
38.7 103

A (20 103 ) 2
4
123 106 Pa 123MPa

2.3

A
F F
A
F
cos
F
F F
p

cos cos

A A A
p
2
k
p

FN F

A A

p cos cos

0 , max
p sin cos sin sin 2

45 , max
2
2

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4
e

b
e
P

a c

2bc

3ce

4ef

1ob
P
e

EGN/m2

tan

2.4

:
l1 l0
A A1
100% 0
100%
l0
A0
5% 5%

20 30% 60%

2.4

d

b
e

a c

1
2

2.4

p0.2

p0.2

0.2%

2.4

0.5%

bt

bt140MPa


(2)

2.5

2.5

p
S

E ---

2.5

bt
o

bc

bc bt

2.5

2.7

FN

A

u
S p 0.2
u
bt bc

bt

p 0.2

ns
bc

nb

ns
nb

2.7

FN
max

A

1
2

FN
max

A
FN
A

FN A

2.7
2.4

6
D=350mmp=1MPa[]=40MPa

F
p D

2
D p
4

1/6
FN

F
2

D p
6 24

FN

max
A
FN
d 2 D 2 p


4
24
D2 p
0.352 106
3
d

22
.
6

10
m 22.6mm

6
6
6 40 10

2.7
AC50505AB10
=120MPaF

2.5

11
2A
Fx 0 FN1 cos FN 2 0

FN 1

FN 2

FN 1 2 F1 A1

FN 1 sin F 0

FN 1 F / sin 2 F
FN 2 FN 1 cos 3F

2
ACA1=24.8cm2
1
1
F1 A1 120 106 2 4.8 10 4
2
2
57.6 103 N 57.6kN

2.7
3

ABA2=212.74cm2
FN 2 FN 1 cos 3F

FN 2 3F2 A2

FN 1

FN 2

A
F

1
1
A2
F2
120 106 2 12.74 10 4
1.732
3
176.7 103 N 176.7kN

4
F Fi min 57.6kN 176.7kNmin 57.6kN

2.8

l
l l1 l
l
FN F

A A
l
E E
l

FN l Fl
l

EA EA

1
l F , l l
EA
EA

b1 b

l1

b b1 b

b
b

E200GPa0.250.33

2.8

2.8

FNi li
l li
Ei Ai

2.8

2.6
AB2m, 200mm2AC250mm2
E=200GPaF=10kNA

FN 1
FN 2

y
300

A
F

11
2A
Fx 0 FN1 cos FN 2 0
Fy 0 FN1 sin F 0
FN 1 F / sin 2 F 20kN
FN 2 FN 1 cos 3F 17.32kN
2

FN 1l1
20 103 2
3
l1

10
m 1mm

9
6
E1 A1 200 10 200 10
FN 2l2
17.32 103 1.732
3

0
.
6

10
m 0.6mm
l2
9
6
E2 A2 200 10 250 10

2.8
FN 1l1
l1
1mm
E1 A1

FN 2l2
l2
0.6mm
E2 A2

3A
AA1 l1 1mm

x l2 0.6mm

FN 1
0
30
FN 2

A2

A2

A1
A3

l1
l2

sin 30 tan 30
2 1.039 3.039mm

y AA3 A3 A4
A1

A
A

AA2 l2 0.6mm

AA x2 y2 0.6 2 3.039 2
3.1mm

A4

2.9
V

dW Fd (l )

l1

W Fd (l )

dF

F1

F
O l d (l )

l1

p ,
1
W F l
2

1
V W F l
2
1 Fl
F 2l
F

2 EA 2 EA

2.10

2.10

2.10

F 0
F 0
x

FN 1 FN 2
2 FN 1 cos FN 3 F

l1

l1 l2 l3 cos

3
l1

2.7

FN 1l
F l
l3 N 3
E1 A1 cos
E3 A3

l3

1 2E1A1 3
E3A3 F

4
FN 1 FN 2
FN 1l
FN 3l

cos
E1 A1 cos E3 A3

F
F cos 2

, FN 3
E1 A1
E3 A3
3
3
1

2
cos

2 cos
E3 A3
E1 A1

2.10
AB
12
1
2
1

3F 2 FN 2 cos FN 1 0
2

l2
2l1
cos
3

FN 2l
FN 1l
l1
, l2
EA cos
EA

2.8
2

1
l

A
a

l1

l2

B
F

FN 2l
FN 1l

2
EA cos2
EA

3F
FN 1
, FN 2
3
4cos 1

6 F cos 2

4cos3 1

2.11
A

EA, l , l , T
l

FRA A

B
l

1
lT l T l

FRBl
l
EA
3 l lT l 0

FRB
lT

4
FRB EA l T

F
T RB l ET
A

FRBl
l T l
EA

2.11

E1 A1 E2 A2 , E3 A3 ,

1
l1

l1
l3

cos
3
FN 3l3
FN 1l1

E3 A3 E1 A1 cos

l3 l , l1 l2

FN 3

l3

FN 3 2 FN 1 cos

l2

l
,
cos

E3 A3

E3 A3
(1
)l

2 E1 A1 cos

FN 1 FN 2

FN 3

2cos

2.12

max
K

2-13

2-13

2-13
F
F

m
m

F
n F
s
n

F
F

m
FS
m

m
m

F
2

F
2

FS

Fs

m
n

Fs

Fs n

Fs F

Fs F

F
Fs
2

2-13

m-m
,

Fs

A

Fs


A


0.5 0.7
0.8 1.0

2-13

Fbs
bs
Abs
F

Fbs
Fbs

Fbs= F

Abs
2

Abs

2-13

(a)

(b)

bs

Abs d

(c)

Fbs

bs
Abs

bs

bs 1.5 2.5
bs 0.9 1.5

2-13

Fs F

A lb

Fbs F
bs

Abs cb

2-13
Fs 4 F
2
A d
Fbs F
bs

Abs dh

F
4F
2 2
dh
d

8h

bs 2

2-13 3-1

2.
Fs
F
50 103

A 4a 4 0.08 0.01
15.7 10 6 15.7MPa [ ]

F
F=50kNb=150mm
=10mmd=17mma=80mm
[]=160MPa[]=120MPa
[bs]=320MPa

1.
FN
F

A (b 2d )

50 103

(0.15 2 0.017) 0.01


43.1106 43.1MPa [ ]

2-13

3.

Fs
4F
2F

2
2
A 2d
d
2 50 103

2
0.017
110 106 110MPa [ ]

4.
Fbs
F
50 103
bs

Abs 2d 2 0.017 0.01


147 10 6 147 MPa [ bs ]

2-13

d=70mm
b h l 20 12 100mm
Me=2kN
m
[]=60MPa[ bs]=
100MPa
b
h

nn

O
Me

(a)

FS

3-2

l
O
Me

(b)

Fbs Abs bs

0.5h

nF n
S

(c)

2-13
1

Fs A bl
d
d
M o 0 Fs bl M e
2

2M e
2 2000
6

28.6

10
Pa 28.6MPa [ ]
9
bld 20 100 70 10

h
Fbs Abs bs l bs
2
h
bl l bs
Fs Fbs
2

2b 2(20 103 )(28.6 106 )


6
bs

95.3

10
Pa 95.3MPa [ bs ]
3
h
12 10


1.
2.

3.

4.
5.
6.,,


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

3.7

3.1

3.1

3.1

:
,
,

3.2
1.

3.2

n /
P
Me

W P 1000(N m)

W M e 2

n
60

3.2
2.

T = Me

3.2

(+),(-)

3.2

3.2
3.1
, n=300r/min,A
PA=45kW, PB=10kW,PC=15kW,
PD=20kW..

(1)

M e 9549 P / n

3.2

(2)

(3)

3.2
MB

MD

MC

T3

T3 M A 1432 N m

MA

MA

Tmax 1432 N m

318N.m
795N.m
1432N.m

3.2

3.3

3.3

M 0
z

M e 2 r r

Me

2 r 2

'

3.3

3.3


G (GN/m2)

2(1 )

3.4
1.

Me

p q

Me

x
p

Me

p q

Me

3.4
Me

a'
b

dx

d _ dx

a
q

_rad

Me

p q

aa ' Rd dx

R
q

d
R
dx

3.4
q

p
d

a e

a ' eO
b

dx

dx
e

cc d dx

d
dx

d

dx

'

3.4
2.

d
G G
dx

3.4
3.

T dA
A

T dA
A

d
G
dx

2 dA

I p dA
2

d
T GI p
dx

Ip

d
G
dx

Ip

3.4

1
2

max p

max

Wt

Ip
R

Wt

3.4
T
I p Wt

Ip

max

Wt I p / R
1
3
D
16

Wt

3.4

Wt I p /( D / 2)

3.4
I p Wt

Wt I p / R

1
D3
16

Wt I p /( D / 2)

3.4

Tm ax

m ax
Wt
1.

max

Tmax

Wt

2.

max

Tmax
(
)max
Wt

3.4

Tmax

max
Wt
Tm ax
m ax

1
Wt
Tm ax

Wt

Tm ax Wt

3.4
3.2
D=89mm=2.5mm20
T=1930Nm,[]=70MPa.

11

d
0.945
D
Wt 0.2 D 3 (1 4 ) 0.2 8.93 (1 0.9454 ) 29 cm3

max

T
1930
6

66.7 10 Pa
6
Wt 29 10
66.7MPa [ ] 70MPa

3.4
3.3

[]

T1 Wt [ ]
T2

16

D (1 )[ ]
3

16

16

D13[ ]

(90)3 (1 0.9444 )[ ]

T1=T2

D (90) (1 0.944 )
3
1

D1 53.1mm 0.0531m

3.4

A1

A2

D12
4

(D d )
2

(0.0531)2
4

22.2 104 m2

[(90 103 )2 (85 103 ) 2 ] 6.87 104 m2

A2 6.87 104

0.31
4
A1 22.2 10
31%

3.4
3.4
P7.5kW, n=100r/min,
40MPa, =
0.5

: d1D2

P
7.5
M x T 9549 9549
716.2N m
n
100
T
16T

max1
3 40MPa
WP1 d1
16 716.2
d1
0.045m=45mm
6
40 10
3

3.4
max2

D2

T
16T

40MPa
3
4
WP 2 D2 1

16 716.2
0.046m=46mm
4
6
1- 40 10

d20.5D2=23 mm

D246 mm

d1=45 mm

d223 mm

A1
d1
1
45 10
2

1.28

2
3
2
A2 D2 1 46 10 1 0.5
2

3.4
3.5

P114kW,P2= P3=P1/2
n1=n2=120r/min, z1=36,z3=12;d1=70mm, d
2=50mm, d3=35mm.[]=30MPa.
3

2
1

P1=14kW, P2= P3= P1/2=7 kW


n1=n2= 120r/min

z1
36
n3n1 120 r/min 360r/min
z3
12

T1=M1=1114 N m
T2=M2=557 N m

T3=M3=185.7 N m

3.4
3

T1 16 1114
max E

Pa 16.54MPa
3
-9
Wt1 70 10
T2 16 557
max H

Pa 22.69MPa
3
-9
Wt 2 50 10
T3 16 185.7
max C

Pa 21.98MPa
3
-9
Wt 3 35 10

3.5

Ti li

i 1 GI Pi

3.5

d
T

dx GI p
T 180
'

GI p
'

max [ ]
'

'

rad/m

/m

[ ]
'

3.5

T
max
[ ]
Wt
1
Wt
D3
16

T
'
max
[ ' ]
GI p

Ip

D4
32

T D []
T []
D []

T D [/]
T [/]
D [/]

3.5

3.6
T=200Nmd=40mm[]=40MPa
G=80GPa[/]=1 /m

max

Wt

3.5

3.7
n=500r/minA P1=400kWCB
P2=160kWP3=240kW[]=70MPa[]=1/m
G=80GPa
(1)AC d1 BC d2
(2)AC BC d
(3)?

d1

A
1.

M e1

C
M e2

d2

M e3

P1
400
T1 M e1 9549 9549
7640 N m
n
500
240
T2 M e3
T1 4580N m
400

3.5

d1

2.

3.d1

max

d2

C
M e2

M e1

M e3

16T


3
d1

7640 N m

4580 N m

16T
16 7640
3
d1

82
.
2

10
m 82.2mm
6
[ ]
70 10
32T
180

max

4
Gd1

32T 180
32 7640 180
3
d1

86
.
4

10
m 86.4mm
2
9
2
G [ ]
80 10 1
4

d1 86.4mm

3.5

d1

4.d2

d2

16T

[ ]

16 4580
70 10 6

69.3 10 3 m 69.3mm

d2

C
M e2

M e1

7640 N m

4580 N m

d2

32T 180
32 4580 180
3

76

10
m 76mm
2
9
2
G [ ]
80 10 1

d 2 76mm

5.

d d1 86.4mm

M e3

3.5

d1

A
6.

C
M e2

M e1

M e3

7640 N m

d1
C

d2

M e2

4580 N m

d2

M e1
3060 N m

4580 N m

M e3

3.7

3.7

3.7
/


1
2

3
T

IP

max


Wt

4
T 180
Tl

GI P
GI P


4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4

4-5
4-6

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-1

: ,

4-1

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-2

FAx

FBy

FAy
FAx

FAy

FBy

FAx
MA

FAy

4-3

M
FS

FAy

FN

FN

F
M

y
c

FN 0

FS FAy F1

M FAy x F1 ( x a)

FS

M
FS

M
FBy

4-3
M

FAy

FN

FN

FS

FS

FBy

4-3
4-1
1.
Fy 0
FAy FBy 2F
FAy

FBy

2.

FSE
ME
FAy

FBy 3a Fa 2F a
F
5F
FBy
FAy
3
3
F
5F
F

0
F

2
F

y
SE
SE
3
3
a
5F 3a
M

0
2F M E

O
2
3 2
3Fa
ME
2

4-3
F
5F
FBy
FAy
3
3

FSE
O

ME

FAy

FBy

ME
FSE

FBy

FSE FBy 0

F
FSE FBy
3
3a
M o 0 M E FBy 2 Fa
3Fa
ME
2

4-3

FBy
FAy

FAy

FBy

FSE
FAy

F
3

2F
FSE

5F
F
FSE
2F
3
3

5F
3

4-3
F
FBy
3
FAy

FBy
ME

FAy

5F
FAy
3

2F

ME

a
5F 3a
3
2F
Fa
ME

2
2
3 2

4-4
q

4-2

x
q

x
FS

M x
FS x

ql

M x qx 2 / 2

ql / 2
M

ql 2 / 8

FS x qx

0 x l
0 x l

FS maxql

M maxql 2 / 2

4-4
F

x1

C
x2

FAY

FS

FBY

FAyFb/l

Fb / l

Fa / l
M

4-3
C

1
M A0 M B0

Fab / l

FByFa/l

2
x AC FS x1 Fb / l 0 x1 a
M x1 Fbx1 / l 0 x1 a
FS x2 Fa / l a x2 l
CB
M x2 Fal x2 / l a x2 l
x

3.

4-4
a

x1

FAY

4-4
C

x2

B
FBY

M 0 M 0
A

M /l

Ma / l

FAyM / l FBy -M / l

2
FS x1 M / l 0 x1 a

AC

Mb / l

CB

M x1 Mx1 / l

FS x2 M / l

0 x1 a

0 x2 b

M x2 Mx2 / l

0 x2 b

3.

4-4
y

4-5

C
l

FAY

FBY

M 0 M 0
A

FS ql / 2

FAy FBy ql/2

M 3ql 2 / 32

ql / 8

ql / 2

FS x ql / 2 qx 0 x l

M x qlx / 2 qx 2 / 2

3ql 2 / 32
x

0 x l

3.


B
ql 2
2

ql
ql 2
2

ql
ql
2

FS y qy ql 0

0 y l

0 FN y ql / 2 0

FN y ql / 2

y
2

FS y ql qy

M(y)

q,l

1
2
ABAy

B
FN(y)

FS(y)

4-6

M y 0

0 y l

M y qy y / 2 qly 0

M y qly qy 2 / 2

0 y l


CBCx

x
y

ql 2
2

ql
ql 2
2

x
FS(x)

FN x 0

0 x l
FS x ql / 2 0

FS x ql / 2

M(x)
B
FN(x)

ql 2
2

M x 0

M x qlx / 2

0 x l

M x qlx / 2 0

0 x l

ql 2
2

ql
2

ql
2

AB

CB

FN y ql / 2

FN x 0

M y qly qy 2 / 2

M x qlx / 2

ql
2

ql
2

ql
2

FN

FS x ql / 2

FS y ql qy

ql 2
2

ql
2

FS

ql

4-5

d 2 M ( x) dFs ( x)

q ( x)

2
dx
dx

4-5

d 2 M ( x) dFs ( x)

q ( x)

2
dx
dx

1. q0Fs=
M(x) x
2.qFs(x) x
M(x) x
q > 0
q < 0
3. Fs=0

4.

4-5

5
dFS
dM
q dFS qdx
dM FSdx
FS
dx
dx
b

dF
a

qdx

FS b FS a Aq a
b

dM FSdx
a

M b M a AFS a
b

4-5

F S x Mx

4-5

1kN.m

F
2kN

FAY

1.5m

1.5m

1.5m

FBY

4-6

M 0 M 0
A

AB FAy0.89 kN , FBy1.11 kN
2

ACDEFB

4-5

1kN.m

F
2kN

0.89 kN= FAY

1.5m

1.5m

FS (kN)

1.5m

1.11

3
F S x Mx
F

1.11 kN

BY

(+)
O
0.89

(-)

M (kN.m)
O

(-)

0.335
1.335

(-)
1.67

F S x Mx

4-5

1kN.m

2kN

FAY

1.5m

1.5m

1.5m

FBY

21

FAy0.89 kN
FFy1.11 kN

1.11

+
Fs kN

0.89

2 AC
DB
3 A

4-5

1kN.m

2kN
1.5m

FAY

1.5m

1.5m

+
0.89
M kN.m

AA
AC

1.11
Fs kN

FBY

4 A

CC

CD

0.330

DD

-
1.330

DB

BB
1.665

4-5

q
C

FAy

4a

a
FBy

qa

4-7

M 0 M 0

AB

9
3
FAy qa , FBy qa
4
4

2
ABAB
FByqa

4-5

C
A

9
qa FAy
4
FS 9qa / 4

4a

a
FBy

3
qa
4

+
O

9a / 4
2

81qa / 32

7qa / 4
+

3
F S x Mx

qa
qa 2

qa

FSx

5
x
Mx

4-5

q
D

4a

FAy

a
FBy

9qa/4

Fs

9
3
FAy qa , FBy qa
4
4

2A
BD

+
-

qa

21

qa

7qa/4

3 A

4-5

q
D

4a

FAy

a
FBy

9qa/4

Fs

5A

AB

+
-

9a / 4

qa

7qa/4
81qa2/32
M

qa

4
A

qa2

1/29qa/49a/4
=81qa2/32
B

-1/27qa/47a/4
+81qa2/32=qa2

4-5

qa

MA

FAy a

a
FBy

4-8

qa

qa

qa/2
+

Fs

MA
FAy

FDy

FDy

qa/2

FBy
-

qa2/2

qa2/2

FDy qa / 2

FBy 3qa / 2

FAy qa / 2

M A qa 2 / 2

4-6

4-6
F

F
FS

FN

4-10

FN F sin

FS F cos

M FR sin

FR
FN

FS

5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4

5-6

5-1

FN

A
T

IP
M

FS

?
?

5-1

CD
ACBD

5-2

m n

a
b
m

m x n

a
b
n

5-2

5-2

m
a
o
b
m

a
o
by

dx

5-2

FNMyMz

EI Z

5-2

E
M

EI Z

My

IZ

5-2
My

IZ

Mymax
max
IZ
max

WZ

WZ

min

IZ
ymax

WZ

5-2
I Z y 2 dA

IZ WZ

IZ
Wz

64

32

bh
IZ
12
bh
Wz
6

IZ
y max

Wz

IZ

64

b0 h0 bh 3
IZ

12
12

(1 4 )

3
3
b
h
bh
D
0 0
4
W

) /(h0 / 2)
Wz
(1 )
z
12
12
32
3

5-3

l h
l / h > 5

5-3

My

IZ

IYZ =0

max

M max ymax M max

IZ
WZ

5-3

max

max

y max

Iz

max

WZ

1.
2.
3. M I z
4.

t ,max t

c,max c

5-3
q=60kN/m

FAY

FS

l = 3m

FBY

30

3.
4.E=200GPa
C

1.

90kN

FAy 90kN FBy 90kN

M C 90 1 60 1 0.5 60kN m

180

1m

1.C K
2.C

120

5-1

ql 2 / 8 67.5kN m

3
3
bh
0
.
12

0
.
18
x
IZ

5.832 105 m 4
12
12
90kN
180
60 103 (
30) 10 3
M y
2
K C K
IZ
5.832 10 5

61.7 10 6 Pa 61.7 MPa

5-3
q=60kN/m

FAY

l = 3m

180

120

1m

2.C

FBY

30
z

M C 60kN m
C

I Z 5.832 10 5 m 4

FS 90kN

Cmax

90kN
M

ql 2 / 8 67.5kN m

M C ymax
IZ
180
10 3
2
5.832 10 5

60 103

92.55 106 Pa 92.55MPa

5-3
q=60kN/m

FAY

l = 3m

180

1m

3.

120

FBY

30
z

M max 67.5kN m

I z 5.832 10 5 m 4

FS 90kN

M max ymax
max
IZ

90kN
M

ql 2 / 8 67.5kN m

180
10 3
2
5.832 10 5

67.5 103

104.17 106 Pa 104.17 MPa

5-3
q=60kN/m

FAY

l = 3m

180

1m

4. C

120

FBY

30
z

K
y

M C 60kN m
C

I Z 5.832 10 5 m 4

FS 90kN

EI

x
90kN

ql 2 / 8 67.5kN m

EI Z 200 109 5.832 10 5


C

MC
60 103
194.4m

5-3

5-2

d1 160mm d2 130mm, a 0.267m,b 0.16m, F 62.5kN,

60MPa.

max
max

max

Iz
M

max

Wz

ymax

5-3
1
2
3BC
4
B

Fa 62.5 267 32
max
3
WzB d1
0.163
32
41.5 106 Pa 41.5MPa
MB

Fb
Fa
C

max

MC
WzC

Fb 62.5 160 32
6

46
.
4

10
Pa 46.4MPa
3
3
d 2
0.13
32

5-3

5-3

F1 6.7kN, F2 50kN, l 9.5m,

140MPa,

1
2

M max
max

Wz

M max

Wz

5-3

1
2

M max
max

Wz

Wz

M max

(6.7 50) 103 9.5


4

140 10 6

962 10 6 m 3 962cm 3
4
36c
5

Wz 962cm3

q 67.6kg/m

5-3
T

t 30MPa, c 60MPa,

5-4

t ,max t , c,max c

5-3
z1
52
z

yc

80 20 10 120 20 80
52mm
80 20 120 20

2z

80 203
Iz
80 20 42 2
12
20 1203

20 120 282
12
7.64 10 6 m 4

5-3
3
4B
2 .5kN.m

4kN.m

4 103 52 10 3
t ,max
7.64 10 6
27.2 106 Pa 27.2MPa t

4 103 88 103
c ,max
7.64 10 6
46 .1106 Pa 46 .1MPa c

5-3
3
4B

t ,max 27.2MPa t

2 .5kN.m

c,max 46.1MPa c
4kN.m

5C

2.5 103 88 10 3
t ,max
7.64 10 6
28.8 106 Pa 28.8MPa t

5-4

b
P

m1

q(x)

m1

Fs

B x

n1
dx

p1

q1
n1

dx

( // Fs )

1
2

5-4

m1

m1
FN1

M+dM
y

dx

q1

p1
n

A y1dA
1

y1

dA

M
M
pn : N1 A1 dA A1
y1dA
Iz
Iz

M dM
p1n1 : N 2
Iz

dx n1

n1

y FN2

A y1dA
1

pp1 : dQ' 'bdx

5-4
M dM
X 0, I
z

M
A1 y1dA
Iz

'
y
d
A

bdx 0
A1 1

m
m1
FN1

p
p1
n

q
q1

dx n1

dM 1

( )
dx I z b
'

dA
y

FN2

y1

dM
Fs ,
dx

A1 y1dA

y1dA S z * ,
*
z

Fs S

I zb

' ,

5-4

3 FS

2 A

5-4

Fs h 2
2

( y )
G 2I zG 4

P
P

Fs

Fsq

5-4

Fs

max

4 Fs

3 R 2

5-4

F
s

b0
z

h h
0

Fs

b0 h0

5-4

max

max

=6(l/d)

5-4

bh

max

max

=4(l/h)

5-4

l / h < 5

A
C

E
l

5-4
F
50
z50
50

5-5

1m
0.34MPa= 10 MPa
[]=1MPa

100

FS

M
Fl

1.
2.

m ax

F1

M m ax 6F1l


2
Wz
bh

bh2 107 100 1502 109

3750N 3.75kN
6l

3.

max 3FS / 2 A 3F2 / 2bh


F2 2 bh / 3 2 106 100 150 10 6 / 3 10000N 10kN

5-4
F
50
z50
50

4.

100
2

FS
M

Fl
5.

h
F
b

3
F
FS S Z*
4F3
3

g
3
bh
IZb
3bh
b
12
3bh g 3 100 150 10 6 0.34 106
F3

4
4
3825N 3.825kN

F Fi min3.75kN

10kN 3.825kNmin 3.75kN

5-6

M max
max
[ ]
WZ
1. Mmax

5-6

5-6

5-6

5-6

M max
max
[ ]
WZ
2. WZ

5-6

5-6

bh2 b(d 2 b2 )
WZ

6
6
(b 2 h 2 d 2 )
dWZ 1 2
2

(
d

3
b
)0

db
6
2
2
d
2d
2
2
b
,h
3
3

h
2
b

5-6

WZ

bh 2

WZ

hb 2

5-6
3

5-6

6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6

6-1

7-1

6-1

6-1

6-2
1.

y y( x )
y
y


x
dy
tan
dx
7-2

6-2
2.

1
M

EI z

1
M ( x)

( x)
EI z

6-2

d y
2
1
dx

dy 2 3
[1 ( ) ]
dx

y
M (x) > 0

M (x) > 0

dy
dx 2 > 0
O
y

d y
2

dx

M (x) < 0

M (x) < 0

dy
dx 2 < 0

d y M ( x)
2
dx
EI z

6-2

d 2 y M ( x)

2
EI z
dx

6-3

d 2 y M ( x)

2
dx
EI z

d2y
EI z
M ( x)
2
dx

dy
EI z
EI z M ( x )dx C
dx

EI z y M ( x )dxdx C x D
7-3

6-3
CD

yA 0

yA 0

yA

y AL y AR

A 0

AL AR

y AL y AR

AAA
~

A
~

A
AA A

~~~

AA AA A

A A A A

A AA A A
~

6-3
1

EI

FAx 0, FAy F (), M A Fl (

2x

M ( x ) F (l x ) F ( x l )
3

d2y
EI 2 M ( x ) F ( x l )
dx

yB

dy
1
EI
EI F ( x l ) 2 C
dx
2
1
EIy F ( x l )3 Cx D
6

F
B
B

6-3
4

x 0,
x 0,

A 0

yA 0

1 2
C Fl ,
2

1 3
D Fl
6

1
1 2
2
EI F ( x l ) Fl
2
2
1
1 2
1 3
3
EIy F ( x l ) Fl x Fl
6
2
6
6

x l,

Fl 2
max B
,
2 EI

yB

Fl 3
ymax yB
3 EI

F
B
B

6-3
2 EI
l=a+ba>b

FAx 0, FAy

Fb
Fa
, FBy
l
l

AC

Fb
M x1 FAy x1
x1 ,0 x1 a
l

ym ax

FAy
x1

B x

FBy

x2

CB

M x2 FAy x2 F ( x2 a )

Fb
x2 F ( x2 a ),
l

a x2 l

6-3
3

AC

0 x1 a

y
d 2 y1
Fb
EI
M ( x1 )
x1
2
A
dx1
l
A
dy1
Fb 2
EI
EI ( x1 )
x 1 C1
dx1
2l
FAy
Fb 3
x1
EIy1
x 1 C1 x1 D1
6l
CB
a x2 l
d 2 y2
Fb
EI
M ( x2 )
x2 F ( x2 a )
2
dx 2
l
dy
Fb 2 F
EI 2 EI ( x2 )
x 2 ( x2 a )2 C 2
dx 2
2l
2
Fb 3 F
EIy2
x 2 ( x2 a )3 C 2 x2 D2
6l
6

F
D

ym ax

B x
FBy

x2

6-3
4

x1 0,
x2 l ,

y1 (0) 0
y2 ( l ) 0

x1 x2 a,
x1 x2 a,

1 (a ) 2 (a )
y1 (a ) y2 (a )

ym ax

FAy
x1

1
Fb 3
C1 C 2 Fbl
6
6l
D1 D2 0

B x
FBy

x2

6-3
5

AC

0 x1 a

Fb 2 Fb 2
EI 1
x1
(l b2 )
2l
6l

Fb 3 Fb 2
EIy1
x1
(l b 2 ) x1
6l
6l

FAy
x1

CB

a x2 l

ym ax

Fb 2 F
Fb 2 2
2
EI 2
x2 ( x2 a)
(l b )
2l
2
6l
Fb 3 F
Fb 2 2
3
EIy2
x2 ( x2 a)
(l b ) x2
6l
6
6l

B x
FBy

x2

6-3
6

d
0
dx

dy
0
dx
l 2 b2
,
3

x l , max B

Fab
(l a )( )
6 EIl

ym ax

ym ax

FAy
x1

Fb ( l 2 b 2 ) 3
9 3 EIl

( )

B x
FBy

x2

6-3

6-4
n
M(x) y
d2y
EI 2 EIy'' M ( x )
dx

i
M i ( x ) i yi
EIy'' i M i ( x )
n

M i ( x ) M ( x )
i 1

7-4

i 1

i 1

EI y' 'i EI ( yi )' ' M ( x )

6-4
n

y' ' ( yi )' '

i 1

y yi
i 1

i ,
i 1

6-4
3 qlEI
C yC B
B

yC1

yC yC 1 yC 2 yC 3
B B1 B 2 B 3
23CB

yC2
yC3

5ql 4
yC1
384 EI

ql 4
yC 2
48EI
ql 4
yC 3
16 EI

ql 3
B1
24 EI
ql 3
B1
16 EI
ql 3
B3
3EI

6-4
3

5ql 4
ql 4
ql 4
yC yCi

384 EI 48 EI 16 EI
i 1
3

yC1

11ql 4

( )
384 EI

ql 3
ql 3
ql 3
B Bi

24 EI 16 EI 3EI
i 1
3

yC2
yC3

11ql 3

( )
48 EI

6-4
4 ql
EICyCC

yC

AB

6-4
yC

yC 1

2
C

ql 4
ql 3
yC 1
, C1
8 EI
6 EI
3
l
ql
yC 2 y B 2 B 2
C 2
2
48 EI
ql 4
ql 3
l

,
128 EI 48 EI 2
3

yB 2

41ql 4
yC yCi
384 EI
i 1
2

yC 2

7ql 3
C Ci
48EI
i 1
2

6-4

6-5
1.

2.

7-6

F
MA

FA y
MA

FA y

C
6-5

a F

2a

A
A

(a)

B
B

2a

C
a

MA

MA

(b)
(c)

A
A
A

A
A

(c)
(d)

(d)
(d)

EI

(a)
(b)
A
A

B
B

C
C
FBy

B
B
B
FBy

B
B

F
FF

1
2

C
C
C

F C

FBy

yB ( yB ) F ( yB ) FBy 0

MA

F
M AA y

FA y

6-5

a F

2a
A

(a)
2a

C
a

(a)
(b)

MA

A
A

FAy
MA

MA

A
A
A

A
A

(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)
(d)

B
B

(c)

F (2a) 2
14 Fa 3
( yB ) F
(9a 2a)
6 EI
3EI

( y B ) FBy
C
C

FBy F
B
B
B

FF
C
C
C

FBy
F

B
B
FBy

C
C

8 FBy a 3
3EI

3
14 Fa 3 8FBy a

0
3EI
3EI
7
FBy F
4

MA

Fa
( ),
2

3
FAy F ( )
4

6-5
7 AB BC B AC EIF = 40kN
q = 20kN/m

yB1 yB 2

MA

q 44 FB 43
yB1

8EI
3EI

yB1
FB

FA

FB

FB FB
yB2

MC
FC

yB 2

FB 43
F 22

3 4 2
6 EI
3EI

6-5

q 44 FB 43 F 22
FB 43
3 4 2

8EI
3EI
6 EI
3EI

3 40 10 20 4 4
8.75 kN
FB

2
3
2 6 4
8 4
A

MA

yB1
FB

yB2

0,

FA FB 4q 0

FA 4q FB 4 20 8.75 71.25 kN

FB

FA

MC
FC

0,

M A 4q 2 4FB 0

M A 4q 2 4 FB
4 20 2 4 8.75 125 kN m

6-5
C

0,

FB FC F 0

FC F FB 40 8.75
48.75 kN

MA

yB1

FB

FA
FB

yB2

0,

MC 2F 4FB 0

M C 4FB 2F
MC

4 8.75 2 40 115 kN.m

FC

6-5
AC
MC

MA

FC

FA

FA 71.25 kN( )
M A 125 kN m( )

71.25

FC 48.75 kN( )

FS ( )

M C 115 kN m(

kN

M
(kN m ) ( )

125

8.75
1.94

( )

48.75
17.5

( )

115

6-6
1

6-6
2

6-6
2

wC 2
62.5%
wC1

6-6
3

6-6

2
3

7-1
7-3 -
7-4 -n
7-5
7-8
7-11

71

71

45

71

FN

Mz

FQ

71

F
F

p cos cos2

p sin

cos sin sin 2


2

71
l

S
T

2
3

Fa

Fl

Mz

T
Wt

Mz
Wz
T

Wt

Mz
Wz

71
z

zx
x

xz

z
zy
yz

xy yx

2
3

1 2 3

1, 2 , 3

71
1
2
3

71
S

F
2

l/2

Fl
Mz
4

l/2

5
4
3
2
1

7-3 -
1.

yx

xy

x
y

xy

yx

a
dA

F 0
t

7-3 -

xy

dA xy (dA cos ) sin x (dA cos ) cos


yx (dA sin ) cos y (dA sin ) sin 0

F 0
t

dA xy (dA cos ) cos x (dA cos ) sin


yx (dA sin ) sin y (dA sin ) cos 0

a
dA

yx
y

7-3 -

1
cos2 (1 cos 2 )
2
1
2
sin (1 cos 2 )
2

2 sin cos sin 2

yx xy
1
1
( x y ) ( x y ) cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
1
( x y ) sin 2 xy cos 2
2

7-3 -
2.

y
x

yx

xy

x
y

xy

yx

7-3 -
3.

1
1
( x y ) ( x y ) cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
d
( x y ) sin 2 2 xy cos 2
d

0
( x y ) sin 2 0 2 xy cos 2 0 0
(x y )

2
sin20 xycos20 20 0
2

7-3 -
tan 2 0

2 xy

x y

max

min

x y
2

x y
2

2
y 4 xy

2
y 4 xy

1 2 3

7-3 -
1

x 60MPa xy 30MPa,
y 40MPa, 30

xy

7-3 -
1
x y x y

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2

xy

60 40 60 40

cos(60 ) 30 sin( 60 )
2
2
9.02MPa
x
x y

sin 2 xy cos 2
2
60 40

sin( 60 ) 30 cos(60 )
2

58.3MPa

7-3 -
2

xy

x y
x y 2 2
max
(
) xy
2
2

68.3MPa

x x y ( x y ) 2 2
xy
min
2
2
48.3MPa

1 68.3MPa, 2 0, 3 48.3MPa

7-3 -

xy

tg 2 0

2 xy

x y
60

0.6
60 40

0 15.5 ,

0 15.5 90 105.5

1 0 15.5

3 0 105.5

7-3 -
3
3

xy

15.5

7-3 -

tg 2 0

2 xy

x y

0 45

135
2

max x y
x y
2

xy

2
2

min

max 1 xy
min 3 xy

xy
1

45

7-4 -
1
1
( x y ) ( x y ) cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
1
( x y ) sin 2 xy cos 2
2

x y 2 2
x y 2 2
(
) (
) xy
2
2

7-4 -
1.

x y 2 2
x y 2 2
(
) (
) xy
2
2

x y 2 2
R (
) xy
2

C
x y
2

7-4 -
2.
y
y

yx

xy

D
A

x y 2 2
R (
) xy
2

D (x ,xy)

D/

(y ,yx)

x y
2

7-4 -
3

y
y

yx

H ( a , a )

xy x
x

D (x ,xy)

D/

(y ,yx)

x y
2

7-5
2

1
3

7-5

m ax
1
0

2
3

1 3
2

7-8
1.
y

x E x

y x
2

7-8
2
2

3
1
2
( ) + ( ) + ( )
E
E
E

1
1 1 2 3
E

7-8
2

1
1 1 2 3
E
1 1
2
2
3
1
E

1
3 3 1 2
E

7-8
3

zx
x

xz

zy
yz

xy yx

1
x [ x ( y z )]
E
1
y [ y ( z x )]
E
1
z [ z ( x y )]
E

xy

xy
G

yz

yz
G

zx

zx
G

7-11

FN ,max
[ ]
max
A
M max
[ ]
max
W

max [ ]

*
z

Fs S
[ ]
max
bI z
T
max
[ ]
Wp

max [ ]

7-11

m ax

max

max [ ]

max [ ]

7-11

7-11

(1)

(2)

7-11
1.
,,

b
0

7-11

1 b

b
1

n

7-11
2.
,,

1 [ 1 ( 2 3 )] / E

b / E
0

7-11

b
1
[ 1 ( 2 3 )]
E
E
1 ( 2 3 ) b

b
1 ( 2 3 ) [ ]
n

7-11
3.
,,

max

max

max ( 1 3 ) / 2

s /2
0

7-11

1 3

s
ns

7-11

( max 0)

2 15%

7-11
4.
,,

vsf v

0
sf

sf

sf

7-11

7-11
r [ ]

r ,1 1 [ ]
r ,2 1 ( 2 3 ) [ ]

r ,3 1 3 [ ]

7-11

1
1 2 4 2
2 2
2 0
1
3 2 4 2
2 2

r 3 1 3 2 4 2
r4

1
[( 1 2 ) 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 3 1 ) 2 ]
2

2 3 2

8-1

8-2

8-3

8-4

8-1

10-1

8-1

8-1

8-1

8-1

F
a

8-2

10-3

8-2

c,max
F
c
A

t ,max

Fl
t ,max
W
Fl
c ,max
W

t ,max

c,max
Fl F [ ]
t ,max
t
W A
Fl F
c,max [ c ]
W A

8-2
8-1
[t]
30MPa[c]120MPaF
1

350

350

M
y1

z0

FN

z1

A 15000mm2
z0 75mm
z1 125mm
I y 5.31107 mm 4
50 2

FN F
M F 350 75 10 3

150
50

150

425 F 103 N m

8-2
z0 75mm

A 15000mm2

I y 5.31107 mm 4 z1 125mm

FN F
M 425 103 F N.m

350

t . max

M
FN

425 10 3 F 0.075
F

5
5.31 10
15 10 3
667 F Pa

c. max

t . max

c.max

Mz0 FN

Iy
A

Mz1 FN

Iy
A

425 10 3 F 0.125
F

5.3110 5
15 10 3
934 F Pa

8-2
F

t .max 667 F
c.max 934 F

350

4F

t . max 667 F t

FN

t 30 106
F

667

667

45000 N

c. max 934 F c

t . max

c.max

c 120 106
F

934

934

F 45000 N 45kN

128500 N

8-3

8-3


Fy F cos
Fz F sin
(1)
x
M z Fy (l x) F (l x) cos
M y Fz (l x) F (l x) sin

M z max Fl cos
x

M y max Fl sin

8-3


(2)
x yz

Mz y Myz

Iz
Iy
y cos z sin
F (l x)(

)
Iz
Iy

8-3

y0 cos z0 sin
F (l x)(

)0
Iz
Iy

y0 cos z0 sin

0
Iz
Iy
y0
Iz
tan
tan
z0
Iy

8-3

t max

t max

My

c max
c max

max

Wy
My

max

Wy

Mz

max

Wz
Mz

Wz

D1

t ,max [ t ]

D2

c,max [ c ]

max

8-3

fy

fz

f y2 f z2

Fy l 3
3EI z

Fz l
fz
3EI y

fz Iz
tan
tan
fy Iy

fy

I y Iz

Iy Iz

8-4
l

S
T

2
3

Fa

Fl

Mz

T
Wp

Mz
Wz

T
Wp

Mz
Wz

8-4
1

Wp
Mz

Wz

W
T

Wp

T
Wp

Mz
Wz

x y 1
2
max
x y 4 xy2
2
2
1 2
4 2 0
2 2
x y 1
2
min
x y 4 xy2
2
2
1 2
4 2 0
2 2

8-4
M

WP

1 2
1 4 2
2 2
2 0
1 2
3 4 2
2 2

8-4
1 2
1 4 2
2 2
M

2 0
W
T
1 2

3 4 2
Wp
2 2

8-4

1
2
2

T
[ ]
r 3
W
1
2
2

0
.
75
T
[ ]
r 4
W
W MT

32

32

1
4

8-4
8-2
Me=300Nm
R=200mmF1=1400N
=100MPad

150

200

8-4
300 N.m

1400N

1500N
150

200

F2 R M e
M e 300
F2

1500 N
R
0.2
2

300 N.m

128.6N.m

120N.m

T 300 N.m
M M y2 M z2 176 N.m

8-4
3d

Wp

M 2 T 2
r3

W

M
W

M 2 0.75T 2
r4

W

8-4
r3

M T


W
2

32 M T
2

d 3
32

32 176 300

6
100 10
2

32.8 10 m 32.8mm


1
2

3
4

9.1
9.2
9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.1

9.1

9.1

9.1

9.1

9.2

M Fw

9.2

9.2

9.2
----
1

1
Fcr 2
l
Fcr

Fcr EI

Fcr

3 Fcr

, w A sin
l
l
l
x ,w A
2

9.2

269 103 N 269kN

9.3

l
A

l
C

Fcr

2 EI
(2l ) 2

9.3

Fcr

Fcr

B
B
D

C
A

Fcr

l
4

0.7l
l
2

l
4

EI
2

(0.5l ) 2

F EI
cr (0.7l ) 2
2

9.3
y

2 EI
Fcr
(l ) 2

2 EI
Fcr
2
( l )

9.3

9.4
1

E
cr 2

9.4

{i

2
2

E

p
cr
2

cr

E
p
2

1
2E
p

9.4
3

s cr p

cr s

2 1 ()

cr a b
a s

2 ()

ab

a s
2
b

cr s

9.4

l
i

2E
1
P
a s
2
b

I
A

P
s

2E
1

() cr 2

1 2 () cr a b

()

cr s

9.4

9.4

l i
Fcr cr A

9.5

Fcr
F [F ]
nst

n st

Fcr
nst
n
F

cr
nst
n

Fcr
nst
n
F

Fcr F

9.5

D
F=10kNABD=50mm
d=40mmQ235
E=200GPa 1 =100[nst]=3
AB

CD

F 2000 FN sin 30 1500


FN 26.6kN

AB

l
i

1.5
cos 30

1
1.732 m

9.5

AB

l
i

11.732 103

108 1
16

1
l

1.5
cos 30
I

AB

2 EI
Fcr
118 kN
2
l

1.732 m

D d 4
64 D 2 d 2

D2 d 2
16 mm
4

FN 26.6kN
Fcr 118
n

4.42 nst 3
FN 26.6
AB

9.5

l=37.5cm
d=4cm45
F=80kNnst=4

d 4 4
d 4
1cm
2
64 d
4 4

2 37.5

75
i
1
452=601=1002<<1

9.5

2
a=589MPa,b=3.82MPa,

cr a b 589 3.82 75 302.5MPa


Fcr cr A 302.5

0.042
4

381000 N 381kN

Fcr 381
n

4.76 4 nst
F 80

9.5

1220cm2,l = 7m, E =
10GPa,

1 110
y

a,

12cm

12cm

7m

7m

20cm

: 1xoz

20cm

12 203
Iy
8000cm 4
12
Iy
8000
i y

5.77cm
A
12 20

9.5

l 1 700

121 1 110
iy
5.77

>1

l 2

z
12cm

12cm

7m

E
2
2

20cm

3.14 2 10 109 8 10 5

161kN
2
1 7

cr

2 EI y

7m

Fcr

20cm

3.14 2 10 109

6.73MPa
2
121

9.5

2xoy

b,

iz

z
12cm

12cm

20cm

7m

7m

20 12
Iz
2880cm 4
12

y
20cm

Iz
2880

3.46cm
A
12 20

0.5

0.5 700

101 1 110
iz
3.46

9.5

a 29.3MPa, b 0.194

12cm

z
12cm

7m

29.3 0.194 101 9.7MPa

20cm

cr a b

7m

y
20cm

Fcr cr A

9.7 106 0.12 0.2 232.8kN

Fcr 161kN
cr 6.73MPa

9.6

2 EI
Fcr
( l ) 2

Fcr
l

I
E

9.6

9.6

9.6

4
5


10-1
10-2

10-4

10-1

10-2

1.

2.
3.a

1.
P

st

2.

3. a

FNd

maa

Q
FNd Q

Q
a0
g

a
kd (1 )
g

a
FNd Q(1 ) kd Q
g

FNd
Q
kd kd st
() d
A
A

10-1QA

Fst Ax Q

Ax

Q
a
g
g
a
Q Ax Q Ax
g

a
Q Ax 1
g

a
Fst 1
g

FNd Ax

Kd 1

aQ

FNd
Fst

Ax

Ax A x a

FNd K d Fst

d K d st

Q
Q ga


DA

A D 2
A D 2
qd

g
2
2g

FNd

FNd

qd D
A D2 2

4g
2

FNd

FNd
D2 2 v 2

g
A
4g

v2
g

[ ]

vA
A

10-4

1.;
2.;

3. ;
4.

TV

T V V d
1
V d Fd d
2

V d

V Q d

1
Q(h d ) Fd d
2

Fd d d

Q st st

1 2d
V d
Q
2 st

Fd

d
Q
st

V Q d

T V V d

1 2d
V d
Q
2 st

bca

2T st
d 2 st d
0
Q
2

2T
2h
Kd 1 1
1 1
Q st
st

Fd K d Q

d K d st

2T
d st 1 1
Q st

Fd d d

Kd
Q st st

d K d st

T=0

2T
Kd 1 1
Q st

,2
2
1. h ,
v

Qv
2g

2T
v
Kd 1 1
1 1
Q st
g st

2. h

v 0,

v 2 v0 2 2 gh

v2
v 0 2 gh
Kd 1 1
1 1
g st
g st

3.
1Q 2
T
v
V 0
2 g
1 d
1
Q

d 2
U d Fd d
d
2 st
2 st
2
Fd d
1Q 2
Q
2

v
d
Q st
2 g
2 st

v2
st
g st

Kd

v2
g st

10-2 EI W
Q

4Q a 3
st
3E I

st max

Qa

Q h

3EIh
2h
1 1
Kd 1 1
st
2Qa 3

d max
Kd
st max

d max Kd s max

3EIh
1 1
3
2
Qa

Qa

Qa
Qa

10-3QABBB

st

Ql3
4Q l 3

3 E I E bh 3

h
l

E b h4
2h
Kd 1 1
1 1
st
2Ql3

Ebh 4
wB d K d st 1 1
3

2
Ql

4Ql 3

Ebh3

10-4

1kN
0.625mmd=40mm, l =4m
[]=120MPa, E=200GPa
15kNh
st 15 0.625 10 3 Ql 9.62 10 3 m
EA
3
Q
15

10
2h
12 MPa
st
Kd 1 1
2
A
d
st
4

2h
d K d st 1 1
12 [ ] 120
st

h 0.385m=385 mm

11-1

11-2

11-1
=Kd
1

Kd

Kd

a
1
g
an

K d (1 1

Kd

v2
g st

2h
)
st

max min
t

(1) r
r = -1

min
max

r = 0

r < 0 r > 0

(2)

(3)

max min
1
2

m ( max min )

r = -1

N
N
S-N 40Cr
r =-1max = /2S-N max
max/MPa

850
750
650
550
104

105

106

107

108

max /MPa

850
750
650
550
4

10

10

10

10

10

(1)
(2)N
(3)
-1

S-N

N0 5106 ~ 107 max 10


N

b 400 ~ 500MPa

( -1 ) b 170 ~ 220MPa

( -1 ) t 120 ~ 160MPa

11-4.
1.

1 d
1 K

1 d
1 K

max
n

2.

( 1 ) d

11.1

( 1 ) d

3.

( 1 )

11.2


13-1

=W

13-2

1 Fl
1
V W F l F
2 EA
2

F l FN l

2 EA 2 EA
2

FN ( x)
V
dx
2 EA( x)
l

F
l

1
M el M e l
1
T l

V W M e M e
2
G I p 2G I p 2G I p
2
2
T ( x)
V
dx
2G I p ( x)
l

V W
2
2
1 M e 1 M e M e l M e l M l
2
EI
2
2E I 2E I
2
M
( x)
V

l 2E I ( x) dx

13-3
F3

F2

F1

2 3

1
1
1
V W F11 F2 2 F3 3
2
2
2

M (x)

M (x)
N (x)

N (x)

T (x)
2

T (x)
2

FN ( x)dx
M ( x)dx
T ( x)dx
V

2 EA
2 EI
2GI P
L
L
L
O

Fi


B
F

M ( x) F x
2

2 3

M ( x)
F l
V
dx
2E I
6 EI
l
1
W F wB
2

V W wB Fl
3EI

FM0EI

F
A

Me
L

M ( x) M e Fx

M 2 ( x)
1
V
dx
( M e Fx) 2 dx
2 EI
2 EI
L
L
M e2 L M e FL2 F 2 L2

2 EI
2 EI
6 EI

F
A

M0
L

FM0

MeL
V 1
2 EI

V 2

F 2 L3

6 EI

V 1 V 2 V


2
M
L
FL
wA (wA ) F (wA ) M 0
e
3EI
2 EI
FL2 M e L
A ( A ) F ( A ) M e

2 EI
EI
1
1
F 2 L3 M e F 2 M e2 L
V W FwA M e A

2
2
6 EI
2 EI
2 EI
3

13-4
F2

F1
1

F1

i j

11

21

F2
12

22

F1

F2
11

21

12

22

F1F2
1
1
Ve F1 11 F2 22 F1 12
2
2
F2F1
1
1
Ve F2 22 F1 11 F2 21
2
2

F112 F2 21

F1 F2
:

12 21

wC1

B2

F wC1 M B 2

F wC1

Fl
M
16 E I
2

wC1

Ml

16 E I

C C

B2

wC1
F

F wC1 M B 2

l
F
2

F wC1 M
2E I
2
Ml
wC1
8E I

F3

13-5

F2

F1

2 3

1
1
1
V W F1 1 F2 2 F3 3
2
2
2

Fi

Fi Fi
, ,, ,
1

1
V Fi i F1 1 F2 2 Fi i
2

V F1 1 F2 2 Fi i
Fi

Fi i F1 1 F2 2 Fi i
V

Fi i

V
i
Fi

Fi 0

V
i
Fi

Fi FiFi

M 2 ( x)
i

(
dx)
Fi Fi L 2 EI
M ( x) M ( x)

dx
EI
Fi
L

FN j L j

j 1

2 EA j

n F L
V
N j j FN j
i

Fi
Fi
j 1 EA j

V
T ( x) T ( x)
i

dx
Fi L GI P Fi

13-6
F1

F2
C

F1 F2
2

M ( x)

M ( x)
V
dx
2E I
l

F0 1
C

F1 F2

F0

M ( x)

V 0

[ M ( x)]

dx
2E I
l

M ( x) M 0 ( x)
C

[(M ( x) M ( x)]
V 1
dx
2E I
l
0

F0

V 0

F1F2 V
W

F0
1
F1

F2

F0 1
C

W1 V 1

[( M ( x) M ( x)]
V 0 V 1
dx
2E I
l
0

0
M
(
x
)
M
( x)
M ( x)
[ M ( x)]
dx
dx
dx
2E I
2E I
EI
l
l
2

M M( x( x)) MM( x) ( x)
1 E I dx dx
E
I
l
0

M ( x) M ( x)
dx
EI

M ( x) M ( x)
dx
EI

FN ( x) FN ( x)
T ( x)T 0 ( x)
M ( x)M 0 ( x)

dx
dx
dx
EA
GI p
EI
l
l
l

(a)

1
B


(1)B, (b)
M ( x) Fx,

vB
l

M 0 ( x) x
0

2
3
M ( x) M ( x)
Fx
Fl
dx
dx

EI
EI
3EI
0

(2)B, (c)
M ( x) Fx,

B
l

M ( x) 1
0

M ( x) M ( x)
Fx
dx
dx
EI
EI
0

Fl

2 EI

13-7

M ( x)M ( x)

dx
EI
l
EI=const

M ( x)M ( x)dx
l

M0(x)

M ( x)M ( x)dx
l

tg x M ( x)dx
l

tg xC

MC
M ( x) x tg

M ( x)M ( x)

dx
EI
l

M C
EI

2
lh
3

1
lh
3

B
1

wB

Fl

M ( x)M ( x)
dx
EI

M C

EI
1 Fl 2 2l

EI 2 3

Fl 3

3E I

(2)

Fl
m=1

1 Fl

B
1
EI 2

Fl

2E I

q
1

l
M

ql 2 / 8

2 2 l ql 5l
wmax

E I 3 2 8 32

l/4

5ql

384 E I

max

1 2
ql
1
l


EI 3
8 2

ql

24 E I

ql / 8

C
AB

CL12TU34

1
wC
EI

l2 M

8 2

ml

16 E I
2

l/4

1 ml 1


E I 2 3

ml

6E I

1 ml 2


E I 2 3

ml

3E I

CL12TU35

1 l ql 2 3l

wB

EI 3 2
4
4

ql

8E I

ql 2
2

1 l ql

1

EI 3 2

ql

6E I

ql 2
2

CL12TU36

1 l2
m
wC
EI 8

ml

8E I

EI
qX
(1)X
(2)X
F

CL12TU37

(1)
2

ql / 8

1 Fal 2a Fa 2 2a ql 3 a


EI 2
3
2
3 12 2

ql 3
F
8a(l a)

(2)
2

ql / 8

1 Fal 2 Fa 2
ql 3 1

C

1

EI 2
3
2
12 2

ql 3
F
4a(2l 3a)

EID

CL12TU38

3 Pa 2a Pa 3

C

EI 2
3
EI

EI=constAB
AB P

AB

CL12TU39

AB

2 Pa 3 1 1
1 1

2
EI 8 3
2 2
3

2 Pa

3EI

AB 0

A
E

CL12TU40

Pa 2

EI

1 5 1 1

2 6 2 6
2

Pa

2E I
2

Pa

EI

Pa 1 1
E
2
EI 2 3
3

Pa 3

1
2EI 2
3

13 Pa

12 EI

EI=constA
AH A

CL12TU41

AH qa 1 2 1 5 3qa
EI 4
qa
2

qa 2
2

qa
qa / 2

8E I

14-1

14-2

14-3

14-1

Pl
A

14-2

BX1
X1

A
a

1 B

1 1F 1X 1 0

(*)
X1

1F

A
C

B
1X 1

1F F

1X1 X1

1
A

B 11

X11X1

X1

1X1 11 X1

l3
11
3EI

11 X 1 1F 0
1F

Fa 2

(3l a)
6 EI

Fa 2
X 1 3 (3l a)
2l

1X 1

11

14.1 EI=
q

B
a

4a 3
1 a 2 2a
2

11
a a
EI 2 3
3EI

1P

11 X 1 1P

11qa
X A 0, YA
8

qa 2
MA
8

3qa
0 X1
8

3qa
X B 0, YB
8

X1

1 qa
qa

a
EI 2
2 EI

qa 2
2

qa 2
2

14.2
EI

P
A

1
l
11
l 1
EI
EI
1P

C
l 2

l 2

X1

1 Pl 2
Pl 2

1
EI 8
8EI

P 2

11 X 1 1P 0

1
Pl 4

Pl
X 1
8

Pl 2
l
3
Pl 3
Pl
wC
2 8

48EI
16 EI 192 EI

Pl 8

C
l 2

Pl 8

l 2

14.3

q
C

2 a 2 2a 2a 3

11
EI 2 3 3EI

1P

1 2 qa 2
a
qa 4

a
EI 3 8
2
24 EI

11 X 1 1P 0

q
B

qa2 8

qa 2

qa
X1
16

qa 2

7qa
qa
qa
9qa
, YA 16
,YB

XB
X A
16
16
16

P2

P2

P1

P1

P3

X3
X2

P3
X1

i X
i

1 2 3 0

X
i

1 1X1 1X 2 1X 3 1P 0
1 11 X 1 12 X 2 13 X 3 1P 0

2 21 X 1 22 X 2 23 X 3 2 P 0

3 31 X 1 32 X 2 33 X 3 3 P 0

11 X 1 12 X 2 1n X n 1F 0
X X X 0
21 1 22 2
2n n
2F

n1 X 1 n 2 X 2 nn X n nF 0

11 12

21 22

n1 n 2

1n X 1 1F
2 n X 2 2 F

0

nn X n nF

ii
Xi

X
i 1

ij

X
j 1

X
i

iF F
Xi

1
i

X j 1
F

ii
l

ij
l

i F

Mi
Mj

MF

Mi Mi
dx
EI

Mi M j
EI

dx

Mi M F

dx
EI
l

14-3

P2

P1

P2

P1

P2

P1

P2

P1

P 2

P 2

P 2

P 2

X3

X2

X1

X2
P

X3

12 21 23 32 0
11 X 1 13 X 3 1F
31 X 1 33 X 3 3 F
22 X 2 0

X3

X2

X1

X2
P

X3

12 21 23 32 0
11 X 1 13 X 3 0
31 X 1 33 X 3 0
22 X 2 2 F

14.4: EI=C
q
AB
a 2

1 a 2 2a a 3

11
EI 2 3 3EI

1P

11 X 1 1P

3qa
X C
YC 0 M C 0
16
3qa
X A () X B ()
,
16

q
a 2

3qa
0 X 1
16

qa 2 8
qa 2 8

qa
YA YB
2

qa 2
M A () M B ()
16
a

a 2

1 a 2 qa 2
qa 4


EI 2 8
16 EI

14.5

ACBD

a
P

Q P cos 45

M max

Pa
2

2
P
2

a
P

( M maxP)

C
Q

I-1

I-2

I1
1.

dA
z

Sz y d A
A

, Sy z dA

yd A
A

zd A
A

Sz
y
A
Sy
z
A

S z y A,

Sy zA

yz
yz

z
2

y
z h1 2
b

z
1
y
4
bh
S
2
y
2 dA 2 h 1 b 2 d y 15
A
0

y2
b h
S z y dA yh 1 2 d y
4
b

0
A

y
z h1 2
b
2

dy

y
b

y2
2bh
A dA h 1 2 d y
b
3
0
A

bh 2
Sz
3b
4
y

A 2bh
8
3
2

4bh
Sy
2h
15
z

2bh
A
5
3

y S z 10 120 5 70 10 45 19.7mm
1200 700
A
Sy

10 120 60 70 10 5
z

39.7mm
A
1200 700

h a b h
h

2
a
S y b a a
2

4 2 2 4

I-2

dA
z

O
Iz y dA , I y z dA
2

I y A iy
I z A iz

iy

iz

Iy
A

Iz
A

i y i z yz

I p dA

dA

y z
2

I p I y Iz
O

yz

Iy

h/2

bh
z dA z bdz
12
h/2
2

dz
z

yz

Ip

32

I y Iz I p
I y Iz

dA
z

O
I yz yz d A
A

I yz 0

dA dA

:
(1)

y0z0 Iy0z0=0 y0z0

(2)

(3)

(4)

I
I-3

I-4

I-3

z
a

zc
yc

dA

y yc a
z zc b
zc

yc

z
b

zc

z
a

yc

b
O

I z I zC a A

Iy Iy b A
2

Iz Iz a A
2

I yz I y z abA
C

y Iy

z
a

a
d ( 2a )
Iy
12

CL6TU11

d

d 2d d 2d
2
a

8
3

128

8
3

I-4

y1 y cos z sin

z1 y sin z cos
I y1 z1 dA
2

( y sin z cos ) dA
2

I z sin I y cos I yz sin 2


2

I y Iz
2

I y Iz
2

cos 2 I yz sin 2

Iy Iz Iy Iz

cos 2 I yz sin 2
I y1
2
2

Iy Iz Iy Iz

cos 2 I yz sin 2
I z1
2
2

Iy Iz

I y1 z1
sin 2 I yz cos 2

y 0 z0
0

I y0z0

I y Iz
2

sin 2 0 I yz cos 2 0 0

tan 2 0

2 I yz
I y Iz

I y Iz
I y Iz

2
I y

yz
0

2
2

2
I I y Iz I y Iz I 2

yz
z0
2
2

I y0
I z0

I y Iz
2

I y Iz
2

yz
2

2c yoz
I y , I z , I yz
3 0 , I y0 , I z0



ycz
3
40 53

5 60
2
40 5 27.5
I y 2 I y1 I y2 2
12
12

393333 mm 39.33 cm
I z 2 I z1 I z2

3
5 40 3

60 5
2
2
40 5 22.5
12
12

256458 mm 4 25.65 cm 4
I yz 2 I yz1 240 5 27.5 22.5
4

247500 mm 24.75cm

2 I yz

2 24.75
tan 2 0

3.618
I y Iz
39.33 25.65

0 37.3 52.7

I y0
I z0

I y Iz
2

58.2
I y Iz
2
4

cm

yz
2
6.81